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Sample records for ptz convulsive dose

  1. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy.

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    Dhir, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    This unit describes a protocol to perform chemical kindling in mice. Kindling is a chronic animal model of epilepsy that has been extensively studied to understand the process of epileptogenesis and discover novel anti-epileptic compounds. Kindling is a phenomenon where a sub-convulsive stimulus (either chemical or electrical), if applied repetitively and intermittently, will ultimately lead to the generation of full-blown convulsions. Kindling can be induced either by (1) electrical stimulation of different brain regions (electrical kindling) or (2) using various chemical agents (chemical kindling). This unit discusses in detail the methodology to execute pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; a GABA(A) receptor antagonist)-induced chemical kindling in mice. PTZ is administered chronically at a sub-convulsive dose for a number of days. Seizure score is calculated after each PTZ injection. The effect of test/reference compounds can be tested by administering them either prior to the initiation of kindling (pre-kindling phase) or after animals are fully kindled (post-kindling phase).

  2. Convulsive seizures with a therapeutic dose of isoniazid.

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    Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Ikematsu, Yuuki; Hashisako, Mikiko; Harada, Eiji; Miyagi, Hiroto; Fujisawa, Nobumitsu

    2014-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman who had been treated for tuberculous peritonitis and pulmonary tuberculosis, exhibited a disturbance of consciousness and tonic-clonic convulsions seven days after the administration of the antituberculous drug isoniazid. As her serum vitamin B6 level was remarkably low, she was diagnosed with convulsive seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency associated with isoniazid treatment. Seizures refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy were controlled with the administration of pyridoxine. Most reported cases of isoniazid-induced convulsive seizures occurred as a result of an overdose due to attempted suicide. This report presents a case of convulsive seizures that occurred in association with the short-term administration of a therapeutic dose of isoniazid.

  3. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats.

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    Uyanikgil, Yigit; Cavusoglu, Turker; Balcıoglu, Huseyin A; Gurgul, Serkan; Solmaz, Volkan; Ozlece, Hatice K; Erten, Nilgun; Erbas, Oytun

    2016-09-01

    The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A), which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  4. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats

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    Yigit Uyanikgil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A, which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni, on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  5. Possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of hesperidin against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction in mice.

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    Kumar, Anil; Lalitha, Sree; Mishra, Jitendriya

    2013-10-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder manifested by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures, loss of consciousness, and sensory disturbances. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling primarily represents a model of generalized epilepsy. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of hesperidin and its interaction with nitric oxide modulators against PTZ-induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction in mice. The experimental protocol comprised of eleven groups (n=6), where a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) had been administered every other day for a period of 12 days, and seizure episodes were noted after each PTZ injection over a period of 30 min. The memory performance tests were carried out on days 13 and 14 followed by the estimation of biochemical and mitochondrial parameters. Chronic administration of a subconvulsive dose of PTZ resulted in an increase in convulsive activity culminating in generalized clonic-tonic seizures, as revealed by a progressive increase in seizure score as well as alteration in antioxidant enzyme levels (lipid peroxidation, nitrite, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, and catalase) and mitochondrial complex (I, II, and IV) activities, whereas chronic treatment with hesperidin (200 mg/kg) significantly attenuated these behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial alterations. Further, treatment with l-arginine (100 mg/kg) or l-NAME (10 mg/kg) in combination with hesperidin significantly modulated the protective effect of hesperidin which was significant as compared to their effects per se in PTZ-treated animals. Thus, the present study suggests a possible involvement of the NO-cGMP pathway in the neuroprotective effect of hesperidin in PTZ-kindled mice.

  6. Proconvulsant effects of high doses of venlafaxine in pentylenetetrazole-convulsive rats

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    J.G. Santos Junior

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Venlafaxine, an atypical antidepressant drug, has been used to treat several neurological disorders, presenting excellent efficacy and tolerability. Clinical seizures after venlafaxine treatment have occasionally been reported when the drug was used at very high doses or in combination with other medications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the convulsant effects of venlafaxine in rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Adult male Wistar rats (8 per group receiving venlafaxine or saline at the doses of 25-150 mg/kg were subjected 30 min later to injections of pentylenetetrazole at the dose of 60 mg/kg. The animals receiving 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg venlafaxine presented increased severity of convulsion when compared to controls (P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.0004, respectively. Indeed, an increased percentage of death was observed in these groups (50, 38, and 88%, respectively when compared to the percentage of death in the controls (0%. The group receiving 150 mg/kg showed an reduction in death latency (999 ± 146 s compared to controls (1800 ± 0 s; cut-off time. Indeed, in this group, all animals developed seizures prior to pentylenetetrazole administration. Surprisingly, the groups receiving venlafaxine at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg showed a tendency towards an increase in the latency to the first convulsion. These findings suggest that venlafaxine at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg has some tendency to an anticonvulsant effect in the rat, whereas doses of 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg presented clear proconvulsant effects in rats submitted to the pentylenetetrazole injection. These findings are the first report in the literature concerning the role of venlafaxine in seizure genesis in the rat under controlled conditions.

  7. Characterization of PTZ-induced seizure susceptibility in a down syndrome mouse model that overexpresses CSTB.

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    Véronique Brault

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to treat DS patients. But PTZ is also known to be a convulsant drug at higher dose and DS persons are more prone to epileptic seizures than the general population. This raises concerns over what long-term effects of treatment might be in the DS population. The cause of increased propensity for epilepsy in the DS population and which Hsa21 gene(s are implicated remain unknown. Among Hsa21 candidate genes in epilepsy, CSTB, coding for the cystein protease inhibitor cystatin B, is involved in progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia in both mice and human. Thus we aim to evaluate the effect of an increase in Cstb gene dosage on spontaneous epileptic activity and susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. To this end we generated a new mouse model trisomic for Cstb by homologous recombination. We verified that increasing copy number of Cstb from Trisomy (Ts to Tetrasomy (Tt was driving overexpression of the gene in the brain, we checked transgenic animals for presence of locomotor activity and electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities characteristic of myoclonic epilepsy and we tested if those animals were prone to PTZ-induced seizure. Overall, the results of the analysis shows that an increase in Cstb does not induce any spontaneous epileptic activity and neither increase or decrease the propensity of Ts and Tt mice to myoclonic seizures suggesting that Ctsb dosage should not interfere with PTZ-treatment.

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Lycopene Against PTZ-induced Kindling Seizures in Mice: Possible Behavioural, Biochemical and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

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    Bhardwaj, Manveen; Kumar, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major contributing factors in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders. Recently, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress gained a considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. Lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has received scientific interest in recent years. So, the present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of lycopene against the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling epilepsy. Laca mice received lycopene (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and sodium valproate for a period of 29 days and PTZ (40 mg/kg i.p (Intraperitoneal)) injection on alternative days. Various behavioural (kindling score), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitrite) and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) were assessed in the brain. Results depicted that repeated administration of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg) significantly increased kindling score, oxidative damage and impaired mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with naive animals. Lycopene (5 and 10 mg/kg) and sodium valproate (100 mg/kg) treatment for a duration of 29 days significantly attenuated kindling score, reversed oxidative damage and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with control. Thus, present study demonstrates the neuroprotective potential of lycopene in PTZ-induced kindling in mice.

  9. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

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    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  10. ucb L059, a novel anti-convulsant drug: pharmacological profile in animals.

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    Gower, A J; Noyer, M; Verloes, R; Gobert, J; Wülfert, E

    1992-11-10

    The anticonvulsant activity of ucb L059 ((S)-alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide) was evaluated in a range of animal models. ucb L059 was active after oral and intraperitoneal administration in both rats and mice, with a unique profile of action incorporating features in common with several different types of antiepileptic drugs. The compound was active, with ED50 values generally within the range of 5.0-30.0 mg/kg, in inhibiting audiogenic seizures, electrically induced convulsions and convulsions induced chemically by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), bicuculline, picrotoxin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). ucb L059 retarded the development of PTZ-induced kindling in mice and reduced PTZ-induced EEG spike wave discharge in rats. The R enantiomer, ucb L060, had low intrinsic anticonvulsant activity, showing the stereospecificity of action of the molecule although the actual mechanism of action remains unknown. Neurotoxicity, evaluated with an Irwin-type observation test, the rotarod test and open-field exploration, was minimal, with only mild sedation being observed, even at doses 50-100 times higher than the anticonvulsant doses; at pharmacologically active doses, the animals appeared calm but slightly more active. ucb L059 thus presents as an orally active, safe, broad-spectrum anticonvulsant agent, with potential antiepileptogenic and anti-absence actions.

  11. Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats

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    Bimalendu Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p. on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01 by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01 only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg, whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01, whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01 in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.01 the MDA and increased (P < 0.01 both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure.

  12. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

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    Mandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally (i.p. and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1, i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg-1, i.p. and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg-1, i.p. were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced seizures (75 mg kg-1, i.p.. The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  13. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism.

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    Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    "Ethnopharmacological" use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound "liriodendrin" in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures (75 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  14. Phosphorylation of brain proteins in generalized convulsions

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    Horan, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphorylation of neuronal proteins is being proposed as a modulating influence on several aspects of neuronal function. By labeling proteins with radioactive phosphorus (/sup 32/P) and then separating these proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the author can determine what factors change the phosphorylation of these proteins. They have used such a system to analyze the effects of generalized convulsions on protein phosphorylation. Electroshock (ES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were utilized to produce generalized convulsions. Brain membranes, taken from rats immediately after a convulsion, exhibited an increase in protein phosphorylation in vitro. The most noticeable change took place in proteins in the 18,000-20,000 MW range. They have designated these proteins as the low molecular weight (LMW) proteins. The change in phosphorylation was basically the same after one convulsions as after six daily convulsions. Twenty-four hours after a single convulsion no change in phosphorylation was observed. When rat membranes are exposed to PTZ in vitro, phosphorylation is increased at 20 sec but has returned to control level at 90 sec of incubation. This effect is produced without a convulsion. In general, as the concentration of magnesium is increased from 5 mM to 10 mM phosphorylation is increased. Increasing the incubation time from 20 sec to 90 sec and increasing the calcium concentration to 10 mM both decrease phosphorylation of the LMW proteins. Human temporal cortex samples present with phosphorylated proteins having patterns very similar to those in rat membranes.

  15. Decreased GABABR expression and increased neuronal cell death in developing rat brain after PTZ-induced seizure.

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    Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Ullah, Ikram; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Karim, Sajjad; Ullah, Najeeb; Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Kim, Myeong Ok; Bibi, Fehmida

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the PTZ-induced seizures effects on GABAB receptor (R) expression and to observe its neurodegenerative effect in hippocampal part of developing rat brain. In the present study, high dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 40 mg/kg) was injected in developing rats of age 5 weeks having average weight of 60-65 g for 4 days. Further, baclofen (B 3 mg/kg i.p) agonist and phaclofen (P 30 μg/rat) antagonist of GABABR were injected along with PTZ. Western blot analysis was used to elucidate expression of GABABR protein upon PTZ, baclofen and phaclofen exposure in the developing rat brain. Furthermore, PTZ-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration was also observed through the release of caspase-3 antibody and propidium iodide (PI) staining using confocal microscopy. Seizure was confirmed using electroencephalography (EEG) data obtained from the Laxtha EEG-monitoring device in the EEG recording room and EEG was monitored 5-15 min after PTZ injection. The results of the present study showed that PTZ-induced seizure significantly decreased GABABR expression and induced neuronal apoptosis in cortical and hippocampal part of brain. While, baclofen reverse the effect of PTZ by increasing the expression of GABABR as compared to the PTZ- , PTZ plus B- and PTZ plus P-treated groups. Our findings indicated that PTZ-induced seizure showed not only decrease in GABABR expression but also cause neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

  16. Efficacy of Continuous High Dose Midazolam Infusion in Childhood Refractory Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

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    Afshin Fayyazi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available bjeciveProlonged and uncontrolled refractory status epilepticus (SE is a life-threatening medical emergency in children (1,2,3. There is no consensus on the optimal therapy for refractory status epilepticus (1. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for treating patients with refractory status epilepticus.Materials & MethodsTen children with refractory status epilepticus in Mofid Hospital, who did not respond to 10 μg/kg per min of intravenous midazolam, had their dose of midazolam increased to 30 μg/kg per min. All children were monitored for the development of side effects.ResultsTen children with no response to low-dose midazolam were given a higher dose of midazolam, and 5 (50% children had a good response. These patients had significantly different response to high-dose midazolam.One patient in the high-dose midazolam group was intubated and required mechanical ventilation. The duration of stay in the hospital and PICU and on mechanical ventilation in patients with no response to low-dose midazolam following with other drugs was longer than in the high-dose midazolam group.No death occurred in high dose midazolam group.ConclusionHigh-midazolam dose drip infusion is a safe and effective protocol for refractory status epilepticus in children.

  17. [Convulsion due to application of low dose meperidine: a case report].

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    Ozkaya, Halit; Akcan, Abdullah Barış; Aydemir, Gökhan; Akbaş, Mert

    2012-01-01

    Meperidine is an opiod analgesic used in a variety of clinical situations. The active metabolite, normeperidine, is a central nervous system excitatory agent and has the ability to cause irritability, hyperreflexia, tremor, myoclonus and seizures. Previously identified risk factors for the development of meperidine-related seizures include renal failure, high meperidine dosages, and co-adminestration of hepatic enzyme inducing medications or phenothiazines which decreases seizure treshold. Patients with normal renal function rarely manifest seizure activity when given meperidine. Here we report a 10 year old boy with a femur fraction who had normal renal function. We used low dose meperidine due to post operative pains.

  18. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

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    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  19. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers prevent pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and morphological changes in rat brain neurons.

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    Zaitsev, Aleksey V; Kim, Kira Kh; Vasilev, Dmitry S; Lukomskaya, Nera Ya; Lavrentyeva, Valeria V; Tumanova, Natalia L; Zhuravin, Igor A; Magazanik, Lev G

    2015-03-01

    Alterations in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission play a central role in the etiology of epilepsy, with overstimulation of glutamate receptors influencing epileptic activity and corresponding neuronal damage. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which belong to a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, play a primary role in this process. This study compared the anticonvulsant properties of two NMDA receptor channel blockers, memantine and 1-phenylcyclohexylamine (IEM-1921), in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of seizures in rats and investigated their potencies in preventing PTZ-induced morphological changes in the brain. The anticonvulsant properties of IEM-1921 (5 mg/kg) were more pronounced than those of memantine at the same dose. IEM-1921 and memantine decreased the duration of convulsions by 82% and 37%, respectively. Both compounds were relatively effective at preventing the tonic component of seizures but not myoclonic seizures. Memantine significantly reduced the lethality caused by PTZ-induced seizures from 42% to 11%, and all animals pretreated with IEM-1921 survived. Morphological examination of the rat brain 24 hr after administration of PTZ revealed alterations in the morphology of 20-25% of neurons in the neocortex and the hippocampus, potentially induced by excessive glutamate. The expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 protein was increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rats. However, dark neurons did not express caspase-3 and were immunopositive for the neuronal nuclear antigen protein, indicating that these neurons were alive. Both NMDA antagonists prevented neuronal abnormalities in the brain. These results suggest that NMDA receptor channel blockers might be considered possible neuroprotective agents for prolonged seizures or status epilepticus leading to neuronal damage.

  20. Involvement of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion by use of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger knockout mice.

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    Saito, Ryo; Kaneko, Erina; Tanaka, Yusuke; Honda, Kenji; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Komuro, Issei; Kita, Satomi; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takano, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    Involvement of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion by use of NCX knockout mice and the selective ligand SEA0400 to NCX was examined. In the SEA0400-administered group, the latency to clonic convulsion was extended into 210 s, although the latency to clonic convulsion was observed until 100 s in control group. SEA0400 had little effect on bicuculline-induced clonic seizure nicotine-induced wild running and 4-aminopyridine-induced tonic flexion, respectively. Tonic flexion convulsion was occurred three fifth in the wild type mice group by administration of PTZ, but tonic flexion was not observed in NCX1 knockout mice groups. These results suggest that NCX is involved in inhibitory action in PTZ-induced convulsion.

  1. Effects of midazolam and phenobarbital on brain oxidative reactions induced by pentylenetetrazole in a convulsion model.

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    Arai, Yukiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Shimada, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2012-04-01

    Brain oxidative reactions are involved in epilepsy as well as neurodegenerative diseases. In animal convulsion models, some anticonvulsants have been found to suppress oxidative reactions associated with convulsions. However, the effect of anticonvulsants on brain oxidative reactions has not fully been clarified. Midazolam and phenobarbital are often used as an intravenous anesthetic, and are known to have anticonvulsive effect, but antioxidative effect of these drugs has rarely been studied. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on the degree of convulsions and brain oxidative reactions in an animal convulsion model. In order to evaluate brain oxidative reactions, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA) level and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA expression level in the brain of mice in a convulsion model generated by a single injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). We evaluated the effects of midazolam and phenobarbital on the degree of PTZ-induced convulsions and on the changes in brain MDA level and HO-1 mRNA expression level. After PTZ injection, severe convulsions were observed in all mice. MDA level was increased in the whole brain, while HO-1 mRNA expression level was increased only in the hippocampus. Both midazolam and phenobarbital prevented the convulsions and suppressed the increase in both MDA level and HO-1 mRNA expression level in the brain. In this study, both midazolam and phenobarbital suppressed PTZ-induced MDA and HO-1 reactions in the brain, suggesting that these drugs inhibit brain oxidative reactions in a convulsion model.

  2. Cooperative Tracking Using Multiple PTZ Thermal Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghao; Hu, Zhou; Li, Honghu; Fu, Shiqing

    2012-11-01

    A cooperative object tracking framework is proposed which shifts the priority of tracking by pose estimation based on registration between fields of view (FOVs) of different pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) thermal imagers, avoiding transferring the local features from one imager to another. When an object is selected for tracking, the related PTZ thermal imager tracks it using an improved particle filtering method, and estimates the pose of the imager simultaneously. Once the object enters an overlapping FOV of two imagers, the handoff thermal imager is activated immediately according to the spatial relationship built by pose estimation, and turns to tacking and pose estimation status. Meanwhile, the previous camera returns to waiting status for reactivation. Experiments are conducted to show the proposed framework is applicable to cooperative object tracking for PTZ thermal infrared imagers.

  3. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

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    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  4. Antiapoptotic and neuroprotective role of Curcumin in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model in rat.

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    Saha, Lekha; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Kumari, Sweta; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyojyoti

    2016-02-01

    Kindling, a sub threshold chemical or electrical stimulation, increases seizure duration and enhances accompanied behavior until it reaches a sort of equilibrium state. The present study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in PTZ kindled rats and its role in apoptosis and neuronal damage. In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of curcumin (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) were administrated orally one hour before the PTZ injections on alternate day during the whole kindling days. The following parameters were compared between control and experimental groups: the course of kindling, stages of seizures, Histopathological scoring of hippocampus, antioxidant parameters in the hippocampus, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in hippocampus, and neuron-specific enolase in the blood. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis and Fischer's Exact test were used for statistical analyses. PTZ, 30 mg/kg, induced kindling in rats after 32.0 ± 1.4 days. Curcumin showed dose-dependent anti-seizure effect. Curcumin (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the latency to myoclonic jerks, clonic seizures as well as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, improved the seizure score and decreased the number of myoclonic jerks. PTZ kindling induced a significant neuronal injury, oxidative stress and apoptosis which were reversed by pretreatment with curcumin in a dose-dependent manner. Our study suggests that curcumin has a potential antiepileptogenic effect on kindling-induced epileptogenesis.

  5. Anticonvulsant activity of B2, an adenosine analog, on chemical convulsant-induced seizures.

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    Min Li

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. However, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients still suffer from uncontrolled seizures. Effective treatments for epilepsy are yet to be developed. N (6-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl adenine riboside (B2 is a N(6-substitued adenosine analog. Here we describe an investigation of the effects and mechanisms of B2 on chemical convulsant-induced seizures. Seizures were induced in mice by administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, picrotoxin, kainite acid (KA, or strychnine. B2 has a dose-related anticonvulsant effect in these chemical-induced seizure models. The protective effects of B2 include increased latency of seizure onset, decreased seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration and reduced mortality rate. Radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays indicated that B2 might be a functional ligand for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Furthermore, DPCPX, a selective A1 receptor antagonist, but not SCH58261, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, blocked the anticonvulsant effect of B2 on PTZ-induced seizure. c-Fos is a cellular marker for neuronal activity. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses indicated that B2 significantly reversed PTZ-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that B2 has significant anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of B2 may be attributed to adenosine A1 receptor activation and reduced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. These observations also support that the use of adenosine receptor agonist may be a promising approach for the treatment of epilepsy.

  6. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of kappa opioid receptors: effects on cocaine- and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions and seizure kindling.

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    Kaminski, Rafal M; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2007-03-01

    The present study used pharmacological and gene ablation techniques to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) in modulating the convulsant effects of two mechanistically different drugs: cocaine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; GABA-A receptor antagonist) in mice. Systemic administration of the selective KOPr-1 agonist, U69593 (0.16-0.6mg/kg; s.c.), failed to modify cocaine-evoked convulsions or cocaine kindling. Similarly, no alteration in responsiveness to cocaine was observed in wild-type mice that received the selective KOPr-1 antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 5mg/kg) or in mice lacking the gene encoding KOPr-1. In contrast to cocaine, U69593 attenuated the seizures induced by acute or repeated PTZ administration. Nor-BNI decreased the threshold for PTZ-evoked seizures and increased seizure incidence during the initial induction of kindling relative to controls. Decreased thresholds for PTZ-induced seizures were also observed in KOPr-1 knock out mice. Together, these data demonstrate an involvement of endogenous KOPr systems in modulating vulnerability to the convulsant effects of PTZ but not cocaine. Furthermore, they demonstrate that KOPr-1 activation protects against acute and kindled seizures induced by this convulsant. Finally, the results of our study suggest that KOPr-1 antagonists will not have therapeutic utility against cocaine-induced seizures, while they may prove beneficial in attenuating several actions of cocaine that have been linked to its abuse.

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  8. Isoniazid-induced convulsions.

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    Coyer, J R; Nicholson, D P

    1976-03-01

    Acute isoniazid overdose and toxicity may be complicated by convulsions and death. Six patients are reported, one of whom ingested simultaneously 15 gm of isoniazid and 5 gm of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6); no convulsions resulted. In the light of this and other experience, suggestions are made for the use of pyridoxine in the treatment and prevention of acute isoniazid poisoning.

  9. Effect of Allopregnenalone (AP and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′CD on the Lindane-induced acute and chronic convulsive behavior in rats

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    Krishna Tanwar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids (NS are considered important modulators of brain functions. Lindane a pesticide has been shown to affect the nerv-ous system adversely. The present study was designed to explore the modulation of the effects of lindane on convulsions by Allopregnenalone (AP, and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′-CD, in both acute and chronic seizure models using Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. We used acute and chronic models. In the acute model, seizures were induced by PTZ 90mg/kg, intra-peritoneal (i.p. injection, while in the chronic model, kindling was induced by injecting PTZ 30 mg/kg sub-cutaneous(s.c on alternate days three times in a week. Lindane produced augmented effect on convulsions by decreasing the onset of preclonic convulsions and increased duration of clonic convulsions. AP (2.5mg/kg, i.p and 4′-CD (0.5mg/kg, i.p were able to attenuate the effect of acute as well as chronic exposure of lindane. They significantly increased the onset and decreased the duration of convulsions in lindane-treated rats. These results conclusively demonstrate the efficacy of the neurosteroids in lindane-induced convulsions in both acute as well as chronic models. Thus, NS have a potential role as anticonvulsant in treatment of convulsions produced by pesticides like lindane.

  10. Acute administration of high dose trimetazidine inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in rats

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    Serkan GURGUL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Resistant epilepsy is widely seen in clinical settings manipulate the researchers to pursuit novel anti-epileptic treatments. Although trimetazidine (TMZ is commonly used in the treatment of angina and ischemic diseases, it is considered that the drug may be beneficial in the treatment of epileptic seizures and convulsions. We aimed to evaluate electrophysiologically the protective effects of high dose acute TMZ on epileptic seizures and convulsions in a rat model of epilepsy induced by pentilentetrazol (PTZ. Method: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the EEG evaluation (Group-A; n=24 and behavioral assessment (Group-B; n=24. Grup-A1 and Grup-B1 were determined as control group and given no medication. 35 mg/kg (Group-A2, -A3 and -A4 and 70 mg/kg (Group-B2, -B3 and -B4 of PTZ were administered intraperitoneally (ip. so as to generate seizures and convulsions. Group-A2 and Group-B2 were treated with saline. 40 mg/kg (Grup-A3 and Grup-B3 and 80 mg/kg of TMZ (Group-A4 and Group-B4 were administered to the treatment groups by ip. Brain malondialdehyde (MDA levels, spike-percentage values, Racine’s Convulsion Scale (RCS scores and "first myoclonic jerk (FMJ" latencies of each rat were determined. Results: Brain MDA levels, spike-percentage values, RCS scores, and FMJ latencies of Group-A2 and Group-B2 were significantly increased compared to those of the control’s (Grup-A1 and Grup-B1 (P<0.05 for all comparisons. However, in TMZ treated groups (Group-A3 and -A4; Group-B3 and -B4 the elevated values of these parameters were found to be significantly decreased (P<0.05 for all comparisons. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the high dose acute TMZ administration may prevent PTZ-induced seizures and convulsions in rats. Furthermore, it can be also said that TMZ has a neuroprotective effects on oxidative stress associated with PTZ. Therefore, it may be considered for use with therapeutic purposes of TMZ in

  11. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  12. Identification of compounds with anti-convulsant properties in a zebrafish model of epileptic seizures

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    Sarah Baxendale

    2012-11-01

    The availability of animal models of epileptic seizures provides opportunities to identify novel anticonvulsants for the treatment of people with epilepsy. We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ rapidly induces the expression of synaptic-activity-regulated genes in the CNS, and elicited vigorous episodes of calcium (Ca2+ flux in muscle cells as well as intense locomotor activity. We then screened a library of ∼2000 known bioactive small molecules and identified 46 compounds that suppressed PTZ-inducedtranscription of the synaptic-activity-regulated gene fos in 2-day-old (2 dpf zebrafish embryos. Further analysis of a subset of these compounds, which included compounds with known and newly identified anticonvulsant properties, revealed that they exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of both locomotor activity and PTZ-induced fos transcription, confirming their anticonvulsant characteristics. We conclude that this in situ hybridisation assay for fos transcription in the zebrafish embryonic CNS is a robust, high-throughput in vivo indicator of the neural response to convulsant treatment and lends itself well to chemical screening applications. Moreover, our results demonstrate that suppression of PTZ-induced fos expression provides a sensitive means of identifying compounds with anticonvulsant activities.

  13. Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on thalamic neurones: GABA current blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    COULTER, D. A.; Huguenard, J. R.; PRINCE, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Currents evoked by applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to acutely dissociated thalamic neurones were analysed by voltage-clamp techniques, and the effects of the anticonvulsant succinimides ethosuximide (ES) and alpha-methyl-alpha-phenylsuccinimide (MPS) and the convulsants tetramethylsuccinimide (TMS), picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and bicuculline methiodide were assessed. 2. TMS (1 microM-10 microM) reduced responses to iontophoretically applied GABA, as did picrotoxin ...

  14. Intracerebroventricular administration of kappa-agonists induces convulsions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansinath, M; Ramabadran, K; Turndorf, H; Shukla, V K

    1991-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of kappa-agonists (PD 117302, U-50488H and U-69593) induced convulsions in a dose-related manner in mice. The dose at which 50% of animals convulsed (CD50) was in nmol ranges for all opioids. Among the opioids used, PD 117302 was the most potent convulsant. ICV administration of either vehicle alone or U-53445E, a non-kappa-opioid (+) enantiomer of U-50488H did not induce convulsions. The convulsive response of kappa-agonists was differentially susceptible for antagonism by naloxone and/or MR 2266. Collectively, these findings support the view that convulsions induced by kappa-agonists in mice involve stereospecific opioid receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, the convulsant effect of kappa-agonists could not be modified by pretreatment with MK-801, ketamine, muscimol or baclofen. It is concluded that kappa-opioid but not NMDA or GABA receptor mechanisms are involved in convulsions induced by kappa-agonists. These results are the first experimental evidence implicating stereospecific kappa-receptor mechanisms in opioid-induced convulsions in mice.

  15. Effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.

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    Wang, Xi-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Hou, Ben-Chao; Huang, Jian; Zhan, Yan-Ping; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.The New Zealand white rabbits were applied for the mechanism study of dexmedetomidine priming for preventing convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine. The influence of dexmedetomidine priming with different doses on the time for convulsion occurrence and the duration time of convulsion induced by lidocaine, as well as contents of excitatory amino acids (aspartate [Asp], glutamate [Glu]) and inhibitory amino acids (glycine [Gly], γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) in the brain tissue were investigated.With 3 and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine priming, the occurrence times of convulsion were prolonged from 196 seconds to 349 and 414 seconds, respectively. With dexmedetomidine priming, the contents of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu) were much reduced at occurrence time of convulsion comparing with that without dexmedetomidine priming, while content of inhibitory amino acids Gly was much enhanced.The application of dexmedetomidine before local anesthetics can improve intoxication dose threshold of the lidocaine, delay occurrence of the convulsion, and helped for the recovery of convulsion induced by lidocaine. The positive effect of dexmedetomidine on preventing convulsion would owe to not only the inhibition of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu), but also the promotion of inhibitory amino acids Gly secretion.

  16. Investigation of phytochemicals and anti-convulsant activity of the plant Coleus amboinicus (lour.

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    Prasenjit Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study has been designed to evaluate the comparative anticonvulsant activity of different parts of Coleus amboinicus as it has been mentioned in the various literatures regarding the use of this plant in the treatment of epilepsy, but no specific scientific reports are available in this regard. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anticonvulsant activity of leaf, stem and roots of C. amboinicus has been evaluated by maximal electric shock-induced seizures (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures models in Swiss albino mice. The drug/extracts were administered through intra-peritoneal route (100 mg/ml, in both experimental models and the effect was compared with Phenytoin in MES and PTZ-induced convulsion. Results: All the three studied extracts have shown significant anticonvulsant activity in both the models. However, the alcoholic leaf extract has shown highest activity by abolishing the MES-induced convulsions after 60 minutes of drug administration. The duration of convulsions in PTZ model was also significantly reduced (P < 0.001 compared to the control group. Conclusion: The alcoholic leaf extract of the C. amboinicus has shown the significant anticonvulsant activity in both the studied models, followed by stem and root extracts. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in these extracts may be responsible for this activity.

  17. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

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    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  18. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

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    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  19. Convulsant and Subconvulsant Doses of Norfloxacin in the Presence and Absence of Biphenylacetic Acid Alter Extracellular Hippocampal Glutamate but Not Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Conscious Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, I.; Gousseau, C.; Marchand, S.; Couet, W.; Ebinger, G.; Michotte, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are antibiotics with central excitatory side effects. These adverse effects presumably result from inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to GABAA receptors. This GABA antagonistic effect is greatly potentiated by the active metabolite of fenbufen, biphenylacetic acid (BPAA). Nevertheless, it remains questionable whether GABA receptor antagonism alone can explain the convulsant activity potentials of these antimicrobial agents. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of norfloxacin, both in the absence and in the presence of BPAA, on the extracellular hippocampal levels of GABA and glutamate, the main central inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, respectively. This in vivo microdialysis approach with conscious rats allows monitoring of behavioral alterations and concomitant transmitter modulation in the hippocampus. Peroral administration of 100 mg of BPAA per kg of body weight had no effect on behavior and did not significantly alter extracellular GABA or glutamate concentrations. Intravenous perfusion of 300 mg of norfloxacin per kg did not change the rat's behavior or the concomitant neurotransmitter levels in about half of the experiments, while the remaining animals exhibited severe seizures. These norfloxacin-induced convulsions did not affect extracellular hippocampal GABA levels but were accompanied by enhanced glutamate concentrations. Half of the rats receiving both 100 mg of BPAA per kg and 50 mg of norfloxacin per kg displayed lethal seizures, while the remaining animals showed no seizure-related behavior. In the latter subgroup, again no significant alterations in extracellular GABA levels were observed, but glutamate overflow remained significantly elevated for at least 3 h. In conclusion, norfloxacin exerts convulsant activity in rats, accompanied by elevations of extracellular hippocampal glutamate levels but not GABA levels, even in the presence of BPAA. PMID:11796360

  20. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates PTZ-induced seizures through CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Iraj; Rostampour, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Naderi, Nima; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Babaei, Parvin; Khakpour-Taleghani, Behrooz

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Though there are effective medications available to reduce the symptoms of the disease, their side effects have limited their usage. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to attenuate seizure in different animal models. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in this attenuation. Male wistar rats were used for the current experiment. PTZ was injected to induce chemical kindling in animals. After verification of kindling in animals, treatment was performed with PEA, AM251 and AM630 in different groups. Latency to induce seizure, seizure stages and latency and duration of fifth stage of seizure was recorded for each animal. Injection of PTZ led to seizure in the animals. Pretreatment with PEA increased the latency to initiate seizures and reduced the duration of seizure. Pretreatment with different dosages of AM251 had contrary effects so that at lower doses they increased the seizure in animals but at higher doses led to the attenuation of seizure. AM630 increased seizures in a dose dependent manner. Combination of the antagonists increased the seizure parameters and attenuated the effect of PEA on seizure. PEA attenuated the PTZ-induced seizures and pretreatment with CB1 and CB2 antagonists diminished this effect of PEA, but still PEA was effective, which might be attributed to the contribution of other receptors in PEA anti-epileptic properties. Findings of the current study implied that endocannabinoid signaling pathway might have an important role in the effects of PEA.

  1. Convulsive status epilepticus in children

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    Redžek-Mudrinić Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Convulsive status epilepticus is the most urgent neurological medical emergency in children. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus is the most common and life-threatening type of status epilepticus. It is not a syndrome in the same sense as febrile convulsions, benign rolandic epilepsy, and infantile polymorphic epilepsy. These latter disorders have a tight age frame, seizure semiology, and a reasonably predictable outcome. Episodes of convulsive status epilepticus can occur in each: occasionally in symptomatic and febrile convulsions, and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, rarely in benign rolandic epilepsy, and West syndrome. Etiology of convulsive status epilepticus. Status epilepticus has many causes, which vary depending on the age and patient population. Convulsive status epileptucus continues to be associated with significant neurological morbidity and mortality, with different hazards and outcome. Although the outcome is dependent on etiology, it is known that appropriate early management may reduce mortality and some of the morbidity associated with convulsive status epilepticus. Discussion. Status epilepticus is a disorder in which the mechanisms attempting at terminating the seizure fail. Continued convulsive activity in convulsive status epilepticus results in decompensation of all organs and systems, thus being life threatening. Seizure activity in convulsive status epilepticus is associated with neuronal damage. The aim should be to halt this activity urgently, using, ideally, a 100% effective drug, administered quickly, without compromising the consciousness level or producing other negative effects on cardiovascular, respiratory function or other unexpected effects.

  2. Novel Visual Sensor Coverage and Deployment in Time Aware PTZ Wireless Visual Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Florence G H; Yen, Hong-Hsu

    2016-12-30

    In this paper, we consider the visual sensor deployment algorithm in Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). With PTZ capability, a sensor's visual coverage can be extended to reduce the number of visual sensors that need to be deployed. The coverage zone of a visual sensor in PTZ WVSN is composed of two regions, a Direct Coverage Region (DCR) and a PTZ Coverage Region (PTZCR). In the PTZCR, a visual sensor needs a mechanical pan-tilt-zoom operation to cover an object. This mechanical operation can take seconds, so the sensor might not be able to adjust the camera in time to capture the visual data. In this paper, for the first time, we study this PTZ time-aware PTZ WVSN deployment problem. We formulate this PTZ time-aware PTZ WVSN deployment problem as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the total visual sensor deployment cost so that each area is either covered in the DCR or in the PTZCR while considering the PTZ time constraint. The proposed Time Aware Coverage Zone (TACZ) model successfully captures the PTZ visual sensor coverage in terms of camera focal range, angle span zone coverage and camera PTZ time. Then a novel heuristic, called Time Aware Deployment with PTZ camera (TADPTZ) algorithm, is proposed to solve the problem. From our computational experiments, we found out that TACZ model outperforms the existing M coverage model under all network scenarios. In addition, as compared to the optimal solutions, the TACZ model is scalable and adaptable to the different PTZ time requirements when deploying large PTZ WVSNs.

  3. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  4. Simultaneous central nervous system distribution and pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of the electroencephalogram effect of norfloxacin administered at a convulsant dose in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenel, Marylore; Marchand, Sandrine; Dupuis, Antoine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Paquereau, Joël; Pariat, Claudine; Couet, William

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of norfloxacin blood–brain barrier (BBB) transport to its delayed electroencephalogram (EEG) effect in rats. Norfloxacin was injected as a bolus dose of 150 mg kg−1. Blood samples were collected for total norfloxacin plasma concentration measurements. The corresponding unbound levels were determined in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) using microdialysis. Quantitative EEG recording was conducted during 9 h post-dose. Brain ECF norfloxacin concentrations were much lower than plasma levels (AUC ratio=9.7±2.8%) but peaked very early, and concentration versus time profiles were parallel in both biological fluids. The best pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling was obtained by considering that ECF concentrations were part of the central compartment, with a proportionality factor. The peak of EEG effect was delayed and the effect versus plasma concentration curves exhibited a dramatic hysteresis. A PK–pharmacodynamic (PD) effect compartment model with a spline function to describe the relationship between effect and concentration at the effect site successfully described the data. Comparisons of PK–PD parameters estimated from plasma and ECF concentrations show that most of the delayed norfloxacin EEG effect is not due to BBB transport, but also that PD parameters derived from plasma data must be carefully interpreted when drug distribution at the effect site is restricted, as may often be the case for centrally acting drugs. PMID:15155539

  5. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  6. Nicotine Elicits Convulsive Seizures by Activating Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iha, Higor A.; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Ikeda, Akio; Ito, Hidefumi; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders; however, the mechanisms of nACh receptors in seizure generation remain unknown. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies in mice and rats to clarify the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced seizures. Treatment of animals with nicotine (1–4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced motor excitement in a dose-dependent manner and elicited convulsive seizures at 3 and 4 mg/kg. The nicotine-induced seizures were abolished by a subtype non-selective nACh antagonist, mecamylamine (MEC). An α7 nACh antagonist, methyllycaconitine, also significantly inhibited nicotine-induced seizures whereas an α4β2 nACh antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine, affected only weakly. Topographical analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a convulsive dose (4 mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically activated neurons in the piriform cortex, amygdala, medial habenula, paratenial thalamus, anterior hypothalamus and solitary nucleus among 48 brain regions examined, and this was also suppressed by MEC. In addition, electric lesioning of the amygdala, but not the piriform cortex, medial habenula and thalamus, specifically inhibited nicotine-induced seizures. Furthermore, microinjection of nicotine (100 and 300 μg/side) into the amygdala elicited convulsive seizures in a dose-related manner. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits convulsive seizures by activating amygdalar neurons mainly via α7 nACh receptors.

  7. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  8. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  9. Erdosteine ameliorates PTZ-induced oxidative stress in mice seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Atilla; Aladag, M Arif; Kocer, Abdulkadir; Boluk, Ayhan; Gurel, Ahmet; Armutcu, Ferah

    2005-05-30

    The role of oxygen-derived free radicals has been suggested in genesis of epilepsy and in the post seizure neuronal death. The aim of this study was to investigate whether erdosteine has a preventive effect against epilepsy and postepileptic oxidative stress. The mice (n=27) were divided into three groups: (i) PTZ-induced-epilepsy group (n=9); (ii) PTZ-induced-epilepsy+erdosteine group (n=9); (iii) control group (n=9). The animals were observed for a period of 30 min for latency to first seizure onset, total seizure duration, the number of seizure episodes. Then they were sacrificed and the brains were quickly removed, and frozen for biochemical analysis. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were carried out in the brain tissue. The latent period between PTZ induction and seizure are longer in the PTZ+erdosteine group than in PTZ-induced-epilepsy group (Perdosteine group. SOD level did not change in this group. While MDA and XO levels are significantly lower, SOD level is significantly higher in the PTZ+erdosteine group compared to PTZ and control groups (Perdosteine treatment both may increase latent interval between seizures and may decrease oxidative stress, thus may ameliorate neuronal death in brain during seizures. It may be used as an adjunct therapy in epilepsy.

  10. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors.

  11. Unconstrained Iris Acquisition and Recognition Using COTS PTZ Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Shreyas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uniqueness of iris patterns among individuals has resulted in the ubiquity of iris recognition systems in virtual and physical spaces, at high security facilities around the globe. Traditional methods of acquiring iris patterns in commercial systems scan the iris when an individual is at a predetermined location in front of the scanner. Most state-of-the-art techniques for unconstrained iris acquisition in literature use expensive custom equipment and are composed of a multicamera setup, which is bulky, expensive, and requires calibration. This paper investigates a method of unconstrained iris acquisition and recognition using a single commercial off-the-shelf (COTS pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ camera, that is compact and that reduces the cost of the final system, compared to other proposed hierarchical multicomponent systems. We employ state-of-the-art techniques for face detection and a robust eye detection scheme using active shape models for accurate landmark localization. Additionally, our system alleviates the need for any calibration stage prior to its use. We present results using a database of iris images captured using our system, while operating in an unconstrained acquisition mode at 1.5 m standoff, yielding an iris diameter in the 150–200 pixels range.

  12. Intelligent Control Algorithm of PTZ System Driven by Two-DOF Ultrasonic Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Songsen; Leng Xuefei; Jin Jiamei; Wang Bihui; Mao Xingyun

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult for the traditional pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) system driven by electromagnetic motor to meet the growing demand for video surveillance system .The key challenge is high positioning accuracy ,high dynamic per-formance and miniaturization of the PTZ system .Here a PTZ system driven by two degree-of-freedom obelisk-shaped ultrasonic motor with single stator is presented ,and its intelligent control algorithm is studied .The struc-ture and driving mechanism of the presented PTZ system are analyzed by both simulation and experiment .To solve the complex nonlinear factors ,e .g .time-variation ,dead zone ,the fuzzy PID control algorithm and the variable gain cross-coupled control strategy are combined to improve the control performance .The results show that the proposed algorithm has faster response ,higher precision than traditional control algorithm ,and it also has a good robustness to prevent the effect of interference .

  13. DIAZEPAM IN PEDIATRIC CONVULSION MANAGEMENT: RECTAL VS INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T MAHMOUDIAN

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Convulsion is a dangerous occurrence in pediatric disease that requires immediately intervention. It is one of the common causes of referring children to emergency room and must be controlled as soon as possible for prevention of systemic complications and the brain damages. We compared the effect of intravenous (IV versus rectal diazepam in control of convulsion in children.
    Methods. Study group included eighty patients with seizure (from 3 months to 12 years old. Forty patients received rectal diazepam and other ones received diazepam intravenously.
    Results. The convulsion was controlled with rectal diazepam in less than 5 minutes (N diazepam less than 2 minutes and this method was not difficult even for parents.
    Discussion. Control of convulsion less than one minute has no relation to the route of diazepam administration. The important factors for control of seizure are dose of diazepam and the prompt use of it after seizure.

  14. Management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Rogers, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Biswajit

    2015-05-01

    The causes of febrile convulsions are usually benign. Such convulsions are common in children and their long-term consequences are rare. However, other causes of seizures, such as intracranial infections, must be excluded before diagnosis, especially in infants and younger children. Diagnosis is based mainly on history taking, and further investigations into the condition are not generally needed in fully immunised children presenting with simple febrile convulsions. Treatment involves symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Nevertheless, febrile convulsions in children can be distressing for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced emergency department (ED) nurses. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs. It also includes a reflective case study to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals who manage children who present with febrile convulsion.

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Convulsive Condition Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Rene Navarro Machado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Convulsive Condition Management. It has been redefined as the occurrence of two or more successive convulsions without conscience recuperation between them; or the occurrence of convulsive uninterrupted activity for more than 5 minutes, including focal crisis. This document includes a review and update of conceptual, etiological and classification aspects for diagnosis and treatment, stressing the various therapy trends. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  16. Hierarchical ensemble of background models for PTZ-based video surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Hefeng; Lin, Liang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study a novel hierarchical background model for intelligent video surveillance with the pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera, and give rise to an integrated system consisting of three key components: background modeling, observed frame registration, and object tracking. First, we build the hierarchical background model by separating the full range of continuous focal lengths of a PTZ camera into several discrete levels and then partitioning the wide scene at each level into many partial fixed scenes. In this way, the wide scenes captured by a PTZ camera through rotation and zoom are represented by a hierarchical collection of partial fixed scenes. A new robust feature is presented for background modeling of each partial scene. Second, we locate the partial scenes corresponding to the observed frame in the hierarchical background model. Frame registration is then achieved by feature descriptor matching via fast approximate nearest neighbor search. Afterwards, foreground objects can be detected using background subtraction. Last, we configure the hierarchical background model into a framework to facilitate existing object tracking algorithms under the PTZ camera. Foreground extraction is used to assist tracking an object of interest. The tracking outputs are fed back to the PTZ controller for adjusting the camera properly so as to maintain the tracked object in the image plane. We apply our system on several challenging scenarios and achieve promising results.

  17. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate induced convulsions by 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnick, P.; Marvizon, J.C.G.; Jackson, B.W.; Monn, J.A.; Rice, K.C. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Lewin, A.H. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid is a potent and selective ligand for the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This compound blocks the convulsions and deaths produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid does not protect mice against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole, strychnine, bicuculline, or maximal electroshock, and does not impair motor performance on either a rotarod or horizontal wire at doses of up to 2 g/kg. The methyl- and ethyl- esters of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid are 5- and 2.3-fold more potent, respectively, than the parent compound in blocking the convulsant and lethal effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate. However, these esters are several orders of magnitude less potent than 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid as inhibitors of strychnine-insensitive ({sup 3}H)glycine binding, indicating that conversion to the parent compound may be required to elicit an anticonvulsant action.

  18. Strychnine poisoning as an unusual cause of convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, D. J.; Tomson, C. R.; Seviour, J.; Dale, G.

    1989-01-01

    A fatal case of strychnine poisoning is presented. The patient vomited then suffered a series of tonic convulsions which were triggered by tactile stimulation. In between paroxysms he was initially alert. Eventually the patient became comatosed due to anoxia and had a cardiac arrest. He presented with a marked metabolic acidosis and rapidly developed renal failure caused by acute rhabdomyolysis. This clinical picture is classical for strychnine poisoning and the complications which the intoxication produces. Attention is drawn to the fact that survival can even follow the ingestion of very large doses of strychnine providing there is no delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2602253

  19. Convulsions as primary manifestation of nutritional rickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Karunakara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rickets is diagnosed based on classical clinical features like craniotabes, rachitic rosary, widening of wrist joints, pot belly, hypotonia, bowed legs and supported by the laboratory evidence of hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and raised alkaline phosphatase. Hypocalcemic convulsions are a rare manifestation of nutritional rickets. Decline in the magnitude of the rickets requires high index of suspicion to identify this treatable condition. Herewith presenting retrospective study of twelve cases of rickets who presented with hypocalcemic seizures as primary manifestation. Materials and methods: A detailed retrospective analysis of diagnosed cases of rickets presenting with convulsions was done. Children who were admitted with hypocalcemic convulsion and subsequently diagnosed to have rickets were included in the study. Children who did not fulfill the criteria for diagnosis of rickets either clinically or biochemically or radiologically were excluded from the study. Details including age at presentation, weight, sex, gestational age and other associated diseases were collected and analyzed. Rickets was diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, biochemical parameters (serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and radiological findings. Results: A Total of 12 children; 8 male and 4 females constituted the study subjects. Mean age of presentation was 6 months. All children had presented with preceding convulsions or active convulsions. One child who presented with active convulsions was treated with parenteral phenobarbitone. All 12 of them were evaluated for the cause and found to have hypocalcemia without any other cause for convulsions. Further clinical examination revealed features of rickets and were subjected to radiological and biochemical investigations. The mean calcium value was 6.3mg/dl, phosphorus -5.35mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase-890.13 units. All the cases had radiological features of rickets. All 12 were

  20. WHICH CASE OF GASTROENTERITIS ENDS IN CONVULSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Armin MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGastroenteritis has a diverse etiology; many pathogens can cause this condition. Of the extraintestinal manifestations, one is convulsions, which may be  attributable to fever, type of bacteria, or electrolyte imbalance. To assess the risk of occurrence of convulsions, in this study we investigated the association between the paraclinical and clinical findings of children with gastroenteritis and the risk of occurrence of convulsions.Materials & MethodsIn this prospective study, conducted between March 2004 and February 2005, we studied 50 patients admitted to the Mofid Childrens' Hospital, with gastroenteritis and convulsions.Stool samples were obtained for investigations of electrolyte imbalances and type of gastroenteritis. A control group consisting of patients admittedsimultaneously with gastroenteritis but no convulsions was selected as well.They were matched with the case group in terms of age, sex, and monthof admission and number. Data was collected using a specific checklist.ResultsThe stool exam (SE showed 31 cases (62% had inflammatory diarrhea and 19 (38% had the non-inflammatory type. In the control group, 21 cases(42% had inflammatory and 29 (58% had non-inflammatory diarrhea. Stool culture (SC results showed 11 (22% subjects had Shigella, 27 (54% revealedno organism, and 12 (24% did not have SCs in their medical records. In the control group SC results revealed Shigella in 2 cases (4%, 38 patients(76% showed no organism, and 10(20% did not have SCs. Six cases (12% had hyponatremia ranging between 125-130meq/lit. In the control group,4 (8% had electrolyte imbalances, 3 had hyponatremia ranging between 125-130meq/lit, and 1 had hypokalemia.ConclusionNo significant relation was found between inflammatory gastroenteritis and the incidence of convulsion (P value=0.0716 Although a significant relationwas found between Shigella and convulsion (P value=0.0113, no significant relation existed between electrolyte imbalance and

  1. Proconvulsant effects of estriol, the third estrogen, in the mouse PTZ-kindling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aakifa; Vohora, Divya

    2014-10-01

    The effect of estriol, the third estrogen, was evaluated for its effect on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice followed by evaluation on kindling-induced changes in cognitive and motor functions. Kindling was induced by once every 2 days treatment with PTZ (25 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 weeks. The seizure severity during induction of kindling and percentage incidence of animals kindled at the end of 5 weeks was recorded. Motor function was assessed using a grip strength meter while spatial memory was assessed in a cross maze. Estriol (0.005 and 0.01 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the time for induction of kindling from 5 weeks to 3 and 2 weeks for male and female mice respectively and enhanced the percentage incidence of seizures. Clomiphene (0.9 mg/kg i.p.) delayed the development of kindling and produced anticonvulsant effects. It also partially reversed the proconvulsant effects of estriol. On grip strength test and spontaneous alternation behaviour, a significant decline was observed in kindled mice which was further reduced by pre-treatment with estriol. Both clomiphene and diazepam were unable to reverse the reduced GS of PTZ-kindled mice but enhanced the percentage alternation of such animals. The study shows that estriol has powerful proconvulsant effects. Its administration in hormone replacement therapy or other indications, thus, requires careful monitoring in patients susceptible to epileptic seizures. The anticonvulsant effects of clomiphene requires further investigations.

  2. Convulsion following gastroenteritis in children without severe electrolyte imbalance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Nezami, Nariman; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Ghorashi, Sona

    2010-01-01

    .... Neurologic signs including convulsion are seen in some cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, risk factors and short-term prognosis of gastroenteritis with convulsion...

  3. Efficacy of buccal midazolam compared to intravenous diazepam in controlling convulsions in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Bibek; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2009-11-01

    A study was done to examine the efficacy of buccal midazolam in controlling convulsion in children by comparing it with intravenous diazepam, a standard mode of treating convulsions. One hundred and twenty cases presenting with convulsions to emergency were treated randomly with either buccal midazolam (in a dose of 0.2mg/kg) or intravenous diazepam (in a dose of 0.3mg/kg). Partial seizures, generalized tonic, clonic and tonic-clonic convulsions were included irrespective of duration or cause. One episode per child only was included. The frequency of overall control of convulsive episodes within 5 min were 85% and 93.3% in buccal midazolam and intravenous diazepam groups, respectively; the difference was, however, not statistically significant (p=0.142). The mean time needed for controlling the convulsive episodes after administration of the drugs was significantly less with intravenous diazepam (p=diazepam (p=0.004) that is likely to be due to longer time needed for initiating treatment with intravenous diazepam in preparing the injection and establishing an IV line. There was no significant side effect in both the groups. The findings suggest that buccal midazolam can be used as an alternative to intravenous diazepam especially when getting an IV line becomes difficult. In situations where establishing an IV line is a problem, buccal midazolam may be the first choice.

  4. The fruit essential oil of Pimpinella anisum exerts anticonvulsant effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholami, M H; Majzoob, S; Javadi, M; Kamalinejad, M; Fanaee, G H; Sayyah, M

    1999-08-01

    This study investigates anticonvulsant effects of an essential oil of the fruits of Pimpinella anisum (Umbelliferae), a folkloric remedy in the Iranian traditional medicine, against seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or maximal electroshock (MES) in male mice. The essential oil suppressed tonic convulsions induced by PTZ or MES. It also elevated the threshold of PTZ-induced clonic convulsions in mice. The essential oil produced motor impairment. However, this effect was not observed at the doses and time courses needed for anticonvulsant activity.

  5. Non-convulsive status epilepticus presenting with Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Mashael; Khan, Sonia A; Kabiraj, Mohammed; Khoja, Waleed A

    2009-07-01

    Ictal aphasia in adults is a rare phenomenon. Most reported cases manifest with non-fluent (Broca) aphasia. Ictal fluent (Wernicke) aphasia is less common. We report a 47-year-old, right-handed woman that presented with recurrent episodes of non-convulsive seizures in the form of Wernicke's aphasia for 2 weeks. An MRI of the brain showed an old cerebral infarction in the left parieto-occipital area. Scalp EEG revealed continuous periodic sharp waves at the left temporal regions with diffusion to the whole left hemisphere and at occasions to the right. This is followed by variable periods of post ictal slowing. Recurrence of the described ictal pattern was noted. Management of status epilepticus was started in the form of intravenous diazepam and a loading dose of phenytoin and phenobarbitone. After treatment, she improved clinically and the EEG improved with disappearance of the left temporal ictal rhythm and normalization of the EEG background. Thus, establishing the diagnosis of non-convulsive partial status epilepticus manifesting as ictal aphasia.

  6. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae) in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Ajao, Mutiu Y; Aigbe, Flora R; Enumah, Uchenna S

    2013-09-01

    Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that preparations of the plant are used in the treatment of central nervous system-related disorders including convulsion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression. The strychnine and isoniazid convulsion, traction and climbing muscle relaxation, and forced swim and tail suspension depression tests were used in this study. The extract was administered orally (p.o.) at dose range of 25-800 mg/kg while distilled water (10 mL/kg p.o.) served as negative control. Diazepam (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as positive control in the convulsion and muscle relaxation models while imipramine (64 mg/kg p.o.) served the same purpose in the depression tests. T. occidentalis significantly increased the onset (Pconvulsion (P<.05, .01) in the strychnine test and increased the time to death (P<.05, .01, .001) in the isoniazid model. The extract insignificantly increased the reaction time in the traction test while it significantly increased the time in the climbing test (P<.001). In the forced swim and tail suspension models, T. occidentalis significantly (P<.001) and dose-dependently increased the duration of immobility. The results obtained in this study suggest that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis possesses anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, thus justifying its folkloric use.

  7. Evidence for PTZ-like cues as a function of time following treatment with chlordiazepoxide: implications for understanding tolerance and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, R J; Smith, R L

    2005-05-01

    The present study used a two-lever, drug-discrimination procedure to train rats to discriminate between the cues associated with 5 mg/kg of the anxiolytic, chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and 15 mg/kg of the anxiogenic, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to investigate the relationship between withdrawal and acute tolerance. Training doses of the two drugs were chosen so that rats responded about equally on both levers when tested on saline (SAL). Following acquisition of the discrimination, rats were injected with 10 mg/kg CDP and tested for lever choice at various intervals from 6 h to 192 h. These tests revealed that cues associated with CDP withdrawal lasted approximately three times longer than the cues associated with the drug's primary effects. At the shortest retest interval (6 h) after treatment with 10 mg/kg CDP, rats responded primarily on the CDP lever, followed by a shift to predominant responding on the PTZ lever at the 16 h and 24 h intervals before returning to predrug, baseline levels at the longer intervals (48-192 h). In order to investigate the relationship between tolerance and withdrawal to the cue properties of CDP, CDP dose-response curves were determined 24 h following treatment with SAL or 10 mg/kg CDP. Acute tolerance, as defined by a rightward, parallel shift in the dose-response function, was observed in the rats pretreated with CDP. Furthermore, it was evident that the baseline shift associated with CDP withdrawal, rather than a weaker drug cue, accounted for acute tolerance. The results from this study are relevant to evaluating the role positive and negative reinforcement play in motivating compulsive drug use.

  8. NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dong, Jingde; Shen, Kai; Bai, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Lv, Xuan; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

    2015-05-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including epilepsy. The present study investigated the effect of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced pathological and biochemical events in mice. Our results showed that PTZ-kindling up-regulates the expression of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the hippocampus and that kindled mice were characterized by significant astrocytosis and neuron loss in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress, including excessive malondialdehyde (MDA) production and decreased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), were detected in the hippocampus after the mice were fully kindled. Additionally, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was found to be up-regulated in PTZ-kindled mice. However, selectively blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits by ifenprodil significantly suppressed PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss. Furthermore, blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits also abolished PTZ-kindling-induced BDNF expression. These results indicate that NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to epilepsy-associated pathological and biochemical events, including hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss, and these events might be correlated with up-regulation of BDNF expression.

  9. Hypothermia for Neuroprotection in Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Lemiale, Virginie; Schenck, Maleka; Chelly, Jonathan; Laurent, Virginie; Daviaud, Fabrice; Srairi, Mohamed; Hamdi, Aicha; Geri, Guillaume; Rossignol, Thomas; Hilly-Ginoux, Julia; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Louart, Benjamin; Malissin, Isabelle; Mongardon, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Thirion, Marina; Merceron, Sybille; Canet, Emmanuel; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Azoulay, Elie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-22

    Background Convulsive status epilepticus often results in permanent neurologic impairment. We evaluated the effect of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcomes in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Methods In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 270 critically ill patients with convulsive status epilepticus who were receiving mechanical ventilation to hypothermia (32 to 34°C for 24 hours) in addition to standard care or to standard care alone; 268 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 (range, 1 to 5, with 1 representing death and 5 representing no or minimal neurologic deficit). The main secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, progression to electroencephalographically (EEG) confirmed status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus on day 1, "super-refractory" status epilepticus (resistant to general anesthesia), and functional sequelae on day 90. Results A GOS score of 5 occurred in 67 of 138 patients (49%) in the hypothermia group and in 56 of 130 (43%) in the control group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.99; P=0.43). The rate of progression to EEG-confirmed status epilepticus on the first day was lower in the hypothermia group than in the control group (11% vs. 22%; odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.79; P=0.009), but there were no significant differences between groups in the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were more frequent in the hypothermia group than in the control group. Conclusions In this trial, induced hypothermia added to standard care was not associated with significantly better 90-day outcomes than standard care alone in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; HYBERNATUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01359332 .).

  10. Cholinergic and noradrenergic triggers' in soman induced convulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, M.T.; Zimmer, L.; Ennis, M.; Etri, M.

    1993-05-13

    Considerable evidence suggests that soman induced seizure's are initiated in the piriform cortex (PC). Consistent with this, PC is the most frequent site of neuropathology in soman treated rats and other species. Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that convulsive doses of soman cause the rapid induction of the immediate early gene protein product, Fos, in piriform cortex (PC). Fos is known to be expressed when neurons undergo sustained excitatory activity. Following soman, Fos is selectively expressed by neurons in layers II Ill of PC. These neurons are known to send excitatory projections to the hippocampus and to thalamus and neocortex. Thus, we have suggested that soman may initially cause seizure activity in layer II-III PC neurons; this seizure activity could then spread to the hippocampus and neocortex. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have observed that Fos is expressed in hippocampus, thalamus and neocortex subsequent to its expression in PC.

  11. Role of viruses in febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H M; Parry, J V; Parry, R P; Davies, H A; Sanderson, P J; Tyrrell, D A; Valman, H B

    1979-11-01

    A disseminated viral illness was demonstrated by isolating a virus from the CSF, blood or urine in 27% of 73 children who were admitted to hospital after a first febrile convulsion. However, a viral aetiology could be implicated for 86% of the children after combining results of tissue culture, electron microscopy, mouse inoculation, complement fixation tests, and interferon assay. Parallel bacterial cultures showed a possible pathogen in 29% of children, but in only 4% was the pathogen isolated from the CSF, blood, or urine. No correlation was found between the nature of the pathogen (or evidence of its dissemination) and the severity of the convulsion, degree of fever, CSF protein, CSF white cells, or the WBC. The results suggest that a febrile convulsion could be a response to invasion of the blood stream or central nervous system by a micro-organism which is usually a virus. Invasion may be of such brief duration that successful isolation of the virus from the blood, CSF, or urine in not more commonly achieved.

  12. Recognition and management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Shirt, Bethany

    2015-08-26

    Febrile convulsion is characterised by convulsion associated with fever in an infant or child aged between six months and six years. The febrile illness causing the convulsion should not be secondary to an intracranial infection (meningitis or encephalitis) or acute electrolyte imbalance. Most cases of febrile convulsion are short lived and self-terminating. However, a few cases of prolonged febrile convulsion may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Management is mainly symptomatic, although anticonvulsants may have a role in a small number of children with complex or recurrent febrile convulsion. Referral to paediatric neurologists may be necessary in cases of complex or recurrent febrile convulsion, or in those where a pre-existing neurological disorder exists. One third of children will develop a further febrile convulsion during subsequent febrile illness. Nurses have a vital role in managing children with febrile convulsion, educating parents about the condition and dispelling myths. This article outlines the presentation, management, investigations and prognosis for febrile convulsion, indicating how nurses working in different clinical areas can help to manage this common childhood condition.

  13. Effects of differential modulation of mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid systems on bicuculline-induced convulsions in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Y; Narita, M; Takahashi-Nakano, Y; Misawa, M; Nagase, H; Mizoguchi, H; Tseng, L F; Suzuki, T

    2000-04-17

    The present study investigated the effects of micro-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists on seizures produced by blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated synaptic transmission in the mouse. The selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (1.25-3 mg/kg) given subcutaneously caused dose-dependent clonic-tonic convulsions. These convulsions were potentiated by the prototypic mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine given subcutaneously 20 min prior to a subconvulsive dose of bicuculline. The potentiation by morphine was completely reversed by pretreatment intraventricularly with the selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (0.5 microgram/mouse). Pretreatment intraventricularly with the selective delta-opioid receptor agonists 2-methyl-4aalpha-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,12, 12abeta-octahydro-quinolino[2,3,3-g]isoquinoline ((-)TAN-67) or [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE) showed a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of convulsions. Pretreatment with naltrindole (2 mg/kg, s.c.), a selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist, abolished the enhancement of the bicuculline-induced convulsions by DPDPE. In contrast, pretreatment with the selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50,488H (0.6-80 mg/kg, subcutaneously or 25-100 microgram/mouse, intraventricularly) produced a dose-dependent suppression of the bicuculline-induced convulsions. The inhibitory effect of U-50,488H was completely blocked by pretreatment subcutaneously with nor-binaltorphimine (5 mg/kg), a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist. This study demonstrates that activation of both mu- and delta-opioid receptors increases the incidence of convulsions produced by blockade of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission, while stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors has an anticonvulsive effect.

  14. Convulsion following gastroenteritis in children without severe electrolyte imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Nezami, Nariman; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Ghorashi, Sona

    2010-01-01

    Three to five million children from among one billion with gastroenteritis die annually worldwide. The etiologic agent in developed countries is viral in 15-60% of cases, while in developing countries, bacteria and parasites are frequently reported as the etiologic factors. Neurologic signs including convulsion are seen in some cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, risk factors and short-term prognosis of gastroenteritis with convulsion. During a case-control study, 100 patients with gastroenteritis were enrolled into the case and control groups on the basis of convulsion or no convulsion development, respectively. This study was conducted in Tabriz Children's Hospital from March 2004 to March 2007. The age of patients ranged from 2 months to 7 years, and the groups were age- and sex-matched. Body temperature (BT), severity and type of dehydration, stool exam and culture, past history of convulsion in the patient and first-degree relatives, electrolyte imbalance, and short-term prognosis were studied and compared. The mean weight of groups was not different, while the frequency of fever at the time of admission, past history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives and severity of dehydration were significantly higher in the case group (p convulsion in the patient, shigellosis and antibiotic usage were also significantly higher in the case group (p = 0.025, p = 0.014 and p = 0.001). Convulsion mostly occurred in mild gastroenteritis accompanied with fever and positive history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives. History of febrile convulsion in the patient and shigellosis were associated with development of convulsion in patients with gastroenteritis. No significant electrolyte imbalance was observed in patients with gastroenteritis experiencing febrile convulsion.

  15. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan AFSHARKHAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Afsharkhas L, Tavasoli A. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4:57-61.AbstractObjectiveFebrile convulsions (FC are the most frequent seizure disorder in children.Some studies have detected serum electrolyte disturbances in patients with FC.This study determines serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and frequency of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children with FC.Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 291 children with FC admitted to the Neurology ward of Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital from 2008–2013. Data was recorded on age, sex, type (simple, complex, and recurrence of seizures, family history of FC and epilepsy, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and urinary tract infections.ResultsA total of 291 patients with diagnosis of FC were admitted to our center. Of these 291 patients, 181 (62.2% were male. The mean age was 24.4 ± 14.6 months.There were simple, complex, and recurrent FCs in 215 (73.9%, 76 (26.1% and 61 (21% of patients, respectively. Urinary tract infections (UTI were found in 13 (4.5% patients, more present in females (p-value = 0.03 and under 12 months of age (p-value = 0.003. Hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia was detected in 32 (11%, 16 (5.5%, and 4 (1.4% of cases, respectively. Twentyfour (8.2% patients had a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2.There were no abnormalities in serum magnesium, BUN, and creatinine levels.ConclusionDuring FCs, mild changes may occur in renal function but a serum electrolyte evaluation is not necessary unless patients are dehydrated. In children with FC, urinary tract infections should be ruled out. ReferencesGhofrani M. Febrile Convulsion: Another look at an old subject. Iran J Child Neurology 2006 June:1(1:5-9.Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero D, Schor N. Swaiman’s Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 5th edition

  16. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed...... with the algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  17. [Management of convulsive status epilepticus in infants and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, P; Parain, D; Vallée, L

    2009-04-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus in childhood is a life threatening condition with serious risk of neurological sequelae which constitutes a medical emergency. Clinical and experimental data suggest that prolonged seizures can have immediate and long-term adverse consequences on the immature and developing brain. So the child who presents with a continuous generalized convulsive seizure lasting greater than five minutes should be promptly treated. The outcome is mainly determined by the underlying etiology, age and duration of status epilepticus. In children the mortality from status epilepticus ranges from 3 to 5% and the morbidity is two-fold higher. Mortality and morbidity are highest with status epilepticus associated with central nervous system infections, which is the most important cause of status epilepticus. There are few evidence-based data to guide management decisions for the child with status epilepticus. Immediate goals are stabilization of airways, breathing and circulation and termination of seizures. Benzodiazepines remain the first-line drugs recommended for prompt termination of seizures. As intravenous lorazepam is not available in France, we suggest clonazepam as the best choice for initial therapy. Rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam remain important options. Intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin and phenobarbital are the second-line drugs. Phenytoin is being increasingly substituted by fosphenytoin, but pediatric data are scarce and fosphenytoin is not authorized for use in France below five years old. In children, phenytoin is often preferred to phenobarbital, even though no comparative studies have demonstrated a better efficacy. To manage status epilepticus refractory to a benzodiazepine and administration of phenytoin and/or phenobarbital, many pediatricians today prefer high-dose midazolam infusion rather than thiopental to minimize serious side effects from barbiturate anesthesia. There is no benefit/risk ratio to support the use of propofol

  18. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and biphenyl acetic acid in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Sandrine; Pariat, Claudine; Bouquet, Serge; Courtois, Philippe; Couet, William

    2000-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are associated with a low incidence of central nervous system (CNS) side effects, possibly leading to convulsions, especially when co-administered with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Although the in vivo pro-convulsant activity of NSAIDS is essentially unknown, the convulsant potential of FQs is traditionally evaluated by in vitro γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding experiments in the presence of 4-biphenyl acetic acid (BPAA), the active metabolite of fenbufen.The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the BPAA-norfloxacin convulsant interaction in vivo.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=27) were given BPAA orally, at various doses 1 h before norfloxacin infusion, which was maintained until the onset of maximal seizures, when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were collected for analysis.An inhibitory Emax effect model with a baseline effect parameter was fitted to the norfloxacin versus BPAA concentrations in the CSF, previously shown to be part of the biophase. This model includes three parameters: the concentrations of norfloxacin in the absence of BPAA (CCSF0, Nor), and when BPAA concentration tends toward infinity (CCSFbase, Nor), and the BPAA concentration for which half of the maximal effect is observed (CCSF50, BPAA). The maximal proconvulsant effect of BPAA is given by the CCSF0, Nor / CCSFbase, Nor ratio, estimated to approximately 6 in this study.Derived models were developed in plasma to account for the non-linear CSF diffusion of norfloxacin and protein binding of BPAA.In conclusion this study has shown that the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and BPAA in rats, can be adequately characterized by modelling of the CSF concentrations of the two drugs at the onset of activity, following their administration in various proportions. PMID:10780965

  19. Cognitive performance and convulsion risk after experimentally-induced febrile-seizures in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Ebrahim; Abdeen, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair; Alsaffar, Yousif; Mandeel, Mohammad; Al Shawaaf, Fatima; Al-Ansari, Sali; Kamal, Amer

    2014-05-01

    Many reports indicated that small percentage of children with febrile seizures develop epilepsy and cognitive disorders later in adulthood. In addition, the neuronal network of the hippocampus was reported to be deranged in adult animals after being exposed to hyperthermia-induced seizures in their neonatal life. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) latency and probability of seizures, (2) spatial learning and memory, in adult rats after neonatal hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures (FS). Prolonged FS were elicited in 10-day old, male Sprague Dawleys (n=11/group) by exposure to heated air (48-52 °C) for 30 min; control rats were exposed to 30 °C air. After 1.5 months the animal's cognitive performance was assessed by 5 day trial in the Morris water maze. In another experiment the latency and probability of seizures were measured in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injections (increased doses ranged from 7 to 140 mg/kg; i.p.). In water maze, both groups showed improvements in escape latency and distance swam to reach the platform; effects were significantly greater in control versus hyperthermia-treated animals on days 3 and 4. Latency and probability of PTZ-induced seizures were shorter and higher respectively, in hyperthermia-treated animals compared to controls. We concluded that FS in neonatal rats leads to enhanced susceptibility for seizures, as well as cognitive deficits in adults.

  20. The effect of leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide-Y on serum Tnf-Α, Il-1β, Il-6, Fgf-2, galanin levels and oxidative stress in an experimental generalized convulsive seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Berrin; Sahin, Deniz; Kir, Hale; Eraldemir, Fatma Ceyla; Musul, Mert; Kuskay, Sevinç; Ates, Nurbay

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained. Seizure activity was scored by observing seizure behavior, and the onset time, latency, and seizure duration were determined according to the EEG records. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained in all groups to assess the serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, FGF-2, galanin, nitric oxide (NOֹ), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The electrophysiological and biochemical findings (pleptin, ghrelin, and NPY shows that these peptides may have anti-inflammatory effects in epileptic seizures. Also, leptin significantly increases the serum levels of the endogenous anticonvulsive agent galanin. The fact that each one of these endogenous peptides reduces the levels of MDA and increases the serum levels of GSH leads to the belief that they may have protective effects against oxidative damage that is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Our study contributes to the clarification of the role of these peptides in the brain in seizure-induced oxidative stress and immune system physiology and also presents new approaches to the etiology and treatment of tendency to epileptic seizures.

  1. Efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Ghaempanah, Mahdieh; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Nikkhah, Ali; Bavarian, Behrouz; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza

    2012-09-01

    Status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures are the most commonly occurring neurological emergencies in children. Such events have high morbidity and mortality rates along with poor long-term outcomes, depending on their duration and causes. Therefore, such seizures warrant urgent treatment using appropriate doses of anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are the most commonly used anticonvulsants for controlling status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. However, these medications have several well-known adverse effects. Previous studies on both adults and children have shown the efficacy and safety of rapid infusion of valproate in controlling status epilepticus. However, few well-designed randomised trials have been carried out in children, and there remains a paucity of data regarding intravenous sodium valproate use in children. Therefore, our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of rapid loading of valproate with those of intravenous phenobarbital in children with status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. Sixty children (30 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either valproate or phenobarbital. The main outcome variable was termination of all convulsive activity within 20 min of starting anticonvulsant infusion. Intravenous rapid loading of valproate was successful in seizure termination in (27/30, 90%) of patients compared to phenobarbital (23/30, 77%) (p = 0.189). Clinically significant adverse effects occurred in 74% patients of the phenobarbital group and 24% patients of the valproate group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, rapid loading of valproate is effective and safe in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children. Intravenous valproate should be considered as a suitable choice for terminating status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures in children. Copyright

  2. Febrile Convulsions: Their Significance for Later Intellectual Development and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that intellectual and behavioral outcomes in children who have had febrile convulsions are dependent on preseizure status, unilaterality of the initial fit, recurrent febrile seizures, continued neurological abnormalities, the advent of fits when afebrile, and socioeconomic status. Suggests that a febrile convulsion should be followed up…

  3. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo; Filippo Maggi; Marcello Nicoletti; Philippe Rasoanaivo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus (M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses (0.1–0.8 mL/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route. Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded. Results: The essential oil at 0.8 mL/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pen-tylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100%within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100%died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil. Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  4. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo; Filippo Maggi; Marcello Nicoletti; Philippe Rasoanaivo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus(M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models.Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses(0.1–0.8 m L/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route.Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded.Results: The essential oil at 0.8 m L/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pentylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100% within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100% died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil.Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  5. [Convulsive seizures and polyneuritis in a patient with lupus treated with metronidazole (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, G; Krainik, F; Betous, F; Nicolas, M O; Mundler, B

    1981-01-01

    A 20-year-old patient with biologically-confirmed lupus developed a perirenal abscess following puncture biopsy of the kidney. Postoperative treatment included metronidazole at a mean dose of 2.5 g daily for 68 days (total dose : 165 g). Generalised convulsive seizures occurred on four occasions, associated with paresthesia of the four limbs, but without loss of motor or reflex activity, though some distal hypoesthesia was detected. An acute lupus attack was eliminated, the convulsive seizures not recurring after discontinuation of treatment, and the paresthesias diminishing progressively over a period of three months. Electrical investigations showed lack of motor anomalies but a marked reduction in sensory conduction. This is the 13th reported case of polyneuritis due to metronidazole, the 4th case of convulsive seizures, and the first case in which both manifestations occurred. The plasma concentration curve after oral administration of 1 g of the product to this patient demonstrated that the product was not being metabolised in a pathological manner.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and clinical effect of phenobarbital in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokwaro, Gilbert O; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Muchohi, Simon N; Otieno, Godfrey O; Newton, Charles R J C

    2003-01-01

    Aims Phenobarbital is commonly used to treat status epilepticus in resource-poor countries. Although a dose of 20 mg kg−1 is recommended, this dose, administered intramuscularly (i.m.) for prophylaxis, is associated with an increase in mortality in children with cerebral malaria. We evaluated a 15-mg kg−1 intravenous (i.v.) dose of phenobarbital to determine its pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in children with severe falciparum malaria and status epilepticus. Methods Twelve children (M/F: 11/1), aged 7–62 months, received a loading dose of phenobarbital (15 mg kg−1) as an i.v. infusion over 20 min and maintenance dose of 5 mg kg−1 at 24 and 48 h later. The duration of convulsions and their recurrence were recorded. Vital signs were monitored. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phenobarbital concentrations were measured with an Abbott TDx FLx® fluorescence polarisation immunoassay analyser (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Simulations were performed to predict the optimum dosage regimen that would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 15 and 20 mg l−1 for 72 h. Results All the children achieved plasma concentrations above 15 mg l−1 by the end of the infusion. Mean (95% confidence interval or median and range for Cmax) pharmacokinetic parameters were: area under curve [AUC (0, ∞) ]: 4259 (3169, 5448) mg l−1.h, t½: 82.9 (62, 103) h, CL: 5.8 (4.4, 7.3) ml kg−1 h−1, Vss: 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) l kg −1, CSF: plasma phenobarbital concentration ratio: 0.7 (0.5, 0.8; n = 6) and Cmax: 19.9 (17.9–27.9) mg l−1. Eight of the children had their convulsions controlled and none of them had recurrence of convulsions. Simulations suggested that a loading dose of 15 mg kg−1 followed by two maintenance doses of 2.5 mg kg−1 at 24 h and 48 h would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 16.4 and 20 mg l−1 for 72 h. Conclusions Phenobarbital, given as an i.v. loading dose, 15 mg kg−1

  7. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

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    Beiraghdar Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pe-diatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis re-vealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with ne-phritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lympho-penia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neuro-logical status assessment may be needed in this situation.

  8. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Maddani, Abbas; Taheri, Saeed; Sharifi-Bonab, Mir Mohsen; Esfahani, Taher; Panahi, Yunes; Einollahi, Behzad

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation.

  9. New Capoamycin-Type Antibiotics and Polyene Acids from Marine Streptomyces fradiae PTZ0025

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    Zhizhen Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Capoamycin-type antibiotics (2–5 and polyene acids (6, 7 were isolated from marine Streptomyces fradiae strain PTZ0025. Their structures were established by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and high resolution electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS analyses and chemical degradation. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 7 were found to be new and named as fradimycins A (3 and B (4, and fradic acids A (6 and B (7. Compounds 3–5 showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 2.0 to 6.0 μg/mL. Interestingly, Compounds 3–5 also significantly inhibited cell growth of colon cancer and glioma with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 to 6.46 μM. Fradimycin B (4, the most active compound, was further determined to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis in tumor cells. The results indicated that fradimycin B (4 arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis and necrosis in colon cancer and glioma cells. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the marine natural products 3–5, particularly fradimycin B (4, possessed potent antimicrobial and antitumor activities.

  10. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuli

    2014-12-01

    Altered mental state is a very common presentation in the elderly admitted to the emergency department. It has been determined that about 16% of patients aged 60 or older with confusion of unknown origin have non-convulsive status epilepticus. The diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus is difficult in the elderly because possible aetiologies of confusion may present with the same clinical picture. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly carries major morbidity and mortality, attributable primarily to aetiology, and treatment is complex, involving treatment of the aetiology and concomitant medical illnesses, whilst balancing the side effects and drug interactions of antiepileptic drugs.

  11. The novel anticonvulsant, gabapentin, protects against both convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W P; Robinson, E; Little, H J

    1997-10-01

    The effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, were investigated, in mice, on the withdrawal convulsive behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour that are produced by cessation of prolonged intake of ethanol. When given at 50 or 100 mg/kg, this compound decreased the rise in handling-induced hyperexcitability which occurs during the withdrawal period; the effects were most pronounced for the first 4 hr after administration. Gabapentin also decreased the convulsive response to an audiogenic stimulus during the withdrawal period. The elevated plus-maze, with both traditional and ethological indices of activity was used as a test of anxiety-related behaviour after cessation of chronic ethanol treatment. Gabapentin, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, was found to decrease some, although not all, of the signs of withdrawal-induced anxiety. At doses up to and including 200 mg/kg, gabapentin had no effect on motor co-ordination or spontaneous locomotor activity in control animals. The results demonstrated that gabapentin has a selective action in decreasing both convulsive and anxiety-related aspects of withdrawal behaviour after chronic ethanol treatment. It is possible that further studies with this compound may shed further light on the mechanisms involved in the withdrawal syndrome.

  12. Assessing Anticonvulsant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Datura Stramonium Seed on PTZ-Induced Seizures in the Male Mice

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    S Namvar Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect social, economic and biological aspects of the human life. Many epileptic patients have uncontrolled seizures and medication-related side effects despite adequate pharmacological treatment. The use of plant extracts is proposed as a therapeutic modality in order to treat different diseases. Datura plant has long been used in the traditional medicine in regard with some nervous disorders like epilepsy. Thus, this study aimed to provide a scientific basis investigating the effect of Datura aqueous extract on PTZ-induced seizures in the male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male mice were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups including: one control group, one sham group and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed via gavage for 30 days, and the sham group received stilled water via gavage. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 35 mg/kg, i.p were injected into control, sham and experimental groups 30 minutes after gavage in order to induce the seizure. Then latency time of seizure onset, seizure duration and seizure phases were measured and recorded in the experimental, sham and control groups. The data analysis was carried out via one way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests.  Moreover, difference less than 0.05 (P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study findings revealed that the aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed produced a significant effect on PTZ-induced seizure. In addition, Datura increases latency time of seizure onset (P˂0.01, inhibits progress of seizure stages (P˂0.05 and decreases seizure duration (P˂0.001. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that extract of this plant has anticonvulsant effects on PTZ-induced seizure. As a result, it seems to be beneficial to the epilepsy treatment.

  13. The effect of ivermectin on convulsions in rats produced by lidocaine and strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, S M; Varagić, V M

    2007-10-01

    Ivermectin is one of the most commonly used drugs in pharmacotherapy of parasitic diseases in domestic and wild animals caused by parasitic nematodes and arthropods. However, ivermectin and other avermectins very often produce side-effects in hosts. The most dominant clinical symptom of ivermectin toxicity in domestic and wild animals is CNS depression. In nematodes, the target site of ivermectin's action is glutamate-gated chloride-channel receptor and GABA receptor. The depressive effect of ivermectin in mammals might include more than one mechanism; therefore, the anticonvulsive effect of ivermectin against convulsions caused by lidocaine and strychnine was evaluated. Ivermectin antagonized lidocaine- and strychnine-induced convulsions in rats, although these have different mechanisms. In the present study, the anticonvulsive ED50 ofivermectin for lidocaine-induced convulsions was 2.44 mg/kg (95% CL 1.67 to 3.57 mg/kg), whereas for convulsions induced by strychnine it was higher at 4.25 mg/kg (95% CL 2.32 to 3.78 mg/kg). At the same time, both anticonvulsive doses are significantly lower then the observed LD50 of ivermectin (18.20 mg/kg). Furthermore, flumazenil (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors, antagonizes just one part of these anticonvulsive effects of ivermectin. Our results show the significant anticonvulsive properties of ivermectin and support the findings that ivermectin in the CNS of mammals produces multiple inhibitory effects, probably through participation in the function of GABA-sensitive and GABA-insensitive chloride channels.

  14. Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Miho C; Yamato, Mayumi; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2015-11-01

    Much evidence supports the idea that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, and therapeutic interventions with antioxidants are expected as adjunct antiepileptic therapy. The aims of this study were to non-invasively obtain spatially resolved redox data from control and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindled mouse brains by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and to visualize the brain regions that are sensitive to oxidative damage. After infusion of the redox-sensitive imaging probe 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (MCP), a series of EPR images of PTZ-induced mouse heads were measured. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reaction of MCP in the mouse heads, the pixel-based rate constant of its reduction reaction was calculated as an index of redox status in vivo and mapped as a redox map. The obtained redox map showed heterogeneity in the redox status in PTZ-induced mouse brains compared with control. The co-registered image of the redox map and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both control and PTZ-induced mice showed a clear change in the redox status around the hippocampus after PTZ. To examine the role of antioxidants on the brain redox status, the levels of antioxidants were measured in brain tissues of control and PTZ-induced mice. Significantly lower concentrations of glutathione in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice were detected compared with control. From the results of both EPR imaging and the biochemical assay, the hippocampus was found to be susceptible to oxidative damage in the PTZ-induced animal model of epilepsy.

  15. Etiology of convulsions in neonatal and infantile period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, T; Yokata, K; Takashima, S; Nambu, Y; Hanai, T

    1976-01-01

    1) Etiology of convulsions starting prior to two years of age was discussed in 418 cases. Neonatal seizures before 30 days old appeared in 86 cases (53 boys and 33 girls). Three hundred and thirty-two patients (172 boys and 160 girls) had convulsions in infancy. Twelve patients (9 boys and 3 girls) suffered from convulsions both in neonatal and infantile period. 2)Etiology of convulsions was prenatal in 67 cases (16%), natal in 49 cases (12%), postnatal in 158 cases (38%) and unknown in 144 cases (34%). Prenatal factors consisted of cerebral malformation (23 cases, 6%), associated physical minor anomaly such as cataracta or finger abomaly (11 cases, 3%), abnormal pernatal history (8 cases, 2%), congenital heart disease 3) cases, 1%), tuberose scleorsis (7 cases, 2%) and positive family history (13 cases, 3%). Postnatal causes included hypocalcemia or hypoglycemia (7 cases, 2%), brain tumors (3 cases, 1%), breath-holding spells (21 cases, 5%), febrile convulsion (44 cases, 11%), bathing (3 cases, 1%), afebrile colds (3 cases, 1%), purulent meningitis (17 cases, 4%), DPT immunization (10 cases 2%), vaccination (7 cases, 2%) and acute hemiplegia (10 cases, 2%). The group of unknown etiology were as fns (38 cases, 9%), epilepsy associated with interictal signs (23 cases, 6%), benign infantile convulsions (57 cases, 14%), neonatal convulsion of unknown etiology (12 cases, 3%) and miscellaneous categories (4%). 3) Pregnancy was abnormal in 53% of cases with cerebral malformation. Asphyxia at birth was noted in 43% of patients with tuberose sclerosis and in 35% of congenital cerebral abomaly. 4) Pneumoencephalographic examinations revealed midline anomaly in 50% of cerebral malformation. It was abnormal in all cases with tuberose sclerosis, head injury and epilepsy with interseizure neurological signs. 5) There were no correlations between the seizure pattern and the etiology in neonatal convulsion. In infancy, focal-unilateral convulsions and infantile spasms were

  16. DIAZEPAM IN PEDIATRIC CONVULSION MANAGEMENT: RECTAL VS INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    T MAHMOUDIAN

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Convulsion is a dangerous occurrence in pediatric disease that requires immediately intervention. It is one of the common causes of referring children to emergency room and must be controlled as soon as possible for prevention of systemic complications and the brain damages. We compared the effect of intravenous (IV) versus rectal diazepam in control of convulsion in c...

  17. Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-12-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man who developed acute onset of cognitive decline and convulsion due to Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

  18. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants

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    Youn Soo Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to July 2009. The control group consisted of 100 febrile children without convulsion; controls were closely matched to the cases by age, gender, and underlying disease. Results : The mean ages of the febrile convulsion and control group were 16.3¡?#?.4 ;and 15.8¡?#?.1 ;months, respectively, and the two groups had no differences in clinical features. Iron deficiency anemia (Hb &lt;10.5 gm/dL was more frequent in the febrile convulsion group than in the control group, although there was no statistical significance. Unexpectably, the RDW (red blood cell distribution width was significantly lower and the MCNC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher among seizure cases than among the controls (P&lt;0.05. There is no statistical difference between simple and complex febrile groups in the clinical and laboratory profiles. On multiple logistic regression analysis, iron deficiency anemia was more frequent, but the RDW was lower, among the cases with febrile convulsion, compared with the controls. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the iron deficiency anemia is associated with febrile convulsion, and screening for iron deficiency anemia should be considered in children with febrile convulsions.

  19. The PTZ kindling mouse model of epilepsy exhibits exploratory drive deficits and aberrant activity amongst VTA dopamine neurons in both familiar and novel space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahboubeh; Dufour, Jean-Philippe; Seifritz, Erich; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Saab, Bechara J

    2017-07-14

    Recurrent seizures that define epilepsy are often accompanied by psychosocial problems and cognitive deficits with incompletely understood aetiology. We therefore used the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in mice to examine potential seizure-associated neuropathologies, focusing on motivation, memory and novel-environment-induced activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In addition to recurrent seizures, we found that PTZ kindling led to a strong suppression of novelty-driven exploration while largely sparing fear-driven exploration. The deficits in exploratory drive may be relevant for other cognitive impairments since reduced unassisted rearing in a learning arena correlated with poorer spatial memory of object location. Using c-Fos immunofluorescence as a marker of neuronal activity, we observed that dopamine neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of PTZ kindled mice demonstrate hyperactivity at baseline and hypoactivity in response to a novel environment compared to saline-injected cagemate controls. These data extend previous findings of PTZ kindling-mediated disruptions of hippocampal processes important for novel environment recognition and learning by demonstrating PTZ kindling also induces motivational deficits that are associated with reduced stimulus-evoked activation of VTA dopamine neurons. More broadly, these data help understand the aetiology of complex behavioural changes in the PTZ kindling model, and may assist in the development of superior diagnoses and treatments for epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  1. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p .05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  2. Concussive convulsions as differential diagnosis of posttraumatic epilepsy

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    Vojvodić Nikola M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Concussive convulsions are motor manifestations in acute head injury. This clinical phenomenon should be distin- guished from epileptic seizures. We present two young men with motor and convulsive manifestations in acute head injury. Patient 1. A18-year old basketball player felt on the parquet during a game. Initially he was struck on the right shoulder which caused brief and vigorous twitch of the head towards the ground and additional temporal impact. At the moment of impact he lost consciousness and developed tonic leg and arm posturing with both clenched fists. His legs were extended during next 20 seconds. Thereafter he was still and his loss of consciousness lasted 3 minutes. Patient 2. A 26-year old man felt on the wooden ground from a 4 m high ferry. He got head impact and lost consciousness. In a few seconds he had tonic/clonic convulsions for the next 10-15 seconds. Ten minutes later he awaked. Results of subsequent neurological examination, electroencephalography and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging studies were normal in both patients. They returned to their occupations after four weeks without problems for a further one year. Conclusion. Described motor manifestations present concussive convulsions. These clinical features are due to transient functional decerebration and corticomedullary dissociation during cerebral concussion. Concussive convulsions are a non-epileptic phenomenon, they are not associated with structural brain injury and have good prognosis. Antiepileptic treatment is not indicated.

  3. Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Parviainen, Ilkka

    2005-01-01

    The patient with status epilepticus has continuous or rapidly repeating seizures. Generalised convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is the most common form of the disorder and is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical management. Status epilepticus that does not respond to first-line benzodiazepines (lorazepam or diazepam) or to second-line antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital or valproate) is usually considered refractory and requires more aggressive treatment. The optimal treatment of refractory GCSE has not been defined, but patients should be treated in an intensive care unit, as artificial ventilation and haemodynamic support are required. Invasive haemodynamic monitoring is often necessary and EEG monitoring is essential. The drug treatment of refractory GCSE involves general anaesthesia with continuous intravenous anaesthetics given in doses that abolish all clinical and electrographic epileptic activity, often requiring sedation to the point of burst suppression on the EEG. Barbiturate anaesthetics, pentobarbital in the US and thiopental sodium in Europe and Australia, are the most frequently used agents and are highly effective for refractory GCSE both in children and adults. Indeed, they remain the only way to stop seizure activity with certainty in severely refractory cases. Other options are midazolam for adults and children and propofol for adults only.Regardless of the drug selected, intravenous fluids and vasopressors are usually required to treat hypotension. Once seizures have been controlled for 12-24 hours, continuous intravenous therapy should be gradually tapered off if the drug being administered is midazolam or propofol. Gradual tapering is probably not necessary with pentobarbital or thiopental sodium. Continuous EEG monitoring is required during high-dose treatment and while therapy is gradually withdrawn. During withdrawal of anaesthetic therapy, intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin or valproate should

  4. Cannabinoid antagonist SLV326 induces convulsive seizures and changes in the interictal EEG in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natasja; Heijink, Liesbeth; Kruse, Chris; Vinogradova, Lyudmila; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; van Rijn, Clementina M.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists have been investigated for possible treatment of e.g. obesity-related disorders. However, clinical application was halted due to their symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition to these adverse effects, we have shown earlier that chronic treatment with the CB1 antagonist rimonabant may induce EEG-confirmed convulsive seizures. In a regulatory repeat-dose toxicity study violent episodes of “muscle spasms” were observed in Wistar rats, daily dosed with the CB1 receptor antagonist SLV326 during 5 months. The aim of the present follow-up study was to investigate whether these violent movements were of an epileptic origin. In selected SLV326-treated and control animals, EEG and behavior were monitored for 24 hours. 25% of SLV326 treated animals showed 1 to 21 EEG-confirmed generalized convulsive seizures, whereas controls were seizure-free. The behavioral seizures were typical for a limbic origin. Moreover, interictal spikes were found in 38% of treated animals. The frequency spectrum of the interictal EEG of the treated rats showed a lower theta peak frequency, as well as lower gamma power compared to the controls. These frequency changes were state-dependent: they were only found during high locomotor activity. It is concluded that long term blockade of the endogenous cannabinoid system can provoke limbic seizures in otherwise healthy rats. Additionally, SLV326 alters the frequency spectrum of the EEG when rats are highly active, suggesting effects on complex behavior and cognition. PMID:28151935

  5. NNLO QCD corrections for Drell-Yan $p_T^Z$ and $\\phi^*$ observables at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ridder, A Gehrmann-De; Glover, E W N; Huss, A; Morgan, T A

    2016-01-01

    Drell-Yan lepton pairs with finite transverse momentum are produced when the vector boson recoils against (multiple) parton emission(s), and is determined by QCD dynamics. At small transverse momentum, the fixed order predictions break down due to the emergence of large logarithmic contributions. This region can be studied via the $p_T^Z$ distribution constructed from the energies of the leptons, or through the $\\phi^*$ distribution that relies on the directions of the leptons. For sufficiently small transverse momentum, the $\\phi^*$ observable can be measured experimentally with better resolution. We study the small $p_T^Z$ and $\\phi^*$ distributions up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD. We compute the $\\phi^*$ distributions for the fully inclusive production of lepton pairs via $Z/\\gamma^*$ to NNLO and normalise them to the NNLO cross sections for inclusive $Z/\\gamma^*$ production. We compare our predictions with the $\\phi^*$ distribution measured by the ATLAS collaboration during ...

  6. PRRT2 phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Rianne; Breedveld, Guido; de Rijk-van Andel, Johanneke; Brilstra, Eva; Verbeek, Nienke; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien; Boon, Maartje; Samijn, Johnny; Diderich, Karin; van de Laar, Ingrid; Oostra, Ben; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Maat-Kievit, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), a movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements occurring after sudden movements, infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, and benign familial infantile convulsions

  7. Structural analysis of [Fe(ptz) sub 6)](BF sub 4) sub 2 under photo-excitation. Condensation of photo-excited high-spin ions

    CERN Document Server

    Moritomo, Y; Sakata, M; Kato, K; Kuriki, A; Nakamoto, A; Kojima, N

    2002-01-01

    We have performed in situ synchrotron-radiation X-ray powder structural analysis in a spin-crossover complex ([Fe(ptz) sub 6](BF sub 4) sub 2 : ptz=propyltetrazole) under a photo-excitation with a continuous-wave (CW) green (532 nm) laser at 91 K. The Fe sup 2 sup + ions in the Fe(ptz) sub 6 molecules take the low-spin (LS: S=0) state at the ground state, and are photo-excited selectively into the high-spin (HS: S=2) state. When the excitation power P exceeds the critical value, we observed a novel secondary phase which can be ascribed to the condensation of the photo-excited HS ions. (author)

  8. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  9. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT.…

  10. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT.…

  11. Kluver-Bucy syndrome developed after convulsion: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okur, Mesut; Yılmaz, Cahide; Epçaçan, Serdar; Üstyol, Lokman; Kaya, Avni; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Kluver-Bucy syndrome is characterized by increased appetite, hypersexuality, hypermetamorphosis, memory disorders, visual agnosia, stagnancy, aphasia, bulimia, polyuria, and polydipsia. A 14 year old girl had generalized tonic-clonic convulsions at admission, and an incomplete Kluver-Bucy syndrome with hypersexuality, recent memory disturbance, hypermetamorphosis, speech disturbance, hyperactivity, agitation, aggressiveness, and hallucinations, developed the following day. Here in, ...

  12. Treatment of 40 Cases of Infantile Convulsion by Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Jie; ZHUANG An-shi; CUI Yi-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infantile convulsion is a common disease in infants and babies and often caused by scare and improper nursing. Its main clinical manifestations are fright,crying and waking up with a start, etc. Since 1998, we have treated 40 cases by Tuina. It is summarized as follows.

  13. Convulsions induced by centrally administered NMDA in mice: effects of NMDA antagonists, benzodiazepines, minor tranquilizers and anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.; Prud'hon, B.

    1989-01-01

    1. Convulsions were induced reproducibly by intracerebroventricular injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to conscious mice. 2. Competitive (carboxypiperazine-propylphosphonic acid, CPP; 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, AP7) and non-competitive (MK801; phencyclidine, PCP; thienylcyclohexylpiperidine, TCP; dextrorphan; dextromethorphan) NMDA antagonists prevented NMDA-induced convulsions. 3. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists and partial agonists (triazolam, diazepam, clonazepam, Ro 16-6028), classical anticonvulsants (diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbitone, sodium valproate) and meprobamate were also found to prevent NMDA-induced convulsions. 4. Flumazenil (a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist) and the GABA agonists THIP and muscimol (up to subtoxic doses) were without effect. 5. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant action of diazepam, but not that of MK801. 6. Results obtained in this model differ somewhat from those described in a seizure model with systemic administration of NMDA. An explanation for this discrepancy is offered. 7. This model is a simple test for assessing the in vivo activity of NMDA antagonists and also expands the battery of chemically-induced seizure models for characterizing anticonvulsants not acting at NMDA receptors. PMID:2574061

  14. [Delayed convulsion after lidocaine instillation for bronchoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaïes, E; Jebabli, N; Lakhal, M; Klouz, A; Salouage, I; Trabelsi, S

    2016-05-01

    Lidocaine toxicity usually appears rapidly and is directly correlated with plasma concentrations of the drug. We report a case of a late neurologic toxicity occurring after instillation of lidocaine during fibre-optic bronchoscopy. A patient with bronchiolitis obliterans underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy. She received multiples instillations of Xylocaine(®) 2% (lidocaine). Three and a half hours later, she had a tonic-clonic seizure. Seven hours later, this recurred. Lidocaine plasma levels were in the toxic range at the time of the first seizure (18.32μg/mL) with a significant decrease in the concentration noted 24hours later. The slow absorption of lidocaine into the blood from the bronchial tree explains the delayed neurologic toxicity. Our observation is a reminder that complications can occur due to high doses of lidocaïne administrated by instillation. Thus, if the recommended dose of lidocaine is exceeded, it is essential to monitor patients closely for a prolonged period, especially those with fibrosing lung disease in order to avoid possible late toxicity. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. 天麻素对利多卡因致惊厥作用的影响%The influence of Gastrodin on lidocaine-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素玲; 胡秋梅; 周新巧; 孙白云; 樊虹; 董娟娟; 李丽娜; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influences ofGastrodin abne and combined with diazepam on lidocaine- induced convulsbn Methods Convulsant dose of lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally l0 minutes after Gas trod in orGastrod in and diazepam had been administered intraperitoneally The convulsion latency, convulsion duration and convulsion numberwere observed R esu lts Gastrodin(100 mg· kg-1, 200 mg· kg-1, 400 mg ·kg-1) could extend the convulsion latency(P <0.05, P <0.05, P <0.01); Gastrodin(50 mg· kg-1) alone could extend the convulsbn latency (P <0.05) , but had no significant differences on the convulsion duration and convulsion number, diazepam(l. 5 mg· kg-1 ) alone had no significant differences on the convulsbn latency, convulsion duratbn and convulsbn number However, Gastrodin combinedwith diazepam could extend the convulsion latency(P <0.01) , shorten the convulsion duration (P <0.01) , and reduce the convulsion number(P <0.01) significantly C onclusion Gastrodin alone can antagonize lidocaine- induced convulsion, and smail does ofGastrodin combined with diazepam reveal a synergistic influence%目的 观察天麻素单用及其与地西泮合用对利多卡因所致惊厥作用的影响.方法 腹腔注射不同剂量天麻素或天麻素和地西泮合用,10 min后,腹腔注射致惊厥剂量的利多卡因,观察小鼠惊厥潜伏期、持续时间和惊厥只数.结果 天麻素100 mg·kg-1、200 mg·kg-1、400 mg·kg-1能延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.05,P<0.05,P<0.01);单独使用天麻素50 mg·kg-1可延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.05),对惊厥持续时间和惊厥只数则无明显影响,单独使用地西泮1.5 mg·kg-1对惊厥潜伏期、持续时间和惊厥只数均无明显影响,二者合用则能明显延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.01),缩短惊厥持续时间(P<0.01),减少惊厥只数(P<0.01).结论 单用天麻素可拮抗利多卡因的致惊厥作用,小剂量天麻素与地西泮合用能协同拮抗利多卡因所致惊厥作用.

  16. Transient hyperammonemia associated with postictal state in generalized convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that transient hyperammonemia was noted after generalized convulsion. This study was undertaken to analyze the association between postictal state and serum ammonia levels. Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures were included. Serum ammonia and other blood tests were compared between patients with full recovery of consciousness after generalized convulsion and those who had not completely regained consciousness. Patients who had not completely regained consciousness (7 of 7, 100% had higher rate (p=0.035 of hyperammonemia compared with patients who had fully regained consciousness (4 of 10, 40% and higher level of serum ammonia (246±96 μg/dL vs. 102±99 μg/dL, p=0.006. All patients who showed postictal consciousness level impairment on arrival at the emergency department had elevated serum ammonia at that time. Transient hyperammonemia is associated with postictal confusion.

  17. Convulsive Movements in Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic and Midbrain Infarction

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    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some previous reports have described convulsive movements in bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction, little is known about their nature. A 71-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and clonic movements of both arms. Each series of movements lasted 10 to 20 s and occurred at 2- to 3-min intervals, which disappeared after intravenous administration of diazepam and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction. A review of the literature revealed that convulsive movements were observed mostly at the onset of infarction. Clonic movements appeared frequently in the limbs, particularly in both arms. Clinical observations and results of animal experiments suggest that these seizures might originate from the mesencephalic reticular formation. Physicians should recognize this condition, because not only seizure control but also early management of ischemic stroke is required.

  18. Convulsions in early post-partum period, a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil H. Inamdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic (tapeworm infection of the brain worldwide. It presents as hydrocephalus and acute onset seizures. A 28-year-old para 3 live 3 [P3L3], post-partum [day 7], resident of Arvi, presented in casualty during emergency hours with headache and fever since 7 days. She presented with h/o convulsions 2 episodes, one on day 5 and one on day 7 of her full term vaginal home delivery. She presented to the Emergency Department on day 7 with generalised tonic-clonic seizures preceded by nausea and headache. All her blood investigations were within normal limits except an extremely surprising finding on CT scan. 40% of patients having postpartum convulsions do not experience preeclampsia, clinical awareness is essential for early treatment and care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 231-233

  19. Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Marco R; Holden, Kenton R; Rodriguez, Luis C; Collins, Julianne S; Samra, Jose A; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2009-10-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in children is an important public health problem, particularly in low-resource countries. A surveillance study was performed with consecutive enrollment of all children presenting with convulsive SE to Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil Emergency Department in Tegucigalpa, Honduras over a 13-week period in 2003. In the 47 children with SE, the mean age was 4.5 years and the median seizure duration was 95 min. Mortality and morbidity were higher in children from rural locations, with all six deaths and three cases of new neurologic abnormalities occurring in rural children who had acute symptomatic SE. We conclude that childhood SE is common in the low-resource developing country of Honduras. Given the long delays in obtaining initial treatment in pediatric emergency facilities, availability of prehospital treatment may be of particular importance in this setting.

  20. Transient hyperammonemia associated with postictal state in generalized convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Yang, Shih-Chia; Yeh, I-Jeng; Lin, Tzeng-Jih; Lee, Chi-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies revealed that transient hyperammonemia was noted after generalized convulsion. This study was undertaken to analyze the association between postictal state and serum ammonia levels. Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures were included. Serum ammonia and other blood tests were compared between patients with full recovery of consciousness after generalized convulsion and those who had not completely regained consciousness. Patients who had not completely regained consciousness (7 of 7, 100%) had higher rate (p=0.035) of hyperammonemia compared with patients who had fully regained consciousness (4 of 10, 40%) and higher level of serum ammonia (246 ± 96 μg/dL vs. 102 ± 99 μg/dL, p=0.006). All patients who showed postictal consciousness level impairment on arrival at the emergency department had elevated serum ammonia at that time. Transient hyperammonemia is associated with postictal confusion.

  1. Pre-hospital treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei TIAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is the most serious seizure type in status epilepticus (SE, which may cause irreversible damage of brain and other vital organs without prompt and effective treatment, and result in a high mortality. Therefore, effective pre-hospital drug therapy can ensure the success of treatment for CSE. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.004

  2. Sociodemographic profile of normal EEG-dissociative disorder (convulsion) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Ghosh, S; Nayak, A; Das, P; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2009-08-01

    Few Indian studies have explored the sociodemographic variables of dissociative disorder (convulsion), which may be dramatic in presentation causing significant socio-economical and emotional difficulties to patients and care-givers. This prospective study hopes to explore the sociodemographic variables in normal EEG-disssociative disorder (convulsion). The study was conducted from January 2004 to September 2004 in the psychiatry outpatients department (OPD) of Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. After screening by history, astute clinical examination and application of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criterion, 41/52 patients were finally selected for the study. Written consent was taken from all the patients. They were then evaluated to elicit necessary information required in the semistructured proforma. Data were analysed by using appropriate statistical method ie, Z-test. The present study suggested that dissociative disorder (convulsion) predominantly affected females, mostly housewives and students, coming from rural, low socio-economic conditions with poor educational background. Majority of the patients presented acutely. Depressive disorder was the most common comorbid psychiatric abnormality. The findings of the present study were in tune with the findings of the few earlier studies available.

  3. [Problems of the therapy of neonatal convulsions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, P; Chierici, R; Fortini, C

    1982-01-01

    The newborn with seizures should be treated urgently, because of the high risk of consequent brain damage. In addition to general management in order to correct metabolic and functional unbalancement, associated with the fits, specific causes of neonatal seizures (hypoglicemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesiemia, hypo-hypernatremia, pyridoxine deficiency) should be immediately removed. If neonatal seizures depend on other non specific causes (anoxia, cerebral hemorrhagy, malformation, infection or other, a symptomatic anticonvulsant treatment should be carried out without delay. Useful drugs for the newborn are phenobarbital, phenytoin and benzodiazepine e.v. or e.m. After fits have been controlled, an oral maintenance therapy has to be started with phenobarbital or phenytoin in order to avoid seizure-relaps. Clinical EEG and hematological data should be monitored to detect side effects, as well as plasma drugs levels to achieve adequate maintenance doses. Criteria for discontinuing the neonatal seizures treatment have not been well established. On the bases of the data collected through a longitudinal study of 54 newborns who developed seizures in the first day of life, clinical and EEG criteria for discontinuing anticonvulsant therapy are discussed. If the fits are rare, short, immediately controlled and EEG is mildly abnormal, we attempt to discontinuing treatment within 15 days. If fits are unfrequent, varying in length, their therapeutical control is reached within 3 days and the EEG is markedly abnormal but recovered within 1 month, treatment is discontinuing between 15 days and 3 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Repeated febrile convulsions impair hippocampal neurons and cause synaptic damage in immature rats:neuroprotective effect of fructose-1,6-diphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhou; Fan Wang; Jun Zhang; Hui Gao; Yufeng Yang; Rongguo Fu

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a metabolic intermediate that promotes cell metabolism. We hy-pothesize that fructose-1,6-diphosphate can protect against neuronal damage induced by febrile convulsions. Hot-water bathing was used to establish a repetitive febrile convulsion model in rats aged 21 days, equivalent to 3-5 years in humans. Ninety minutes before each seizure induc-tion, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of low- or high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate (500 or 1,000 mg/kg, respectively). Low- and high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate prolonged the latency and shortened the duration of seizures. Furthermore, high-dose fructose-1,6-di-phosphate effectively reduced seizure severity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that 24 hours after the last seizure, high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate reduced mitochondrial swelling, rough endoplasmic reticulum degranulation, Golgi dilation and synaptic cleft size, and increased synaptic active zone length, postsynaptic density thickness, and synaptic interface cur-vature in the hippocampal CA1 area. The present findings suggest that fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a neuroprotectant against hippocampal neuron and synapse damage induced by repeated fe-brile convulsion in immature rats.

  5. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor quinidine decreases the threshold for bupivacaine-induced, but not lidocaine-induced, convulsions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funao, Tomoharu; Oda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Asada, Akira

    2003-10-01

    To examine whether inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity by quinidine affects the central nervous system toxicity of lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine (bupivacaine). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10). Fifteen minutes following administration of 15 mg x kg(-1) of quinidine (QL and QB groups) or saline (L and B groups), lidocaine (L and QL groups, 4 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or bupivacaine (B and QB groups, 1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was infused until convulsions occurred. Concentrations of lidocaine and its primary metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and bupivacaine in plasma and in the brain at the onset of convulsions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no differences in the dose of lidocaine required to induce convulsions between the L and QL groups. There were no differences in the concentrations of total (L = 17.2 +/- 3.5, QL = 16.6 +/- 2.6 micro g x mL(-1)) or unbound lidocaine (L = 7.8 +/- 2.5, QL = 7.3 +/- 2.3 micro g x mL(-1)), total (L = 1.2 +/- 0.5, QL = 1.3 +/- 0.7 micro g x mL(-1)) or unbound MEGX (L = 0.9 +/- 0.5, QL = 0.8 +/- 0.4 micro g x mL(-1)) in plasma, total lidocaine or MEGX in the brain at the onset of convulsions between the L and QL groups. The dose of bupivacaine required to induce convulsions was comparable in the B and QB groups. At the onset of convulsions, plasma concentrations of both total (B = 4.9 +/- 1.1, QB = 4.0 +/- 0.6 micro g x mL(-1), P = 0.03) and unbound bupivacaine (B = 1.4 +/- 0.6, QB = 0.9 +/- 0.2 micro g x mL(-1), P = 0.02) were significantly lower in the QB group than in the B group. There were no differences in concentration of total bupivacaine in the brain between the B and QB groups. These results suggest that quinidine inhibited P-gp activity, resulting in increased brain/plasma concentration ratio of bupivacaine, but not of lidocaine, and decreased the threshold of plasma concentration for bupivacaine-induced convulsions.

  6. LOW DOSE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE REGIME FOR ECLAMPSIA

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    Bangal V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre- eclampsia is one of the commonest medical complications seen during pregnancy. It contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Dr.J.A.Pritchard in 1955, introduced magnesium sulphate for control of convulsions in eclampsia and is used worldwide. Considering the low body mass index of indian women, a low dose magnesium sulphate regime has been introduced by some authors. Present study was carried out at tertiary care centre in rural area. Fifty cases of eclampsia were randomly selected to find out the efficacy of low dose magnesium sulphate regime to control eclamptic convulsions. Maternal and perinatal outcome and magnesium toxicity were analyzed. It was observed that 86% cases responded to initial intravenous dose of 4 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate . Eight percent cases, who got recurrence of convulsion, were controlled by additional 2 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate. Six percent cases required shifting to standard Pritchard regime, as they did not respond to low dose magnesium sulphate regime. The average total dose of magnesium sulphate required for control of convulsions was 20 grams ie. 54.4% less than that of standard Pritchard regime. The maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the present study werecomparable to those of standard Pritchard regime. The study did not find a single case of magnesium related toxicity with low dose magnesium sulphate regime. Low dose magnesium sulphate regime was found to be safe and effective in eclampsia.

  7. Evaluation of anti-epileptic activity of fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera against maximal electroshock (M.E.S and Picrotoxin (PTX induced convulsions in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quazi Emadoddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (Moringaecea are used in Indian traditional medicine and in folklore for many diseases and extensively used as CNS depressant traditionally. The interesting things of this plant are each part of Moringa oleifera is used as medicines. The present work has been carried out to evaluate the anti-epileptic activity of fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera against maximal electroshock (M.E.S and Picrotoxin (PTX induced convulsions in mice at different dose level (100ml/kg. p.o & 50ml/kg. p.o. Diazepam (5mg/kg. p.o and Phenytoin (25mg/kg. i.p were used as reference standard drugs. The data obtained indicates that the fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera at the dose of (50ml/kg p.o & 100ml/kg p.o shows anticonvulsant activity against Maximal electroshock and Picrotoxin induced convulsion in mice.

  8. Electroencephalographic and behavioral convulsant effects of hydrobromide and hydrochloride salts of bupropion in conscious rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Henshall

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available David C Henshall1, Nick Dürmüller2, H Steve White3, Robert Williams4, Paul Moser2, Mark Dunleavy1, Peter H Silverstone51Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 2Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France; 3NeuroAdjuvants, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Biovail Technologies, Ltd., Dublin, Ireland; 5Biovail Corporation, Mississauga, ON, Canada Abstract: A novel bromide salt of the antidepressant bupropion (bupropion HBr has recently been developed and approved for use in the United States. Given previous use of bromides to treat seizures, and that the existing chloride salt of bupropion (HCl can cause seizures, it is important to determine if the HBr salt may be less likely to cause seizures than the HCl salt. In the present animal studies this was evaluated by means of quantified electroencephalogram (EEG, observation, and the rotarod test in mice and rats. Both bupropion salts were tested at increasing equimolar doses administered intraperitoneally. The results in mice showed that bupropion HCl 125 mg/kg induced a significantly higher ten-fold increase in the mean number of cortical EEG seizures compared to bupropion HBr (7.50 ± 2.56 vs 0.75 ± 0.96; p = 0.045, but neither drug caused any brain injuries. In rats bupropion HBr 100 mg/kg induced single EEG seizure activity in the cortical and hippocampal (depth electrodes and in signifi cantly (p < 0.05 fewer rats (44% compared to bupropion HCl, which induced 1 to 4 convulsions per rat in all rats (100% dosed. The total duration of cortical seizures in bupropion HCl-treated rats was significantly longer than the corresponding values obtained in bupropion HBr-treated rats (424.6 seconds vs 124.5 seconds respectively, p < 0.05. Bupropion HCl consistently induced more severe convulsions at each dose level compared to bupropion HBr. Both treatments demonstrated a similar dose-dependent impairment of rotarod

  9. [Non-thermal electromagnetic fields and estimation of the convulsive syndrome probable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Sidorenko, A V

    2010-01-01

    There are cases of development of a convulsive syndrome at influence of electromagnetic field (EMF) in physiotherapy practice, and in conditions of a professional work. There is a point of view that EMF can render medical effect at treatment of a epilepsy syndrome. Some publications specify on develop of epilepsy convulsions in experiment at EMF of various frequencies exposure. Four conditions which can promote development of convulsions at EMF exposure are considered.

  10. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents.

  11. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study

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    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8–10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30–40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Results: Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Conclusion: Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery.

  12. Neurochemical modulation involved in the beneficial effect of liraglutide, GLP-1 agonist on PTZ kindling epilepsy-induced comorbidities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshal, Prashant; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which occurs due to excessive firing of excitatory neurons in specific region of brain and associated with cognitive impairment and depression. GLP-1 has been reported to maintain hyperexcitability of neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of liraglutide, GLP-1 analogue in PTZ kindling epilepsy-induced comorbidities and neurochemical alteration in mice. Male albino mice were administered PTZ (35 mg/kg) on every alternate day up to 29th days and challenge test was performed on 33rd day. From 1st day liraglutide (75 and 150 µg/kg) and diazepam (3 mg/kg) were administered up to 33rd day, 30 min prior to PTZ treatment. On 30th day animals were trained on elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance paradigm and retention was recorded on 31st and 33rd day. On 32nd day tail suspension test was performed. Animals were sacrificed on 34th day for biochemical (LPO, GSH, and nitrite) and neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, DA, NE, 5-HT and their metabolites) estimation. Chronic treatment with PTZ developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, reduced cognitive skills, increased oxidative stress and alteration in the level of neurotransmitters. Pre-treatment with liraglutide (75 and 150 μg/kg) significantly prevented the seizure severity, restored behavioural activity, oxidative defence enzymes, and altered level of neurochemicals in mice brain. The protective effect of liraglutide is attributed to restoration of altered level of GABA, glutamate, DA, NE, and 5-HT by the up-regulation of GLP-1Rs in mice brain.

  13. 基于里程计和PTZ视觉的移动机器人自定位%Autonomous localization of mobile robot based on odometer and PTZ vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛国臣; 徐萍; 冯琦

    2011-01-01

    针对机器人长距离运行时里程计定位存在累积误差问题,提出一种基于里程计和PTZ视觉的移动机器人自定位算法.提出了中断式S形搜索策略的概念,设计了基于有限自动机的视觉定位方法;分析了里程计和视觉定位误差来源,分别建立了其定位信度模型;并基于该模型建立里程计和PTZ视觉定位的框架.针对视觉定位及里程计视觉复合定位分别进行了实验,结果验证了该方法的有效性和实用性.%To reduce the influence of cumulative odometer localization error, an autonomous localization approach for mobile robot based on odometer and Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) vision was presented. Interrupt S-shaped searching strategy was put forward, as well as a vision localization approach based on finite automaton. The position credibility models of odometer and PTZ vision were established according to their positioning error sources. A localization framework combining odometer and PTZ vision based on real-time position credibility was designed. An application experiment of vision localization and localization using odometer and PTZ vision was carried out. The validity and practicability of the method are confirmed.

  14. Misoprostol Induced Convulsion-A Rare Side Effect of Misoprostol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh; Reddy, Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 has wider application in obstetrics gynaecology. It has been recommended in the prophylaxis and treatment of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) by Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO), World Health Organisation (WHO) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG). It is a very safe drug associated with transient side-effects like fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. In the present case report patient had an unusual side effect of hyperpyrexia and convulsion after use of misoprostol for prophylaxis against PPH.

  15. Cloning of Dense Granular (GRA 7 Gene of Toxoplasma gondii into pTZ57RT Vectors for Sub-Cloning in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Arab-Mazar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serological assay based on dense granular (GRA proteins of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is actually the most popular laboratory diagnostic tool to detection of toxoplasmosis. We aimed to construct a recombinant GRA7-pTZ57RT plasmid vectors that it is suitable for sub-cloning and GRA7 protein production.Materials and Methods: Souris mice were used for maintaining of T. gondii tachyzoites by serial intraperitoneal passage. The tachyzoites’ DNA was extracted, and the GRA7 gene was amplified by PCR. The purified DNA was inserted into pTZ57RT cloning vectors, and then transformed into TOP10 competent cells. Finally, cloning and transformation were confirmed by restriction enzymatic digestion and gene sequencing.Results: Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis on PCR products of genomic DNA, revealed 726 bp bands that were equal to the GRA7 gene. Both white (recombinant and blue (non-recombinant colonies appeared on ampicillin-LB agar. Results of enzymatic digestion and gene sequencing confirmed successful cloning and transformation procedures.Conclusion: The GRA7 gene of T. gondii was cloned into pTZ57RT plasmid, which is suggested to be further used as DNA vaccine or sub-cloned for production of recombinant GRA7 protein.

  16. The influence of rotundine on lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice%罗通定对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾佳佳; 朱骏生; 符臻; 谢泽敏; 孙孝雅; 王熙乔; 何婉琛; 薛瑶; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of rotundine on lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice. Methods 40 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =10 each) : normal saline (NS) group, rotundine 10 mg·kg-1, 20 mg ·kg-1, 40 mg·kg-1(R10, R20, F40) group. Convulsant dose of lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally 30 min after normal saline or different doses of rotundine had been administered by gastric lavage . The convulsion number , convulsion latency and convulsion level were observed . Results Compared with NS group, the rate of convulsion in R40 group slightly declined , but there was no statistical significance between them ; the convulsion latency in R40 group extended evidently (P <0.01) ; Rotundine could reduce the convulsion level induced by lidocaine in mice . Conclusion Hotundine can antagonize lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice.%目的 观察罗通定对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响.方法 将40只昆明种小鼠随机分为4组(每组n=10):生理盐水(NS)组及罗通定10、20、40 mg·kg-1(R10、R20、R40)组.以NS或不同剂量的罗通定灌胃,30min后,各组腹腔注射致惊厥剂量的利多卡因,观察小鼠的惊厥只数、惊厥潜伏期及惊厥级数.结果 与NS组相比,R40组惊厥率略降低,但差异无统计学意义;R40组惊厥潜伏期显著延长(P<0.01);罗通定能降低利多卡因致小鼠惊厥的级数.结论 罗通定能拮抗利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用.

  17. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Blouki Moghaddam; Bidabadi; Hassanzadeh Rad; Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Sh...

  18. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  19. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  20. Comparison of different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve,and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion in rats%迷走神经、躯体神经与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彧; 刘玉玺

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there are different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve(sciatic nerve and trigeminal nerve),and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)induced convulsion in rats.Methods The vagus nerve and sciatic nerve were exposed in rats.The stimulation electrodes were placed on the vagus nerve,sciatic nerve,trigeminal nerve,and motor cortex,respectively.After electric stimulation,PTZ(50 mg/kg)was intraperitoneally injected into the rats.The pattern and latency of the convulsion seizure were observed and recorded.Results Racine's grade Ⅰ-Ⅴ grade convulsion seizure Was present in 9 rats(9/10)in the control group after the injection of PTZ.However,this intensity Was reduced to Ⅰ-Ⅲ grade differentially in all the rats by electric stimulation of the vagus nerve(5/10)or peripheral nerve(6/10 and 5/10).Furthermore,in the group of rats stimulated at motor cortex,there Was completely no convulsion.On the other hand,when pathological changes appeared in cortex or hippocampus(i.e.epileptic model was set up by 7 weeks stimulation),the same stimulation of motor cortex was not able to inhibit the convulsion seizure induced by injection of PTZ and all these rats showed Ⅳ-Ⅴ grade seizure(10/10).Conclusions In physiological condition,all of the four types of stimulation differentially reduced intensity of convulsion seizure triggered by PIZ injection and motor cortex stimulation has the best effect.However.when rats were in pathological status and epileptic nidus appeared in their brains.stimulatiion of motor cortex has no effect on PTZ induced convulsion seizure.%目的 探讨迷走神经、躯体神经(坐骨神经、三叉神经)与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响是否存在差异.方法 分别剥离大鼠迷走神经、坐骨神经(三叉神经不予以剥离)和建立运动皮质电刺激模型,给予上述4种电刺激后腹腔注射戊四氮50 mg/kg,观察

  1. Predictors of Outcome of Convulsive Status Epilepticus Among an Egyptian Pediatric Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Eman F; Draz, Iman; Ahmed, Dalia; Shaheen, Hala A

    2015-11-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in pediatrics. We aimed to study the etiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors among pediatric patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Seventy patients were included in this cohort study from pediatric emergency department of the specialized Children Hospital of Cairo University. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Acute symptomatic etiology was the most common cause of convulsive status epilepticus. Refractory convulsive status epilepticus was observed more significantly in cases caused by acute symptomatic etiologies. The outcome was mortality in 26 (37.1%) patients, severe disability in 15 (21.4%), moderate disability in 17 (24.3%), and good recovery in 12 (17.1%) patients. The significant predictor of mortality was lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, whereas lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and refractory convulsive status epilepticus were the significant predictors for disability and mortality.

  2. Baccoside A suppresses epileptic-like seizure/convulsion in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh; Gupta, Shipra; Tandon, Sudeep; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio; Gupta, Shailendra K

    2010-09-01

    The 1 mm long Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the prime research tools to study different human neurodegenerative diseases. We have considered the case in which increase in the surrounding temperature of this multicellular model leads to abnormal bursts of neuronal cells that can be linked to seizure or convulsion. The induction of such seizure/convulsion mechanism was done by gradually increasing the temperature with 1x buffer (100 mM NaCl, 50 mM MgCl(2)) in adult C. elegans. In the present experiment it is demonstrated that Baccoside A can significantly reduce the seizure/convulsion in C. elegans at higher temperatures (26-28+/-1 degrees C). Furthermore, in T-type Ca(2+) channel cca-1 mutant worms, no convulsion was recorded. Our experimental results suggest that plant molecules from Bacopa monnieri may be useful in suppressing the seizure/convulsion in worms.

  3. Topiramate reduces non-convulsive seizures after focal brain ischemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anthony J; Tortella, Frank C; Gryder, Divina; Hartings, Jed A

    2008-01-03

    Acute "silent" seizures after brain injury are associated with a worsening of patient outcome and are often refractory to anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy. In the present study we evaluated topiramate (TPM, 1-30 mg/kg, i.v.) in a rodent model of spontaneous non-convulsive seizure (NCS) activity induced by focal cerebral ischemia. For seizure detection, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was continuously recorded for 24h in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Infarct volume, neurological deficit, and NCS were evaluated by an experimenter blinded to the treatment group. All vehicle treated rats (7/7) exhibited NCS following MCAo. TPM treatment, delivered at 20 min post-occlusion and prior to onset of NCS activity, dose-dependently reduced the incidence of NCS (ED(50)=21.1mg/kg). The highest dose of TPM tested (30 mg/kg) exhibited maximal reductions of 76% in the number of NCS/rat (vehicle=22.1+/-5.3, TPM=4.4+/-3.2, Pseizure treatment, TPM was not effective when delivered immediately following onset of the first NCS event (36+/-5 min post-MCAo). In conclusion, TPM exhibited significant efficacy for the prophylactic treatment of brain-injury induced NCS and represents a novel class of AED for treatment of this type of silent brain seizure.

  4. Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas A; Glyn, Sarah E; Akiyama, Satoshi; Hill, Thomas D M; Hill, Andrew J; Weston, Samantha E; Burnett, Matthew D A; Yamasaki, Yuki; Stephens, Gary J; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis sativa has been associated with contradictory effects upon seizure states despite its medicinal use by numerous people with epilepsy. We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures, suggesting that earlier, small-scale clinical trials examining CBD effects in people with epilepsy warrant renewed attention. Here, we report the effects of pure CBD (1, 10 and 100mg/kg) in two other established rodent seizure models, the acute pilocarpine model of temporal lobe seizure and the penicillin model of partial seizure. Seizure activity was video recorded and scored offline using model-specific seizure severity scales. In the pilocarpine model CBD (all doses) significantly reduced the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe seizures. In the penicillin model, CBD (≥ 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the percentage mortality as a result of seizures; CBD (all doses) also decreased the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe tonic-clonic seizures. These results extend the anti-convulsant profile of CBD; when combined with a reported absence of psychoactive effects, this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  6. Anticonvulsive and convulsive effects of lidocaine: comparison with those of phenytoin, and implications for mechanism of action concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W E; Javid, M J

    1988-09-01

    The anticonvulsive action of lidocaine was tested in mice against a series of convulsants, and its profile of action compared with that of phenytoin. Both agents antagonized seizures induced by ouabain or glutamate (injected i.c.b.), effects attributable to reduction of the sodium conductance of neuronal membranes. Lidocaine and phenytoin were relatively ineffective against convulsants that act on synaptic chloride channels via the GABA-ionophore receptor complex. At higher dose levels, both lidocaine and phenytoin are excitatory within limited ranges. Lidocaine-induced seizures were potentiated by phenytoin, and antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, phenobarbital, valproate, trimethadione and muscimol, but not by ethosuximide. This profile of action is similar to that of bicuculline, suggesting that lidocaine may bind to the GABA recognition site and to another site in the GABA-ionophore receptor complex. Phenytoin-induced excitation was antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, less effectively by phenobarbital or trimethadione, only minimally by valproate, and not by trimethadione or muscimol. Phenytoin is known to bind to picrotoxin and benzodiazepine receptor sites; these findings suggest that it may be excitatory at one or both of these sites.

  7. The effect of PTZ-induced epileptic seizures on hippocampal expression of PSA-NCAM in offspring born to kindled rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabzadeh Aliakbar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy can affect the hippocampal neurons in the offspring. The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM, which is expressed in the developing central nervous system, may play important roles in neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. This study was designed to assess the effects of kindling either with or without maternal seizures on hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in rat offspring. Methods Forty timed-pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups: A Kind+/Seiz+, pregnant kindled (induced two weeks prior to pregnancy rats that received repeated intraperitoneal (i.p. pentylenetetrazol, PTZ injections on gestational days (GD 14-19; B Kind-/Seiz+, pregnant non-kindled rats that received PTZ injections on GD14-GD19; C Kind+/Seiz-, pregnant kindled rats that did not receive any PTZ injections; and D Kind-/Seiz-, the sham controls. Following birth, the pups were sacrificed on PD1 and PD14, and PSA-NCAM expression and localization in neonates’ hippocampi were analyzed by Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results Our data show a significant down regulation of hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in the offspring of Kind+/Seiz+ (p = 0.001 and Kind-/Seiz+ (p = 0.001 groups compared to the sham control group. The PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity was markedly decreased in all parts of the hippocampus, especially in the CA3 region, in Kind+/Seiz+ (p = 0.007 and Kind-/Seiz+ (p = 0.007 group’s newborns on both PD1 and 14. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that maternal seizures but not kindling influence the expression of PSA-NCAM in the offspring’s hippocampi, which may be considered as a factor for learning/memory and cognitive impairments reported in children born to epileptic mothers.

  8. Paraquat-induced convulsion and death: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changbao; Zhang, Xigang; Jiang, Yun; Li, Guang; Wang, Haochun; Tang, Xueping; Wang, Qunli

    2013-09-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a potent toxicant for humans, and poisoning with PQ is associated with high mortality. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may die of multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Death resulting from epilepsy-like convulsions, which are infrequently noted reported with PQ poisoning, is observed clinically with this condition. This study presents the clinical data of five patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning who died of epilepsy-like convulsions, and related publications were reviewed in order to investigate the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of these convulsions. Our results may help prevent this event and improve the success of treatment.

  9. Neuronal conditional knockout of NRSF decreases vulnerability to seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Zhejin Sheng; Lei Cai; Kai Zhao; Yu Tian; Jian Fei

    2012-01-01

    Neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF),also known as repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor,has been reported to modulate neuronal excitability and acts as endogenous anticonvulsant in kainic acid-induced or kindling-evoked seizure activity.However,whether NRSF functions in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity has never been studied.To investigate the role of endogenous NRSF in the epileptogenesis induced by PTZ,in our experiment,NRSF neuronal conditional knockout mice (NRSF cKO) were adopted,in which NRSF was specifically deleted in neurons by the Cre-loxP system.Seizure threshold for PTZ,including the dose-response convulsions and the threshold dose,was compared between NRSF cKO and control mice.The threshold dose of PTZ that induced clonic and tonic seizures was significantly higher in NRSF cKO mice compared with the control.Similarly,the median lethal dose (LD50) of PTZ in NRSF cKO mice was also considerably higher than that of the control mice.These results revealed that NRSF cKO mice are of higher resistance to convulsions induced by PTZ.Our work first demonstrated the function of NRSF in PTZ-induced seizure and provided new evidence for differential pathways in diverse types of seizure.

  10. Intravenous sodium valproate in mainland China for the treatment of diazepam refractory convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Feng, Peimin; Wang, Jinghua; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Dong

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the short-term safety and efficacy of treating patients with intravenous (i.v.) sodium valproate (VPA) for diazepam (DZP) refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). We prospectively registered 48 patients with refractory CSE who were treated at West China Hospital with i.v. VPA (30mg/kg, 6mg/kg per hour) after a loading dose of i.v. DZP and intramuscular phenobarbitone (PBT) failed. VPA stopped seizures in 87.5% of patients within 1h, and patients regained baseline mental status within 1h of seizure cessation. CSE did not recur in patients within the next 12h, and no significant VPA-related systemic or local side effects were found during their hospital stay. In conclusion, this study suggests that i.v. VPA is a promising option for DZP refractory CSE in mainland China, since i.v. PBT is unavailable in most hospitals, and anesthesia is unacceptable to most of the Chinese population.

  11. Dexmedetomidine controls twitch-convulsive syndrome in the course of uremic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Koichi; Scurlock, Corey; Bronster, David

    2011-12-01

    An 85 year old man with a history of chronic renal insufficiency was admitted to the cardiothoracic intensive care unit after aortic valve replacement. His postoperative course was marked by acute oliguric renal failure for high blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and acute hyperactive delirium. At this time he also developed tremors with muscle twitching; he received no other form of sedatives. A neurology consult made the diagnosis of twitch-convulsive syndrome associated with uremic encephalopathy. While the patient was receiving the dexmedetomidine infusion, the signs of the twitch-convulsive syndrome, particularly the twitching and tremors, disappeared. Within 30 minutes of the end of the dexmedetomidine infusion, symptoms of the twitch-convulsive syndrome returned, manifesting as acute tremulousness. After several dialysis treatments, his BUN decreased and the dexmedetomidine was weaned, without return of the symptoms of twitch-convulsive syndrome. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. L. Dadali; A. A. Sharkov; I. V. Sharkova; I. V. Kanivets; F. A. Konovalov; I. A. Akimova

    2016-01-01

    The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations...

  13. Mothers’ Experiences about Febrile Convulsions in Their Children: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Sajadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile convulsion in children is a frightening experience for the mothers. This experience may have unknown aspects, which must be investigated in order to plan better support for the mothers and children. This study is conducted with the aim of exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffer from febrile convulsion. Methods: This study was based on a qualitative content analysis. 12 mothers in Amir Kabir hospital of Arak city participated in the study and shared their experiences through semi-structured interviews. The gathered data were analysed using Graneheim and Lundman’s (2004 method. Results: Exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffered from febrile convulsion reflected three themes: perceived threat, seeking solution, and difference in adaptation. Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study, comprehensive supportive care plans can be designed for enabling the mothers to better cope with their children’s febrile convulsion.

  14. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between...... convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. METHODS: In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized...... tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) from 14 patients with epilepsy, and 18 convulsive PNES from 12 patients (one patient had both GTCS and PNES). The healthy controls were simulating GTCS. To quantitatively characterize the signals we calculated the following parameters: root mean square (RMS) of the amplitude...

  15. The overlooked side of convulsion: bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet; Yaman, Asli; Yigit, Eda; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Injuries after an epileptic convulsion have been seen commonly such as burns, head injury and dislocation of the extremities. But fractures of the extremities due to convulsion are rare. External trauma mechanism is not necessary for extremity fractures. Muscle contractions can cause increased load on the skeleton and it can be complicated by dislocation andor fracture of extremities. Almost 1-4% of all the shoulder dislocations are posterior. In this case report we present a 32 year old male patient who had bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus after convulsion. We would like to emphasize that it is so important to make systemic examination and evaluation of the patients who were admitted to emergency department after epileptic convulsion.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents of children with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.

  17. Ictal pain in focal non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciato, Sara; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Fanella, Martina; Albini, Mariarita; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2017-06-09

    We report an adult with acute unilateral pain as isolated manifestation of acute symptomatic focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. Pain is rarely a manifestation of epileptic seizures. Traditionally, painful seizures have been thought to originate in either the parietal or temporal lobes, but their localising value is debatable. Recent functional neuroimaging studies and electrophysiological findings obtained by using intracerebral recordings have shown the involvement of the insular cortex along with several other brain structures in the processing of painful inputs, comprising a more widespread anatomo-functional network. Despite their rarity as a distinct clinical entity, especially in adults, painful somatosensory seizures can be disabling and misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis is common; it is therefore essential to consider epilepsy as a possible cause of paroxysmal pain to ensure proper assessment and appropriate treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Etiology and prognosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Su; Jhang, Yunsook; Kim, Young-Soo; Moon, Jangsup; Shin, Jung-Won; Moon, Hye Jin; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-11-01

    Although non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an important type of epilepsy, it is not often recognized. In order to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome in patients with NCSE, we examined the medical records of patients with NCSE admitted to the Seoul National University Hospital between June 2005 and October 2008. The clinical details and electroencephalography records of 34 adult NCSE patients (aged over 16 years) were collected. Their mean age was 47 years (standard deviation 20 years, range, 16-87 years), and 20 were female. Twenty-seven patients (79.4%) showed decreased awareness with acute onset, and seven (20.6%) were obtunded or comatose. Ten patients (29.4%) had a history of epilepsy, and four (11.8%) had a history of stroke. NCSE was etiologically attributed to acute medical or neurological problems in 25 patients (73.5%), was cryptogenic in three (8.8%), and was secondary to underlying epilepsy in six (17.7%). Acute symptomatic etiology was associated with poor recovery (p=0.048), with all unresponsive patients in this acute symptomatic group. Eight (23.5%) of the 34 NCSE patients did not recover or died, whereas nine (26.5%) recovered. Our study shows that the presence of acute symptoms or central nervous system infection is associated with poor outcome, suggesting that a high level of vigilance is required to identify and prevent complications.

  19. Low dose zinc supplementation beneficially affects seizure development in experimental seizure models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Katyal, Jatinder; Gupta, Yogendra K

    2015-02-01

    The role of zinc in seizure models and with antiepileptic drugs sodium valproate (SV) and phenytoin (PHT) was studied using experimental models of seizures in rats. Male Wistar rats, 150-250 g were administered zinc 2, 20, and 200 mg/kg, orally for 14 days. Sixty minutes after the last dose of zinc, rats were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, ip) or maximal electroshock (MES, 70 mA, 0.2 s duration). In another group, SV (150/300 mg/kg, ip) or PHT (40 mg/kg, ip) was administered after 30 min of zinc administration followed by seizure challenge. Zinc pretreatment at all doses had no effect on MES seizures. In PTZ seizures, with the lowest dose used, i.e., 2 mg/kg, a protective effect was observed. Neither the protection offered by the 100 % anticonvulsant dose of SV (300 mg/kg) in PTZ seizures was affected by pre-treatment with zinc nor a combination of subanticonvulsant dose of SV (150 mg/kg) and zinc offer any statistically significant advantage over either drug alone. The combination of phenytoin with zinc had no effect on any of the parameters tested. Apart from this, chronic zinc administration hampered development of chemically (PTZ)-kindled seizures in rats. Zinc supplementation is unlikely to have any undesirable effect when used in epileptics rather it may offer advantage in epileptic and seizure prone patients.

  20. PRRT2 links infantile convulsions and paroxysmal dyskinesia with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloarec, Robin; Bruneau, Nadine; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Massacrier, Annick; Salmi, Manal; Bataillard, Marc; Boulay, Clotilde; Caraballo, Roberto; Fejerman, Natalio; Genton, Pierre; Hirsch, Edouard; Hunter, Alasdair; Lesca, Gaetan; Motte, Jacques; Roubertie, Agathe; Sanlaville, Damien; Wong, Sau-Wei; Fu, Ying-Hui; Rochette, Jacques; Ptácek, Louis J; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2012-11-20

    Whole genome sequencing and the screening of 103 families recently led us to identify PRRT2 (proline-rich-transmembrane protein) as the gene causing infantile convulsions (IC) with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) (PKD/IC syndrome, formerly ICCA). There is interfamilial and intrafamilial variability and the patients may have IC or PKD. Association of IC with hemiplegic migraine (HM) has also been reported. In order to explore the mutational and clinical spectra, we analyzed 34 additional families with either typical PKD/IC or PKD/IC with migraine. We performed Sanger sequencing of all PRRT2 coding exons and of exon-intron boundaries in the probands and in their relatives whenever appropriate. Two known and 2 novel PRRT2 mutations were detected in 18 families. The p.R217Pfs*8 recurrent mutation was found in ≈50% of typical PKD/IC, and the unreported p.R145Gfs*31 in one more typical family. PRRT2 mutations were also found in PKD/IC with migraine: p.R217Pfs*8 cosegregated with PKD associated with HM in one family, and was also detected in one IC patient having migraine with aura, in related PKD/IC familial patients having migraine without aura, and in one sporadic migraineur with abnormal MRI. Previously reported p.R240X was found in one patient with PKD with migraine without aura. The novel frameshift p.S248Afs*65 was identified in a PKD/IC family member with IC and migraine with aura. We extend the spectrum of PRRT2 mutations and phenotypes to HM and to other types of migraine in the context of PKD/IC, and emphasize the phenotypic pleiotropy seen in patients with PRRT2 mutations.

  1. Effect of Brewer's Yeast-Induced Pyrexia on Aminophylline-Elicited Convulsions in Mice

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    Araki,Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline-associated convulsions have been observed most frequently in children with fever, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the basic mechanism of aminophylline [theophylline-2-ethylenediamine]-induced convulsions and the effects of Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Diazepam (5-10mg/kg, i.p., a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, significantly prolonged the onset and significantly decreased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline (350mg/kg, i.p.. However, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (1-4mg/kg, i.p., the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (2-4mg/kg, i.p. and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist dizocilpine (0.1-0.3mg/kg, i.p. failed to protect against the convulsions. 20% Brewer's yeast (0.02ml/g, s.c. increased body temperature by 1.03, and also significantly shortened the onset and significantly increased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline. The anticonvulsant action of diazepam (2.5-10mg/kg, i.p. on the convulsions induced by aminophylline was reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia. The proconvulsant actions of the GABAA receptor antagonists picrotoxin (3-4mg/kg, i.p. and pentylenetetrazol (40-60mg/kg, i.p. were enhanced by Brewer's yeast. These results suggest that the anticonvulsant action of diazepam against aminophylline is reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia, and that GABAA receptors are involved in the aggravation of the convulsions by Brewer's yeast in mice.

  2. Study of recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Qin Meng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods:A total of 92 cases of children with febrile convulsion who received treatment in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 46 cases. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received levetiracetam combined with conventional therapy, and then differences in recurrence of febrile convulsion, cranial nerve-related factors, contents of trace elements and iron as well as humoral and cellular immune function of two groups were compared.Results:Average number of fever, frequency of recurrence of convulsion and the proportion of developing to epilepsy of observation group after treatment were less than those of control group, and the time from the end of treatment to the first convulsive seizure was longer than that of control group; serum NSE, S-100β and BDNF levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum Ca2+, P, SI and SF levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ALP level was lower than that of control group; serum IgA, IgM, IgG and CD8+ levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and levels of CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Levetiracetam therapy for children with febrile convulsion reduces convulsive seizure and meantime can optimize children’s microenvironment and enhance immune function.

  3. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted a quality assurance project of The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the Capital Region of Denmark when dispatched to febrile convulsions. The study focuses on prehospital treatment, comparison between prehospital and in-hospital diagnoses and parents' perceptions...... of their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded...... should still be dispatched primarily to febrile convulsions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  4. Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger 3 is Downregulated in the Hippocampus and Cerebrocortex of Rats with Hyperthermia-induced Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Sun; Jun-Hua Xiao; Yan Bai; Mo-Si Chen; Jia-Sheng Hu; Ge-Fei Wu; Bing Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) plays a crucial role in pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion.However, it is unclear whether NCX is critically involved in hyperthermia-induced convulsion.In this study, we examined the potential changes in NCX3 in the hippocampus and cerebrocortex of rats with hyperthermia-induced convulsion.Methods: Twenty-one Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control group, convulsion-prone group and convulsion-resistant group (n =7 in each group).Whole-cell patch-clamp method was used to record NCX currents.Both the Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence labeling techniques were used to examine the expression of NCX3.Results: NCX currents were decreased in rats after febrile convulsion.Compared to the control group, NCX3 expression was decreased by about 40% and 50% in the hippocampus and cerebrocortex of convulsion-prone rats, respectively.Furthermore, the extent of reduction in NCX3 expression seemed to correlate with the number of seizures.Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in NCX3 expression in rats with febrile convulsions.Our findings also indicate a potential link between NCX3 expression, febrile convulsion in early childhood, and adult onset of epilepsy.

  5. The effect of sertraline and 8-OH-DPAT on the PTZ_induced seizure threshold: Role of the nitrergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Azhdar; Davoudi, Shima

    2017-02-01

    Serotonin is a key regulatory neurotransmitter in the CNS which plays an important role in seizure through different receptors, especially the 5HT1A subtype. The role of sertraline through the 5HT1A receptor and nitric oxide interaction on the PTZ-induced seizure threshold was investigated in this study. In this study, 70 white male mice were randomly divided into 10 groups including intact control, sham-control and eight experimental groups which received sertraline, 8-OH-DPAT, WAY100635, WAY100635+sertraline, WAY100635+8-OH-DPAT, L-NAME, L-NAME+sertraline and L-NAME+8-OH-DPAT. After 14days of treatment in different groups, the PTZ-induced seizure threshold was assessed and the measurement of nitric oxide metabolites in the brain tissue was done with the Greiss method. The seizure threshold was significantly increased in the sertraline and 8OH-DPAT receiving groups compared to the sham group (Pseizure threshold was more prominent (Pseizure threshold (P<0.001). The NOX concentration was significantly decreased in the 8-OH-DPAT_treated group (P<0.01), while the WAY100657 reversed it and the combination of 8-OH-DPAT with L-NAME reduced the NOX levels (P<0.001). These findings support the anticonvulsant effect of SSRIs and selective 5HT1A receptors, although serotonin receptors other than 5HT1A subtype may be involved and also it is probable that some anticonvulsant effects of the sertraline and 8-OH-DPAT are through the modulation of nitrergic system. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodríguez, Stephanie; Jordán, Claudia; Licier, Rígel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, José G

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [(3)H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II.

  7. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai; Jennum, Poul; Fabricius, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina; Andersen, Noémi; Hjalgrim, Helle; Wolf, Peter

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) from 14 patients with epilepsy, and 18 convulsive PNES from 12 patients (one patient had both GTCS and PNES). The healthy controls were simulating GTCS. To quantitatively characterize the signals we calculated the following parameters: root mean square (RMS) of the amplitude, median frequency (MF), coherence, and duration of the seizures, of the clonic EMG discharges, and of the silent periods between the cloni. Based on wavelet analysis, we distinguished between a low-frequency component (LF 2-8 Hz) and a high-frequency component (HF 64-256 Hz). Duration of the seizure, and separation between the tonic and the clonic phases distinguished at group-level but not at individual level between convulsive PNES and GTCS. RMS, temporal dynamics of the HF/LF ratio, and the evolution of the silent periods differentiated between epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures at the individual level. A combination between HF/LF ratio and RMS separated all PNES from the GTCS. A blinded review of the EMG features distinguished correctly between GTCS and convulsive PNES in all cases. The HF/LF ratio and the RMS of the PNES were smaller compared to the simulated seizures. In addition to providing insight into the mechanism of muscle activation during convulsive PNES, these results have diagnostic significance, at the individual level. Surface EMG features can accurately distinguish

  8. Evaluation of Serum Selenium Levels in Children with Recurrent Febril Convulsions

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    Erhan Berk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The febrile convulsion (FC occurs in neurologically normal children aged between six months and five years and it is defined as convulsions occurred during fever and in the absence of central nervous system (CNS infection, electrolyte imbalance, diseases affecting directly CNS, and history of afebrile convulsion. The aims of this study were to determine the serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC and to compare them with those of healthy children. Materials and Methods: The study included 61 pediatric patients diagnosed with recurrent FC. At the same session, 54 healthy children who admitted to our pediatric clinic for routine controls without history of fever and convulsion, are assigned as control group. The serum level of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometric method (hydride technique.Results: Mean level of selenium was determined as 67.10±8.87 µg/L in patients and 81.99±13.13 µg/L in control group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Discussion: The lower serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC may be the cause of triggering of convulsion or may contribute to its recurrence. Further studies are necessary to clarify this relationship. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2011; 9: 110-5

  9. Effects of levetiracetam, a novel antiepileptic drug, on convulsant activity in two genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, A J; Hirsch, E; Boehrer, A; Noyer, M; Marescaux, C

    1995-11-01

    The anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam were assessed in two genetic rat models. In the audiogenic-seizure prone rat, levetiracetam, 5.4 to 96 mg/kg i.p. dose-dependently inhibited both wild running and tonic-clonic convulsions. In the GAERS model of petit mal epilepsy, levetiracetam markedly suppressed spontaneous spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) but left the underlying EEG trace normal. The effects were already marked at 5.4 mg/kg and did not increase significantly up to 170 mg/kg although more animals were completely protected. Levetiracetam produced no observable effects on behaviour apart from slight reversible sedation at 170 mg/kg. In contrast, piracetam, a structural analogue of levetiracetam, significantly and consistently suppressed SWD in GAERS rats only at the high dose of 1000 mg/kg with some slight effects at lower doses. The effect of piracetam appeared to be due to increased sleeping rather than to a direct antiepileptic effect. The results with levetiracetam argue for a clinical application in both petit mal, absence epilepsy and in treating generalised tonic-clonic and partial seizures.

  10. A subconvulsive dose of kainate selectively compromises astrocytic metabolism in the mouse brain in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Anne B; Eyjolfsson, Elvar M; Schousboe, Arne

    2014-01-01

    on cerebral metabolism and particularly that associated with astrocytes. We investigated astrocytic and neuronal metabolism in the cerebral cortex of adult mice after treatment with saline (controls), a subconvulsive or a mildly convulsive dose of kainate. A combination of [1,2-(13)C]acetate and [1-(13)C......]glutamine and an increase in the calculated astrocytic TCA cycle activity. In contrast, the convulsive dose led to decrements in the cortical content and (13)C labeling of glutamate, glutamine, GABA, and aspartate. Evidence is provided that astrocytic metabolism is affected by a subconvulsive dose of kainate, whereas...

  11. [A case of tyrosinemia type II with convulsion and EEG abnormality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Suzuki, N; Koeda, T

    1993-11-01

    A 10-year-old boy with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and keratitis was reported. His physical development was normal and mental development was lower limit. He had also convulsions with low grade fever several times, and his EEG showed paroxysmal discharges. The plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were 5 to 10 times higher than those of controls. Tyrosinemia II was diagnosed on the low level of cytosol tyrosine aminotransferase in biopsied liver. The cases of tyrosinemia II were reviewed on the symptoms of the central nervous system. Two of twelve cases had convulsions. Adult cases demonstrated nystagmus, tremor, ataxia, and convulsion. Hyperkeratosis and corneal lesions were characteristic in symptoms of tyrosinemia II, but attention should be paid to the symptoms of the central nervous system.

  12. Effects of ganglion blocking agents on nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479

  13. Reduced Penetrance of PRRT2 Mutation in a Chinese Family With Infantile Convulsion and Choreoathetosis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L M; An, Y; Pan, G; Ding, Y F; Zhou, Y F; Yao, Y H; Wu, B L; Zhou, S Z

    2015-09-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a rare episodic movement disorder that can be isolated or associated with benign infantile seizures as part of choreoathetosis syndrome. Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have been recently identified as a cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA). We reported a PRRT2 heterozygous mutation (c.604-607delTCAC, p.S202Hfs*25) in a 3-generation Chinese family with infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. The mutation was present in 5 family members, of which 4 were clinically affected and 1 was an obligate carrier with reduced penetrance of PRRT2. The affected carriers of this mutation presented with a similar type of infantile convulsion during early childhood and developed additional paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia symptoms later in life. In addition, they all had a dramatic clinical response to oxcarbazepine/phenytoin therapy. Reduced penetrance of the PRRT2 mutation in this family could warrant genetic counseling.

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Merdin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

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    Razieh FALLAH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Yadegari Y, Salmani Nodushan M. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2:39-44. Objective Status epilepticus (SE is the most common pediatric neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. There is no consensus on the drug of choice in the treatment of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug in the treatment of generalized convulsive SE of children. Materials & Methods In a retrospective study, medical records of those children who were admitted to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital of Yazd due to refractory generalized convulsive SE and were treated by intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug from 2009 to 2011 were evaluated. Results Six girls and five boys with a mean age of 5.12 ± 1.2 years (range: 3 - 9.6 years were evaluated. Intravenous valproate was effective for cessation of seizures in seven patients (63.6 %. The mean dose of valproate for stopping seizures was 27.1 ± 1.4 mg/kg/day. Children whose seizures were controlled by sodium valproate were older than non- responsive children (mean± SD: 4.8 ± 1.2 years vs. 3.1 ± 0.43 years, p= 0.03 and they also had shorter ICU stay days (mean± SD: 2.6 ± 1.4 days vs. 5.6 ± 2.8 days, p= 0.01. Two children had mild and transient nausea and vomiting. None of them had cardiopulmonary or severe paraclinical side effects. Conclusion Intravenous sodium valproate may be used as an effective and safe third-line antiepileptic drug in the treatment of pediatric generalized convulsive status epilepticus.References Raj D, Gulati S, Lodha R. Status epilepticus. Indian J Pediatr 2011;78(2:219-26. Shearer P, Riviello J. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2011

  16. Review of non-convulsive status epilepticus and an illustrative case history manifesting as delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel; Diu, Eric; Abeysekera, Tamara; Kam, Daniel; Chan, Yin

    2009-09-01

    Non-convulsive status epilepticus can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The condition can be difficult to recognise, and can mimic delirium due to other underlying pathologies. There are several clinical subtypes, although these can be difficult to distinguish by their clinical features alone. Electroencephalogram is the key diagnostic tool to making the diagnosis, but this investigation is a limited resource in many institutions. In this review, we present a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus, manifesting as delirium, and then proceed to a literature review on this important diagnosis.

  17. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Gowda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, isoniazid or isonicotinic hydrazide (INH and maximal electroshock induced convulsion (MES were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH. In the PTZ induced convulsion, ethanolic extract of D. triflorum (EEDT 400 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion and reduced mortality. Similarly a dose of 800 mg/kg of EDDT significantly delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion and showed 33.33% protection in mice against INH induced convulsion. Further no mortality was found. Both the doses reduced hind limb tonic extension (HLTE phase of MES induced convulsion in mice. The pretreated EEDT showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  18. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Mussaenda philippica on animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kar DM; Rout SK; Moharana L; Majumdar S

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and sepals ofMussaenda philippica (M. Philippica) and its fractions(methanol, dioxin and aqueous) against pentylene tetrazole(PTZ), maximal electroshock(MES),Strychnine(STR),Picrotoxin induced convulsions at different dose levels.Methods:The anticonvulsant effect of extracts was studied by theMES,PTZ,STR andPicrotoxin-induced seizure.Results:The extract at100 and200 mg/kg, produced a significant(P<0.01) dose dependent increase in onset of convulsion compared to the control inMES,PTZ, strychnine and picrotoxin-induced seizures.Conclustions:The data obtained indicates thatHydroalcoholic extracts ofM. philippica leaves and sepals may help to control grandmal and petitmal epilepsy.

  19. Benign familial infantile convulsions: A clinical study of seven Dutch families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.C. Callenbach (Petra); R.R. Frants (Rune); O.F. Brouwer (Oebele); R.F. de Coo (René); A.A. Vein (Alla); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); G.S. Hageman (Gregory); R. ten Houten (Robert); G.M. Terwindt (Gisela); D. Lindhout (Dick)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBenign familial infantile convulsions (BFIC) is a recently identified partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between 3 and 12 months of age. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of 43 patients with BFIC from six Dutch families and one Dutch-Canadian family and the

  20. Benign familial infantile convulsions : a clinical study of seven Dutch families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, Petra; De Coo, René F.M.; Vein, Alla A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Hageman, Gerard; ten Houten, Robert; Terwindt, Gisela M.; Lindhout, Dick; Frants, Rune R.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2002-01-01

    Benign familial infantile convulsions (BFIC) is a recently identified partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between 3 and 12 months of age. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of 43 patients with BFIC from six Dutch families and one Dutch-Canadian family and the encountered

  1. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hsien-Yang; Huang, Yong; Bruneau, Nadine; Roll, Patrice; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Hermann, Mark; Quinn, Emily; Maas, James; Edwards, Robert; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Baykan, Betul; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan; Bruno, Michiko K.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Caraballo, Roberto; Echenne, Bernard; Fejerman, Natalio; Frucht, Steve; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hirsch, Edouard; Houlden, Henry; Jankovic, Joseph; Lee, Wei-Ling; Lynch, David R.; Mohammed, Shehla; Mueller, Ulrich; Nespeca, Mark P.; Renner, David; Rochette, Jacques; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Saiki, Shinji; Soong, Bing-Wen; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Tucker, Sam; Wood, Nicholas; Hanna, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptacek, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majorit

  2. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hsien-Yang; Huang, Yong; Bruneau, Nadine; Roll, Patrice; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Hermann, Mark; Quinn, Emily; Maas, James; Edwards, Robert; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Baykan, Betul; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan; Bruno, Michiko K.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Caraballo, Roberto; Echenne, Bernard; Fejerman, Natalio; Frucht, Steve; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hirsch, Edouard; Houlden, Henry; Jankovic, Joseph; Lee, Wei-Ling; Lynch, David R.; Mohammed, Shehla; Mueller, Ulrich; Nespeca, Mark P.; Renner, David; Rochette, Jacques; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Saiki, Shinji; Soong, Bing-Wen; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Tucker, Sam; Wood, Nicholas; Hanna, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptacek, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majorit

  3. A Patient with Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Convulsive Seizure Alone as the Initial Symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuma, Atsushi; Goto, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takizawa, Shunya; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old Japanese woman with Sjögren syndrome, Hashimoto's disease and a 6-month history of cognitive impairment was admitted to our hospital because of consciousness disturbance and convulsion. Her convulsive seizure disappeared by intravenous administration of diazepam following carbamazepine, and conscious level became alert the next day. But, her cognitive function was persistently deteriorated, and a score of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was 17/30 points. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain did not show any abnormal findings. The electroencephalogram showed increased slow waves in bilateral parieto-occipital regions. Serum anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were elevated (1780 U/ml), but thyroid function was within the normal range. In addition, anti-NAE (NH2-terminal of α-enolase) antibodies were positive. We diagnosed Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and started steroid therapy. Her cognitive function gradually improved after steroid therapy, and convulsive seizure did not recur until 3 months later. We emphasize that Hashimoto's encephalopathy should be considered even in patients with convulsive seizure of adult onset without thyroid dysfunction.

  4. Relationship between Febrile Convulsion (FC and Serum Level of Magnesium (Mg In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza Saddinejad

    2006-02-01

    Conclusion: There is a relationship between serum level of magnesium and the presence of febrile convulsion in children. It can be said that the deficiency of magnesium may be one of causes of FC in children. So, it is suggested to use supplements of magnesium in diet of affected children.

  5. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G.E.; Gils, van Stephan A.; Putten, van Michel J.A.M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalam

  6. Treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures in children; a single centre, retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Danique R. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate treatment of children with Prolonged Convulsive Seizures (PCS) at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Material and methods: PCS were identified from an UMCG database of children with epilepsy aged = 10 mm and occurred between January 2000 and October 2012 in child

  7. Evaluation of Serum Sodium Levels in Simple, Multiple and Recurrent Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Razieh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common form of childhood seizures that occur in 2-5% of them. The purpose of this study was to compare serum sodium level in first simple, multiple and recurrent febrile con-vulsions to answer whether serum sodium levels can predict febrile seizure recurrence in 24 hours and in other febrile episodes? In a retrospective study, sodium serum levels of all children aged 6 months to 6 years with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure admitted between March 2004 and August 2005 to Yazd Shaheed Sadoughi Hospital, were compared in simple, multiple and recurrence febrile convulsions. 139 cases with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure found among whom serum sodium checked in 112.54 girls and 58 boys with mean age of 2.01 ± 1.2 years evaluated. Type of febrile convulsions was complex in 36.6% of them. 18% had multiple (occurrence of more than one seizure during the febrile illness seizures and 35.7% showed seizure recurrence in other fever episodes among whom 88% occurred in first year. Mean survival recurrence rate was 6.7 ± 5.9 months. There is no significant differences in age and serum sodium level among the three groups. Association of relative hyponatremia and febrile seizure recurrence was not confirmed. These findings reaffirm the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to not routinely obtain electrolytes in febrile convulsion unless clinically indicated.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of the Salzburg EEG criteria for non-convulsive status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitinger, Markus; Trinka, Eugen; Gardella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Several EEG criteria have been proposed for diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), but none have been clinically validated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the EEG criteria proposed by a panel of experts at the fourth London–Innsbruck Colloquium on Status...

  9. Acute isoniazid intoxication: an uncommon cause of convulsion, coma and acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzman, Sinan; Uludağ Yanaral, Tümay; Toptaş, Mehmet; Koç, Alparslan; Taş, Aytül; Bican, Gülşen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use, suicidal ingestion of isoniazid is a rare condition in Turkey. We reported a case of acute isoniazid intoxication associated with alcohol intake presenting with convulsion, coma and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous pyridoxine administration. Early recognation and appropriate treatment in the intensive care unit is very important to prevent mortality in patients with acute isoniazid toxicity.

  10. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Modarresi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS. Results Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups. Conclusion Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.

  11. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Mat

  12. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MODARRESI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran.  Materials and Methods  In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS.  Results  Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups.   Conclusion  Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.  Keywords: Zinc; Zinc deficiency; Febrile Convulsion.

  13. 幼儿急疹合并热性惊厥的临床特征%Clinical characterstics of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云峰; 周忠蜀

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of roseola infantmn with febrile convulsions.Methods All cases with roseola infantum or with febrile convulsions were retrospectively collected who were confirmed during January 2005 to February 2008. There were 31 cases of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions. Their clinical features were compared with cases of roseola infantum without febrile convulsions and eases of other febrile convulsions,respectively, and further analyzed with literature. Results There were 17.1% (3 1 / 181 ) roseola infantum with febrile convulsions among febrile convulsions and 24.4% (31/127)among febrile convulsions less than 2 years;The incidence of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was 15.7% (31/198) among roseola infantum. The median age of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was less than that of other febrile convulsions. There were no significant differences in sex, age, maximum body temperature, duration of fever and day of rash onset between roseola infantum with and without febrile convulsions ( P > 0.05 ), but the frequency of family history of febrile convulsions was significantly higher in roseola infantum with febrile convulsions than in those without febrile convulsions ( P 0.05),而热性惊厥家族史有显著差别(P<0.05).结论 遗传因素是导致幼儿急疹并热性惊厥发作的一个危险因素;幼儿急疹并热性惊厥时一般预后良好,但要警惕发生严重中枢神经系统损伤的可能性,如癫痫.对于1岁内初次发热并出现热性惊厥的患儿要注意幼儿急疹的可能.

  14. Studies on the potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of quinolinic acid in rats with altered blood-brain barrier permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzani, A.; Stasi, M.A.; Wu, H.Q.; Castiglioni, M.; Weckermann, B.; Samanin, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano (Italy))

    1989-10-01

    Intravenous injection of 450 mg/kg quinolinic acid (Quin), an endogenous kynurenine metabolite with excitotoxic properties, induced only minor electroencephalographic (EEG) modifications and no neurotoxicity in rats with a mature blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB permeability was altered in rats by focal unilateral irradiation of the cortex (7 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth) with protons (60 Gy, 9 Gy/min). Three days after irradiation, Evans blue dye staining showed BBB breakdown in the dorsal hippocampus of the irradiated hemisphere. No neurotoxic or convulsant effects were observed as a consequence of the radiation itself. When BBB-lesioned rats were challenged with 225 mg/kg Quin iv, epileptiform activity was observed on EEG analysis. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by 225-450 mg/kg Quin. Light microscopic analysis showed a dose-related excitotoxic type of lesion restricted to the hippocampus ipsilateral to the irradiated side. Neuro-degeneration was prevented by local injection of 120 nmol D(-)2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. No lesions or EEG or behavioral modifications occurred after 450 mg/kg nicotinic acid, an inactive analog of Quin. The potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of Quin under conditions of altered BBB permeability are discussed.

  15. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Interactions of tiagabine with ethosuximide in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model: an isobolographic analysis for non-parallel dose-response relationship curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the interaction between tiagabine (TGB) and ethosuximide (ETS), two antiepileptic drugs, in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice using isobolographic analysis. The nature of the interaction between the drugs administered in combination was ascertained by estimating plasma and brain concentrations of ETS and TGB using fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that both drugs produced clear anticonvulsant effects against PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice, but that their dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs) were not parallel, consequently necessitating the isobolographic analysis for non-parallel DRRCs. The isobolographic analysis revealed that the combination of TGB with ETS at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted an additive interaction against PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. FPIA documented that TGB significantly elevated brain ETS concentrations (by 64%), while having no effect on plasma ETS concentrations in experimental animals. In contrast, ETS had no significant impact on plasma and brain concentrations of TGB in mice, as measured by HPLC. It can be concluded that the additive interaction between TGB and ETS at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 in the PTZ test was complicated by a significant pharmacokinetic increase in total brain ETS concentrations. At present, there are no recommendations to use this drug combination in epileptic patients.

  17. Anticonvulsant Effect of Drosera burmannii Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hema

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The antiepileptic activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Drosera burmannii was examined against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in mice. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the drug’s toxicity and to determine the minimum lethal dose of the drug extracts, using swiss albino mice. It was found that alcoholic and aqueous extracts up to a dose of 3000mg/kg body weight, did not show any toxic manifestations or death. In PTZ induced seizures, the administration of Drosera burmannii alcoholic extract at a dose  of 500 mg/kg 1 h prior to the injection of PTZ, significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset of convulsions. Neither alcoholic nor aqueous extracts at the dose of 300 mg/kg body weight could exert any significant protective effect on PTZ induced convulsions. Diazepam in a dose of 4mg/ kg, totally abolished the episodes of convulsions. Alcoholic extract at the dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight showed significant antiepileptic activity.   Industrial relevance: Convulsion has now become the most serious disorder, which accounts for about 1% of the world’s burden of diseases. A number of synthetic anticonvulsant drugs are available in the market. However, the side effects and the drug interactions are major restrictions in its clinical utility. Herbal medicines are widely used due to their therapeutic efficacy coupled with least side effects, which initiate the scientific research regarding the anticonvulsant activity. The present study will help the industry to develop herbal medicine in the treatment of convulsion with fewer side effects. In future the development of formulation by these plant constituents will give good anti-convulsion drug at lower cost.

  18. 钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风的疗效%Effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春梅; 刘永信; 禄林; 蒋天秀

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风的疗效。方法:收治小儿急惊风患儿45例,采用钩藤银翘散治疗。结果:服药4~9剂治愈率68.89%。结论:钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风疗效显著。%Objective:To investigate the effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type.Methods:45 cases of pediatric acute convulsion were selected,and they were treated by uncaria yinqiaosan. Results:The cure rate was 68.89% after taking the medicine for 4~9 doses.Conclusion:The effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type is significant.

  19. Systematic review of fever, febrile convulsions and serious adverse events following administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Kim-Moy, J; Yin, J K; Rashid, H; Khandaker, G; King, C; Wood, N; Macartney, K K; Jones, C; Booy, R

    2015-06-18

    In 2010, increased febrile convulsions (FC) occurred after administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in Australia. We systematically reviewed the rates of fever, FC and serious adverse events (SAEs) after TIV, focussing on published and unpublished clinical trial data from 2005 to 2012, and performed meta-analysis of fever rates. From 4,372 records in electronic databases, 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 14 non-randomised clinical trials, six observational studies and 12 registered trials (five RCTs and seven non-randomised) were identified. In published RCTs, fever ≥ 38 °C rates after first dose of non-adjuvanted TIV were 6.7% and 6.9% for children aged 6–35 months and ≥ 3 years, respectively. Analysis of RCTs by vaccine manufacturer showed pooled fever estimates up to 5.1% with Sanofi or GlaxoSmithKline vaccines; bioCSL vaccines were used in two non-randomised clinical trials and one unpublished RCT and were associated with fever in 22.5–37.1% for children aged 6–35 months. In RCTs, FCs occurred at a rate of 1.1 per 1,000 vaccinated children. While most TIVs induced acceptably low fever rates, bioCSL influenza vaccines were associated with much higher rates of fever in young children. Future standardised study methodology and access to individual level data would be illuminating.

  20. Evidence for involvement of the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor in the mechanism of action of convulsant and anticonvulsant drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, A.S.; Hertz, L.

    1988-01-01

    The anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, phenobarbital, trimethadione, valproic acid and ethosuximide at pharmacologically relevant concentrations inhibit (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to astrocytes in primary cultures but have much less effect on a corresponding preparation of neurons. Phenytoin as well as pentobarbital (which is not used chronically as an anticonvulsant) are equipotent in the two cell types. The convulsants picrotoxinin and pentylenetetrazol, the convulsant benzodiazepine RO 5-3663 and the two convulsant barbiturates DMBB and CHEB similarly inhibit diazepam binding to astrocytes but have little effect on neurons. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that these convulsants and anticonvulsants owe at least part of their effect to an interaction with the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor, perhaps by interference with a calcium channel.

  1. On the Nursing of Children with Febrile Convulsion%关于小儿热惊厥护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷婷

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the nursing of children with febrile convulsion, including the causes, treatment, family nursing and post-illness observation of febrile convulsion. Ob-jective:The nursing of children with febrile convulsion. Method:The obtained data and materials. Reason: To strengthen child nursing. Result: The process of the nursing of children with febrile convulsion is obtained.%关于小儿热惊厥的护理,其中包括小儿热惊厥的病因、治疗、家庭护理以及病后观察。研究目的:小儿热惊厥的护理。研究方法:已经得出的数据资料。研究原因:加强对小儿的护理。研究结果:得出小儿热惊厥的护理过程。

  2. Garcinol Upregulates GABAA and GAD65 Expression, Modulates BDNF-TrkB Pathway to Reduce Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Jia, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Wan; Zhang, Ying-Rui; Liu, Xue-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is the most predominant neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy still is a challenge to treat, due to the associated adverse effects of the drugs. Previous investigations have shown critical roles of BDNF-TrkB signalling and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GABAA in the brain during epilepsy. Thus, drugs that could modulate BDNF-TrkB signal and expression of GAD65 and GABAA could aid in therapy. Recent experimental data have focussed on plant-derived compounds in treatments. Garcinol (camboginol), is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derived from the fruit of Garcinia indica. We investigated the effects of garcinol in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic models. Material/Methods Seizure scores were measured in epilepsy kindled mice. Neuronal degeneration and apoptosis were assessed by Nissl staining, TUNEL assay, and Fluoro-Jade B staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate cleaved caspase-3 expressions. Expression of BDNF, TrkB, GABAA, GAD65, Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bax were determined by western blots. Results Significantly reduced seizure scores and mortality rates were observed with pretreatment with garcinol. Elevated expression of apoptotic proteins and caspase-3 in kindled mice were effectively downregulated by garcinol. Epileptogenic mice presented increased BDNF and TrkB with considerably decreased GABAA and GAD65 expression. Garcinol significantly enhanced GABAA and GAD65 while it suppressed BDNF and TrkB. Garcinol enhanced the performance of mice in Morris water maze tests. Conclusions Garcinol exerts neuroprotective effects via supressing apoptosis and modulating BDNF-TrkB signalling and GAD65/GABAA expressions and also enhanced cognition and memory of the mice. PMID:27855137

  3. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations. The paper sets forth the possibilities and limitations of using current methods for the molecular genetic diagnosis of idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies. The most effective and less expensive technique of molecular genetic analysis is shown to be an exome sequencing test using the panels of genes responsible for the occurrence of diseases with simi1ar clinical symptoms. The paper also presents the structure of the panel of genes responsible for the occurrence of monogenic epilepsies, which has been designed at the Genomed Clinic and includes 448 genetic variants. It also determines the significance of using a chromosomal microarray analysis to diagnose both chromosomal and monogenic diseases accompanied by convulsions

  4. Convulsion-related activities of Scutellaria flavones are related to the 5,7-dihydroxyl structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Young; dela Peña, Ike Campomayor; Shin, Chan Young; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Yong Soo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2011-06-01

    We screened the major bioactive flavones isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis (baicalin, baicalein and oroxylin A) for their convulsion related activities. In electrogenic response score system and the pentylenetetrazole seizure model, baicalein but not oroxylin A and baicalin exhibited anticonvulsant effects. In vitro studies also revealed that baicalein induced intracellular Cl(-) influx, whereas oroxylin A blocked muscimol- and baicalein-induced intracellular Cl(-) influx. The anticonvulsant effect of baicalein was inhibited by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine(BZD) receptor antagonist. Therefore, anticonvulsive effect of baicalein was mediated by the BZD binding site of GABA(A) receptor. The 5, 7-dihydroxyl group is present in the structure of the three flavones. It is postulated that this group played a key role in inducing convulsion-related activities.

  5. Acceptability – a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers’ and clients’ understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. Methods The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88 and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135. Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. Results The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with ‘evil eye and sorcery’, 3 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 416% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. Conclusion As an important dimension

  6. Acceptability--a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillip, Angel; Alba, Sandra; Mshana, Christopher; Hetzel, Manuel W; Lengeler, Christian; Mayumana, Iddy; Schulze, Alexander; Mshinda, Hassan; Weiss, Mitchell G; Obrist, Brigit

    2012-05-09

    Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers' and clients' understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88) and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135). Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1) 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2) 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with 'evil eye and sorcery', 3) 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 4)16% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. As an important dimension of access to health care 'social acceptability' seems relevant in studying

  7. [Patient with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with prolonged disturbance of consciousness and convulsion after cerebral aneurysm surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Hoshi, Takuo; Yorozu, Shinko; Okazaki, Junko; Motomura, Yuji; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Tanaka, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    A 73-year-old patient developed convulsion and prolonged disturbance of consciousness after clipping surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm. The patient's consciousness improved four days after surgery, and radiological findings suggested posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The cause of PRES is thought to be dysfunction of blood brain barrier by a sudden increase in blood pressure. In case of unexplained convulsion and decreased level of consciousness, PRES should be considered with radiographic examinations including CT and MRI.

  8. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeep Kaur; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2011-01-01

    “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. A...

  9. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man wh...

  10. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Loretta; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8-88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4-99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design.

  11. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. Methods The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. Results 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8–88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4–99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Conclusion Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design. PMID:28301557

  12. EEG disorder in patients with complex febrile convulsion and underlying risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hemmati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are the most common convulsion disorder in childhood. The possible risk of developing epilepsy in febrile seizures is about 2-10%. EEG is helpful to diagnose epilepsy; however, there are controversies about the abnormal EEG and associated risk factors .The aim of this study was to determine EEG abnormality and effective risk factors in patients with complex febrile seizures. Methods: This study was conducted on the patients with complex febrile seizures in 2009-2010.EEG was performed on all children 6 to 10 days after seizure and reported by a neurologist. Demographic data and risk factors, including age, sex, family history of epilepsy and febrile convulsions, presentation of seizure, postictal neurological disorder were documented by a checklist and their association with EEG was analyzed. Results: 111 patients with complex febrile seizure, 70 girls and 41 boys, with the mean age of 3.4±20 months were studied. EEG was abnormal in 37.8% of patients, 9% were epileptic form abnormality and 28.8% were nonspecific abnormal. There was a statistically significant association between EEG abnormality in patients with focal seizures, family history of febrile seizures and postictal neurologic disorder (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed abnormality of EEG in complex febrile convulsions in 37.8% of patients, which was significantly higher in patients with postictal neurological disorder, focal seizures and family history of febrile seizure.

  13. Automatic detection of non-convulsive seizures: A reduced complexity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeem Fatma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz is a challenging task because they lack convulsions, meaning no physical visible symptoms are there to detect the presence of a seizure activity. Hence their diagnosis is not easy, also continuous observation of full length EEG for the detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz by an expert or a technician is a very exhaustive, time consuming job. A technique for the automatic detection of NCSz is proposed in this paper. The database used in this research was recorded at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. 13 EEG recordings of 9 subjects consisting of a total 23 seizures of 29.42 min duration were used for analysis. Normalized modified Wilson amplitude is used as a key feature to classify between normal and seizure activity. The main advantage of this study lies in the fact that no classifier is used here and hence algorithm is very simple and computationally fast. With the use of only one feature, all of the seizures under test were detected correctly, and hence the median sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.21% were achieved respectively.

  14. [Characteristics of the audiogenic convulsive crisis in mice made sensitive by magnesium deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, P; Tran, G; Paris, M; Binet, P

    1993-07-01

    Mice of the OF1, C57BL/6, AKR, C3H/He, DBA/2, BALB/C, B6D2F1 and CBA strains are susceptible to audiogenic seizures after 40 or 20 days of acute magnesium deficiency. The duration of the various phases of the audiogenic seizure response (at 100 dBA) (wild running latency period, convulsions latency period and the clonic and tonic convulsions) among these mice was measured. Using the Kruskall-Wallis test, no difference was recorded using these measurements and those obtained for genetically audio-susceptible animals. This shows that acute magnesium deficiency-induced audiogenic seizures develop in exactly the same way as in genetically audio-susceptible animals (21-days-old DBA/2 mice). Lower intensity (60 and 80 dBA) produced only audiogenic seizures in magnesium deficient mice. Repeated auditory stimulation caused an increase in the number of lethal seizures. Sound-induced seizures in magnesium deficient mice provide a sensitive screening test for anti convulsive drug, and for drugs use in magnesium depletion.

  15. [Prolonged convulsion after intoxication of alachlor herbicide (Lasso): a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiromichi; Nagae, Masaharu; Okahara, Shuji; Maeyama, Hiroki; Okada, Daisuke; Hagioka, Shingo; Morimoto, Naoki

    2011-03-01

    We experienced a case of alachlor herbicide (Lasso) intoxication. A 57-year-old man was transported to our hospital by ambulance after ingesting 450 mL of Lasso. He was unconscious and had difficulty in breathing. Gastric lavage was performed after tracheal intubation and the patient was placed on mechanical ventilation. Activated charcoal and laxative were administrated. Even after admission, disturbance of consciousness persisted. He had liver and kidney disorders but these did not progress to multiple organ failure. He experienced convulsions from day 4 and was administered anticonvulsants. Convulsion was intractable and needed long-term treatment. His general condition improved until discharge. He was weaned from mechanical ventilation and recovered consciousness, but he still displayed tremors. The herbicide (Lasso) is a combination of alachlor and monochlorobenzene. Studies have shown that alachlor is neurotoxic and monochlorobenzene accumulates in the brain. In case of intoxication with the herbicide Lasso, treatment is required for ameliorating neurotoxic effects and intractable convulsion as well as liver and kidney disorders, gastrointestinal mucosal damage, hematopoietic disorder, and acute circulatory failure.

  16. Factors influencing mothers' role in convulsion treatment among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezenwa E; Awomoyi, Aanuoluwayomi O

    2009-01-01

    Convulsion among children between six months and five years is a major contributor to childhood mortality in less-developed societies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies on under-five deaths have ignored the influence of socio-demographic and environmental factors as they relate to causes of the thematic health condition and available therapies. This study investigated mothers' perception of convulsion causation, relevant signs and symptoms, and the influence of socio-economic status on mothers' choice of remedies. The research was conducted in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria, which is densely populated with mainly Yoruba-speaking people. The study population comprised mothers who, at the time of fieldwork for the present analysis, had at least one under-five child. Five hundred questionnaire respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique, and 14 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among different categories of women identified through the snowball technique. Voluntary Social Action Theory and the Health Belief Model were used in explaining the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The findings show that the remedies mothers chose were strongly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as marriage type, religion, level of education, occupation and place of residence. It is strongly suggested that interventions, health policies and programs should focus on how best to empower women to effectively utilize medical information that will enable them recognize symptoms of this common health condition and/or undertake preliminary therapies that contribute positively to convulsion prevention or treatment.

  17. Effect of Amlodipine and Indomethacin in electrical and picrotoxin induced convulsions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagathi Devi N, Prasanna V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are the drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy. Many AEDs have been developed, but the ideal AED which can not only prevent but also abolish seizures by correcting the underlying pathophysiology is still not in sight. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs may form such a group, as the initiation of epileptogenic activity in the neuron is connected with a phenomenon known as “intrinsic burst firing” which is activated by inward calcium current. In this study, Amlodipine, a CCB of the dihydropyridine class was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity in mice. It was compared with Phenytoin sodium, one of the oldest anti epileptic drugs. Amlodipine was also combined with Indomethacin, a conventional NSAID, to look for any potentiating effect of this prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 20-30 G were used for this study; 48 were divided into 8 groups, each group containing 6 mice. Group 1-4 MES (50 m Amp for 0.1 secs induced convulsion method, Group 5-8 evaluated by using the chemo-convulsant, picrotoxin (0.7 mg / kg. Group 1, 5 are controls of MES, Picrotoxin (without treatment. Group 2 &6 administered standard drug phenytoin (0.5mg/100mg i.p, Group 3 & 7: Amlodipine group (8 mg / kg i.p and Group 4 & 8: Amlodipine (8 mg/kg and Indomethacin group (20 mg / kg. In MES method Duration of tonic hind limb extension, Clonic convulsions, Recovery period were studied. In Picrotoxin method Latent period before onset of convulsions, severity of convulsions assessed. Results: In electrically induced seizures, the 3 parameters compared are duration of tonic hind limb extension, THLE, (P0.05; duration of recovery phase (P<0.0001 and in picrotoxin-induced seizures, the 2 parameters are onset of seizures (P<0.05 and severity of seizures (P<0.05. Conclusion: The combination of Amlodipine and Indomethacin showed a superior

  18. Differences between physiological and pathological convulsive thresholds in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Liu; Leiyu Geng; Jiali Xu; Mingzheng Wang; Ce Zhang; Yu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological convulsive thresholds degrade when the brain is in some pathologic states; thus, a level of stimulus that cannot provoke a convulsion may evoke a seizure or epileptic seizure.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes that occur in the brain when the physiological convulsive threshold becomes pathological, and to determine what differences occur in pathological and physiological convulsive thresholds during the development of epilepsy.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Research Institute of Epilepsy of Shanxi Medical University; Department of Neurology, The Third Hospital of Shanxi Medical University; Research Institute of Function of Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS: Thirty-six female Wistar rats were selected for this study. The rats were obtained from the experimental animal center of Shanxi Medical University. All laboratory procedures complied with animal ethical standards. The animals were randomly divided into three groups: a strong current group, a weak current group and a control group, with 12 rats in each group. An automatic determinator of seizure threshold was made at Shanxi Medical University and Taiyuan University of Technology. Two bipolar stainless steel stimulating electrodes and an electrode connector (diameter 1.2 mm) were made at Taiyuan University of Technology.METHODS: This study was performed in the laboratory of Research Institute of the Epilepsy of Shanxi Medical University between December 2005 and August 2006. The threshold of localized seizures was measured by performing direct cortical stimulation in rats under anesthesia. After 1 week of post-operative recovery, electric stimulation was started with three different kinds of stimulation. Seizure activity was induced by a ramp-shaped single train of biphasic pulses (50 Hz, total pulse duration of 2 ms, increasing from 0 to 2 000 μA in 15 seconds). The threshold of localized seizures (TLS) has been defined as the minimum current intensity

  19. Comparisons of drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono for epilepsy An experiment of determining cortical convulsive threshold in rats undergoing electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Scholars have investigated the differences in drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics between valproate and its sustained-release tablets only from the angle of pharmaceutical sciences or clinical practice.Whether the fact that differences in drug efficacy and time-effect of different doses of valproate and different types of sustained-release valproate tablets at the same concentration can be quantitatively reflected by determining the changes in convulsive threshold pre- and post-administration in rat models of determining the convulsive threshold developed by direct cortical electrical stimulation remains unclear.OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to compare the drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono in the treatment of epilepsy by determining the convulsive threshold of rat models created by direct cortical electrical stimulation,and human serum drug concentration before and after administration.DESIGN:A controlled observational experiment.SETTING:Research Institute of Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS:Adult health male SD rats of clean grade,weighing 200 - 220 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Shanxi Medical University.The protocol was carried out in accordance with requests from Animal Ethics Committees for guidance.Magnesium valproate (Lot No.041004) and sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet (Lot No.050501) were produced in Hunan Xiangzhong Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.METHODS:This study was carried out in the Laboratory for Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University between June and August 2005.①All the SD rats were created into models for determining cortical convulsive threshold.They were randomly divided into 4 groups with 20 rats in each:magnesium valproate tablet group,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet group,depakine chrono group and control group.After being modeled,the rats in the first 3 groups were intragastrically administrated with

  20. The effect of magnesium sulfate on the convulsion and mortality rate in lidocaine-poisoned mice%硫酸镁对利多卡因中毒小鼠惊厥和死亡率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱有波; 杨拯; 袁梦郎

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Using the model of seizure induced by lidocaine hydrochloride to investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on the convulsions and mortality rate of mice with lidocaine poisoning. METHODS 210 Kunming mice weighing 18-25g were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group, 50mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 100mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 200mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 400mg/kg magnesium sulfate group, 42 mice in each group, and received intraperitoneal injections of magnesium sulfate of four different doses or the same volume of normal saline, respectively. 15 minutes later, all the mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/kg lidocaine hydrochloride, convulsion latency, duration, seizures incidence, death time and mortality in mice were observed. RESULTS ① Compared with control group, magnesium sulfate extended incubation period of lidocaine induced convulsions, shortened the duration of convulsions induced by lidocaine, extended the time of death of lidocaine induced convulsions. ② Magnesium sulfate could reduce the incidence of seizures induced by lidocaine, 200 and 400mg/kg magnesium group compared with the control group, the incidence of lidocaine induced convulsions had significant differences (P<0.05); could reduce mortality of convulsions induced by lidocaine, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg magnesium group compared with the control group, lidocaine induced convulsions were significant differences in mortality (P < 0.01, P< 0.05). ③ Magnesium sulfate could reduce the intensity convulsions caused by lidocaine. Increased with the dose of magnesium sulfate, the level of induced convulsions by lidocaine decreased. CONCLUSION In this experimental condition, magnesium sulfate could be antagonized by convulsive effects of lidocaine to reduce the toxicity of lidocaine.%目的 应用盐酸利多卡因致小鼠中毒惊厥模型,探讨硫酸镁对利多卡因中毒小鼠惊厥和死亡率的影响.方法 210只昆明小鼠,体重18~25 g,按照

  1. RDX Binds to the GABAA Receptor–Convulsant Site and Blocks GABAA Receptor–Mediated Currents in the Amygdala: A Mechanism for RDX-Induced Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Larry R.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Qashu, Felicia; Finne, Huckelberry; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Bannon, Desmond I.; Braga, Maria F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high-energy, trinitrated cyclic compound that has been used worldwide since World War II as an explosive in both military and civilian applications. RDX can be released in the environment by way of waste streams generated during the manufacture, use, and disposal of RDX-containing munitions and can leach into groundwater from unexploded munitions found on training ranges. For > 60 years, it has been known that exposure to high doses of RDX causes generalized seizures, but the mechanism has remained unknown. Objective We investigated the mechanism by which RDX induces seizures. Methods and results By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) ionophore. Whole-cell in vitro recordings in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) showed that RDX reduces the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous GABAA receptor–mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents and the amplitude of GABA-evoked postsynaptic currents. In extracellular field recordings from the BLA, RDX induced prolonged, seizure-like neuronal discharges. Conclusions These results suggest that binding to the GABAA receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. Knowledge of the molecular site and the mechanism of RDX action with respect to seizure induction can guide therapeutic strategies, allow more accurate development of safe thresholds for exposures, and help prevent the development of new explosives or other munitions that could pose similar health risks. PMID:21362589

  2. Convulsions and inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massieu, L; Rivera, A; Tapia, R

    1994-02-01

    We have previously shown that in the adult rat the inhibition of brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone (PLPGH) administration does not result in convulsions, whereas in the adult mouse intense convulsions invariably occur. In the present study we report that, surprisingly, immature rats from 2 to 20 days of age treated with PLPGH (80 mg/kg) showed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, whereas no convulsions at all were present in 30 days-old or older rats. GAD activity, measured by enzymic determination of GABA formed in forebrain homogenates, was inhibited by about 60% at the time of convulsions in 15 days-old and younger rats, whereas the inhibition was between 40 and 50% in older animals. The addition of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to the incubation medium completely reversed this inhibition. In all treated animals GABA levels were lower compared to controls. The results indicate that the susceptibility of GAD in vivo to a diminished cofactor concentration decreases with age. It seems possible that changes in the expression of enzyme forms are reflected in developmental variations in the susceptibility to seizures induced by vitamin B6 depletion, but alterations of other B6-dependent biochemical pathways cannot be discarded.

  3. 小儿高热惊厥的护理体会%Nursing Experience of Febrile Convulsion in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟芬芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热性惊厥的原因及急救措施和护理。方法对我院儿科2014年1月~2015年1月收治的30例高热性惊厥患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果30例小儿高热惊厥的快速抽搐,及时冷却,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监控等一系列综合治疗和护理后全部转危为安。结论对高热惊厥患儿的治疗关键是高热,惊厥,迅速控制迅速冷却,加强综合护理。%Objective To investigate the cause of febrile convulsion in children and the emergency treatment and nursing. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of febrile convulsion in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results 30 cases of children with febrile convulsion of fast twitch, timely cooling, maintain respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen, strengthen monitoring and so on a series of comprehensive treatment and nursing after turning the corner. Conclusion The key to the treatment of children with high fever convulsion is high fever, convulsion, rapid control rapid cooling, strengthen comprehensive nursing.

  4. The diagnostic value of oral lacerations and incontinence during convulsive "seizures".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Megan; Pattison, Claire; Carino, John; Roten, Annie; Matkovic, Zelko; O'Brien, Terence J

    2008-06-01

    Oral lacerations and urinary incontinence have long been considered useful clinical features for the diagnosis of epileptic seizures; however, both are also reported in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The aims of the study were (1) to investigate whether the presence and nature of oral lacerations or incontinence during convulsive seizures of patients with epilepsy differed from those with PNES, and (2) whether the side of the oral laceration has any correlation with the epilepsy syndrome or lateralization. Eighty-four consecutive patients who experienced at least one convulsive event during video-EEG monitoring (VEM) were questioned and examined for oral lacerations and incontinence. Seizure classification was determined by a team of epileptologists based on the VEM findings and other clinical and investigational data, blinded to the oral laceration and incontinence information. The presence of oral lacerations among patients with epileptic seizures was 26% (17/66), in contrast it was 0% (0/18) with PNES (p = 0.01). Of the oral lacerations sustained by patients during an epileptic seizure, 14 were to the side of the tongue, one to the tip of the tongue, two to the cheek, and three to the lip. No significant relationships were observed between seizure lateralization and oral lacerations. Incontinence occurred in 23% (15/66) of epilepsy patients and 6% (1/18) of PNES patients (p = 0.09). There was no relationship between epilepsy type or lateralization and the prevalence of incontinence. Despite frequent reports of oral lacerations and incontinence by patients with PNES, objective evidence for this is highly specific to convulsive epileptic seizures.

  5. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  6. Nursing Experience of Infantile Convulsion%小儿惊厥的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2012-01-01

      Objective Research and Discussion on the causes and nursing  of infantile convulsion. Methods Retrospective analysis of children convulsion cases in Third People's Hospital emergency department in recent years. Results Cases of Infantile convulsion are multiple in infants and young children age group. Common etiology with febrile seizures, epilepsy, hypocalcemia, meningitis and brain trauma .Conclusion Infantile convulsion is a common emergency in emergency department,mainly with febrile convulsions,a timely manner to identify the reasons, timely communication with children and parents, and correct and effective emergency care can reduce the occurrence of convulsions, reducing infantile convulsion in children with damage.%  目的研究与探讨小儿惊厥的相关病因及护理。方法 回顾性分析我院急诊科近年来小儿惊厥的病例。结果 小儿惊厥病例中以婴幼儿为高发年龄组。常见的病因有高热惊厥、脑膜炎、癫痫、低血钙、脑外伤等。结论 小儿惊厥是急诊科常见的急症,以高热惊厥为主,及时查明原因,及时与患儿及家长沟通,并进行正确有效的急救护理可以减少惊厥的发生,降低小儿惊厥对患儿的伤害程度。

  7. A preliminary observation of the adverse effects of phenobarbital among patients with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Liu, Ling; Tian, Linyu; Mu, Jie; Chen, Deng; Chen, Tao; Deng, Ying; He, Jun; Li, You; He, Li; Zhou, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the adverse effect (AE) profile of phenobarbital (PB) among patients with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) from resource-poor areas. Patients with ACE were enrolled into an epilepsy management project in rural West China. Information was obtained from monthly follow-up questionnaires. The demographic and clinical features of the patients with AE were firstly described. After that, the occurrence rate was estimated for each subtype of AE at three different severity levels (mild, moderate, and serious). Survival analysis was used to determine the potential risk factors of AEs. A total of 7231 patients (3780 men) were included in the present cohort. During the follow-up time period (average 33.4months), the most common AEs were drowsiness (moderate: 4.4%, serious: 0.68%), dizziness (moderate: 3.7%, serious: 0.5%), and headache (moderate: 2.9%, serious: 0.41%). In the confirmed AE groups (moderate and serious severity levels), the symptoms tended to be transient, with durations of less than 3months. Polytherapy was an independent risk factor for AEs and had an increasing risk when the severity of the AE increased (Hazard Ratio 1.12, 1.55, and 2.52 for mild AE, moderate AE, and serious AE, respectively). Receiving a high dosage of PB (>180mg/day) indicated a slightly elevated risk (Hazard Ratio 1.22 and 1.27 for mild AE and moderate AE, respectively). Phenobarbital demonstrates overall tolerability, and serious AEs were not common. Patients receiving a high dose of PB or polytherapy are at increased risk of developing AEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of synergetic combination of phenytoin and gastrodin on the convulsion induced by penicillin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziqi; Lin, Yanzhu; Zheng, Hongyi; He, Yuzhong; Xu, Haohua; Zhang, Siheng; Weng, Wen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is a commonly prescribed first-line antiepileptic drug. However, long-term administration of PHT can cause memory loss and balance disturbance. Gastrodin (GD) is the major bioactive component in Tianma and has sedative, anticonvulsive, memory strengthening, and neuroprotective effects. To combine the two drugs seems attractive; however, little was known about the efficacy of combination therapy. In this study, convulsive attack was successfully induced by penicillin. Isobolographic analysis, memory and balance behavior test, histopathological examination, and Western blot analysis were used to investigate whether the combination therapy of GD and PHT can enhance anticonvulsive effect and reduce the side effects associated with PHT. The GD alone (950.60 mg/kg) and the PHT alone (45.50 mg/kg) could produce an anticonvulsive effect, while comparable effect could be produced by PHT : GD = 1 : 50 (8.59 : 429.27 mg/kg), which reduce the dose of PHT by 81% and GD by 55%. After the chronic anticonvulsive experiments of 16 days, the balance disturbance and short-/long-term memory loss were observed in the PHT group, while the PHT + GD therapy can protect the normal balance and memory function. The neuron morphology of hippocampus was preserved, and the number of surviving neurons after combination therapy was more than the model group. The amount of NF-κB (p65) expression was increased in combination group. All above suggested the potential of the combination of PHT and GD enhances the anticonvulsive effect and the neuroprotective effect and reduces the PHT-associated memory and balance disturbance. The PHT + GD strategy would provide new possibilities as a novel promising methodology to treat epileptic patients.

  9. Convulsive and Neurodegenerative Effects in Rats of Some Isolated Toxins from the Tityus bahiensis Scorpion Venom

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Despite Tityus bahiensis being one of the most dangerous scorpions in Brazil, there are few studies about the effects of its venom, which acts mainly on the central nervous system. Previous studies demonstrated the convulsive ability of this venom. The present work aimed to study the hippocampal effects in rats of some toxins isolated from pool V, which induces a pronounced epileptogenic effect. The pool was separated by reverse-phase HPLC, and the peaks with higher yield (Tb V-1, V-5, V-24, ...

  10. Diagnosis and interpretation of EEG on non-convulsive status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-gang KANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to diagnose non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE clinically because of the complicated etiology and various clinical and electroencephalographic features of NCSE without a universally accepted definition. Although the diagnosis of NCSE relies largely on electroencephalogram (EEG findings, the determination of NCSE on EEG is inevitably subjective, and the EEG changes of most patients is lack of specificity. As the diagnosis of NCSE is related to clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations, diagnostic criteria for NCSE should take into account both clinical and electroencephalographic features, and their response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.005

  11. Vertebral Artery Dissection Associated with Generalized Convulsive Seizures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohammad Amin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD. The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances of posterior circulation after epileptic seizures, VAD should be considered.

  12. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  13. Case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-07-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset.

  14. The effect of calculus bovis cultivated by glucuronidase on anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice%酶促牛黄对小鼠的抗惊厥及抗炎作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵斌; 高允生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of calculus bovis cultivated by glucuronidase (CBCG )on anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice, evaluate the pharmaceutical value of CBCG.Methods ( 1 )Anti-convulsion experiment.Appl ying nikethamide( NTM )-induced convulsion model and maximal electroshock convulsion ( MES ) model to observe the effect of CBCG on anti-convulsion in mice.( 2 )Anti-inflammation experiment.To apply carrageenan( CGN )-induced foot inflammation model in mice and dimethyl benzene( DMB )-induced inflammation model in mice to observe the effect of CBCG on antiinflammation.Results ( 1 )The outcome of anti-convulsion experiment showed that the CBCG and pentobarbital sodium ( PBS ) could prolong the NTM-induced convulsion latent phase in mice, raised the convulsion threshold value of maximal electroshock mice and reduce convulsion cases induced by maximal electroshock( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ).The effect of PBS was better than CBCG( P <0.01 ),no difference was found among different CBCG groups( P >0.05 ).( 2 )The results of anti-inflammatory experiments showed that the CBCG and the aspirin( ASP ) could inhibit DMB-induced ear swell and CGN induced foot swell in mice( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ).The CBCG had dose depend trend against DMB-induced ear swell in mice, the effect was highest in CBCG high-dose group( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ), compared with NS gorup, ASP gorup.NCB group and CBCG group could inhibit foot swell in mice 3 ~5 h after medication( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ), the effect was highest in NCB and CBCG high-dose group.Conclusion It proved that the CBCG had the effect of anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice.%目的 观察酶促牛黄(CBCG)对小鼠的抗惊厥、抗炎作用,初步评价CBCG的药用价值.方法 (1)抗惊厥实验:分2个子实验,各取50只小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(NS组)、戊巴比妥钠组(PBS组)及CBCG高、中、低剂量组各10只,分别采用尼可刹米和最大电休克法制备小鼠惊厥

  15. Repeated PTZ treatment at 25-day intervals leads to a highly efficient accumulation of doublecortin in the dorsal hippocampus of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Buga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurogenesis persists throughout life in the adult mammalian brain. Because neurogenesis can only be assessed in postmortem tissue, its functional significance remains undetermined, and identifying an in vivo correlate of neurogenesis has become an important goal. By studying pentylenetetrazole-induced brain stimulation in a rat model of kindling we accidentally discovered that 25±1 days periodic stimulation of Sprague-Dawley rats led to a highly efficient increase in seizure susceptibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By EEG, RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we show that repeated convulsive seizures with a periodicity of 25±1 days led to an enrichment of newly generated neurons, that were BrdU-positive in the dentate gyrus at day 25±1 post-seizure. At the same time, there was a massive increase in the number of neurons expressing the migratory marker, doublecortin, at the boundary between the granule cell layer and the polymorphic layer in the dorsal hippocampus. Some of these migrating neurons were also positive for NeuN, a marker for adult neurons. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the increased susceptibility to seizure at day 25±1 post-treatment is coincident with a critical time required for newborn neurons to differentiate and integrate into the existing hippocampal network, and outlines the importance of the dorsal hippocampus for seizure-related neurogenesis. This model can be used as an in vivo correlate of neurogenesis to study basic questions related to neurogenesis and to the neurogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of epilepsy.

  16. Continuous EEG monitoring in the evaluation of non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-convulsive seizures (NCSzs and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute brain injury. These acute seizure disorders are often unrecognized and under-diagnosed. Seizure semiology of NCSz is too subtle clinically to be noticed. Most often, mental status impairment is the presenting feature. Changes in the functions of the thalamo-cortical system in patients with impaired consciousness can be detected by continuous EEG (cEEG monitoring. cEEG monitoring allows detection of the changes at a reversible stage, often when there are no clinical indications of such phenomena. In addition EEG provides reasonable spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution. This makes cEEG an excellent method for supplementing single or serial recordings in the detection of NCSzs and NCSE. Recent advances in digital EEG have made cEEG monitoring in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU technically feasible. Current evidence suggests that the common clinical denominator associated with electrographic seizures or NCSzs is mental status impairment. In NCSE, the duration of ictal activity and the time of delay to diagnosis are independent predictors of poor outcome. It will be prudent to do cEEG monitoring in any patient with impaired consciousness either in the setting of acute brain injury or with no clear explanation to detect NCSzs/NCSE. Early recognition and timely intervention is likely to be associated with good outcomes.

  17. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-06-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions.

  18. Acute fracture of the acetabulum secondary to a convulsive seizure 3 years after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Bulent; Caglar, Omur; Akgun, Rahmi Can

    2008-03-01

    While aseptic loosening, osteolysis, and infection are the most common causes of failure after total hip arthroplasty (THA), late hip pain can also be the result of acetabular fracture related to trauma and resultant prosthetic failure. However, atraumatic fracture of the acetabulum around a well-fixed acetabular component is unusual. We present a patient with an acetabular fracture resulting from a generalized convulsive attack 3 years after an uncomplicated primary THA. A 33-year-old man presented with acute left hip pain. He had chronic renal insufficiency and had undergone bilateral THA due to avascular necrosis. The night prior to his admission, he suffered a generalized convulsive attack with severe extremity contractions. Afterwards, he had acute left groin pain and had difficulty walking. Physical examination revealed moderate left hip pain as well as a 1-cm shortening of the affected limb. Radiological examination demonstrated an acetabular fracture with medial wall comminution. The acetabular component had migrated medially and rotated horizontally. Revision of the acetabular component with a reinforcement ring and implantation of a cemented acetabular component was realized. Severe muscle spasms during generalized seizures are known to lead to various musculoskeletal injuries (fractures of the proximal humerus, femur, acetabulum, and dislocation of the shoulder). Seizures could also lead to acute periprosthetic fracture of the acetabulum in patients with osteopenia. Therefore careful reaming is required to avoid overmedialization of the acetabular component in those patients.

  19. Leukocyte Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate as Diagnostic Factors in Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nFebrile convulsion (FC is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC, aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001 in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113 between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test.

  20. Effect of electrical convulsions on uridine labeling and activity pattern in nerve cells in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkenberg, H.; Pakkenberg, B.; Fog, R.

    1985-07-01

    Male white mice were exposed to electroshock and then injected intravenously with 5-(3H)uridine immediately after the shock. After 5, 30, or 60 min or 6, 12, or 24 h, the mice were killed, microautoradiographs were prepared, and grains were counted in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. The results of the grain counts were compared with grain counts in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia of mice exposed to anoxia for 25 s and then treated in the same manner as the first groups. After electroshock the grain count decreased to 25% of that in control animals in the hippocampus and to 50% in the cortex but was normal in the basal ganglia. The counts returned to normal values within 6 h in the hippocampus, and within 1 h in the cortex. After anoxia, the grain counts were normal in the cortex and hippocampus but increased in the basal ganglia. The distribution of cells with a high or low grain count in vertical and horizontal columns of the cortex in control and convulsion animals was analyzed. There were random variations from column to column in both control and convulsion animals. In some anatomic layers there were significantly different grain counts, indicating differences in functional activity.

  1. [Brain abscess due to Fusobacterium necrophorum in a patient with convulsion and no signs of meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimohata, Mitsuteru; Naruse, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Koyama, Miyako; Ito, Yasushi; Tanaka, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report brain abscess due to Fusobacterium necrophorum (F. necrophorum) in a 78-year-old healthy man. He developed convulsion and did not have any signs of meningitis. Although the brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of the left occipital lobe were typical of a brain abscess, his cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed only slight pleocytosis and mild increase in protein levels. Thus, it was difficult to rule out the possibility of metastatic brain tumor; the patient's condition was provisionally diagnosed as symptomatic epilepsy secondary to brain abscess. His convulsion disappeared soon after administration of antiepileptic, antibacterial, and steroid agents. A craniotomy was performed to evacuate the abscess, and F. necrophorum was identified by culturing the abscess contents. After the operation, he was treated with appropriate antibacterial agents, which resulted in resolution of the brain abscess. Although Fusobacterium species are gram-negative anaerobic bacilli commensal of the human oropharynx, we need to recognize that Fusobacterium species can be a primary pathogen causing brain abscesses and may leave residual neurological sequelae without early appropriate treatment.

  2. Cerebral blood perfusion in febrile convulsions with sup 123 -IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michihiro, Narumi; Ariizumi, Motomizu; Shiihara, Hiroaki; Suemitsu, Tomoko; Kurosawa, Yumiko; Egami, Yuriko (Dokkyo University Hospital, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    Twenty-five pediatric patients with febrile convulsions underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. Nineteen patients (76%) had a localized, decreased blood flow on early images, 12 of whom had it in the temporal region. According to seizure type, the abnormality was seen in 85% (17/20) for complex type, in contrast to 40% (2/5) for simple type. This finding has implications for pathological similarities between epilepsy and febrile convulsion. Delayed imaging performed on 12 patients showed redistribution in 5 of 9 patients having a decreased blood flow on early images. In the other 3 patients having normal findings on early images, however, different findings were seen on delayed images - normal, increased or decreased blood flow. There was no correlation between SPECT and encephalographic findings. A localized, decreased blood flow on SPECT seemed to reflect the risk for developing epilepsy. A follow-up care for preventing epilepsy is mandatory when there are abnormal findings on SPECT. (N.K.).

  3. 头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥的防治作用及机理研究%The Research of Mechanism and Effection in the Prevent and Therapeutic Course of Rats Febrile Convulsion with Ceftriaxone sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕊; 李俊利

    2013-01-01

      目的研究头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥时脑内谷氨酸和谷氨酸转运体表达的影响,探讨头孢曲松钠对抗高热惊厥脑损伤的机制。方法利用热水浴惊厥模型诱导出生15d后100只Wistar大鼠发生10次热性惊厥,将其分为治疗组和对照组。治疗组大鼠每次惊厥一出现立即腹腔注射头孢曲松钠(分为50mg/kg,100mg/kg,200mg/kg),对照组大鼠仅腹腔注射等量生理盐水,利用免疫组织化学方法检测正常对照组和高热惊厥组大鼠脑内谷氨酸及谷氨酸转运体的表达,并进行定性及定量分析。结果高热惊厥时脑细胞内谷氨酸表达上升,而脑细胞膜和细胞间质中的谷氨酸转运体GLT-1表达下降;接受头孢曲松钠治疗的大鼠脑细胞谷氨酸表达降低,而GLT-1表达上升并呈剂量依赖性。结论头孢曲松钠可以上调热性惊厥大鼠皮层和海马CA1区GLT-1蛋白的表达。%Objective To study the effection to the expression of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter in brain of febrile convulsion rat about ceftriaxone sodium, approach the mechanism about febrile convulsion brain injured with ceftriaxone sodium . Methods:Selected only 100 maleness Wistar rats , age of 15 days,weight 30~45g. Divided the rat into 2 groups:normal control group(20) and febrile convulsion group(80). Utilized hot bath convulsion model to induce febrile convulsion 10 times with birth 15d Wistar rats, divided it into therapy group and control group. The rat of therapy group was injected with ceftriaxone sodium immediately when the convulsion had happened,(divided into 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg three doses),the rat of control group only was injected with normal saline into partes aequales,use the method of immunohistochemistry to test and analysis the express condition of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter about in brain of normal control and febrile convulsion group rat

  4. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthik G

    2012-01-31

    We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  5. Delayed development of spontaneous seizures and prolonged convulsive state in rats after massed stimulation of the anterior piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, O A; Peterson, G M

    1997-04-18

    We studied the short- and long-term epileptogenic effects of massed stimulation (MS) of the piriform cortex. Sprague-Dawley rats with electrodes implanted bilaterally in the anterior piriform cortex and the dorsal and ventral hippocampi underwent MS: electrical stimulation of the left piriform cortex every 5 min for 6 h (afterdischarge threshold, 60 Hz, 1 ms, 1 s). Animals were retested (5 stimulations) 3-4 times later at different time points to check for the kindled state. Our data showed that MS resulted in delayed development of severe epilepsy. The interval between MS and the first appearance of convulsive response (2 weeks) was characterized by deep refractoriness to seizure (silent period). Unexpectedly, dramatic seizure activity occurred 4-7 weeks after MS. This was manifested by (1) generalized tonic-clonic convulsions with multiple failings, which were elicited repeatedly during retest; (2) frequent progression of elicited generalized convulsions into a prolonged (> 8 min) postictal convulsive state expressed mainly by continuous partial seizures and even new bouts of generalized seizures, and (3) development of mild spontaneous seizures. We found that epileptiform activity predominated in the ventral hippocampus. Mossy fiber sprouting was also most pronounced in this area. We propose that the MS resulted in formation of pathological circuits which involve both piriform cortex and ventral hippocampus and lead to severe epilepsy.

  6. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

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    Setareh Mamishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum.In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion was evaluated for detecting HHV-6 DNA by PCR. All of them were referred to emergency ward in Pediatric Medical Center from March 2010 to March 2011. General information, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and outcomes were collected in the questionnaires.One hundred children including 59 males and 41 females were evaluated. HHV-6 was detected from CSF in six patients (6% by PCR. Mean age was 8 months old. All children were younger than 12 months old. The most common primary manifestation was fever alone. None of them had rash. Majority of cases occurred in winter. All patients recovered without any encephalitis.These findings showed that primary infection with HHV-6 is frequently associated with febrile convulsion in infants which may be at risk for subsequent development of epilepsy.

  7. Characteristics of Children Admitted to the Emergency Department with Convulsive Epileptic Seizures: A Single-Center Study

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    Emel Ataş Berksoy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the etiology and characteristics of children admitted to the emergency department with an acute convulsive epileptic seizure. Methods: Data of patients who were admitted to the emergency department with a convulsive epileptic seizure were reviewed. The patients were divided into febrile seizure, first idiopathic non-febrile seizure, idiopathic epilepsy, symptomatic epilepsy, and symptomatic seizure groups. Results: A total of 335 children were included in the study. Febrile seizures were the most common cause of convulsive seizure (38.5% of all visits, followed by idiopathic epilepsy-related seizures (35.8%, symptomatic epilepsy-related seizures (8.1%, first non-febrile seizures (17.6%, and symptomatic seizures (1.5%. The mean age of the patients was 4.73 years, and it was significantly lower in patients with febrile seizures when compared to the other groups (p<0.001. Conclusion: Knowing the characteristics of children admitted to the emergency department with a convulsive epileptic seizure is important to guide appropriate management and individualized follow-up.

  8. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome

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    Karthik G Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  9. Convulsion during intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwama, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of convulsion and associated factors were retrospectively analyzed in 23 patients with symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent a total of 31 intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride (IAFH) procedures in 49 vessels. Fasudil hydrochloride was administered by superselective infusion via a microcatheter positioned at the proximal portion of the affected artery. Thirteen procedures were performed by manually controlled infusion of 30-75 mg fasudil hydrochloride (1.2-3.75 mg/ml) for approximately 10 minutes. Eighteen procedures were performed by continuous infusion of 60 mg fasudil hydrochloride (1.2 mg/ml) by infusion pump at a constant rate of 3 mg/min. Neurological improvement was observed after 18 of 22 procedures in patients with neurological deterioration due to vasospasm. Convulsion during IAFH developed in 4 patients, all treated by manual infusion (p convulsion during IAFH. IAFH was effective for treating cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH. IAFH at a constant rate of 3 mg/min delivered by infusion pump improved the symptoms of cerebral vasospasm and prevented convulsions during IAFH.

  10. Progress in studies on the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in convulsion: a short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-fang; LIU Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    Convulsion is the medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly,resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.The impaired inhibition of electrical activity in the brain is one of leading causes of convulsion.y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neuronal processes.GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is the most important inhibitory receptor,and is the target receptor of anticonvulsant drugs in the clinic.In this review,we describe GABAergic signaling mediated by GABAAR,the mechanisms of GABAAR and their expression,and the progress being made on understanding the role of GABAAR in convulsion with emphasis on the association between GABAAR mutations or GABAAR subunit expression and convulsion.We also describe progress of anticonvulsant drugs based on the GABAAR.

  11. Early induction of secretoneurin expression following kainic acid administration at convulsant doses in the rat and gerbil hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, E; Blasi, J; Ferrer, I

    2002-01-01

    The expression of secretogranin-II and its major proteolytic product secretoneurin (SN) is under the control of neuronal excitation, as demonstrated by treating rats with the excitotoxic kainic acid (KA). Differences in the structure and function of the hippocampus in rats and gerbils have been described; these suggest possible differential reactive responses to KA. In the present study, the SN immunostaining pattern in relation with cell damage is analyzed from 6 h to 4 days following KA administration in rats and gerbils. Dramatic differences in the expression of SN were found in the hippocampal complex following KA administration in gerbils and rats. A robust increase in SN immunoreactivity was detected in the pyramidal cell layer of the rat hippocampus, especially in the CA1 area. In the gerbil, however, a strong increase in SN immunostaining was detected in interneurons of the hippocampal formation, as shown by double-labeling immunohistochemistry to SN and the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin. In addition, no damage (in the hippocampal formation) or moderate damage (in the entorhinal cortex) was observed in the gerbil, in contrast to the rat. The administration of KA and the GABA-B receptor inhibitors (CGP56999A or CGP36742) to the gerbil resulted in a strong rise in SN immunoreactitivty in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, as in the rat. However, no increased cell damage was observed under these conditions. The present data provide evidence of a species-differential reactive response to KA that might be based, in part, on distinct inhibitory intrahippocampal circuitry.

  12. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Peter; Riviello, James

    2011-02-01

    Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) has a high morbidity and mortality, such that the rapid delivery of anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated within minutes of seizure onset to prevent permanent neuronal damage. GCSE is not a specific disease but is a manifestation of either a primary central nervous system (CNS) insult or a systemic disorder with secondary CNS effects. It is mandatory to look for an underlying cause. First-line therapies for seizures and status epilepticus include the use of a benzodiazepine, followed by an infusion of a phenytoin with a possible role for intravenous valproate or phenobarbital. If these first-line medications fail to terminate the GCSE, treatment includes the continuous infusion of midazolam, pentobarbital, or propofol.

  13. Convulsion due to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block: Case report

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    Cevdet Düger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Axillary brachial plexus block is an effective method of anaesthesia for the surgeries performed on the hand, forearm and distal third of the arm. However it has the risk of serious complications such as cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Levobupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic used for epidural, caudal, spinal, infiltration and peripheral nerve blocks. Levobupivacaine is the S (- isomer of racemic bupivacaine and has a lower risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine. However central system toxicity cases due to absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation has been reported. Here, we report a case having no vascular puncture during axillary brachial plexus block performance but developing convulsion due to levobupivacain after the intervention.

  14. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by mutation in KCNQ3, exon 6: a European case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Petja; Soltirovska-Salamon, Aneta; Debeljak, Marusa; Paro-Panjan, Darja

    2013-05-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare, clinically and genetically heterogenous epileptic disorder. Two voltage gated potassium genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified as genes responsible for BFNC1 and BFNC2 respectively. While as many as 73 mutations of KCNQ2 have been described up to date, only 4 mutations in KCNQ3, 3 of them appearing in exon 5, have been identified. Mutation in exon 6 was found for the first time in a Chinese family, and here we report the same missense mutation of KCNQ3 within exon 6 in a Caucasian family, whose history and clinical picture were in accordance with BFNC. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G E; van Gils, Stephan A; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalamo-cortical system that these spikes are phase-locked to the delta oscillations. We subsequently describe the physiological mechanism underlying this observation as suggested by the model. It is suggested that the spikes reflect inhibitory stochastic fluctuations in the input to thalamo-cortical relay neurons and phase-locking is a consequence of differential excitability of relay neurons over the delta cycle. Further analysis shows that the observed phase-locking can be regarded as a stochastic precursor of generalized spike-wave discharges. This study thus provides an explanation of intermittent spikes during delta oscillations in NCSE and might be generalized to other encephathologies in which delta activity can be observed.

  16. Efficacy of sublingual lorazepam versus intrarectal diazepam for prolonged convulsions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Célestin Kaputu Kalala; Kahamba, Daniel Mukeba; Walker, Timothy David; Mukampunga, Caritas; Musalu, Eric Mafuta; Kokolomani, Jacques; Mayamba, Richard Mukendi Kavulu; Wilmshurst, Jo M; Dubru, Jean-Marie; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, intrarectal diazepam is the first-line anticonvulsant mostly used in children. We aimed to assess this standard care against sublingual lorazepam, a medication potentially as effective and safe, but easier to administer. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency departments of 9 hospitals. A total of 436 children aged 5 months to 10 years with convulsions persisting for more than 5 minutes were assigned to receive intrarectal diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, n = 202) or sublingual lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg, n = 234). Sublingual lorazepam stopped seizures within 10 minutes of administration in 56% of children compared with intrarectal diazepam in 79% (P efficacious in stopping pediatric seizures than intrarectal diazepam, and intrarectal diazepam should thus be preferred as a first-line medication in this setting.

  17. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

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    Hsien-Yang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25 of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.

  18. [Analysis of the blood and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuko; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed the blood cell count and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (CwG). As a control group, age matched patients presenting with only gastroenteritis during the same period were compared. The results showed significant differences between the two groups regarding such factors as the sex ratio, serum uric acid, and serum chloride levels. All CwG patients showed hyperuricemia (10.0 +/- 2.2 mg/dL, mean +/- SD). The patients in both groups showed similar levels of metabolic acidosis. The patients with CwG therefore have both hyperuricemia and metabolic acidosis, which may contribute to the pathogenic mechanism of CwG.

  19. Gentianine protects hippocampal neurons in a rat model of recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewei Liu; Shumin Liu; Na Wang; Fang Lu; Min Cao

    2011-01-01

    Gentianine has been shown to have a protective effect on hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion (FC).The present study sought to explore the possible mechanism of gentianine by intraperitoneally injecting gentianine into rats with warm water-induced FC.The results revealed that neuronal organelle injury was slightly ameliorated in the hippocampal CA1 region.The level of glutamate was decreased,but the level of γ-aminobutyric acid was increased,as detected by ninhydrin staining.In addition,glutamate acid decarboxylase expression in hippocampal CA1 was increased,as determined by immunohistochemistry.The results demonstrated that gentianine can ameliorate FC-induced neuronal injury by enhancing glutamate acid decarboxylase activity,decreasing glutamate levels and increasing γ-aminobutyric acid levels.

  20. Clinical and genetic analysis of two Chinese families with benign familial neonatal convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haiyan; TANG Beisha; XIA Kun; CAO Guifang; SHEN Lu; JIANG Hong; PAN Qian; SONG Yanmin; CAI Fang

    2005-01-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited epilepsy syndrome. Two voltagegated potassium channel genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified as the genes responsible for BFNC. Here we report two Chinese families with clinical histories of typical BFNC. Using six microsatellite markers, two located at KCNQ2 locus and four at KCNQ3 locus, linkage analysis was performed in the two families, which excluded the linkage of BFNC to KCNQ3, but could not exclude the linkage to KCNQ2. Direct DNA sequencing of the KCNQ2 gene in the two families was performed, and two formerly unknown polymorphisms were identified, but no KCNQ2 mutation was found in the two families. Our study suggests the genetic heterogeneity in Chinese families with BFNC and proves the existence of a new gene locus for BFNC.

  1. Base deficit and serum lactate concentration in patients with post traumatic convulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Parchani, Ashok; Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Alajaj, Raghad; Elazzazy, Shereen; Latifi, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and has been reported to be one of the risk factors for epileptic seizures. Abnormal blood lactate (LAC) and base deficit (BD) reflects hypoperfusion and could be used as metabolic markers to predict the outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic value of BD and LAC levels for post traumatic convulsion (PTC) in head injury patients. Materials and Methods: All head injury patients with PTC were studied for the demographics profile, mechanism of injury, initial vital signs, and injury severity score (ISS), respiratory rates, CT scan findings, and other laboratory investigations. The data were obtained from the trauma registry and medical records. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: Amongst 3082 trauma patients, 1584 were admitted to the hospital. Of them, 401 patients had head injury. PTC was observed in 5.4% (22/401) patients. Out of the 22 head injury patients, 10 were presented with the head injury alone, whereas 12 patients had other associated injuries. The average age of the patients was 25 years, comprising predominantly of male patients (77%). Neither glasgow coma scale nor ISS had correlation with BD or LAC in the study groups. The mean level of BD and LAC was not statistically different in PTC group compared to controls. However, BD was significantly higher in patients with associated injuries than the isolated head injury group. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation amongst the two groups as far as LAC levels are concerned. Conclusion: Base deficit but not lactic acid concentration was significantly higher in head injury patients with associated injuries. Early resuscitation by pre-hospital personnel and in the trauma room might have impact in minimizing the effect of post traumatic convulsion on BD and LAC. PMID:27057221

  2. Automated Video Detection of Epileptic Convulsion Slowing as a Precursor for Post-Seizure Neuronal Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitzin, Stiliyan N; Bauer, Prisca R; Lamberts, Robert J; Velis, Demetrios N; Thijs, Roland D; Lopes Da Silva, Fernando H

    2016-12-01

    Automated monitoring and alerting for adverse events in people with epilepsy can provide higher security and quality of life for those who suffer from this debilitating condition. Recently, we found a relation between clonic slowing at the end of a convulsive seizure (CS) and the occurrence and duration of a subsequent period of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES). Prolonged periods of PGES can be predicted by the amount of progressive increase of interclonic intervals (ICIs) during the seizure. The purpose of the present study is to develop an automated, remote video sensing-based algorithm for real-time detection of significant clonic slowing that can be used to alert for PGES. This may help preventing sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The technique is based on our previously published optical flow video sequence processing paradigm that was applied for automated detection of major motor seizures. Here, we introduce an integral Radon-like transformation on the time-frequency wavelet spectrum to detect log-linear frequency changes during the seizure. We validate the automated detection and quantification of the ICI increase by comparison to the results from manually processed electroencephalography (EEG) traces as "gold standard". We studied 48 cases of convulsive seizures for which synchronized EEG-video recordings were available. In most cases, the spectral ridges obtained from Gabor-wavelet transformations of the optical flow group velocities were in close proximity to the ICI traces detected manually from EEG data during the seizure. The quantification of the slowing-down effect measured by the dominant angle in the Radon transformed spectrum was significantly correlated with the exponential ICI increase factors obtained from manual detection. If this effect is validated as a reliable precursor of PGES periods that lead to or increase the probability of SUDEP, the proposed method would provide an efficient alerting device.

  3. Binding interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant gamma-butyrolactones and gamma-thiobutyrolactones with the picrotoxin receptor

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    Holland, K.D.; McKeon, A.C.; Covey, D.F.; Ferrendelli, J.A. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Alkyl-substituted gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) and gamma-thiobutyrolactones (TBLs) are neuroactive chemicals. beta-Substituted compounds are convulsant, whereas alpha-alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs are anticonvulsant. The structural similarities between beta-alkyl GBLs and the convulsant picrotoxinin suggested that alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs act at the picrotoxin receptor. To test this hypothesis we examined the interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs with the picrotoxin, benzodiazepine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding sites of the GABA receptor complex. All of these convulsants and anticonvulsants studied competitively displaced 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS), a ligand that binds to the picrotoxin receptor. This inhibition of 35S-TBPS binding was not blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline methobromide. The convulsant GBLs and TBLs also partially inhibited (3H)muscimol binding to the GABA site and (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the benzodiazepine site, but they did so at concentrations substantially greater than those that inhibited 35S-TBPS binding. The anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs had no effect on either (3H)muscimol or (3H)flunitrazepam binding. In contrast to the GBLs and TBLs, pentobarbital inhibited TBPS binding in a manner that was blocked by bicuculline methobromide, and it enhanced both (3H)flunitrazepam and (3H)muscimol binding. Both ethosuximide and tetramethylsuccinimide, neuroactive compounds structurally similar to GBLs, competitively displaced 35S-TBPS from the picrotoxin receptor and both compounds were weak inhibitors of (3H) muscimol binding. In addition, ethosuximide also partially diminished (3H)flunitrazepam binding. These data demonstrate that the site of action of alkyl-substituted GBLs and TBLs is different from that of GABA, barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

  4. Neuropharmacological effects of alfa-cypermethrin in rats

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    Manna S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of α-cypermethrin (α-CP on some neuropharmacological paradigms like motor coordination, pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and pentylenetetrazole-induced (PTZ convulsion as well as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA level in rat brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino Wistar rats were the experimental animals. Different neuropharmacological paradigms like motor coordination (determined by rotarod, pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and PTZ-induced convulsion were carried out following oral administration of α-CP at two dose levels i.e., 145 mg/kg (LD50 and 14.5 mg/kg (1/10LD50, while the level of GABA in the brain of rats was estimated by HPLC after single-dose oral administration of α-CP at 145 mg/kg. RESULTS: α-CP induced significant motor incoordination, decreased the time of onset and increased the duration of sleeping time induced by pentobarbitone; and also decreased the time of onset and increased the duration of convulsion induced by PTZ at the dose levels of 145 mg/kg (LD50 and 14.5 mg/kg (1/10 LD50 respectively. Further α-CP decreased brain GABA levels in the cerebellum and in whole brain (except cerebellum significantly at LD50 dose level. CONCLUSION: A correlation between the effect of α-CP on central GABA levels and its neuropharmacological effects can be hypothesized.

  5. The role of potassium BK channels in anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol in pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock models of seizure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-zand, Zahra; Ahmad-Molaei, Leila; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Naderi, Nima

    2013-07-01

    Cannabidiol is a nonpsychoactive member of phytocannabinoids that produces various pharmacological effects that are not mediated through putative CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and their related effectors. In this study, we examined the effect of the i.c.v. administration of potassium BK channel blocker paxilline alone and in combination with cannabidiol in protection against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure in mice. In the PTZ-induced seizure model, i.c.v. administration of cannabidiol caused a significant increase in seizure threshold compared with the control group. Moreover, while i.c.v. administration of various doses of paxilline did not produce significant change in the PTZ-induced seizure threshold in mice, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline attenuated the antiseizure effect of cannabidiol in PTZ-induced tonic seizures. In the MES model of seizure, both cannabidiol and paxilline per se produced significant increase in percent protection against electroshock-induced seizure. However, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline did not produce significant interaction in their antiseizure effect in the MES test. The results of the present study showed a protective effect of cannabidiol in both PTZ and MES models of seizure. These results suggested a BK channel-mediated antiseizure action of cannabidiol in PTZ model of seizure. However, such an interaction might not exist in MES-induced convulsion.

  6. Nursing Analysis of 57 Cases of Infantile Convulsion%57例小儿惊厥的护理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的:分析小儿惊厥护理的临床经验,使因惊厥给患儿带来的损伤降低,改善患儿的预后。方法:对本院2010年6月-2011年6月收治的57例惊厥患儿的护理进行回顾性分析,采取保持呼吸道畅通,吸氧,口腔、皮肤护理,高温护理,心理护理等护理措施。结果:57例患儿中,病毒性脑炎、高热、低钙伴惊厥者无一例并发症发生,全部治愈出院;缺血缺氧性脑病伴惊厥的患儿病情得到及时控制,好转出院。结论:护理操作规范、重视基础护理、保证营养供给、及时供氧、认真观察病情变化能够有效提高治愈率,改善患儿预后,减少并发症。%Objective:To analyze seizures on children nursing clinical experience,and reduce the damage caused to the children because of convulsions,and improve the prognosis of infantile convulsion.Method:Nursing care of 57 cases of children with infantile convulsion in our hospital from June 2010 to June 2011 were analyzed retrospectively,the nursing measures include taken to keep the airway open,oxygen,mouth,skin care,high temperature care,psychological care and so on.Result:In the 57 cases of children with infantile convulsion,the concomitant by viral encephalitis,fever and hypocalcaemia in patients without complications occurred,and all cured.The children of Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with convulsion receive timely control condition,cured and discharged from hospital.Conclusion:Nursing practice,timely attention to primary care,ensure the supply of nutrients,oxygen therapy,and careful observation of the disease changes are the effectively measures to improve cure rates and the prognosis of children with convulsion,reduce complications.

  7. Anticonvulsant activity of an active fraction extracted from Crinum jagus L. (Amaryllidaceae), and its possible effects on fully kindled seizures, depression-like behaviour and oxidative stress in experimental rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Tchoya, Thierry Bang; Menanga, Joseph Renaud; Dabole, Bernard; De Waard, Michel

    2016-12-24

    effect. The animals did not exhibit any acute toxicity to C4.4 at the therapeutic doses. These results suggest that pretreatment with C4.4 ameliorates convulsions-induced by PTZ, protects mice against kindling development, depression-like behaviour and oxidative stress in PTZ-kindled mice. These finding provides scientific rationale for the use of Crinum jagus extracts for the amelioration of epilepsy observed in traditional medicine in Cameroon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on gerbil behavior after hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang Zhou; Changyun Liu; Yiqun Fang; Yingqi Zhou; Erli Xu; Jingchang Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor can prolong the latency of hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion (HBOC). However, there are very few reports addressing the influence of NOS inhibitor on mental behavior.OBJECTIVE: To investigate behavioral changes after HBOC in gerbils, as well as the influence of NOS inhibitor.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Hyperbaric Pressure and Diving Physiology, Naval Medical Research Institute of Chinese PLA (Shanghai,China) from March 2005 to June 2007.MATERIALS: Forty male gerbils were randomly divided into five groups: HBOC, saline control, NOS inhibitor, pressure control, and normal control. Each group contained eight animals.METHODS: In the HBOC group, once depression induction ended, animals were removed from the chamber five minutes after the first appearance of generalized convulsion induced by 0.5 MPa hyperbaric oxygen. Ten minutes before entering the chamber, saline control and NOS inhibitor animals were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL saline and 20 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine, respectively. The pressure control group was only exposed to 0.5 MPa. The remaining procedures in these three groups were identical to the HBOC group. The normal control group received no intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Open field test scores in gerbils prior to HBOC, as well as immediately,24 hours, and 72 hours after decompression ended.RESULTS: HBOC was not detected in either the normal control or the pressure control group, and there were no significant differences in opcn field test scores prior to and after HBOC (P > 0.05). HBOC occurred in the HBOC, saline control, and NOS inhibitor groups, with significant differences in open field test scores after decompression ended compared to normal control and pressure control groups (P < 0.05-0.01).Compared to the HBOC and saline control groups, the NOS inhibitor group exhibited a significantly lower score in

  9. Relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rate and convulsion as an adverse effect chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Andid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on the relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rale and convulsion as an adverse effect of chemotherapy was conducted in leukemia patients of the hematology-oncology subdivision, Departmenl of Child Health, Medical School, University of North Sumatra, Medan. Of 114 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 81 (71.05% received chemotherapy, 31 patients among them was in good general condition. Remission rate of the 31 patients was 80.6% (25 children. Whereas in the remaining 50 patients, the remission rate among them was 84% (42 patients. There was no significant relationship between their general condition to the recurrence rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients who had been administered chemotherapy during induction phase. Convulsion was found In 2 cases, due to CNS leukemia.

  10. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    of their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded...... if they had already been included, if their parents had no Danish address or if the questionnaire was not returned after a reminder was sent. RESULTS: In the period of investigation, 333 children were eligible for inclusion, 290 questionnaires were sent, and 235 were returned, giving a response rate of 81......%. The median age was 1 year (range: 0-7 years). In general, parents were satisfied with the MECU. Reasons of dissatisfaction are described. Most children (76%) were admitted without physician escort. A total of 37 children (16%) received diazepam therapy, of whom 15 (6%) were given intravenous diazepam. In 90...

  11. Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

    OpenAIRE

    Glauser, Tracy; Shinnar, Shlomo; Gloss, David; Alldredge, Brian; Arya, Ravindra; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bare, Mary; Bleck, Thomas; Dodson, W. Edwin; Garrity, Lisa; Jagoda, Andy; Lowenstein, Daniel; Pellock, John; Riviello, James; Sloan, Edward

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized cont...

  12. Parent and caregiver knowledge, beliefs, and responses to convulsive seizures in children in Kingston, Jamaica - A hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Parkinson, Debra; Tapper, Judy; Melbourne-Chambers, Roxanne

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs about seizures and actions during seizures of parents/caregivers of Jamaican children hospitalized for convulsive seizures. This was a cross-sectional study of parents and caregivers of children with acute convulsive seizures hospitalized at the Bustamante Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica between May 1 and October 31, 2013. Subjects were identified by admission records. Parents/caregivers were invited to participate. A questionnaire on the demographics, knowledge, beliefs, and response of parents/caregivers during the child's current seizure episode was administered face to face. Data were analyzed for frequencies: groups were compared using chi-square analysis for categorical variables, Student's t-test for normally distributed data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test for data not normally distributed. There were fifty participants: 39 (78%) mothers, mean (SD) age - 33.8 (10.1) years. All sought medical care first. Twenty-two (44%) had plausible beliefs about the cause of seizures. Twenty-seven (54%) knew of appropriate actions during a seizure, 10 (20%) knew of appropriate precautions, and 11 (22%) responded appropriately during the seizure. Eleven (22%) reported receiving seizure education. Witnessing a previous seizure, education level, and seizure education were associated with knowledge of seizures (pSocioeconomic status was higher in those with plausible beliefs about seizures and lower in those who took appropriate action during a seizure (pParents/caregivers of children with convulsive seizures have appropriate health-care seeking behavior, but most do not have appropriate knowledge about seizures. Few take appropriate action during the episode. A public education program is needed to improve parental knowledge of and response to convulsive seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byarugaba Justus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments. In addition, seizures in malaria have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. The management of seizures in malaria is sometimes complicated by the refractory nature of these seizures to readily available anti-convulsants. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence after initial control among children with malaria. Methods In a previous study, the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam was compared to that of rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in children aged three months to 12 years in Kampala, Uganda. For this study, predictive models were used to determine risk factors for anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence among the 221 of these children with malaria. Results Using predictive models, focal seizures (OR 3.21; 95% CI 1.42–7.25, p = 0.005, cerebral malaria (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.20–4.91, p = 0.01 and a blood sugar ≥200 mg/dl at presentation (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.11–7.20, p = 0.02 were independent predictors of treatment failure (seizure persistence beyond 10 minutes or recurrence within one hour of treatment. Predictors of seizure recurrence included: 1 cerebral malaria (HR 3.32; 95% CI 1.94–5.66, p Conclusion Specific predictors, including cerebral malaria, can identify patients with malaria at risk of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence.

  14. The experience of nursing for infantile convulsion%小儿惊厥50例护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析小儿惊厥的护理过程,总结护理体会。方法:对我院儿科2012年1月至2012年11月收治的50例惊厥患儿进行积极抢救、严密的病情观察及细致的基础护理。结果:本组50例患儿经过积极的救治和精心的护理,治愈47例(94.0%),好转2例(4.0)%,无效1例(2.0%)。结论:抢救和治疗处理恰当,护理措施科学严谨是保证惊厥患儿救治成功的关键。%Objective:To study the methods and effect of nursing for infantile convulsion. Methods:Choosed 50 infantile convulsion from Jan. 2012 to Nov. 2012 with positive rescue basis of close observation and careful nursing. Results:There were 47 cases cured (94.0%), 2 cases recovered (4.0%), and 1 cases invalid (2.0%). Conclusion:Emergence care, proper treatment and scientific nursing are important of infantile convulsion.

  15. Generalized Models for the Classification of Abnormal Movements in Daily Life and its Applicability to Epilepsy Convulsion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José R; Vergara, Paula; Menéndez, Manuel; de la Cal, Enrique; González, Víctor M; Sedano, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The identification and the modeling of epilepsy convulsions during everyday life using wearable devices would enhance patient anamnesis and monitoring. The psychology of the epilepsy patient penalizes the use of user-driven modeling, which means that the probability of identifying convulsions is driven through generalized models. Focusing on clonic convulsions, this pre-clinical study proposes a method for generating a type of model that can evaluate the generalization capabilities. A realistic experimentation with healthy participants is performed, each with a single 3D accelerometer placed on the most affected wrist. Unlike similar studies reported in the literature, this proposal makes use of [Formula: see text] cross-validation scheme, in order to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the models. Event-based error measurements are proposed instead of classification-error measurements, to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the model, and Fuzzy Systems are proposed as the generalization modeling technique. Using this method, the experimentation compares the most common solutions in the literature, such as Support Vector Machines, [Formula: see text]-Nearest Neighbors, Decision Trees and Fuzzy Systems. The event-based error measurement system records the results, penalizing those models that raise false alarms. The results showed the good generalization capabilities of Fuzzy Systems.

  16. Diagnosis and emergency treatment of convulsion in children%儿童惊厥的诊断与急救处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建民

    2011-01-01

    Convulsion is a common pediatric emergency and the most frequent clinical feature among the diseases of nervous system in children.Convulsion emergencies are potèntially life-threatening events.Brief convulsions rarely produce lasting effects on the brain.Prolonged convulsions,especially status epilepticus,can lead to permanent neurologic damage.Airway management and timely termination of the convulsion are the initial priorities.Early recognition and accurate diagnosis are crucial for effective emergency treatment of convulsion.%惊厥是常见儿科急症,也是最常见的小儿神经系统症状,有些惊厥可能危及患儿生命.一般短暂的惊厥对大脑几乎没有明显影响,但长程惊厥尤其是癫(痫)持续状态则可能导致神经系统永久损害.气道管理和及时控制惊厥发作是最优先考虑的急救处理措施.小儿惊厥的早期识别和正确诊断是急诊治疗成功的关键.

  17. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kämppi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE. Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p=0.027, onset-to-burst-suppression (p=0.005, and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p=0.035 delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated.

  18. A tautology in the classification of generalized non-convulsive epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, M; Fujiwara, T; Miyakoshi, M; Yagi, K

    1980-01-01

    Five patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who have shown generalized nonconvulsive seizures were presented. The seizure manifestations which occurred spontaneously were documented by simultaneous recording and analyzed in terms of clinical and electroencephalographic correlates. According to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification, it was possible, on the one hand, to regard them as "atypical complex absences" in which the impairment of consciousness is accompanied by other symptoms, which tend to dominate the clinical picture. They were: hypotonic, hypertonic, myoclonic and akinetic components, respectively. On the other hand, if we give a special weight to the accompanying symptoms, it is entirely possible that they are at the same time diagnosed atonic, axial tonic, bilateral myoclonic and akinetic seizures. The initial impairment of consciousness is common to all the seizure manifestations, and the ictal and interictal EEG expressions are not of diagnostic significance. A question arises as to whether two different nomenclatures were arbitrarily given to a unique ictal manifestation or not as far as the generalized non-convulsive seizures were concerned.

  19. A novel mutation of KCNQ3 gene in a Chinese family with benign familial neonatal convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Nan; Shen, Lu; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Qian; Song, Yanmin; Guo, Jifeng; Xia, Kun; Pan, Qian; Tang, Beisha

    2008-03-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC, also named benign familial neonatal seizures, BFNS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited epilepsy syndrome with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Two voltage-gated potassium channel subunit genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified to cause BFNC1 and BFNC2, respectively. To date, only three mutations of KCNQ3, all located within exon 5, have been reported. By limited linkage analysis and mutation analysis of KCNQ3 in a Chinese family with BFNC, we identified a novel missense mutation of KCNQ3, c.988C>T located within exon 6. c.988C>T led to the substitution Cys for Arg in amino acid position 330 (p.R330C) in KCNQ3 potassium channel, which possibly impaired the neuronal M-current and altered neuronal excitability. Seizures of all BFNC patients started from day 2 to 3 after birth and remitted during 1 month, and no recurrence was found. One family member who displayed fever-associated seizures for two times at age 5 years and was diagnosed as febrile seizures, however, did not carry this mutation, which suggests that febrile seizures and BFNC have different pathogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of KCNQ3 mutation in Chinese family with BFNC.

  20. Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children: Etiology, Associated Risk Factors and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Mohammad; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Galegolab Behbehani, Afshin; Tabrizi, Aidin

    2015-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening disease in children wherein the patient's convulsive seizures do not respond to adequate initial anticonvulsants. RSE is associated with high rate of mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to survey the risk factors leading status epilepticus (SE) to RSE in children, and their early outcome. Patients with SE hospitalized in Tabriz Children's Hospital, Iran were studied during the years 2007 and 2008 with regard to their clinical profile, etiology, the treatment methods available to them and their outcome upon release from the hospital. Among 132 patients with SE, 53 patients (40.15%) suffered from RSE. Acute symptomatic etiology was a risk factor responsible for developing RSE in the patient (P=0.004). Encephalitis was the most common etiology of acute symptomatic SE. There was no significant relationship observed between RSE and the patients' age, gender, date of initial drug intake and type of seizure. The mortality rate was 8.3% and a new neurological deficit occurred in 25.7% of cases. None of RSE with encephalitis returned to the baseline status. Mortality and morbidity rates were significantly higher in children with RSE than in those with SE (P=0.006). Etiology of SE significantly influenced prognosis of it with significant incidence of RSE in acute symptomatic group. Because acute neurological insult such as encephalitis and meningitis are common causes of RSE in children, properly management of them is necessary to avoid permanent brain damage.

  1. Canine parvovirus type 2c infection in a kitten associated with intracranial abscess and convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-04-01

    A case of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in a 3-month-old feral kitten with a cerebral abscess and neurological disease is reported. The cat displayed ataxia and convulsions together with signs of gastroenteritis and profound alteration of the total and differential white blood cell counts. A parvovirus strain was detected by a TaqMan assay in the blood and faeces of the affected kitten, which was characterised as CPV by means of molecular assays but did not react with any of the CPV type-specific probes. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2-protein gene, the CPV-2c strain displayed a non-coding mutation in the probe-binding region. Although the role of CPV-2c in this particular case is unclear, it is possible that it predisposed the kitten to the clinical signs seen. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor future spreading of this CPV-2c mutant, and any associated clinical signs, in the dog and cat population.

  2. Efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Bavarian, Behrouz; Zarch, Anoushiravan Vakili; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Kompani, Farshid

    2010-09-01

    A Prolonged convulsive seizure is the most common neurological medical emergency with poor outcome. An ideal anticonvulsant should be easy-to-use, effective, and safe, and it should also have a long-lasting effect. Benzodiazepines, give via the intravenous or rectal route have generally been used as first-line drugs. In small children, IV access can be difficult and time consuming. Midazolam is a potent anticonvulsant and is rapidly absorbed from the rectal, nasal, and buccal mucosa. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling seizures in children with acute prolonged seizures, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. Ninety-eight patients were enrolled, with 49 patients in each treatment group. In the buccal midazolam group, 42 (88%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min of drug administration, and all of the patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. In the rectal diazepam group, 24 (49%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min and 40 (82%) patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. The time for drug administration and drug effect was significantly less with buccal midazolam than with rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam group, 7 (14%) parents were satisfied. Buccal midazolam was significantly more acceptable than rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam but more convenient to use in the controlling acute prolonged seizures in children, especially in situations in which there is a difficulty in gaining IV access, for example, in infants.

  3. Anticonvulsant and proconvulsant roles of nitric oxide in experimental epilepsy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del-Bel E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acute (120 mg/kg and chronic (25 mg/kg, twice a day, for 4 days intraperitonial injection of the nitric oxide (NO synthase (NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG was evaluated on seizure induction by drugs such as pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and by sound stimulation of audiogenic seizure-resistant (R and audiogenic seizure-susceptible (S rats. Seizures were elicited by a subconvulsant dose of pilocarpine (100 mg/kg only after NOS inhibition. NOS inhibition also simultaneously potentiated the severity of PTZ-induced limbic seizures (60 mg/kg and protected against PTZ-induced tonic seizures (80 mg/kg. The audiogenic seizure susceptibility of S or R rats did not change after similar treatments. In conclusion, proconvulsant effects of NOS inhibition are suggested to occur in the pilocarpine model and in the limbic components of PTZ-induced seizures, while an anticonvulsant role is suggested for the tonic seizures induced by higher doses of PTZ, revealing inhibitor-specific interactions with convulsant dose and also confirming the hypothesis that the effects of NOS inhibitors vary with the model of seizure

  4. Dom João VI's death: convulsions and coma Morte de Dom João VI: convulsões e coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dom João VI's death occurred in adverse political conditions that led to the regicide hypothesis. The main aim of this paper is to mention life style and conditions of the death of the king by means of narrative review based on primary and secondary sources. Dom João VI died in the way of convulsions and gastrointestinal symptoms. This could be the result of the pathological chain of genetic determination, accentuated by the inappropriate life style, obesity and sedentary habits, and/or poisoning. The finding of arsenic in high doses in his viscera favors the last hypothesis as the basic cause of death, but one can not discard the atherosclerosis predisposing risk factors for a final stroke.A morte de Dom João VI aconteceu em condições políticas adversas que conduziram à hipótese de regicídio. O objetivo principal deste artigo é mencionar o estilo de vida e condições da morte do rei por meio de revisão narrativa baseada em fontes primárias e secundárias. Dom João VI morreu apresentando convulsões e sintomas gastrointestinais. Esse poderia ser o resultado da cadeia patológica de determinação genética, acentuada pelo estilo de vida inapropriado, obesidade e/ou envenenamento. O achado de arsênico em doses altas nas suas vísceras aponta a última hipótese como a causa básica da morte, mas não se pode descartar a aterosclerose como fator de risco predisponente para um acidente vascular cerebral final.

  5. Immediate and Delayed Drug Therapy Effects on Low Dose Sarin Exposed Mice Myocardial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    about 1% a day. Diazepam is only used in cases of extreme nerve agent exposure to prevent brain injury caused by convulsions and seizures (USAMRID...These mice were evaluated at week nine and then micro -osmotic pumps (model 1007D from Alzet®) were implanted to administer doses of saline (20mg...using Schwartz micro -serrefine clips. The first lead was placed below the neck line in the dorsal thoracic region near the front right leg; the second

  6. 微量泵维持静脉注射咪达唑仑治疗惊厥持续状态疗效观察%Clinical effect of continuous infusion of midazolam in the treatment of infants' status convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淮祥; 周瑞; 陈兰举; 陈娟娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect and safe of continuous infusion of midazolam in the treatment of infants' status convulsion. Methods 104 cases of infants with status convulsion were randomly assigned into midazolam group or diazepam group: Midazolam 59 cases in Midazolam group were initially given first-dose of midazolam 0. 1 ~0. 2 mg ·kg-1 intravenously, and after that given maintenance dose of 0.1 ~0. 2 mg · kg-1 · h-1 ,iv,continuously;45 cases in Diazepam group were initiated with a loading dose of 0.2 ~0.3 mg · kg-1. After initial dose,a maintenance dose of 0. 1 ~0. 2 mg · kg-1 · h-1 was added. Each medicine was administered with a virtual safe dose according to condition of seizures. The dose and efficacy of midazolam or diazepam were evaluated,the side effect in these infants were observed too. Results The effective rates in the midazolam group and diazepam group were 94.9% and 80% , respectively. There was a significant deviation(x2 =4.65 P 0.05) in the midazol.fim group, Conclusion Intravenous midazolam infusion may be more effective tnan diazepam infusion in controlling infants status convulsion, in addition, midazolam has minor influence on circulatorium system.%目的 研究咪达唑仑持续静脉泵入治疗小儿惊厥持续状态的临床效果及价值.方法 选择惊厥持续状态患儿104例,随机分为两组:咪达唑仑组59例,地西泮组45例.咪达唑仑组静脉注射负荷量0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1后,以0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1·h-1持续泵入;地西泮组静脉注射负荷量0.2~0.3 mg·kg-1后,以0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1·h-1持续泵入.两组均根据惊厥发作次数调整至有效安全剂量,并维持至减量停药.观察两组患儿用药剂量、治疗有效性及不良反应.结果 咪达唑仑组和地西泮组有效率分别是94.9%和80%,二组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.65,P<0.05);咪达唑仑对心率、血压无明显影响,而地西泮组心率、血压有明显降低(P<0.05).结论 咪达唑仑比地西泮

  7. On large screen display system PTZ control of mine monitoring system in Yuhua coal mine%玉华煤矿监控系统大屏显示及云台控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明卿; 王东武

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced the multi-channel video signal acquisition and processing,PIP display and adjustment of size and position of sub-picture of new monitoring system used in Yuhua coal mine.The system can completes the multi-channel video picture display on big screen and real time control of PTZ by processing the video data with FPGA and NiosII core.This technology has good effect in production scheduling and productivity promotion.%介绍了玉华煤矿新的监控系统,系统主要由图像采集模块、图像处理模块、图像显示模块以及云台控制模块构成。利用FPGA和NiosII核对数据量大、速度高、控制复杂的视频数据进行处理,从而完成多路视频图像在大屏幕上进行播放画中画及云台实时控制的功能,应用效果良好。

  8. Electroencephalographic features of convulsive epilepsy in Africa: A multicentre study of prevalence, pattern and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; White, Steven; Chengo, Eddie; Wagner, Ryan G.; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Masanja, Honorati; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Sander, Josemir W.; Neville, Brian G.; Newton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence and pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) features of epilepsy and the associated factors in Africans with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE). Methods We characterized electroencephalographic features and determined associated factors in a sample of people with ACE in five African sites. Mixed-effects modified Poisson regression model was used to determine factors associated with abnormal EEGs. Results Recordings were performed on 1426 people of whom 751 (53%) had abnormal EEGs, being an adjusted prevalence of 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.5–2.9) per 1000. 52% of the abnormal EEG had focal features (75% with temporal lobe involvement). The frequency and pattern of changes differed with site. Abnormal EEGs were associated with adverse perinatal events (risk ratio (RR) = 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07–1.33)), cognitive impairments (RR = 1.50 (95% CI, 1.30–1.73)), use of anti-epileptic drugs (RR = 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49)), focal seizures (RR = 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.19)) and seizure frequency (RR = 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10–1.26) for daily seizures; RR = 1.22 (95% CI, 1.10–1.35) for weekly seizures and RR = 1.15 (95% CI, 1.03–1.28) for monthly seizures)). Conclusions EEG abnormalities are common in Africans with epilepsy and are associated with preventable risk factors. Significance EEG is helpful in identifying focal epilepsy in Africa, where timing of focal aetiologies is problematic and there is a lack of neuroimaging services. PMID:26337840

  9. Non-convulsive status epilepticus after ischemic stroke: a hospital-based stroke cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; Vidale, Simone; Gorgone, Gaetano; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Sironi, Luigi; Arnaboldi, Marco; Pisani, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate in the setting of a stroke unit ward the usefulness of a prolonged (>6 h) video-EEG recording (PVEEG) in identifying non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Predictors of NCSE were also evaluated. Patients with an acute ischemic stroke, referred to our unit, were included in this prospective observational study. A PVEEG recording was implemented after stroke in all patients during the first week: (a) promptly in those exhibiting a clear or suspected epileptic manifestation; (b) at any time during the routine activity in the remaining patients. After the first week, a standard EEG/PVEEG recording was hooked up only in presence of an evident or suspected epileptic manifestation or as control of a previous epileptic episode. NCSE was identified in 32 of the 889 patients (3.6 %) included in the study. It occurred early (within the first week) in 20/32 (62.5 %) patients and late in the remaining 12. Diagnosis was made on the basis of a specific clinical suspect (n = 19, 59.4 %) or without any suspect (n = 13, 40.6 %). In a multivariate analysis, a significant association of NCSE was observed with NIHSS score, infarct size and large atherothrombotic etiology. NCSE is not a rare event after an acute ischemic stroke and a delayed diagnosis could worsen patient prognosis. Since NCSE can be difficult to be diagnosed only on clinical grounds, implementation of a prompt PVEEG should be kept available in a stroke unit whenever a patient develop signs, although subtle, consistent with NCSE.

  10. Clinical and neurophysiological features of active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: a population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyoki, Gilbert; Edwards, Tansy; White, Steve; Kwasa, Thomas; Chengo, Eddie; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Odera, Victor Mung’ala; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian George; Newton, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa but is poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and may not reflect the situation in rural areas with limited access to medical care. We examined people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), to determine if the clinical features could help elucidate the causes. Methods We conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of 445 people with ACE identified through a community-based survey of 151,408 people in rural Kenya, including the examination of electroencephalograms. Results Approximately half of the 445 people with ACE were children or adolescents. Seizures began in childhood in 78% of those diagnosed. An episode of status epilepticus was recalled by 36% cases, with an episode of status epilepticus precipitated by fever in 26%. Overall 169 had an abnormal electroencephalogram, 29% had focal features, 34% had epileptiform activity. In the 146 individuals who reported generalised tonic-clonic seizures only, 22% had focal features on their electroencephalogram. Overall 71% of patients with ACE had evidence of focal abnormality, documented by partial onset seizures, focal neurological deficits or focal abnormalities on the electroencephalogram. Increased seizure frequency was strongly associated with age and cognitive impairment in all ages and non-attendance at school in children (p < 0.01). Discussion Children and adolescents bear the brunt of epilepsy in a rural population in Africa. The predominance of focal features and the high proportion of patients with status epilepticus, suggests that much of the epilepsy in this region has identifiable causes, many of which could be prevented. PMID:20608962

  11. PSEUDOTUMORAL FORM OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS WITH SYMPTOMATIC CONVULSIVE SEIZURES (A CLINICAL CASE

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    Yu. A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is prominent among central nervous system diseases. It affects chiefly young people and almost inevitably results in disability. In the past decade, there has been an upward trend for the prevalence of MS worldwide; in particular, the higher prevalence of this disease has been registered in the Moscow Region, which is associated with both an objective increase in its morbidity and improvement of specialized care to the population in the region. MS is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. However, paroxysmal disturbances are referred to as the rare symptoms of MS: the incidence of epileptic seizures in this condition is 0.89 to 7.5% according to the literature data. In addition to the clinical form of MS, there are its rare malignant atypical forms that also include its pseudotumoral form characterized by intrinsic neuroimaging and clinical signs that are different from the classical form of MS and another abnormality of the central nervous system. The pseudotumoral form of MS is characterized by the development of acute focal demyelination that appears as a large focus of an increased magnetic resonance signal with perifocal edema as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging. A pseudotumoral focus of demyelination can occur both at the onset of MS and during its recurrent course. The atypical onset of MS is a special challenge because of diagnostic problems, which may lead to erroneous therapeutic policy and have a negative impact on the late prognosis of the disease. The authors provide a clinical case of the pseudotumoral form of MS with convulsive seizures at the onset of demyelinating disease. The problems of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  12. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

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    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available objectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI among children with febrile convulsion (FC.Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients (82 boys, 55 girls was as follows: 1-6 monthsof age, 1 infant (0.7%; 6-12 months, 21 infants (15.3%; 1-3 years, 75 (54.8%;3-5 years, 30 (21.9%; and more than 5 years, 10 (7.3%. Three out of the 82boys and 6 out of the 55 girls had UTI (3.7% vs. 10.9%, total, 6.6%. The agedistribution of these 9 patients was as follows: 1-6 months, 1 patient (11.1%;7-12 months, 5 (55.6%; and 1-3 years, 3 (33.3%. The relative incidence of UTIwas 6.6%. The most common organisms causing infections were Escherichiacoli in 8 and Proteus spp., in 1 patient (88.8% vs. 11.1%. Simple FC was seenin all 9 patients with UTI.ConclusionIn this study, the relative frequency of UTI among children with FC was 6.6%and this frequency was higher that the incidence of UTI in girls and boys(3-5% and 1%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that UTI should beconsidered as an important cause of FC in children.

  13. EFFICACY OF SINGLE LOADING DOSE OF MAGNESIUM SULFAT E IN ECLAMPSIA

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    Meenakshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Eclampsia is a life threatening condition and it va ries from countries to countries .The incidence in our countr y varies from 5-10%. The first and foremost thing in management of eclampsia is control of conv ulsions. Magnesium sulphate has established itself as the drug of choice for the an ticonvulsant management of eclampsia but the question as to what constitutes the Minimum effecti ve dose remains unanswered which is evident from the different regimens used in clinica l practice. Its narrow therapeutic range mandates that it only be used in the minimum doses which gives efficient control of convulsions and helps in improving maternal and fetal outcome. Ai ms: To study the efficacy and safety of single loading dose of magnesium sulphate in control ling and prevention of recurrence of convulsion in eclampsia, to reduce the adverse affec ts of magnesium sulphate and improve the maternal and fetal outcome with single loading dose . Methods: Prospective study of 100 cases with clinical diagnosis of eclampsia were given sing le loading dose of magnesium sulphate [4 g of 20% IV and 10 g of 50 % IM], there was no mainte nance dose. The effect of singe loading dose of magnesium sulphate in controlling convulsions, th e recurrence rates, toxicity and the maternal and fetal outcome was studied. Results: Th e results showed a favorable outcome with the reduction of the dose and duration of magnesium sulphate therapy. The primary outcomes were comparable with all other regimens in use. Wit h recurrence rate of 9% its efficacy was comparable with the other regimens in use. The cases that were on single dose regimen had a significantly lower incidence of cesarean section w ith up to 74% of the patients having vaginal deliveries. The maternal mortality was 3% and perina tal mortality was 29%. Conclusions: Single loading dose of magnesium sulphate is effecti ve in controlling and prevention of recurrence of convulsions in eclampsia

  14. Anticonvulsant activity of Dorema ammoniacum gum: evidence for the involvement of benzodiazepines and opioid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevalian, Manijeh; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ahadi, Samira; Shojaii, Asie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant activity and possible mechanism of action of an aqueous solution of Dorema ammoniacum gum (DAG) which has been used traditionally in the treatment of convulsions. In this study, the anticonvulsant activity of DAG was examined using the pentylentetrazole (PTZ) model in mice. Thirty male albino mice were divided randomly and equally to 5 groups, and pretreated with normal saline, diazepam, or various doses of DAG (500, 700, and 1000 mg/kg, i.p.), prior to the injection of PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). The latency and duration of seizures were recorded 30 min after PTZ injection. Pretreatments with naloxone and flumazenil in different groups were studied to further clarify the mechanisms of the anticonvulsant action. Phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting of ammoniacum gum was also determined. DAG showed significant anticonvulsant activity at all doses used. The gum delayed both the onset and the duration of seizures induced by PTZ. Treatment with flumazenil before DAG (700 mg/kg) inhibited the effect of gum on seizure duration and latency to some extent and administration of naloxone before DAG also significantly inhibited changes in latency and duration of seizure produced by DAG. The percentage inhibition was greater with naloxone than with flumazenil. This study showed that DAG had significant anticonvulsant activity in PTZ-induced seizures, and GABAergic and opioid systems may be involved. More studies are needed to further investigate its detailed mechanism. PMID:28255314

  15. Effect of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea on DNA fragmentation in pentylenetetrazole induced experimental epileptic rat model

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    Monami Mondal (Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is a restrained neurological disorder, with a constant neuronal damage, ranging from severe, life-threatening and disabling situations. It leads to oxidative brain damages through DNA fragmentation. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ is a convulsant used to produce experimental epileptic animals. Investigation proved; antioxidant enriched Spinacea oleracea (SO or spinach, a commonly available herb, has a modulatory role on the damaging effects of free radicals. Methods The study was conducted with twenty-four adult male Holtzman strain albino rats (200-250gm. These rats were divided into groups of Control, SO treated control, PTZ induced experimental epileptic group and SO pretreated PTZ induced experimental epileptic group. The epileptic model was prepared by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous leaf extract of SO was orally given at a dose of 400 mg /kg body weight, for fourteen consecutive days. After the behavioral study serum and brain tissue samples were collected for the estimation of nitric oxide (NO, DNA fragmentation and antioxidants level. Results Pretreatment with SO leaf extract showed significant decrease in the seizure score, ictal phase, serum NO level, LPO levels and rate of DNA fragmentation. The interictal phase, SOD, CAT, GSH activity of different parts of the brain were significantly increased in SO pretreated PTZ induced group. Conclusion SO is found to play a vital role to provide protection against the oxidative damage of epileptic brain by amending the levels of antioxidants and serum NO level.

  16. Effect of zinc protoporphyrin on carbon monoxide/heme oxygenase-1 system in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on febrile convulsion (FC)-caused brain injury are disputed in many aspects.How FC cause nervous system injury in the developmental period and what are the characteristics of these pathological injury are unknown. The current studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-l) exerts effects on brain injury mainly by catalyzing hemoglobin to produce degradation products, and HO-1 not only has neuroprotective effects, but also has neurotoxic effects during the FC-caused brain injury. Study on the effect of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) on brain injury is still in the stage of animal experiment.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of ZnPP on carbon monoxide (CO)/HO-1 system of rats subjected to FC, and to analyze the action pathway of ZnPP in brain protective effect.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital Affiliated to Jiamusi University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five Wistar rats, of either gender, were involved in this study. They were randomized into normal control group( n =14, 37 ℃ water bath) and febrile treatment group (n =51, 44.5 ℃ hot water bath). Febrile treatment group was sub-divided into febrile non-convulsion group (FNC group, n =16) and FC group (n =35). FC group was further sub-divided into simple convulsion group (n =20) and ZnPP treatment group (n =15). HO-1 mRNA in situ hybridization kit was provided by Boster Bioengineering Co.,Ltd. ZnPP(dark brown powder) was the product of Jingmei Bioengineering Company.METHODS: This study was carried out in the postgraduate laboratory of Jiamusi University between January 2004 and January 2007. Rats in the febrile treatment group were placed in the 44.5 ℃ hot water bath box. If rats did not convulse in the water within 5 minutes, they were taken out, namely FNC group (n =16), and those, which were convulsed within 5 minutes, were taken out immediately when they presented such a phenomenon, namely FC group (n =35). Convulsion induction was

  17. Lack of association between TNF-α gene polymorphisms at position -308 A, -850T and risk of simple febrile convulsion in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleman; Habibian, Roya; Nozari, Ahora; Baradaran, Azar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Febrile convulsions (FCs), occurring between 6 months and 6 years of age is the most common seizure disorder during childhood. The febrile response is thought to be mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 (IL-1). There is a significant relationship between genetic components for susceptibility of FCs and different report mutation. We investigated association between two polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoter region (G-308A, C-850T) and FCs in the southwest area of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this matched case–control study, 100 patients with febrile convulsion as case group and 130 healthy children as control group were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted by standard phenol–chloroform method. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNF- α polymorphisms in case and control groups were determined by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The average age of case and control groups were 3.4 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 1.2 years, respectively. There was no significant difference between age and sex in both the groups (P > 0.05). A family history of febrile convulsion was detected in 44% of patients. Moreover, the simple febrile convulsion was detected in 85% of the case group. Conclusion: RFLP analysis of TNF- α promoter region polymorphisms, considering P = 0.146 and P = 0.084 for G-308A and C-850T, respectively, showed no correlation between TNF- α polymorphisms and predisposition to simple febrile, based on the kind of convulsion (atypical and simple febrile convulsion). We found a significant relation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in case group (P = 0.04). A significant correlation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in the case group was

  18. RDX binds to the GABA(A) receptor-convulsant site and blocks GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents in the amygdala: a mechanism for RDX-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Larry R; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Qashu, Felicia; Finne, Huckelberry; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Bannon, Desmond I; Braga, Maria F M

    2011-03-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high-energy, trinitrated cyclic compound that has been used worldwide since World War II as an explosive in both military and civilian applications. RDX can be released in the environment by way of waste streams generated during the manufacture, use, and disposal of RDX-containing munitions and can leach into groundwater from unexploded munitions found on training ranges. For > 60 years, it has been known that exposure to high doses of RDX causes generalized seizures, but the mechanism has remained unknown. We investigated the mechanism by which RDX induces seizures. By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) ionophore. Whole-cell in vitro recordings in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) showed that RDX reduces the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents and the amplitude of GABA-evoked postsynaptic currents. In extracellular field recordings from the BLA, RDX induced prolonged, seizure-like neuronal discharges. These results suggest that binding to the GABA(A) receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. Knowledge of the molecular site and the mechanism of RDX action with respect to seizure induction can guide therapeutic strategies, allow more accurate development of safe thresholds for exposures, and help prevent the development of new explosives or other munitions that could pose similar health risks.

  19. 小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图分析%Analysis on ambulatory electroencephalogram of children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江涛; 辛翠娟; 梁东; 贾飞勇; 丁臻博

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图变化.方法:对167例热性惊厥患儿的动态脑电图进行回顾性对比分析.结果:小儿热性惊厥动态脑电图异常改变与年龄、体温、家族遗传史、出生史、发作持续时间、反复发作密切相关,均具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:动态脑电图改变对小儿热性惊厥的预后评价具有重要意义.%Objective: To explore the changes of ambulatory electroencephalogram (AEEG) of children with febrile convulsion. Methods: The AEEG of 167 children with febrile convulsion were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The abnormal changes of AEEG in children with febrile convulsion were related to age, temperature, history of family heredity, history of birth, duration of febrile convulsion and repeated onset closely, there was significant difference (P <0. 0l ) . Conclusion: The changes of AEEG has important value in evaluation of prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  20. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Nahid; Ghadirian, Laleh; Kamrani, Kamyar

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion), Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05). The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively). There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003). There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it's not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely.

  1. The Prehospital Predictors of Tracheal Intubation for in Patients who Experience Convulsive Seizures in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenichiro; Arai, Noritoshi; Omori-Mitsue, Aki; Hida, Ayumi; Kimura, Akio; Takeuchi, Sousuke

    2017-08-15

    Objective To identify the prehospital factors predicting the performance of tracheal intubation (TI) at the emergency department (ED) in patients with convulsive seizure or epilepsy. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of seizure patients who underwent TI at the ED soon after arrival. The clinical variables obtained in the prehospital setting were reviewed. Patients The study population included consecutive adult patients who were transported to an urban tertiary care ED due to convulsive seizure between August 2010 and September 2015. Results Among the 822 eligible patients, 59 patients (7.2%) underwent TI at the ED. Four independent prehospital predictors were identified using multivariate analysis: age ≥50 years (+1 point), meeting the definition of convulsive status epilepticus (+4 points), and an on-scene heart rate of ≥120 bpm (+1 point) led to a higher likelihood of TI, while a higher on-scene (alert or confused) level of consciousness (-3 points) led to a lower likelihood of TI. The derived prediction rule (the sum of all points) had good predictive performance with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.97), a sensitivity of 0.62, a specificity of 0.91, and a positive likelihood ratio of 10.6, when the cut-off value was set to 5 points. Conclusion We constructed a simple prehospital prediction rule to help predict the need for TI in seizure patients, even in the prehospital phase. This may possibly lead to the more effective management of seizure patients in the ED.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Razieh FALLAH; Yaser YADEGARI; Mahdi SALMANI NODOUSHAN

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Yadegari Y, Salmani Nodushan M. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2):39-44. Objective Status epilepticus (SE) is the most common pediatric neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. There is no consensus on the drug of choice in the treatment of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and sa...

  3. Clinical Analysis of 80 Newborn Convulsion%新生儿惊厥80例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰泉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿惊厥的病因、临床表现的特点和急救措施.方法 对我院80例新生儿惊厥的临床资料和急救措施的有效性进行分析总结.结果 新生儿惊厥的病因顺位依次是新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病37例、颅内出血16例、新生儿化脓性脑膜炎13例,此3种病因占全部病例的82.5%.惊厥发作类型以轻微型为主,占61%.结论 减少新生儿惊厥的关键是做好围产期保健,积极防止新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病的发生:新生儿轻微型惊厥在临床上不易被发现,需密切观察,及时诊治;止痉药首选苯巴比妥钠静脉推注,无效者改用苯妥英钠治疗.%Objective Discussing the causes of newborn convulsion, clinical manifestation and emergency rrearment. Method Analyzing and summatizing the clinical data of 80 examples of the newborn suffering from convuisions and the effectiveness of the emergency treatmont. Results The sequence of the newborn convulsion causes is following: the newborn anoxic ischemic encephalopathy is 37 examples: the intracranial hemorrhage is 16 examples: the newborn purulent meningitis is 13 examples. The three above causes count for 82.5 percent of the total examples. The type of convulsion attack remains minimai-orionted, counting for 61 percont. Conclusions The Key point to reducing the condition is serving a good pcrinatal care, try to prevent the attack of the newborn anoxic ischemic encephalopathy. It is difficult to find the newborn minimal convulsion, which needs the close observation and timely diagnose and treament. The first choice for this condition is the Phenobarbital sodium. The non-responder can use dilantin sodium instead.

  4. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. Methods We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Key Findings Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. Significance There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and

  5. Effects of acute hypoxia on lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice%急性缺氧对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉齐; 高学慧; 叶海玲; 张辉; 陈烨; 张莹; 王丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of acute hypoxia on lidocaine -induced convulsion in mice .Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups:a control group (Group C) and an acute hypoxia group (Group H).Lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally in the two groups of mice .Then, the convulsion number, convulsion rate, convulsion latency , convulsion duration , and convulsion level were recorded .Results Compared with Group C , there was no significant change in Group H in the convulsion rate .Group H showed slightly declined convulsion latency and level, which however were not remarkably different from the control .The convulsion duration was markedly reduced in Group H in comparison with Group C (P<0.05).Conclusion Acute hypoxia can shorten the convulsion duration of lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice .%目的:观察急性缺氧对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响。方法将小鼠随机分为两组:对照组(C组)与急性缺氧组( H组),腹腔注射80 mg・ kg-1利多卡因,观察各组小鼠的惊厥只数、惊厥率、惊厥潜伏期、惊厥持续时间及惊厥级数。结果与C组相比,H组小鼠惊厥率无明显改变,惊厥潜伏期略缩短,惊厥级数有所下降,但差异无统计学意义,惊厥持续时间显著缩短(P<0.05)。结论急性缺氧可缩短利多卡因致小鼠惊厥的持续时间。

  6. 中医药防治小儿热性惊厥的研究进展%A review on treating infant febrile convulsions in TCM medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩杰

    2014-01-01

    Febrile convulsions are a common convulsive disease in young children, and also in the pediatric emergency department. In this paper, effects of TCM medicine on febrile convulsions were summarized to apply reference for TCM clinic in the future.%热性惊厥是小儿最常见的惊厥性疾病,也是儿科门急诊常见的急症之一。本文综述了中医药在防治小儿热性惊厥所发挥的作用,为今后中医药处理该疾病提供一定的依据。

  7. 热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系%Relationship between Febrile Convulsion and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何梅玲; 彭丰

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系。方法检测104例热性惊厥患儿的红细胞计数(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、红细胞平均血红蛋白(MCH)、红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、SI,并以同期98例呼吸道、肠道感染而无惊厥患儿为对照组,分析其结果。结果惊厥组贫血发生率明显高于对照组,且多为小细胞性贫血(符合缺铁性贫血的血液特征)。结论小儿热性惊厥与血清铁有着密切的联系,缺铁性贫血可能是引起小儿热性惊厥的重要原因之一。%Objective To investigate the correlation of febrile convulsion and iron deficiency anemia. Methods Mesured the RBC,Hb,MCV,MCH,MCHC,SI in 104 children of Upper respiratory tract infection, and recorded children of febrile convulsion with Iron deficiency anemia, and children of febrile convulsion without iron deficiency anemia,children of febrile convulsion without deficiency anemia. The rest 2 groups of children are as control group. Results Which is significantly higher than the control group. And anemin in which the average size of erythrocytes is smal er than normal. Conclusion Children febrile convulsion could be highly correlated, and the iron deficiency anemia maybe one of the cause of children febrile convulsion.

  8. 58例小儿高热惊厥的临床治疗体会%Experience in Treatment of 58 Cases of Infantile Hyperpyretic Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伍魁

    2014-01-01

    目的小儿高热惊厥的临床治疗。方法我院儿科2010.3~2012.3收治住院FC患儿58例的诊治体会。结果经过有效治疗58例患儿均痊愈出院,随访1年,1例出院后反复多次抽搐脑电图诊断为癫痫,1例抽搐持续时间较长半小时以上,出院后38摄氏度以内发生多次抽搐出现智力低下,余预后良好。结论在小儿发热还未引发惊厥之前,要密切观察,及时控制体温,防患于未然,一旦出现高热惊厥,给予最及时的抢救,将疾病对小儿大脑的损伤降到最低限度。%Objective The clinical treatment of children with febrile convulsion. Methods The diagnosis and treatment of 58 cases of FC patients who were admit ed to pediatric 2010.3~2012.3. Results After treatment 58 cases were cured, 1 cases were fol owed up for 1 years, after repeated convulsions EEG in diagnosis of epilepsy, 1 cases with convulsions of longer duration more than half an hour, after 38 degrees Celsius occurred repeatedly convulsive mental retardation, Yu good prognosis. Conclusion In children with fever has not initiated before the convulsion, to close observation, timely control of temperature, nip in the bud, once appear, febrile convulsion, to rescue the most timely, the disease on children with brain damage to a minimum.

  9. Clinical Nursing Observation of Children With Febrile Convulsion%小儿高热惊厥临床护理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽密

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察小儿高热惊厥的原因、探求最佳临床护理方法。方法分析我院2014年8月~2015年8月收治的100例小儿高热惊厥护理经验。结果发生小儿高热惊厥的患者年龄以1~3岁居多,占65%;发生支气管炎占15%;呼吸道感染占70%。本组100例患者中,治愈了98例,好转了2例。结论小儿高热惊厥先兆早期发现征兆的话能快速有效的治疗,控制高热、惊厥、保持呼吸道的畅通是治疗小儿高热惊厥的关键。%Objective To observe the cause of the children with febrile convulsion, ifnd the best method of clinical nursing.Methods From August 2014 to August 2015, 100 cases of children with febrile convulsion nursing experience.Results Children with febrile convulsion occurred in patients aged 1 to 3 years old, was 65%. Bronchitis (15%). Respiratory infection (70%). 100 cases of patients, 98 cases cured, 2 cases improved.ConclusionChildren with febrile convulsion aura early detection of signs can fast effective treatment, control of high fever, convulsions, keep respiratory tract clear is the key to the treatment of children with febrile convulsion.

  10. Clinical analysis of 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases%婴幼儿腹泻合并惊厥的26例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the pathogenesis and effective treatment methods of infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions. Methods The clinical data of 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results The main pathogenic factors of the 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases included electrolyte disturbance as 34.6%, febrile convulsion as 30.8%, viral encephalitis as 19.2%, toxic encephalopathy as 11.5%, and hypoglycemia as 3.8%. The total effective rate was 96.2%. Conclusion Hyperpyrexia and electrolyte disturbance (hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia) are the main causes of infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions. Timely clarification of pathogenesis can provide effectively symptomatic treatment for terminating convulsions.%目的:探讨婴幼儿腹泻合并惊厥的发病原因以及有效的治疗方法。方法回顾性分析26例腹泻合并惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果26例腹泻合并惊厥患儿发病因素主要有:电解质紊乱34.6%、热性惊厥30.8%、病毒性脑炎19.2%、中毒性脑病11.5%以及低血糖3.8%等。治疗总有效率为96.2%。结论高热、电解质紊乱(低血钙、低血镁、低血钠)等是导致婴幼儿腹泻伴惊厥的主要因素,及时明确病因可有效地对症治疗,终止惊厥发作。

  11. Comparative studies on the effects of clinically used anticonvulsants on the oxidative stress biomarkers in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Faizan; Malhi, Saima M; Simjee, Shabana U

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and contributes in underlying epileptogenesis process. Anticonvulsant drugs targeting the oxidative stress domain of epileptogenesis may provide better control of seizure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of clinically used anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the course of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and oxidative stress markers in mice. Six mechanistically heterogeneous anticonvulsants: phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, pregabalin, topiramate, and felbamate were selected and their redox profiles were determined. Diazepam was used as a drug control for comparison. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate days until seizure score 5 was evoked in the control kindled group. Anticonvulsants were administered daily. Following PTZ kindling, oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed in homogenized whole brain samples and estimated for the levels of nitric oxide, peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione, and activities of nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species with a parallel decrease in endogenous anti-oxidants in PTZ-kindled control animals. Daily treatment with levetiracetam and felbamate significantly decreased the PTZ-induced seizure score as well as the levels of nitric oxide (panticonvulsant effect by the diversified mechanism of action such as levetiracetam, felbamate, and topiramate exhibited superior anti-oxidative stress activity in addition to their anticonvulsant activity.

  12. Analysis the Reason of Infantile Diarrhea and Convulsion%小儿腹泻并惊厥病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红星

    2013-01-01

    Objective to study the reason of disease of children with infantile diarrhea and convulsions. Methods 38 cases of children with both the conventional stool, blood biochemistry, cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram (eeg) examination. Results found tic 13 cases with a high fever, blood sodium reduce 8 cases, blood calcium to reduce the 7 cases, 4 cases were blood magnesium reduce, low blood sugar in 2 cases, 11 cases of abnormal eeg examination, cerebrospinal fluid to check pressure slightly higher in 3 cases, al normal. Conclusion children with infantile diarrhea and convulsion consider related to high fever, electrolyte metabolic disorders, viral encephalitis.%目的:探讨小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿发病原因。方法38例患儿均予大便常规、血生化、脑脊液、脑电图检查。结果发现抽搐时伴高热13例,血钠降低8例,血钙降低7例,血镁降低4例,低血糖2例,11例脑电图检查异常,脑脊液检3例压力稍高外,余均正常。结论小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿考虑与高热、电解质代谢紊乱、病毒性脑炎有关。

  13. Drugs indicated for mitochondrial dysfunction as treatments for acute encephalopathy with onset of febrile convulsive status epileptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Taku; Fujii, Katsunori; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi; Murayama, Kei; Takayanagi, Masaki; Muta, Kaori; Kodama, Kazuo; Iida, Yukiko; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-01-15

    We studied the efficacy of drugs indicated for mitochondrial dysfunction in the treatment of 21 patients with acute encephalopathy with onset of febrile convulsive status epilepticus at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2014. Among them, 11 patients had been treated with a mitochondrial drug cocktail consisting of vitamin B1, vitamin C, biotin, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, and l-carnitine (prescription group) and 10 patients were not treated with the cocktail (non-prescription group). We retrospectively reviewed age, trigger, clinical form, treatment start time, and sequelae. Clinical form was classified into a biphasic group presenting acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) and a monophasic group. Sequelae were classified as (A) no sequelae group or (B) sequelae group, and differences in the interval between diagnosis and treatment were also evaluated. The sequelae were not different between the mitochondrial drug cocktail prescription and non-prescription groups, but significantly better in the group administered the mitochondrial drug cocktail within 24h (P=0.035). We expect that early treatment with a mitochondrial drug cocktail could prevent sequelae in acute encephalopathy with onset of febrile convulsive status epilepticus. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice

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    Mojtaba Keshavarz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Methods: Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10 or 0.25% Tween (vehicle intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg. Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8 was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Results: Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540, 256 (178-363, and 328 (262-411 mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group.Conclusion: These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure.

  15. Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

    2013-06-01

    There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure.

  16. Conduta no primeiro episódio de crise convulsiva Management of the first convulsive seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nicole-Carvalho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a grande variação dos prognósticos relatados após a primeira crise convulsiva não provocada e dos fatores de risco que são associados com recorrência, estabelecendo uma conduta uniforme. Fontes dos dados: revisão sistemática das citações do banco de dados da Bireme. Síntese dos dados: a taxa de recorrência difere nos estudos de primeira crise em conseqüência dos diferentes critérios de inclusão. O eletrencefalograma (EEG é particularmente útil na determinação da natureza epiléptica de um evento nos pacientes mais jovens e naqueles com crises de origem desconhecida. Um EEG anormal, particularmente com descargas de ponta-onda generalizadas, tem sido relatado como um preditor de recorrência consistente. Embora não seja um substituto para o exame clínico, o EEG é parte integral do processo diagnóstico após a primeira crise afebril, e deve ser solicitado. A decisão quanto tratar ou não os pacientes que apresentaram uma crise única depende fortemente do conhecimento do médico da potencial morbidade de uma outra crise versus a potencial morbidade da terapia com drogas antiepilépticas (DAEs. Conclusões: em crianças, efeitos colaterais das DAEs são comuns, e o risco de injúria após uma crise geralmente é mínimo, já que elas não se expõem a situações de extremo risco, como a condução de automóveis ou a operação de máquinas, além do fato de geralmente estarem em ambiente supervisionado. Em adultos, esta unanimidade é pequena.Objective: to observe the wide variety of reported prognosis after a first unprovoked convulsion and of risk factors that are associated with recurrence, and a uniform conduct. Sources: systematic review of Bireme. Summary of the findings: recurrence rates differ from a first seizure study because of different inclusion criteria. The EEG is particularly helpful to support the epileptic nature of the event in younger patients and in those with seizures of unknown

  17. Investigation of Hypericum perforatum extract on convulsion induced by picrotoxin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, Leila; Heidari, Mahmoud Reza; Heidari, Mohammad; Moshiri, Mohammad; Behravan, Effat; Abbasifard, Mitra; Azimzadeh, Behzad Sarvar

    2011-04-01

    Therapeutic effect of Hypericum perforatum L. has been well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of Hypericum methanolic extract against seizure induced by picrotoxin in mice. The study were performed on four groups of animals. They received percolated extract of Hypericum perforatum at the doses of 25, 50, 100 & 200 mg/kg intra peritoneally. After 20 minutes animals received picrotoxin 10 mg/kg for induction of seizure. Latency of seizure, duration of seizure, death latency and percent of mortality were determined. The results indicated that latency of seizure increased in pretreated group with the dose of 50 mg/kg (pHypericum perforatum L. at the dose of 50 mg/kg maybe have some beneficial effect in seizure induced by picrotoxin and this plant is suitable for continuing search in this field.

  18. Zotepine-induced convulsive seizures in a chronic case of treatment resistant paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Khairkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects to antipsychotics are varied, frequently intolerable, often serious and sometimes fatal in clinical practice. Seizures are one of these adverse effects. Almost all first and second generation antipsychotics elicit dose-dependent lowering of seizure threshold, indicating increased seizure risk at higher drug dosages. The adverse event of zotepine induced seizure is published in few case reports. We report the occurrence of myoclonic seizure progressing to generalized tonic-clonic seizures with zotepine along with clear temporal association of dose dependent modulation evident in this case.

  19. Loss of consciousness and convulsion induced by a ventricular tachycardia mimicking epilepsy in a patient with noncompaction cardiomyopathy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dello, S. A. W. G.; Kievit, C.; Dunselman, P. H.; Alings, M.

    2014-01-01

    Convulsions and loss of consciousness can be caused by, among other things, arrhythmias, conduction disorders or epilepsy. In clinical practice it can be difficult to distinguish between these causes of syncope, even for well-trained specialists. Patients with cardiac syncope have a substantial risk

  20. Study on Anti - Convulsion and Anti - Inflammatory Effect of Oxysophocarine%氧化槐果碱抗惊厥和抗炎作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晖; 俞佳; 吕良忠

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥、抗炎作用。方法构建异烟肼和尼可刹米致小鼠惊厥模型,观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥作用;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法和角叉菜胶致大鼠足跖肿胀法,观察氧化槐果碱的抗炎作用。结果氧化槐果碱(20,40,80 mg / kg)可显著延长异烟肼所致惊厥小鼠的惊厥潜伏时间( P ﹤0.05),减少惊厥小鼠例数与死亡小鼠例数,对尼可刹米所致的惊厥无对抗作用;氧化槐果碱(40,80 mg / kg)可显著抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳肿胀( P ﹤0.05);氧化槐果碱(60 mg / kg)可显著抑制角叉菜胶所致大鼠足跖肿胀( P ﹤0.01),氧化槐果碱(30 mg / kg)对致炎后2~4 h 的大鼠足跖肿胀有抑制作用。结论氧化槐果碱具有抗惊厥、抗炎作用。%Objective To observe the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory. Methods The effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion was observed by constructing the isoniazide and carrageenin induced convulsion mouse model and the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - inflammation was observed by the xylene - induced mouse ear swelling method and the car-rageenan induced rat toe swelling method. Results Oxysophocarpine (20, 40, 80 mg / kg) could significantly prolong the isoniazide - in-duced latent period of convulsion( P ﹤ 0. 05), reduced the death cases and convulsion cases in mice. Oxysophocarpine had no effect on nikethamide - induced convulsion. Oxysophocarpine (40, 80 mg / kg) could inhibit the xylene - induced ear swelling( P ﹤ 0. 05) . Oxysophocarpine (60 mg / kg) could inhibit the carrageenan - induced mouse toe swelling( P ﹤ 0. 01). Oxysophocarpine (30 mg / kg) had the inhibiting effect on the carrageenan - induced toe swelling at 2 - 4 h after induced inflammation. Conclusion Oxysophocarpine has certain anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory effect.

  1. Beta Lactams Antibiotic Ceftriaxone Modulates Seizures, Oxidative Stress and Connexin 43 Expression in Hippocampus of Pentylenetetrazole Kindled Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdelaziz M.; Ghalwash, Mohammed; Magdy, Khaled; Abulseoud, Osama A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ceftriaxone on oxidative stress and gap junction protein (connexin 43, Cx-43) expression in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model. Methods: Twenty four Sprague dawely rats were divided into 3 equal groups (a) normal group: normal rats. (b) PTZ kindled group: received PTZ at the dose of 50 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) every other day for 2 weeks (c) ceftriaxone treated group: received ceftriaxone at the dose 200 mg\\kg/12 hrs via i.p. injection daily from the 6th dose of PTZ for 3 days. Racine score, latency before beginning the first myoclonic jerk and duration of the jerks used as parameters of behavioral assessment. Immunohistopathological study for Cx-43 expression in hippocampus and measurement of markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], low reduced glutathione [GSH] and catalase [CAT]) in hippocampal neurons were done. Results: PTZ kindling was associated with behavioral changes (in the form high stage of Racine score, long seizure duration and short latency for the first jerk), enhanced oxidative stress state (as demonstrated by high MDA, low GSH and CAT) and up regulation of Cx43 in hippocampal regions. While, ceftriaxone treatment ameliorated, significantly, PTZ-induced convulsions and caused significant improvement in oxidative stress markers and Cx-43 expression in hippocamal regions (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings support the anticonvulsive effects of some beta-lactams antibiotics which could offer a possible contributor in the basic treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. This effect might be due to reduction of oxidative stress and Cx43 expression. PMID:27390674

  2. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon-monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Picchi, Eliseo; Natoli, Silvia; Leonardis, Carlo; Leonardis, Francesca; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions. We describe a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The mechanism, MRI findings and implications are discussed.

  3. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status-epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikkert eHindriks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalamo-cortical system that these spikes are phase-locked to the delta oscillations. We subsequently describe the physiological mechanism underlying this observation as suggested by the model. It is suggested that the spikes reflect inhibitory stochastic fluctuations in the input to thalamo-cortical relay neurons and phase-locking is a consequence of differential excitability of relay neurons over the delta cycle. Further analysis shows that the observed phase-locking can be regarded as a stochastic precursor of generalized spike-wave discharges. This study thus provides an explanation of intermittent spikes during delta oscillations in NCSE and might be generalized to other encephathologies in which delta activity can be observed.

  4. The relationship between serum magnesium level and febrile convulsion in 6 months to 6 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhshan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis of febrile convulsion (FC which is the most frequent seizure disorder in childhood isn’t clear but changes in the serum level of neurotransmitters and trace elements such as magnesium are known to contributing risk factors.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study serum magnesium of 32 children with FC and 33 children without FC were compared. Results: 25% of children with FC had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl. In the normal group no one had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl (p=0.05.Conclusion: Decreasing serum level in FC may be one contributing factor in the FC. It does not need to be lower than normal range in these groups of patients

  5. 癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B、c-fos表达的影响%Dianxianqing Granule on Behavior, NMDAR2B and c-fos Expression in PTZ Kindling Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄寓; 薛彦杰; 齐越; 王健; 贾冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos表达的影响,探讨其抗癫痫的作用机理.方法:腹腔注射戊四唑建立癫痫大鼠点燃模型,连续灌胃给药30 d后,观察癫痫清颗粒对大鼠行为学及脑组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的影响.结果:癫痫清颗粒可延长癫痫大鼠惊厥潜伏期,缩短惊厥持续时间,减少组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达.结论:癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃大鼠模型具有抗癫痫作用,作用机制与减少脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达有关.%Objective:To study the anti-epileptic mechanism of DianxianqingGranule by observing the effects on behavior,NMDAR2B and c-fos expression in brain of epilepsy model rats kindled by pentylenetetrazol(PTZ).Methods:Kindling models were established by intraperitoneal injection of PTZ on rats,intragastric administration for 30 days,continuously.The expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in the hippocampus of rats were measured with immunohistochemistry assay.Results:DianxianqingGranule can prolong the latencyof seizure,shorten the duration of seizure and reduce the expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in brain.Conclusion:DianxianqingGranule has anti-epileptic effect on PTZ kindling epileptic model rats through inhibition of NMDAR2B and c-fos expression.

  6. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wang

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min. Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute

  7. The anti-convulsant stiripentol acts directly on the GABA(A) receptor as a positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    Stiripentol (STP) has been used as co-therapy for treatment of epilepsy for many years. Its mechanism of action has long been considered to be indirect, as it inhibits the enzymes responsible for metabolism of other anti-convulsant agents. However, a recent report suggested that STP might also act at the neuronal level, increasing inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. We examined the effect of STP on the functional properties of recombinant GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) and found that it was a positive allosteric modulator of these ion channels. Its activity showed some dependence on subunit composition, with greater potentiation of alpha3-containing receptors and reduced potentiation when the beta1 or epsilon subunits were present. STP caused a leftward shift in the GABA concentration-response relationship, but did not increase the peak response of the receptors to a maximal GABA concentration. Although STP shares some functional characteristics with the neurosteroids, its activity was not inhibited by a neurosteroid site antagonist and was unaffected by a mutation in the alpha3 subunit that reduced positive modulation by neurosteroids. The differential effect of STP on beta1- and beta2/beta3-containing receptors was not altered by mutations within the second transmembrane domain that affect modulation by loreclezole. These findings suggest that STP acts as a direct allosteric modulator of the GABAR at a site distinct from many commonly used anti-convulsant, sedative and anxiolytic drugs. Its higher activity at alpha3-containing receptors as well as its activity at delta-containing receptors may provide a unique opportunity to target selected populations of GABARs.

  8. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Justin; Wu, Chiping; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min). Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex) with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute mortality in aging

  9. Disulfiram-Induced De Novo Convulsions without Alcohol Challenge: Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ranganath Ramarao; Bairy, Bhavya K

    2015-01-01

    Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF) an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day) with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%), DSF-induced hypertension (HTN) (37.5%), psychosis (12.5%) were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5%) were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5%) even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%). Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution.

  10. Disulfiram-induced de novo convulsions without alcohol challenge: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath Ramarao Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%, DSF-induced hypertension (HTN (37.5%, psychosis (12.5% were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5% were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5% even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution.

  11. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariati-Rad Schwann

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passion flower (Passiflora incarnata is used in traditional medicine of Europe and South America to treat anxiety, insomnia and seizure. Recently, it has shown antianxiety and sedative effects in human. Methods In this study, anticonvulsant effects of hydro- alcoholic extract of Passiflora, Pasipay, were examined by using pentylentetrazole model (PTZ on mice. Pasipay, diazepam, and normal saline were injected intraperitoneally at the doses 0.4–0.05 mg/kg, 0.5–1 mg/kg and 10 ml/kg respectively 30 minutes before PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p. The time taken before the onset of clonic convulsions, the duration of colonic convulsions, and the percentage of seizure and mortality protection were recorded. For investigating the mechanism of Pasipay, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p and naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p were also injected 5 minutes before Pasipay. Results An ED50 value of Pasipay in the PTZ model was 0.23 mg/kg (%95 CL: 0.156, 0.342. Pasipay at the dose of 0.4 mg/kg prolonged the onset time of seizure and decreased the duration of seizures compared to saline group (p Conclusion It seems that Pasipay could be useful for treatment absence seizure and these effects may be related to effect of it on GABAergic and opioid systems. More studies are needed in order to investigate its exact mechanism.

  12. 232例儿童热性惊厥血清钠浓度临床分析%Clinical Analysis about Concentrations of Natrium in 232 Cases Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of concentrations of natrium and its clinical significance in children with febrile convulsions. Method:Clinical data of 232 children with febrile convulsions who visited Beijing commercial aviation general hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Result:The concentrations of natrium of children with febrile convulsions were diffrently lower than normal,especially in children with recurrent convulsion and status convulsion whose concentrations of natrium were obviously lower than children with simple febrile convulsions. Conclusion:Varying degrees of hyponatremia occur in children with febrile convulsions. It should pay attention to correct hyponatremia in treatmen of febrile convulsions to reduce the relapse frequency and duration of febrile convulsions,so reduce the harm of brain organization.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度变化及临床意义。方法:对北京民航总医院2010-2012年急诊治疗的232例热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度作回顾性分析。结果:热性惊厥儿童血清钠浓度常有不同程度的降低,且惊厥反复发作及惊厥持续状态患儿的血清钠浓度明显低于单纯性热性惊厥患儿。结论:热性惊厥患儿常存在不同程度的低钠血症,在常规治疗小儿热性惊厥时应注意纠正低钠血症,以减少小儿热性惊厥的发作次数及持续时间,减轻脑组织损害。

  13. Comparison between the effect of propofol and midazolam on picrotoxin-induced convulsions in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zuheir A; Abdel Razzak, Rima L; Alzoubi, Karem H

    2014-04-10

    Propofol is a short acting intravenous anesthetic that has been used in the treatment of status epileptics. However, the occurrence of seizures in epileptic and non-epileptic patients during recovery from propofol induced anesthesia suggests that propofol may have proconvulsant effects. We have previously shown that propofol displays anticonvulsant effects against picrotoxin (PTX) induced seizures during its peak sedative effects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the time course of the effect of intravenous administration of various doses (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) of propofol and midazolam on PTX-induced seizures in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The latency to onset of clonic seizures induced by intraperitoneal injection of PTX was significantly increased by the highest dose of propofol and all doses of midazolam, suggesting that both agents display anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of propofol (10 mg/kg) lasted about 20 min and PTX-induced clonic seizures were observed thereafter and peaked within 30 min post drug administration. Clonic seizures progressed rapidly to tonic seizures leading to high rate of PTX-induced mortality. In midazolam (10 mg/kg) treated rats, clonic seizures were observed 25 min after drug administration and the number of rats exhibiting clonic seizures was highest within 40 min. However, clonic seizures did not progress into tonic seizures and thus, PTX-induced seizure related mortality was significantly reduced. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence for the anticonvulsant effects of propofol and midazolam against PTX-induced seizures. Furthermore, the data of the current study showed that midazolam was more effective than propofol against PTX-induced tonic seizures.

  14. Crise convulsive chez les abuseurs de Tramadol et caféine: à propos de 8 cas et revue de la littérature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Djibo Douma; Seyni, Houdou; Sidikou, Amadou; Azouma, Alfazazi

    2012-01-01

    Nous rapportons Huit cas de crises convulsives diagnostiquées comme maladie épileptique après ingestion de Tramadol et d'autres substances psychotropes dont la Caféine dans une région ou maladie épileptique et addiction au café sont fréquentes. L'objectif de ce travail était d'informer les praticiens sur le risque de convulsion lié à la consommation du Tramadol seul ou en association avec d'autres psychotropes en s'appuyant sur les données de la littérature. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et exhaustive de patients vus en consultation ambulatoire pour crise convulsive et consommation de Tramadol et de caféine de janvier à mai 2012. Les données collectées étaient les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et de la consommation de Tramadol. Le diagnostic de crise convulsive a été posé sur les renseignements obtenus à l'anamnèse. Tous les patients ont été soumis à un examen neurologique et aux critères de dépendance du Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV)-R par rapport à leur consommation de Tramadol. Nous n'avons pas trouvé dans la littérature médicale de cas de consommation concomitante de Tramadol et de Caféine. Les données expérimentales suggèrent une action synergique du Tramadol et de la Caféine sur la douleur et le seuil épileptogène. Nos observations plaident également en faveur d'une synergie d'action de ces deux molécules dans la survenue des crises convulsives. La fréquence des crises convulsives suite à une intoxication par le Tramadol et la caféine est susceptible d'augmenter en Afrique en raison du mésusage croissant de ces substances. Une étude comparative usagers de Tramadol associé à la Caféine et usagers du Tramadol seul devrait permettre d’évaluer le risque. PMID:23308329

  15. 小儿惊厥临床因素分析及预防措施%Clinical Factors Analysis and Preventive Measures of Infantile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪贵

    2016-01-01

    目的:探析小儿惊厥的临床因素及预防措施。方法选取我院2014年3月~2015年10月收治的68例小儿惊厥患儿,分析小儿惊厥的相关因素,并提出预防措施。结果高热惊厥40例,占58.82%,低钙惊厥7例,占10.29%,癫痫9例,占13.24%,颅内感染6例,占8.82%,颅内出血3例,占4.41%,中毒2例,占2.94%,诊断不明1例,占1.47%。治愈53例,好转10例,死亡1例,自动出院4例。结论小儿惊厥的临床病因比较复杂,对不同原因给予针对性措施,减少并发症及后遗症的发生。%Objective To explore the clinical factors and preventive measures of infantile convulsions.Methods Selected our hospital in March 2014 to October 2015 treated 68 cases of children with convulsions in children, to analyze the related factors of infantile convulsion, and put forward the preventive measures.ResultsFebrile convulsion in 40 cases, accounting for 58.82%, low calcium convulsion in 7 cases, accounting for 10.29%, 9 cases of epilepsy, accounting for 13.24%, 6 cases of intracranial infection accounted for 8.82%, accounting for 4.41% of the 3 cases of intracranial hemorrhage, 2 cases of poisoning, accounted for 2.94%, 1 cases of unknown diagnosis, accounting for 1.47%. 53 cases were cured, 10 cases improved, 1 cases died, 4 cases were discharged from hospital.Conclusion The clinical causes of infantile convulsions are more complicated, and the corresponding measures are given for different reasons, so as to reduce the incidence of complications and sequelae.

  16. Benign Infantile Convulsions with Mild Gastroenteritis:Clinical Study of 38 Patients%轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥38例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 王燕; 武彦秋; 马桂云

    2012-01-01

    seizures ranged from 1 to 5 per child; Convulsions did not recur in 25 children (65. 7% ). 35 children had generalised seizures and 3 had absence and focal seizures. The interictal EEG was abnormal in 4 patients. After 6 and 24 months of follow-up, 38 children had no seizures and neurological sequelae. Conclusion; The mechanism underlying convulsions is not clear. The digestive system manifestations are mild and seizures can be recurrent. Mental state is good during convulsion. Phenobarbital sodium is still effective drug treatment, the first dose is10mg/kg. Most of children with BICE have a good prognosis, without recurring and central nervous system's sequelae.

  17. NSE与视频脑电图在儿童热性惊厥的相关研究%THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM NEURON SPECIFIC ENOLASE AND VIDEO EEG IN FEBRILE CONVULSION OF CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀琴; 于树红; 孙若鹏

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum neuron specific enolase and Video EEG in Febrile Convulsion of childen. Method:Serum NSE was detected by RIA on the first day and the seventh day after seizure in 40 children with simple febrile convulsion and 18 with complex febrile convulsion. Video EEG was performed at 1st, 7th and 30th day in all the patients. Results: There were significant differences between NSE levels at 24th hour and on 7th day after convulsion (P<0.01). NSE concentrations in patients with SFC and CFC were also different (P < 0.01). The more slowly NSE restored, the higher the abnormal ratio of EGG was . Conclusion: NSE increased in patients within 24hours after seizure, especially in CFC patients. The abnormal ratio of VideoEEG was related to the change of NSE concentration.

  18. Dose Supplemental Zinc Prevent Recurrence of Febrile Seizures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak SHIVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Shiva S, Barzegar M, Zokaie N, Shiva Sh. Dose Supplemental Zinc Prevents Recurrence of Febrile Seizures? Iranian Journal ofChild Neurology 2011;5(4:11-14. Objective Febrile seizures (FS are the most common form of seizures in children. Previous studies have suggested that zinc may play a role in the prevention of FS. However, there is limited information on the preventative effects of zinc against FS. This study aimed to determine whether prescribing zinc supplements could prevent FS.Materials & Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 100 children who had experienced simple FS for the first time were recruited. Children in the case group (50 patients were orally administered1mg/kg/day zinc sulfate for 1 year, and children in the control group (50 patients received a placebo. Serum zinc levels in both the control and case groups were measured at the start and at the end of the study,and recurrent cases of FS were recorded. Results The case group consisted of 29 boys (58% and 21 girls (42% with a mean age of 2.06 ± 0.83, and the control group consisted of 31 boys (62% and 19 girls (38% with a mean age of 2.22 ± 1.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between febrile diseases and serum zinc levels. In other words, the occurrence of febrile diseases decreased with an increase in serum zinc levels.Eight children (16% in the case group and 8 in the control group experienced recurrent FS within a year.ConclusionSupplemental doses of zinc (1mg/kg/day reduced the rate of febrile illnesses,but did not prevent the recurrence of FS.References Margaretha L, Masloman N. Correlation between serum zinc level and simple febrile seizure in children. Paediatr Indones 2010;50(6:326-30.Prasad R, Singh A, Das B, Upadhyay R, Singh T, Mishra O. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum zinc, copper, magnesium and calcium levels in children with Idiopathic seizure. J Clin Diagn Res 2009;3:1841-6.Vestergaard M, Obel C

  19. Analysis of benign convulsion with gastroenteritis%良性婴儿惊厥伴胃肠炎的临床处治与转归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立纲; 黄龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结良性惊厥伴胃肠炎患儿的治疗及复发情况,以提高对该病的认识.方法 对33例首次发生胃肠炎并良性惊厥患儿的临床表现、诊断治疗及转归进行分析,并对良性惊厥伴胃肠炎患儿的临床诊治方法与效果进行探讨.结果 每例患儿惊厥发作1~5次不等,发生惊厥时给予安定0.3~0.5mg,随访观察两年,转归均良好.结论 伴轻度胃肠炎的小儿良性惊厥,可暂时不采取抗癫痫药物治疗,仅需对症治疗及门诊长期随访,临床转归均良好.%Objective To investigate treatment and recurrence of benign infantile convulsion with gastroenteritis. Methods The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment and outcome of 33 patients with benign convulsion with gastroenteritis were analyzed. Results There were 1 to 5 times convulsion of the patients cured with diazepam (0. 3~ 0. 5mg). The outcomes were good, followed-up for two-year. Conclusion Children with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis need not take temporary anti-epileptic drug treatment. It needs out-patient long-term follow-up.

  20. 儿童无热惊厥的鉴别诊断%Diagnosis of Children’s Non-febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锐; 朱自伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To improve the diagnosis of children’s non-febrile convulsions.Method:5 typical cases were studied to investigate the diagnosis of children’s non-febrile convulsions.Result:All of the 5 cases were correctly diagnosed.Two of them received timely treatment,one gave up the treatment,and two died.Conclusion:Convulsions are severe neurological symptoms common for children,which need timely and correct treatment.The primary of the treatment is to control the convulsions as soon as possible to avoid brain cell damage.Careful analysis of the history,thoroughgoing physical examination,close observation of the changes in patient’s conditions,as well as timely laboratory examinations, are important means for correct diagnosis as well as prognosis improvement.%目的:加强儿童无热惊厥的鉴别诊断。方法:以5例无热惊厥典型病例探讨儿童无热惊厥的鉴别诊断。结果:5例患儿均查明原因,2例得到及时治疗,1例放弃治疗,2例死亡。结论:惊厥是小儿时期神经系统常见的严重症状,需要及时、正确的处理。惊厥的处理首先要尽快控制发作,以避免脑细胞损伤。认真分析病史、仔细体检、严密观察病情变化、及时辅助检查,是明确诊断、改善预后的重要手段。

  1. Children Febrile Convulsion Treatment by Traditional Chinese Medicine%小儿高热惊厥中医证治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑勉; 张鹏; 杨冬妹

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Through the analysis of the children's physical characteristics,the TCM treatment of febrile convulsion in children.Methods:First,according to the physiological characteristics of children:liver is often enough,spleen is often insufficient,infantile period firelight Yi Sheng,pediatric lung often inadequate; and the incidence of febrile convulsion is in the heart,liver two dirty,heart startled,liver wind.Thus combined with clinical TCM syndrome differentiation and analysis of infantile convulsion get the treatment principles.Results:Facilitating lung and regulating qi are the treatment principle of onset period.Invigorating lung and spleen is an important method to prevent the recurrence.Conclusion:Facilitating lung,regulating qi and invigorating lung and spleen are important principle of Chinese medicine treatment for children febrile convulsion.%目的:通过对小儿生理特点的分析,阐述小儿高热惊厥中医证治.方法:针对小儿的生理特点及高热惊厥的病机,结合临床对小儿高热惊厥进行中医辨证分析归纳,得出证治原则.结果:宣肺抑肝,调畅气机是发作期的治疗原则;补益肺脾,平抑肝木是预防复发的重要方法.结论:宣肺抑肝,调畅气机;补益肺脾,平抑肝木是中医治疗小儿高热惊厥的重要原则.

  2. The treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion%小儿惊厥的临床特点及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海英

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To explore the treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion. Methods:To analyze retrospectively the clinical date of 75 cases of clinical character.Result: The treatment of al patients showed effective. Except of 1 case of complex febrile convulsion and 1 case of non-heat convulsions evolved to epilepsia, the other patients had no obvious sequelae. Conclusion: Induction factors of infantile convulsion are complicated, except of congenital and traumatic factors, the prognosis of the others are good generaly. The recurrent frequent is related on development degree, so, it should on the base of effective treatment, to avoid induction factors and decrease recurrent rate, and make the child grow up and pass the dangerous period smoothly.%  目的探讨小儿惊厥的临床特点和治疗体会。方法回顾性分析75例惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果75例惊厥患儿均治疗有效。除复杂性高热惊厥和无热惊厥患儿各有1例发展成为癫痫,其他患儿均无明显的后遗症。结论小儿惊厥的发病因素较为复杂,但除去先天性或外伤性因素外,一般预后较好。惊厥复发频率与发育程度有关,应该在治疗有效的基础上,避免诱发因素,降低复发率,使之能尽量顺利成长,顺利度过惊厥危险期。

  3. R-(+)-ABP a novel derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide possesses anti-convulsant and neuroprotective properties in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ELESTAGE; A.ROGER; L.DANOBER; ERENARD; X-Q.PENG; Z.GUO; J.T.ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    ABP is a novel phthalide derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide (NBP) synthesized at the Beijing Institute of Materia Medica.NBP was isolated from several plants including Apium graveolens Linn. The juice squeezed from fresh celery leaves has long been used in Southeastern China for the treatment of epilepsy, and NBP has been reported to possess anti-convulsant properties (Drugs Future 2000; 25: 16-23). The present study

  4. Correlations of Clusters of Non-Convulsive Seizure and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Case With GAD65-Positive Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rachael; Rangaswamy, Rajesh; Peng, Yen-Yi

    2016-08-01

    With the increased availability of laboratory tests, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-positive limbic encephalitis has become an emerging diagnosis. The myriad symptoms of limbic encephalitis make the diagnosis challenging. Symptoms range from seizures, memory loss, dementia, confusion, to psychosis. We present a case of a 21-year-old female with GAD65 antibody-positive limbic encephalitis. The case is unique because the clinical course suggests that non-convulsive seizures are the major cause of this patient's clinical manifestations. The following is the thesis: systemic autoimmune disease, associated with the GAD65 antibody, gives rise to seizures, in particular, non-convulsive seizures. Temporal lobes happen to be the most susceptible sites to develop seizures. The greater part of these seizures can be non-convulsive and hard to recognize without electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The variable symptoms mirror the severity and locations of these seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormities in the bilateral hippocampus, fornix, and mammillary body correlate with the density of these seizures in the similar manner, which suggests it is secondary to post-ictal edema.

  5. 轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥研究进展%Research advances in benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丙松; 方续兰; 王佐

    2015-01-01

    Benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE),known as convulsions with mild gastroenteritis,is a kind of non-febrile convulsions disease associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis.Patients with BICE often have mild gastroenteritis and tonic-clonic seizure manifestation,but no apparent disturbance of water,electrolyte and acid base was observed.BICE,the main etiological agent of which is Rotavirus,is a kind of self-limited disease with favorable prognosis,and no requiring of continuous anticonvulsant treatment.%轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥又称轻度胃肠炎伴惊厥,是婴幼儿急性胃肠炎相关的一种无热惊厥.患儿表现为轻度胃肠炎,无明显水、电解质、酸碱平衡紊乱,惊厥多以强直-阵挛形式发作.本病多与轮状病毒感染有关,为自限性疾病,预后良好,无需持续抗惊厥治疗.

  6. Assessment of serum zinc, selenium and copper in simple febrile convulsions in children aged 6 to 60 months in Mohammad Kermanshahi Hospital in 2012 year

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    Simin Gheini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some trace elements may play a role in the etiology of febrile convulsions. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between serum zinc, selenium and copper level and febrile convulsion. Methods: In this case – control study, 114 children with febrile disease and 101 children with simple febrile convulsion were selected as control and case groups, respectively. After collecting all samples, serum levels of selenium, zinc and copper were measured and the obtained data were analyzed by Spss software using independent t-test Results: Mean serum zinc level in control group (80.24±10.06 was significantly higher than that of the case group (63.54±6.7 (P<0.001. Mean serum selenium level in control group (80.78±10.12 was significantly higher that that of the case group (59.32±6.92 (P<0.001. Mean serum copper level in the male control group (73.08±9.68 was significantly lower than that of the case group (81.80 ±10.81 (P<0.001. Conclusion: The causal correlation between variables cannot be determined by only one case-control study. Only the differences between groups are reported.

  7. 针灸治疗面肌痉挛的临床研究进展%The Clinical Research Process of Acupuncture for Mimetic Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建兰; 张芸

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the clinical research of acupuncture for mimetic convulsion has been greatly developed. By computer retrieving the VIP full text database, we had got the Chinese literatures about treating mimetic convulsion by acupuncture from 2000 to 2015, and through simply sum-marized these literatures found that the treatment of acupuncture for mimetic convulsion was effective, but was still lack of the support by a large number of repeatable, controlled, randomized evidences.%近年来,针刺治疗面肌痉挛的临床研究取得了较大进展,本文通过对维普期刊全文数据库的计算机检索,获得了2000~2015年有关针灸治疗面肌痉挛的中文文献,并对其进行简单归纳、总结,发现针灸治疗面肌痉挛疗效肯定,但尚缺乏大量重复、对照、随机的证据支持。

  8. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Riaz A; Khan, Maria; Ahmed, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    β-Carotene has been established as a known free radical scavenger with chain-breaking antioxidant properties. It has been documented for the treatment of epileptic convulsions at a 200 mg/kg body weight dose. The reported pathogenesis for epileptic convulsions is oxidative stress. Hence, experimental epileptic convulsions via oxidative stress was induced in albino mice epileptic models (maximal electroshock seizure and pentylenetetrazole [PTZ]). A dose concentration equivalent to 2 mg/kg was efficaciously administered in the form of brain-targeted polysorbate-80-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation technique and further characterized for their physical parameters, in-vitro release kinetics, and in-vivo brain release via various standard methods. Normal β-carotene nanoparticles (BCNP) and polysorbate-80-coated β-carotene nanoparticles (P-80-BCNP) of 169.8 ± 4.8 nm and 176.3 ± 3.2 nm in size, respectively, were formulated and characterized. Their zeta potential and polydispersity index were subsequently evaluated after 5 months of storage to confirm stability. In vivo activity results showed that a 2 mg unformulated β-carotene dose was ineffective as an anticonvulsant. However, salutary response was reported from BCNP at the same dose, as the hind limb duration decreased significantly in maximal electroshock seizure to 9.30 ± 0.86 seconds, which further decreased with polysorbate-80 coating to 2.10 ± 1.16 seconds as compared to normal control (15.8 ± 1.49 seconds) and placebo control (16.50 ± 1.43 seconds). In the PTZ model, the duration of general tonic-clonic seizures reduced significantly to 2.90 ± 0.98 seconds by the use of BCNP and was further reduced on P-80-BCNP to 1.20 ± 0.20 seconds as compared to PTZ control and PTZ-placebo control (8.09 ± 0.26 seconds). General tonic-clonic seizures latency was increased significantly to 191.0 ± 9.80 seconds in BCNP and was further

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of sodium valproate in convulsive status epilepticus following to ıschemic stroke

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    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is very rarely observed after ischaemic stroke. Sodium valproate (SV is one of the agents used in the treatment of CSE, but its role still controversial, and its degree of efficacy in treating CSE that develops following stroke is unclear. Method : We evaluated 19 patients who were treated with intravenous (IV SV (20 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg/h-12h after diazepam. Patients’ modified Rankin scores (mRS, SE types, and changes in biochemical parameters after treatment were assessed. Results : CSE was successfully treated in 12 (63.15% patients. Side effects such as hypotension and allergic reactions were observed in two patients. Refractory SE development was observed in 5 (29.4% patients with high mRS (˃ 3. No significant deterioration in patients’ laboratory evaluations, conducted before and after status, was observed. Conclusion : SV may be safe and effective in the treatment of CSE observed after ischaemic stroke, especially in patients with low mRS.

  10. 疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作%Vaccination reactions and acute convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is a milestone in the history of modern medicine. It has played a major role to prevent infectious diseases and to reduce mortality. However, the vaccine or vaccination-induced side effects, especially neurological disorders, such as seizures are also increasingly attracted concerns of the community. Seizures and side effects of vaccination are two separate medical problems that are parallel to the occasional cross. This paper will discuss the relationship between vaccine reactions and acute convulsions or seizures based on the latest research results.%疫苗在现代医学发展史上具有里程碑的意义.疫苗接种为预防和控制传染病、降低传染病病死率起了重大的作用.同时由于疫苗或预防接种引起的不良反应也日益受到社会各界的关注,特别是其神经系统不良反应,如惊厥等的发生更是受到普遍关注.惊厥和预防接种不良反应是两个独立的医学问题,平行而偶有交叉.文章结合最新研究,阐述疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作的相关性.

  11. Long-Term Survival and Outcome in Children Admitted to Kilifi District Hospital with Convulsive Status Epilepticus

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    Agnes Prins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is high in Africa but the long-term outcome is unknown. We examined the neurocognitive outcome and survival of children treated for CSE in a Kenyan hospital 3 to 4 years after discharge. Methods. The frequency and nature of neurological deficits among this group of children were determined and compared to a control group. The children were screened with the Ten Questions Questionnaire for neurodevelopmental impairment if alive and those that screened positive were invited for further assessment to determine the pattern and extent of their impairment. A verbal autopsy was performed to determine the cause of death in those that died. Results. In the 119 cases followed-up, 9 (8% died after discharge, with the majority having seizures during their fatal illness. The 110 survivors (median age 5 years had significantly more neurological impairments on the screening compared to 282 controls (34/110 (30.9% versus 11/282 (3.9%, OR = 11.0, 95% CI 5.3–22.8. Fifteen percent of the cases had active epilepsy. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the considerable burden of CSE in African children. Strategies to manage children with CSE that are acceptable to the community need to be explored to improve the longer-term outcome.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF NOVEL 2-AMINO-5-[4-CHLORO-2-(2-CHLOROPHENOXY PHENYL]-1,3,4-THIADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

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    Foroumadi A.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Several novel 2-amino-5-[4-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenoxyphenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives 4a-d were synthesized and their anticonvulsant activity was determined by evaluation of the ability of theses compounds to protect mice against convulsion induced by a lethal doses of pentylentetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES. The result of anticonvulsant data shows that among the synthesized compounds, 5-[4-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenoxyphenyl]-N-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine 4c was the most active compound in both MES and PTZ tests with an ED50 of 20.11 and 35.33 mg/kg, respectively.

  13. Aspirin and (or) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protect against corticohippocampal neurodegeneration and downregulate lipoxin A4 production and formyl peptide receptor-like 1 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elghafour, Basma A; El-Sayed, Norhan M; Ahmed, Amal A M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence for a relationship between inflammation and seizures because epilepsy can be caused by or result in inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aspirin and (or) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on seizure activity and neurodegeneration in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats focusing on their effect on corticohippocampal production of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and expression of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) receptors. Male rats were injected with PTZ (35 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 times per week for a total of 15 doses. Rats were treated daily with aspirin (20 mg/kg, i.p.), omega-3 PUFAs (85 mg/kg, p.o.), or a combination of them for 35 days. Both LXA4 level and expression of FPRL1 receptor in the cortices and hippocampi of rats' brains were greater in PTZ-kindled rats compared to a saline control group. Cotreatment with aspirin and (or) omega-3 PUFAs reduced convulsive behaviour; reduced levels of LXA4, interleukin-1β, and nuclear factor-κB; and showed a lower percentage of corticohippocampal degenerative cells compared to PTZ-kindled rats. The combination of the 2 therapeutic agents did not provide significant improvement in comparison with the monotherapies. These findings suggest the use of aspirin or omega-3 PUFAs may delay the development of seizures and provide neuroprotection in a clinical setting.

  14. 热性惊厥导致T细胞功能改变的观察%Immune-Functional Changes of T-lymphocytes in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈遂 陈遂; 邹峥; 梅魁敏; 陈志军; 徐淑娟

    2000-01-01

    探讨热性惊厥患儿外周血T淋巴细胞免疫功能的变化。方法:应用APSAP法检测82例热性惊厥患儿、40例上呼吸道感染患儿及40例正常小儿T淋巴细胞亚群、CD25抗原在自然状态和PHA激活后的活化状态的百分率。结果:热性惊厥患儿外周血中,CD3、CD4、CD4/CD8比值,均显著低于两对照组;热性惊厥患儿在自然状态下的CD25抗原表达率明显低于两对照组,经PHA刺激后,CD25抗原表达在各组均显著增多,但热性惊厥组仍低于两对照组。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在着细胞免疫损害,这可能是热性惊厥发生和复发的一个重要因素。预防热性惊厥复发,必须从提高细胞免疫功能着手。%To ineestigate the immune-functional changes of T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood in chil dren with febrile convulsions. Methods: Eighty-two children with febrile convulsions, forty with acute upper respiratory tract infection and forty normals were studied. The distribution of T-lymphocytes subsets, the expression of active marker CD25+ before and after PHA stimulation were investigated by APAAP assay. Results:Compared with the other control groups, the percentages of CD3, CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio of T-lymphocytes were all significantly depressed in the peripheral blood in children with febrile convulsions. The expression rate of CD25 antigen before PHA stimulation was significantly lower than those in two control groups. After PHA stimulation, the expression rates of CD25 antigen were all higher than before, but the rate of the febrile convulsion group was still lower than those of the control groups. Conclusion: Impairment of T-lymphocyte s-mediated immune function was associated with febrile convulsion and it might be a important cause of occurrence of febrile convulsion in children. For prevention and reduction of recurrence and subsequent brain damage, it is important to improve the T-lymphocyte s-mediated immune function of the

  15. The neuron-specific enolase levels of the cerebrospinal fluid in children with convulsion%惊厥患儿脑脊液神经元特异性烯醇化酶水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓华; 王继春; 朝鲁门其其格; 杨光路; 任少敏; 付亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the levels of neuron-speciifc enolase (NSE) of the cerebrospinal lfuid (CSF) in children with convulsion. Methods Ninety children with convulsion were enrolled. According to the frequency of convulsion attack, the children were divided into brief convulsion group 51 cases and prolonged convulsion group 39 cases, further, based on the etiology, the children were divided into viral encephalitis (VE) group, idiopathic epilepsy (EP) group, and febrile convulsion (FS) group. CSF was collected within 24-48 h convulsion attack. Twenty-three children with elective surgery were selected as a control group. CSF was collected before surgery. The NSE level of CSF were measured by ELISA method and compared among groups. Results The NSE levels of CSF in prolonged convulsion group and brief convulsion group were signiifcantly higher than that in control group, while the NES levels of CSF in prolonged convulsion group were signiifcantly higher than that in brief convulsion group (all P0.05). Conclusions Convulsion contributed to higher NSE levers of CSF, especially in children with prolonged convulsion attack or with VE. The NSE level of CSF can be regarded as an early objective indicator of brain damage after convulsions.%目的:探讨脑脊液中神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)水平在惊厥性脑损伤中的变化。方法选择90例惊厥患儿,根据惊厥发作的频率和单次惊厥发作的持续时间分为短程惊厥组(51例)和长程惊厥组(39例),再根据病因分为病毒性脑炎组、原发性癫组和热性惊厥组,采集患儿惊厥发作后24~48 h内的脑脊液;以23例外科手术患儿作为对照组,手术前采集脑脊液。采用酶联免疫分析法测定并比较各组脑脊液中NSE水平。结果长程惊厥组及短程惊厥组脑脊液NSE水平均高于对照组,而长程惊厥组更高于短程惊厥组,差异有统计学意义(P均0.05)。结论惊厥发作可导致脑脊液中NSE水平升高,尤

  16. 戊四氮点燃癫痫大鼠海马Cx32和Cx43表达及甘珀酸对其表达的影响%The expression of Cx32 and Cx43 in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰莉; 兰怡; 段丽; 曹荣

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨点燃癫痫大鼠神经元、星形胶质细胞及其缝隙蛋白的变化,甘珀酸(CBX)对缝隙连接的影响.方法 30只SD雄性大鼠随机分为3组:对照组(NS组)、点燃组(K组)、点燃后干预组(KCBX组),每组10只大鼠.NS组每日腹腔注射生理盐水.K组和KCBX组大鼠腹腔注射戊四氮(PTZ)[35mg/(kg·d)]至点燃,再分别腹腔注射生理盐水、CBX(10mg/kg)干预3d.观察3组大鼠惊厥行为变化,并观察Cx32、Cx43在海马内的表达变化.结果 ①PTZ点燃癫痫大鼠出现自发性抽搐,KCBX组自发性抽搐次数明显减少(P<0.05).②点燃癫痫大鼠海马Cx32、Cx43的表达增加;CBX干预后,Cx32、Cx43的表达减少(P<0.05).结论 CBX抑制点燃大鼠Cx32、Cx43的表达和癫痫活动,提示缝隙连接在癫癎的发生发展过程中具有重要的作用.%Objective To investigate the changes of neurons, astrocytes and their connexin in PTZ-kindled rats as well as the effect of carbenoxolone (CBX) on gap junction. Methods Totally 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) group, kindled (K) group and KCBX group, with 10 rats in each. NS group rats were intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) with saline daily. Rats in KCBX group and K group received PTZ [i.p. 35 mg/kg · d)] to establish epilepsy model of kindled rats. After kindling, KCBX group rats were injected with CBX (i.p. 10 mg/kg) and K group rats NS for three days. Seizure changes were analyzed for all the groups. Immunohistochemistry method was used to observe the expressions of Cx32 and Cx43 in the hippocampus of the rats. Results Spontaneous seizures appeared in PTZ-kindled epileptic rats. Accumulative times of seizures were significantly fewer in KCBX group rats than in K group rats (P<0. 05). The expressions of Cx32 and Cx43 increased significantly in the hippocampus of K group rats, but decreased in KCBX group rats (P<0. 05). Conclusion Gap junction blocker CBX inhibits not only the expressions of Cx32 and Cx43

  17. Infantile convulsions with paroxysmal dyskinesia (ICCA syndrome and copy number variation at human chromosome 16p11.

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    Patrice Roll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benign infantile convulsions and paroxysmal dyskinesia are episodic cerebral disorders that can share common genetic bases. They can be co-inherited as one single autosomal dominant trait (ICCA syndrome; the disease ICCA gene maps at chromosome 16p12-q12. Despite intensive and conventional mutation screening, the ICCA gene remains unknown to date. The critical area displays highly complicated genomic architecture and is the site of deletions and duplications associated with various diseases. The possibility that the ICCA syndrome is related to the existence of large-scale genomic alterations was addressed in the present study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A combination of whole genome and dedicated oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization coupled with quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. Low copy number of a region corresponding to a genomic variant (Variation_7105 located at 16p11 nearby the centromere was detected with statistical significance at much higher frequency in patients from ICCA families than in ethnically matched controls. The genomic variant showed no apparent difference in size and copy number between patients and controls, making it very unlikely that the genomic alteration detected here is ICCA-specific. Furthermore, no other genomic alteration that would directly cause the ICCA syndrome in those nine families was detected in the ICCA critical area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data excluded that inherited genomic deletion or duplication events directly cause the ICCA syndrome; rather, they help narrowing down the critical ICCA region dramatically and indicate that the disease ICCA genetic defect lies very close to or within Variation_7105 and hence should now be searched in the corresponding genomic area and its surrounding regions.

  18. ACUTE AND CHRONIC RESPONSES TO THE CONVULSANT PILOCARPINE IN DBA/2J AND A/J MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    WINAWER, M. R.; MAKARENKO, N.; McCLOSKEY, D. P.; HINTZ, T. M.; NAIR, N.; PALMER, A. A.; SCHARFMAN, H. E.

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the responses of different mouse strains to experimentally-induced seizures can provide clues to the genes that are responsible for seizure susceptibility, and factors that contribute to epilepsy. This approach is optimal when sequenced mouse strains are available. Therefore, we compared two sequenced strains, DBA/2J (DBA) and A/J. These strains were compared using the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine, because pilocarpine induces status epilepticus, a state of severe, prolonged seizures. In addition, pilocarpine-induced status is followed by changes in the brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Therefore, pilocarpine can be used to address susceptibility to severe seizures, as well as genes that could be relevant to TLE. A/J mice had a higher incidence of status, but a longer latency to status than DBA mice. DBA mice exhibited more hippocampal pyramidal cell damage. DBA mice developed more ectopic granule cells in the hilus, a result of aberrant migration of granule cells born after status. DBA mice experienced sudden death in the weeks following status, while A/J mice exhibited the most sudden death in the initial hour after pilocarpine administration. The results support previous studies of strain differences based on responses to convulsants. They suggest caution in studies of seizure susceptibility that are based only on incidence or latency. In addition, the results provide new insight into the strain-specific characteristics of DBA and A/J mice. A/J mice provide a potential resource to examine the progression to status. The DBA mouse may be valuable to clarify genes regulating other seizure-associated phenomena, such as seizure-induced neurogenesis and sudden death. PMID:17904758

  19. Hippocampal cell loss and propagation of abnormal discharges accompanied with the expression of tonic convulsion in the spontaneously epileptic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sasa, Masashi; Sugata, Sei; Tokudome, Mai; Serikawa, Tadao; Kurisu, Kaoru; Arita, Kazunori

    2010-04-30

    Spontaneously epileptic rats (SER) are double mutants with both tonic convulsion and absence-like seizures from the age of 8 weeks. Hippocampal CA3 neurons in SER display a long-lasting depolarizing shift accompanied by repetitive firing (attributed to abnormalities of the Ca(2+) channels) with a single stimulation of the mossy fibers. In the present investigation, we examined if the seizure discharges of SER were correlated with the hippocampal abnormality of SER using electrophysiological and histological methods. In CA1 neurons of seizure-susceptible mature SER, higher-voltage (<8-11 V) stimulations induced a long depolarization shift (in 25% of neurons) with repetitive firing (in 12.5% of neurons). However, the tremor rat, one of the parent strains of SER, did not exhibit such abnormal firing in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The number of CA3 neurons in SER was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that in tremor rats and Wistar rats, although no significant difference was established in the hilus. Sprouting of mossy fiber was observed in the dentate of mature SER; however, negligible staining was spotted in the dentate of both mature tremor and Wistar rats. Interestingly, expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor was higher in the hilus, CA3, and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus in SER than normal Wistar rats. The expression levels of TUNEL, bax, and Caspase-3 did not show significant changes between the SER and Wistar rats. SER exhibited hippocampal sclerosis-like changes which did not have enough potential for epileptogenesis. Repetitive tonic seizures and vulnerable CA3 neurons of SER could be involved in the induction of sclerosis-like changes in the hippocampus.

  20. Impacts of Shisiwei Jianzhong Decoction on the Convulsion Latency and the Content of Cytokines in Brain Tissue of the Mice with Oxygen Convulsion%十四味建中汤对氧惊厥小鼠惊厥潜伏期及脑组织炎症细胞因子含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷箴; 王国忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impacts and significance of shisiwei jianzhong decoction on convulsion latency and the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue of the mice with oxygen convulsion. Methods Fifty - six mice were randomized into 7 groups,named an oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(6 h group),a 24 h group,a 48 h group,a shisiwei jianzhong decoction + oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(a therapy 6 h group),a therapy 24 h group,a therapy 48group and a normal control group. In all of the therapy groups, 2 weeks before convulsion induced by oxygen,shishiwei jianzhong decoction was used for gastric perfusion, once every day. The mice in all of the oxygen convulsion groups and the therapy groups were placed in 500 kPa oxygen environment till the seizure so as to prepare the model of oxygen convulsion. The enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue. Results There was no significant difference in convulsion latency between the therapy groups and the oxygen convulsion groups(P ﹥ 0. 05). In the 24 h group and the 48 h group,the content of IL - 1β was higher significantly than that in the normal control group,indicating the significant difference(P ﹤ 0. 05),and that in the therapy 24 h group and the therapy 48 h group was lower significantly than that in the corresponding oxygen convulsion groups of the same time point,indicating the significant difference in the pair comparison(P ﹤ 0. 05). At the same time point,the difference in the content of IL - 10 was not significant among the oxygen convulsion groups,the therapy groups and the normal control group(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion Shisiwei jianzhong decoc-tion does not significantly prolong the latency of oxygen convulsion in the mice,but it effectively reduces the content of IL - 1β,benefits the re - balance of proinflammatory cytokine and anti - inflammatory cytokine and alleviates the convulsive brain damage.%目的:探讨十四味建中汤对氧惊

  1. Observation of curative effect by carbamazepine in the treatment of pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus%卡马西平治疗小儿难治性惊厥持续状态疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐容华; 周江堡

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate effective treatment method for pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus.MethodsA total of 14 children patients with refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus received carbamazepine after failed conventional first and second line drug, and their curative effects were observed.ResultsAmong 14 cases, there were 6 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 24 h of medication and controlled convulsions after 48 h, 6 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 48 h of medication and controlled convulsions after 72 h, and the other 2 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 72 h, along with 1 quit case of them due to severe raticide poisoning. There was no case with adverse drug reaction.ConclusionCarbamazepine provides remarkable effect for pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, especially for refractory partial convulsive status epilepticus. Course of treatment requires further investigation.%目的:探讨小儿难治性惊厥持续状态的有效治疗方法。方法14例难治性惊厥持续状态患儿,在使用常规一线、二线止惊药物失败后,开始采用卡马西平治疗,观察疗效。结果14例患儿中,6例患儿在给药24 h后惊厥次数明显减少,48 h惊厥控制;6例患儿在给药48 h后惊厥次数明显减少,72 h惊厥控制;另2例患儿在给药72 h后惊厥次数明显减少,其中1例灭鼠药中毒后终因病情太重放弃治疗,自动出院。无一例出现药物不良反应。结论卡马西平对小儿难治性惊厥持续状态有明显疗效,尤其对难治性部分性惊厥持续状态效果好,其使用疗程有待进一步探索。

  2. Evaluation and comparison of anticonvulsant activity of telmisartan and olmesartan in experimentally induced animal models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V H, Pushpa; Shetty K, Padmaja; R N, Suresha; M K, Jayanthi; V, Ashwini; P S, Vaibhavi

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is one common neurological disorder requiring newer targets and newer drugs for its efficient management. In the recent days brain renin angiotensin system has gained immense importance because of its involvement in seizure regulation. To evaluate and compare antiepileptic activity of different doses olmesartan and telmisartan on MES and PTZ induced seizure models. Swiss albino mice weighing around 25-30g of either sex were divided into 6 groups: Control ( Distilled Water- 10ml/kg), Standard - Sodium valproate (40mg/kg), O1 - Olmesartan (2.5mg/kg), O2 - Olmesartan (5mg/kg), T1 - Telmisartan (5mg/kg), T2 - Telmisartan (10mg/kg). After 1hour of administration of control , test and standard drugs (orally), convulsions were induced by administering PTZ (70mg/kg - i.p.) in PTZ model. Seizure latency was the parameter recorded. In MES model, suppression of tonic hind limb extension was taken as measure of efficacy. The results were analysed by one-way-ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. In MES test, dose dependently olmesartan and telmisartan significantly reduced the duration of tonic hindlimb extension in comparison to control (polmesartan and telmisartan produced significant increase in seizure latency (polmesartan in a dose dependent manner showed increase in antiepileptic activity. Temisartan at higher dose produced significant antiepileptic activity in comparison to olmesartan.

  3. Effects of acrous gramimeus and its main component alpha-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold of immature rats to electric stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin Yang; Shulei Li; Yuhong Wang; Yanzhi Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine acrous gramimeus is the dry rhizome of Acrous gramimeus Soland, a kind of Araceae familial perennial herb, which has a sedation action, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effect. Its effective component has not been known yet, and α-asarone, the major component of the volatile oil extracted from acrous gramineus, has been supposed to play a necessary role in it.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of acrous gramimeu and α-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold to electric stimulation in immature rats, furthermore, attempt to definitize the anticonvulsant effect of α-asarone.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTINGS: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital of Jilin University; Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences of Jilin University; Department of Neurology, First Clinical Hospital affiliated to Harbin Medical University; Department of Internal Medicine, Children's Hospital of Changchun City.MATERIALS: Seventy 3-week immature Wistar rats (either males or females) of 34-40 g were used. Acrous gramimeu (1 g/bag, the content of α-asarone was 0.046 26%-0.070 16%) with the batch number of 0307113was provided by Tianjiang Medicine Company Limited, Jiangyin City. Α-asarone tablet (60 mg per tablet) with the batch number of 030219 was provided by Tianwei Pharmaceutical Factory, Shenyang City. Α-asarone injectable preparation (2 mL per piece) with the batch number of 030105 was provided by Shuanghe Medicine Limited Company, Beijing City.METHODS:The experiments were carried out in the Neurological Laboratory of the First Hospital of Jilin University between August and October in 2004. ① The 70 rats were randomly divided into intragastric subset and intraperitoneal subset. The intragastric subset included four groups of control, phenobarbital sodium,acrous gramimeu and α-asarone; the intraperitoneal subset included three groups of control, phenobarbital sodium and

  4. 210例小儿急诊惊厥病因分析%Pathogeny analysis of 210 pediatric convulsions cases in emergency treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永强; 苏艳琦

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿急诊惊厥的病因,为急诊儿科提供诊断思路.方法 采用回顾性分析法,收集210例惊厥患儿的临床资料,并根据病史、性别、初发年龄、脑脊液、脑电图、体温、影像学检查等进行分析.结果 210例患儿中,不伴发热48例(22.86%),伴发热162例(77.14%);伴咳嗽、流涕137例(65.24%),伴腹泻、呕吐26例(12.38%),意识障碍或昏迷12例(5.71%),反复惊厥发作并智力发育迟缓7例(3.33%),惊厥持续状态4例(1.90%),既往已确诊癫痫3例(1.43%).体格检查神经系统阳性体征51例(24.29%).对27例伴有意识障碍疑似颅内感染的患儿进行脑脊液检查,发现其中有8例出现异常;对55例白细胞明显增加的患儿进行血培养检查,发现其中有9例出现细菌生长;对113例患儿进行脑电图检查,发现有61例患儿出现异常.64例患儿行头颅CT检查,9例异常,分别为颅内出血6例、脑干多发低密度灶1例、脑室增宽1例、颅内占位病变1例.210例患儿中最常见症状为热性惊厥、癫痫和颅内感染.其中,1~28 d新生儿惊厥多为颅内出血所致;28 d~3岁婴幼儿期惊厥病因主要为热性惊厥,其次为癫痫和颅内感染;3~6岁学龄前儿童的惊厥仍以热性惊厥为主;>6岁后,病因则以癫痫为主.结论 因儿童发生惊厥的病因呈多样化、复杂化,在对患儿的惊厥病因进行确诊时,不仅需根据患儿的过往病史、年龄段等进行辅助分析,更需要应用诸如头颅CT、脑电图等辅助检查工具,以达到快速确诊、及早治疗、预防复发和减轻患儿脑损伤、杜绝患儿后遗症发生的效果.%Objective To investigate pathogeny of pediatric convulsions in emergency treatment, and to provide diagnosis basis for pediatric emergency treatment.Methods A retrospective analysis was made on clinical data of 210 children with convulsions, along with their medical history, gender, onset age, cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram, body

  5. Benign infantile convulsions (IC) and subsequent paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) in a patient with 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Axel; Köhler, Angelika; Hahn, Andreas; Neubauer, Bernd; Müller, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is caused by mutations in the gene PRRT2 located in 16p11.2. A deletion syndrome 16p11.2 is well established and is characterized by intellectual disability, speech delay, and autism. PKD/IC, however, is extremely rare in this syndrome. We describe a case of PKD/IC and 16p11.2 deletion syndrome and discuss modifiers of PRRT2 activity to explain the rare concurrence of both syndromes.

  6. The Emperor Dom Pedro II: his convulsive seizures when a boy O imperador Dom Pedro II: as suas crises convulsivas quando menino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dom Pedro II, the Prince Heir and Emperor under regency, in a delicate period of the construction of the Brazilian nation, had convulsive seizures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the convulsive seizures and related syndromes of Dom Pedro II and his family, besides the physicians in charge of the health care. METHOD: Narrative review based on primary and secondary sources. CONCLUSION: The scattered and self-limited convulsive seizures associated with physical and mental integrity favored a benign prognosis. Dom Pedro and his family presented rich history of epileptic seizures and febrile convulsion. This variety resembles the diagnosis of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus that seems to be a combination of several syndromes with shared genetic susceptibility.INTRODUÇÃO: Dom Pedro, o príncipe herdeiro e imperador sob regência, em período delicado da formação da nação brasileira, apresentou crises convulsivas que geraram preocupação para o país. OBJETIVO: Investigar a história da epilepsia de Dom Pedro II e da sua família e procurar identificar quais tipos de crises epilépticas estavam presentes, além dos médicos envolvidos com os cuidados de saúde. MÉTODO: Revisão narrativa baseada em fontes primárias e secundárias. CONCLUSÃO: As crises convulsivas esparsas e auto-limitadas associadas a higidez física e mental de Dom Pedro II sugerem um prognóstico benigno. A história de epilepsia idiopática e convulsões febris no imperador e em outros membros da sua família aponta para o diagnóstico mais provável de Epilepsia Generalizada com Convulsões Febris Plus que é determinada por uma combinação de alguns tipos de manifestações epilépticas com suscetibilidade genética compartilhada.

  7. Effect of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside isolated from Eucommia ulmoides male flowers on spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Lipeng; Liu, Shaoyang; Fei, Dongqing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuxian

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside on the neural system. Quercetin-3-O-sambubioside is a monomeric compound found in Eucommia ulmoides male flowers from which it was extracted using a system solvent method. In the experiments, spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice were recorded, and quercetin-3-O-sambubioside shows eminent effects similar to nikethamide on increasing spontaneous activity and stimulating the nerve center to enhance excitement. These findings are indicative of the powerful ability of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside to promote the stimulation of the nerve center.

  8. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15-24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs.

  9. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ABOUT CHANGES OF MYOCARDIAL ENZYME IN 62 CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE CONVULSION%62例小儿热性惊厥心肌酶谱变化临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任莉英; 陈颖; 石霖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过对热性惊厥患儿抽搐后心肌酶谱的检测,探讨热性惊厥对心肌的损害.[方法]对2008年10月~2010年10月收治的62例急性上呼吸道感染致热性惊厥患儿进行心肌酶谱检测.[结果]观察组血清肌酸激酶同工酶(c reatine kinase-MB,CK-MB)、肌酸激酶(creatine k inase,CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(lac tare dehydrogenase,LDH)较对照组升高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).[结论]热性惊厥患儿抽搐时会引起心肌受损.治疗热性惊厥患儿时要注意保护心肌,有助于患儿早日康复.%[Objective] Through the detection of myocardial enzymes of children with febrile convulsion after convulsion, to investigate the myocardial damage. [Methods] From October 2008-October 2010, myocardial enzymes of 62 children with febrile convulsion admitted in because of acute upper respiratory tract infection were detected. [ Results] The serum levels of creatine kinase (c reatine kinase-MB, CK-MB) , creatine kinase (creatine k inase, CK) , lactate dehydrogenase (lac tate dehydrogenase, LDH) were higher than those in control group, there was a significant difference (P < 0.01). [Conclusion] The convulsions in children with febrile convulsion may cause myocardial damage. When treating febrile convulsion children, it should pay attention to the pmtection of the cardiac muscle, which helps children to recovery early.

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. 小儿高热惊厥的治疗及护理%The Nursing and Treatment of Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热惊厥的原因及主要表现,实施有效的护理,在医护紧密配合下获得满意的效果。方法回顾性分析我院接诊的14例高热惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果经及时止惊,降温,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监护等综合治疗,患儿均转为为安。结论及时迅速控制惊厥,降温,加强护理,降低高热惊厥患儿的意外伤害率,减少惊厥的复发。%Objective To explore the causes and the main performance of high fever convulsion in children, and implement effective nursing care to obtain satisfactory results in close cooperation with medical care.Methods Retrospective analyzed of 14 cases of febrile convulsion in children in our hospital.Results The patients were treated with the combined therapy of respiratory tract, keeping the respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen inhalation, strengthening the monitoring, et al, all of them were safe. Conclusion Prompt control of seizures, cooling, enhanced care, reduce the rate of accidental injury in children with high fever and recurrence of seizures.

  12. 热性惊厥患儿高血糖的护理对策%Nursing countermeasures for febrile convulsion children with hyperglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 吴国红; 滕云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the change of blood glucose level in children with febrile convulsion and propose appropriate nursing countermeasures. Methods Febrile convulsion children with hyperglycemia were conducted with basic nursing, and meanwhile the hyperglycemia level was regulated by targeted nursing. Results After the application of targeted nursing, all the children's blood glucose levels return to normal level within 48 hours after hospitalization. Conclusion Targeted nursing can timely correct hyperglycemia and alleviate damage of brain tissue and other vital organs caused by hyperglycemia.%目的 探讨热性惊厥患儿血糖水平的变化并提出相应的护理对策.方法 对伴有高血糖的热性惊厥患儿进行基础护理的同时,对其高血糖也进行针对性护理.结果 对伴高血糖热性惊厥患儿进行针对性护理后,人院48 h内患儿血糖全部恢复正常水平.结论 针对性护理可及时纠正高血糖,减轻高血糖造成的脑组织和其他重要器官的损害.

  13. 热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系%Heat Convulsions and the Relationship Between iron Deficiency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清波; 付瑶; 张高坤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between thermal convulsions with iron deficiency anemia. Methods To detect hospital from June 2010 to August 2010 of hot sex of 104 cases of children with convulsions, red blood hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cellcount (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood volume (MCV), serum iron (SI), and with the same period 98 cases of children with respiratory tract, intestinal infection without convulsion as the control group, analyzes the results. Results The incidence of anemia eclampsia group was obviously higher than that of control group, and more for smal cellanemia. Conclusion Children with fever convulsion and has close relation with the serum iron, one of the reasons for hot seizures for iron deficiency anemia. 6 months to 5 years old children, the brain's arousal system and control the balance of the system is in unstable state, under the interference of external factors, prone to seizures. Many clinical data demonstrate hot the occurrence of convulsion and disorder of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine increasing.%目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血之间的关系。方法检测院2010年6月~2012年8月的热性惊厥患儿104例的红细胞平均血红蛋白的含量(MCHC)、红细胞平均血红蛋白(MCH)、红细胞计数(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、血清铁含量(SI),并以同期98例呼吸道、肠道感染而无惊厥患儿为对照组,分析其结果。结果惊厥组贫血发生率明显高于对照组,并且多为小细胞性贫血。结论小儿热性惊厥与血清铁有着密切的关系,引起热性惊厥的原因之一为缺铁性贫血。6个月~5周岁儿童,大脑的兴奋系统和抑制系统的平衡处于不稳定状态,在外界因素的干扰下,易发生惊厥。许多临床资料证明热性惊厥的发生和神经介质失调如5-羟色胺、多巴胺的增多有关。

  14. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Francis

    2009-10-01

    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  15. Design, synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of novel 2,3-dihydrophthalazine-1,4-dione derivatives as potential anticonvulsant agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helby, Abdel Ghany A.; Ayyad, Rezk R.; Sakr, Helmy M.; Abdelrahim, Adel S.; El-Adl, K.; Sherbiny, Farag S.; Eissa, Ibrahim H.; Khalifa, Mohamed M.

    2017-02-01

    In view of their expected anticonvulsant activity, some novel derivatives of 2,3-dihydrophthalazine-1,4-dione 4-22 were designed, synthesized and evaluated using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and picrotoxin as convulsion-inducing models. Moreover, the most active compounds were tested against electrical induced convulsion using maximal electroshock (MES) models of seizures. Most of the tested compounds showed considerable anticonvulsant activity in at least one of the anticonvulsant tests. Compounds 13 and 14g were proved to be the most potent compounds of this series with relatively low toxicity in the median lethal dose test when compared with the reference drug. Molecular modeling studies were done to verify the biological activity. The obtained results showed that the most potent compounds could be useful as a template for future design, optimization, and investigation to produce more active analogues.

  16. Non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor ligands incorporating antiepileptic moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Adem, Abdu; Stark, Holger

    2014-04-22

    A small series of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) ligands (1-5) incorporating different antiepileptic structural motifs has been newly synthesized. All compounds exhibited moderate to high in vitro hH3R affinities up to a sub-nanomolar concentration range with pKi values in the range of 6.25-9.62 with varying preferences for this receptor subtype. The compounds (1-5) were further investigated in vivo on anticonvulsant effects against maximum electroshock (MES)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled convulsions in rats having phenytoin (PHT) as the reference antiepileptic drug (AED). Surprisingly, animals pretreated with 1 mg/kg, i.p. of 5,5-diphenyl-3-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (4) were only moderately protected and no protection was observed for compounds 1-3 and 5 in three different doses (1 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg/kg i.p.). Compound 4 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to modify PTZ-kindled convulsion. However, a dose of 10 mg/kg significantly reduced convulsions in both models. In contrast, 5,5-diphenyl-3-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (5) (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) showed proconvulsant effects in the MES model with further confirmation of these results in the PTZ model as no protection was observed against convulsion in the doses tested (1 and 10 mg/kg). In addition, compound 4 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly prolonged myoclonic latency time and shortened total convulsion duration when compared to control, PHT or standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant (PIT). Our results showed that H3R pharmacophores could successfully be structurally combined to antiepileptic moieties, especially phenytoin partial structures, maintaining the H3R affinity. However, the new derivatives for multiple-target approaches in epilepsy models are complex and show that pharmacophore elements are not easily pharmacologically combinable.

  17. Cause Analysis and Nursing Strategy of Pediatric Burn Complicated with Convulsion%小儿烧伤并发惊厥的原因分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章红英; 邵蕴慧; 王冬蕾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the related factors of pediatric burn complicated with convulsion so as to put forward the nursing intervention measures. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data and nursing intervention in 17 cases of pediatric burn and convulsion. Results Hyperthermia, hyponatremia, cerebral edema and hypocalcemia were the major causes for convulsion after pediatric burn. Of all the cases, hyperthermia induced convulsion occurred in 9 cases, hyponatremia-induced convulsion in 5,cerebral edema induced convulsion in 2,and hypocalcemia-induced convulsion in 1. Using sedatives,oxygen, cooling, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and correcting water treatment, the convulsion was controlled within 1 min in 15 cases and within 2~5 min in 2 cases. With the remission of convulsion,the children were observed with no neurological symptoms and signs. All the 17 childrens were cured and discharged, which was followed up for 1 year without recurrence of convulsion and brain sequelae. Conclusion The occurrence of convulsions can be effectively prevented or reduced by correctly handling the wound, infection control, prevention of febrile,timely and reasonable infusion,prevention and treatment of shock, correcting water,electrolyte disturbance; prevention of cerebral edema.%目的 分析探讨小儿烧伤后惊厥的原因,以期提出相应的护理干预措施.方法 回顾性分析17例小儿烧伤后发生惊厥的临床资料和护理措施.结果 高热、低钠血症、脑水肿、低钙血症是小儿烧伤后发生惊厥的主要因素.其中,高热致惊厥9例,低钠血症引起惊厥5例,脑水肿引起惊厥2例,低钙血症引起惊厥1例.患儿经使用镇静剂、吸氧、降温、脱水、纠正水和电解质紊乱等治疗护理后,惊厥在1 min内控制的有15例,在2~5 min内控制的有2例;惊厥缓解后,患儿无神经系统症状和体征.17例患儿均治愈出院,随访1年无再发惊厥

  18. PTZ诱导孕鼠痫性发作对胎鼠海马中bax、bcl-2、capase-3表达的影响%PTZ-induced pregnancy rat seizuring and the express change of bax, bcl-2 and caspase-3 in the hippocampus of offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲珍珍; 王维平; 毛卓锋; 栾绍群; 谢涛; 袁淑珍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨母鼠孕期痫性发作对胎鼠海马中bax、bcl-2、capase-3表达的影响.方法 将雌性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组(NC组)、盐水组(NS组)和癫痫组(PTZ组),采用戊四氮(pentylenetetrazol,PTZ)致痫模型,PTZ组大鼠每天给予腹腔下注射PTZ 35 mg/kg,点燃成功后将雌性SD大鼠与雄性SD大鼠合笼;发现阴栓记为孕0d,孕鼠继续孕前处理至孕20d.NS组腹腔注射相应剂量的生理盐水,NC组不做任何处理.Western Blot方法测定胎鼠海马组织中bax、bcl-2及caspase-3蛋白表达变化.结果 PTZ组胎鼠海马caspase-3蛋白(2.57±0.08)较NC组(0.53±0.13)明显升高(P<0.05);PTZ组胎鼠海马bax蛋白(3.24±0.32)较NC组(1.55±0.11)明显升高(P<0.05);PTZ组子鼠海马bcl-2表达水平(1.42 ±0.074)较NC组(2.45±0.07)明显降低(P<0.05).结论 孕期痫性发作使胎鼠海马促凋亡蛋白bax表达增加,抑凋亡蛋白bcl-2表达降低,凋亡执行蛋白caspase-3表达增加,推测孕期痫性发作可能使胚胎海马神经元凋亡增加.

  19. Fever,poor response, convulsions, and hepatomegaly%发热,反应差,抽搐,肝大

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱乔乔; 刘智胜; 张芙蓉; 李瑞珍; 王宝香

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differential diagnosis of Reye syndrome and the characteristics of primary carnitine deficiency,and to provide diagnostic strategy for similar cases.Methods There was a case presented with fever,poor response,convulsions and hepatomegaly hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital,and the clinical manifestations were described,the physical examination was comprehensively conducted,the auxiliary examination results were recorded,some pediatric specialists from ICU,neurology department,genetic metabolic department,digestive system department were invited to discuss the case.The treatment was adjusted according to the suggested opinions;the treatment effects and the final diagnosis were tracked.Results The primary diagnosis of the case was central nervous system infection or toxic encephalopathy at the time of admission,but Reye syndrome could not be excluded.Although the cerebrospinal fluid test and brain MRI examination detected nothing abnormal,liver function suggested alanine aminotrans ferase ALT increase,blood sugar decrease,the liver volume increase,which was detected by liver ultrasound.Blood amino acids examination revealed the carnitine level decreased,and it was confirmed as primary carnitine deficiency in the end.L-carnitine was used to treat the disease,and its effect was good.Conclusions Great importance should be attached to children with onset age,physical check-up,and multidisciplinary cooperation.Use monism to explain the illness and the auxiliary inspection as far as possible,so that it can get early diagnosis and treatment,and the outcome is good.%目的 探讨瑞氏综合征的鉴别诊断及原发性肉碱缺乏症特点,并为类似病例提供诊断思路.方法 对武汉市儿童医院收治的1例临床表现为发热、反应差、抽搐、肝脏增大的患儿,总结其临床表现,全面进行体格检查,记录其辅助检查结果,并请小儿重症医学科、神经内科、遗传代谢科、消化内科专

  20. Benchmark Dose Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

  1. Dexmedetomidine Dose-Dependently Attenuates Ropivacaine-Induced Seizures and Negative Emotions Via Inhibiting Phosphorylation of Amygdala Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ming-Zhu; Wu, Huang-Hui; Yin, Jun-Bin; Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Mei, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Han; Zhu, Xia; Shen, Xue-Feng; Kaye, Alan David; Chen, Guo-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Ropivacaine (Ropi), one of the newest and safest amino amide local anesthetics, is linked to toxicity, including the potential for seizures, changes in behavior, and even cardiovascular collapse. Dexmedetomidine (Dex), an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been widely used in anesthesia and critical care practice. To date, the underlying mechanisms of the effects of Dex premedication on Ropi-induced toxicity have not been clearly identified. In the current study, we investigated the effects of increasing doses of Dex premedication on 50% convulsive dose (CD50) of Ropi. With increasing doses of intraperitoneal (i.p.) Dex 10 min prior to each i.p. RopiCD50, the latency and duration of seizure activity were recorded. Open-field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test were used to measure negative behavioral emotions such as depression and anxiety. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were utilized to investigate phosphorylation-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on 2 h and in the central amygdala (CeA) on 24 h after convulsion in mice. The results of our investigation demonstrated that Dex dose-dependently increased RopiCD50, prolonged the latency and shortened the duration of each RopiCD50-induced seizure, improved the negative emotions revealed by both OF and EPM test, and inhibited p-ERK expression in the BLA and the CeA.

  2. Can we safely administer the recommended dose of phenobarbital in very low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Osman; Kalay, Salih; Tezel, Gonul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Oygur, Nihal

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the recommended phenobarbital loading dose of 15-20 mg/kg with maintenance of 3-4 mg/kg/day can safely be administered to very low birth weight preterm newborns with seizures. Twenty-four convulsive preterms of Phenobarbital was administered intravenously with a loading dose of 15 mg/kg in approximately 10-15 min. After 24 h, the maintenance dose of 3 mg/kg/day was administered as a single injection. Blood samples were obtained 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the phenobarbital loading dose was administered, immediately before the next phenobarbital dose was injected. None of the cases had plasma phenobarbital concentrations above the therapeutic upper limit of 40 μg/mL on the 2nd hour; one case (4.7%), on the 24th; 11 cases (45.8%), on the 48th; 15 cases (62.5%), on the 72nd; and 17 cases (70.8%), on the 96th hour. A negative correlation was detected between the serum concentrations of phenobarbital and gestational age on the 72th (p, 0.036; r, -0.608) and 96th hour (p, 0.043; r, -0.769). We suggest that particular attention should be done while administering phenobarbital in preterms, as blood levels of phenobarbital are higher than the reference ranges that those are often reached with the recommended doses in these groups of babies.

  3. Anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of amiodarone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunnur OZBAKIS-DENGIZ; Aysegul BAKIRCI

    2009-01-01

    Amiodarone hydrochloride is a potent anti-arrhythmic agent, known as a multiple ion-channel blocker in the heart.Although it has been detected in the rat brain, there are no data related to its central nervous system (CNS) effects. In this study, we evaluated anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of amiodarone. Convulsions were induced by phentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (100 mg/kg) or caffeine (300 mg/kg) in mice. In both models, amiodarone prolonged both latency period and time to death, and acted as an anticonvulsant drug. It was found to be more effective in the PTZ model than in the caffeine model; none of the animals treated with 150 mg/kg dose amiodarone had died in the PTZ model. For hypnotic effect, sleeping was induced with pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) in rats. Amiodarone dose-dependently increased the sleeping time (677.7%~725.9%). In the sleeping test, all rats in 200 mg/kg amiodarone group died. In conclusion, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of amiodarone have shown the depressant effects on CNS. These effects may be dependent on its pharmacological properties.

  4. Molecular Docking and Anticonvulsant Activity of Newly Synthesized Quinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Abuelizz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new series of quinazoline-4(3H-ones are evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. After intraperitoneal (ip injection to albino mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, synthesized quinazolin-4(3H-ones (1–24 were examined in the maximal electroshock (MES induced seizures and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ induced seizure models in mice. The Rotarod method was applied to determine the neurotoxicity. Most of the compounds displayed anticonvulsant activity in the scPTZ screen at a dose range of 0.204–0.376 mmol/mL. Out of twenty-four, compounds 8, 13 and 19 proved to be the most active with a remarkable protection (100% against PTZ induced convulsions and four times more potent activity than ethosuximide. The structure-activity relationship concluded valuable pharmacophoric information, which was confirmed by the molecular docking studies using the target enzyme human carbon anhydrase II (HCA II. The studied quinazoline analogues suggested that the butyl substitution at position 3 has a significant effect on preventing the spread of seizure discharge and on raising the seizure threshold. However, benzyl substitution at position 3 has shown a strong anticonvulsant activity but with less seizure prevention compared to the butyl substitution.

  5. Anticonvulsant effects of isomeric nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%-80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R-enantiomer, namely, (R)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide (2) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S-enantiomer (1), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R-enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier (R)-enantiomer (3), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its (S)-enantiomer (4) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the (R)-enantiomer (3) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with those observed for PHT, and

  6. Differential modulatory actions of GABAA agonists on susceptibility to GABAA antagonists-induced seizures in morphine dependent rats: possible mechanisms in seizure propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Atapour, Nafiseh; Kalantaripour, Tajpari; Bashiri, Hamideh; Shahidi, Alireza

    2011-07-01

    In order to clarify the mechanisms involved in the susceptibility to GABA(A) antagonists-induced seizures in morphine dependent rats, we investigated how GABA(A) agonists modulate this vulnerability. Seizures were induced to animals by infusion of GABA(A) antagonists: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), picrotoxin (PIC) and bicuculline (BIC). GABA(A) agonists, muscimol (MUS) and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), were administered intravenous (i.v.) before antagonists. Morphine-dependence significantly decreased the PTZ threshold dose (19.16±1.89 versus 25.74±1.25mg/kg) while, it had no effect on PIC induced seizures. BIC doses for both threshold and tonic-clonic seizures induction were significantly lower in morphine dependent rats (0.10±0.01 and 0.12±0.02 versus 0.25±0.02 and 0.39±0.07mg/kg respectively). In morphine-dependence, although pre-treatment with MUS significantly increased the required dose of PTZ for seizures threshold, THIP significantly decreased the required dose of PTZ for tonic-clonic convulsion. Moreover, MUS pretreatment completely recovered the effect of morphine dependency on BIC seizure activity. The results suggest that the capability of GABA(A) agonists on modulation of propensity to seizures induced by different antagonists in morphine-dependence is dissimilar. Therefore, it seems that long-term morphine alters some properties of GABA system so that the responsive rate of GABA(A) receptors not only to its antagonists, but also to its agonists will change differently.

  7. Buccal, intranasal or intravenous lorazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions in children in Malawi: An open randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lissauer

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Intravenous lorazepam effectively treats most childhood seizures in this setting. Intranasal and buccal routes are less effective but may be useful in pre-hospital care or when intravenous access cannot be obtained. Further studies comparing intranasal lorazepam to other benzodiazepines, or alternative doses by a non-intravenous route are warranted.

  8. The clinical significance of testing serum calcium and sodium in children with febrile convulsion%热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Serum calcium and sodium concentration in children with febrile convulsion and its significance.Methods:Detect the serum calcium and sodium levels using automatic biochemical analyzer in 76 cases of children with febrile convulsion and 69 cases of the control group with fever,and compared it.Results:Serum calcium and sodium in febrile convulsion group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Children with febrile convulsion is in low calcium and low blood sodium.Reciprocal causation between febrile convulsion and low calcium and low sodium.For the treatment of febrile seizure,we should pay attention to correct the low calcium hyponatremia in addition to conventional anti convulsion and cooling,in order to prevent repeated attack of convulsion,and alleviate the damage on brain and other important organs.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠浓度变化及其意义。方法:采用全自动生化测定仪检测76例热性惊厥患儿和对照组69例发热患儿的血清钙、钠水平,并进行比较分析。结果:热性惊厥组血清钙、钠明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在低血钙、低血钠。热性惊厥与低钙、低钠之间互为因果,针对热性惊厥治疗时除常规止惊、降温外应注意纠正低钙低钠血症,预防惊厥反复发作,减轻脑组织和其他重要脏器的损害。

  9. Study on prognosis status and its influential factors in children with febrile convulsion%高热惊厥小儿预后现状和影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建军; 杨毅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高热惊厥小儿预后现状和影响因素.方法 采用自编问卷收集2010年8月~2011年8月在湖南省永州市祁阳县人民医院儿科住院治疗的43例高热惊厥患儿临床资料.结果 在本研究入选的43例患儿中,35例患儿预后良好,预后良好率为81.40%,而预后不良率为18.60%,多因素Logistic回归分析发现初次发作年龄<1岁,高热惊厥持续时间≥15 min、高热惊厥次数≥2次和脑电图异常是高热惊厥患儿预后差危险因素.结论 高热惊厥患儿总体预后欠佳,预后影响因素较多,在对高热惊厥进行治疗的过程中,积极治疗高热惊厥,发作时尽可能在最短时间内止痉,改善患儿的预后.%Objective To investigate the prognosis status and its influential factors in children with febrile convulsion. Methods Clinical data of 43 children with febrile convulsion who were treated in the Department of Pediatric in the People's Hospital of Qiyang County in Yongzhou City, Hu'nan Province, from August 2010 to August 2011 were collected by self-made questionnaire. Results 43 children with febrile convulsion were favorable prognosis, the good prognosis rate was 81.40%, the bad prognosis rate was 18.60%, binary classification logistic regression analysis showed that first onset age <1 year old, febrile convulsion duration ≥15 min, febrile convulsion number ≥2 and electroencephalography abnormality were risk factors. Conclusion The prognosis status of children with febrile convulsion was bad. It is affected by various factors. We should give positive treatment and control attack as soon as possible to improve the prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  10. ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutia Jay N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera which is commonly known as drumstick tree has been used for its nutrition value and extensively used as a CNS depressant traditionally. Present work has been carried out to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions at different dose level (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg i.p.. Diazepam and phenytoin (5mg/kg i.p. and 25mg/kg i.p., respectively were used as a reference standard. At both the doses it significantly (P < 0.0001 delayed the onset of clonic seizures in PTZ induced convulsions and significantly reduced (P < 0.0001 duration of hind limb extension in MES test. The phytochemical investigation of plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins as major constituents. The data obtained indicates that methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves may help to control grand mal and petit mal epilepsy.

  11. 咪达唑仑在窒息后惊厥新生儿中的应用%Application of midazolam in convulsion newborn after asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫; 杨志雄

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the anticonvulsant action of midazolam in perinatal severe asphyxia.Methods:21 cases of convulsion newborns after severe asphyxia were selected.They were randomly divided into the experimental group with 11 cases and the control group with 10 cases.The experimental group was given midazolam treatment,and the control group was given phenobarbital treatment.The anticonvulsant effects and respiratory inhibition effects of two groups were compared.Results:The anticonvulsant effect of the experimental group was better than that of the control group.There was no respiratory inhibition in the experimental group,and the control group had 1 case of respiratory inhibition.Conclusion:The effect of midazolam in the treatment of convulsion after newborn asphyxia is much better than that of phenobarbital.%目的:探讨咪达唑仑在新生儿重度窒息中抗惊厥作用。方法:收治重度窒息后惊厥新生儿21例,随机分为试验组11例和对照组10例。试验组给予咪达唑仑治疗,对照组给予苯巴比妥治疗。比较两组抗惊厥效果及呼吸抑制作用。结果:试验组抗惊厥效果优于对照组,试验组中未见呼吸抑制,对照组中1例发生呼吸抑制。结论:咪达唑仑在新生儿窒息后惊厥治疗中效果明显优于苯巴比妥。

  12. Low distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2A and synaptotagimin-1 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of spontaneously epileptic rats exhibiting both tonic convulsion and absence seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaya, R; Hosoyama, H; Sugata, S; Tokudome, M; Hirano, H; Tokimura, H; Kurisu, K; Serikawa, T; Sasa, M; Arita, K

    2012-09-27

    The spontaneously epileptic rat (SER) is a double mutant (zi/zi, tm/tm) which begins to exhibit tonic convulsions and absence seizures after 6 weeks of age, and repetitive tonic seizures over time induce sclerosis-like changes in SER hippocampus with high brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Levetiracetam, which binds to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), inhibited both tonic convulsions and absence seizures in SERs. We studied SER brains histologically and immunohistochemically after verification by electroencephalography (EEG), as SERs exhibit seizure-related alterations in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. SERs did not show interictal abnormal spikes and slow waves typical of focal epilepsy or symptomatic generalized epilepsy. The difference in neuronal density of the cerebral cortex was insignificant between SER and Wistar rats, and apoptotic neurons did not appear in SERs. BDNF distributions portrayed higher values in the entorhinal and piriform cortices which would relate with hippocampal sclerosis-like changes. Similar synaptophysin expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was found in both animals. Low and diffuse SV2A distribution portrayed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SERs was significantly less than that of all cerebral lobes and inner molecular layer (IML) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of Wistar rats. The extent of low SV2A expression/distribution in SERs was particularly remarkable in the frontal (51% of control) and entorhinal cortices (47%). Lower synaptotagmin-1 expression (vs Wistar rats) was located in the frontal (31%), piriform (13%) and entorhinal (39%) cortices, and IML of the DG (38%) in SER. Focal low distribution of synaptotagmin-1 accompanying low SV2A expression may contribute to epileptogenesis and seizure propagation in SER.

  13. Electromagnetic Field Modeling of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation: Targeting, Individualization, and Safety of Convulsive and Subconvulsive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-De

    inform dosage requirements in convulsive therapies. Our results indicate that the MST electric field is more focal and more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. Further, the conventional ECT current amplitude is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. One of the factors important to clinical outcome is seizure expression. However, it is unknown how the induced electric field is related to seizure onset and propagation. In this work, we explore the effect of the electric field distribution on the quantitative ictal electroencephalography and current source density in ECT and MST. We further demonstrate how the ECT electrode shape, size, spacing, and current can be manipulated to yield more precise control of the induced electric field. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Next, we demonstrate how the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be controlled. We present the most comprehensive comparison of TMS coil electric field penetration and focality to date. The electric field distributions of more than 50 TMS coils were simulated. We show that TMS coils differ markedly in their electric field characteristics, but they all are subject to a consistent depth-focality tradeoff. Specifically, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electric field spread. Figure-8 type coils are fundamentally more focal compared to circular type coils. Understanding the depth-focality tradeoff can help researchers and clinicians to appropriately select coils and interpret TMS studies. This work also enables the development of novel TMS coils with electronically switchable active and sham modes as well as for deep TMS. Design considerations of these coils are extensively discussed. Part II of the dissertation aims to quantify the effect of individual, sex, and age differences in head geometry and conductivity on the induced

  14. Evaluation of anticonvulsant and nootropic effect of ondansetron in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S; Agarwal, N B; Mediratta, P K; Sharma, K K

    2012-09-01

    The role of serotonin receptors have been implicated in various types of experimentally induced seizures. Ondansetron is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist used as antiemetic agent for chemotherapy-, and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of ondansetron on electroshock, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and cognitive functions in mice. Ondansetron was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg (single dose) to observe its effect on the increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test and PTZ-induced seizure test. In addition, a chronic study (21 days) was also performed to assess the effects of ondansetron on electroshock-induced convulsions and cognitive functions. The effect on cognition was assessed by elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigms. Phenytoin (25 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug and piracetam (200 mg/kg) was administered as a standard nootropic drug. The results were compared with an acute study, wherein it was found that the administration of ondansetron (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) significantly raised the seizure-threshold current as compared to control group in the ICES test. Similar results were observed after chronic administration of ondansetron. In PTZ test, ondansetron in all the three tested doses failed to show protective effect against PTZ-induced seizure test. Administration of ondansetron for 21 days significantly decreased the transfer latency (TL) and prolonged the step-down latency (SDL). The results of present study suggest the anticonvulsant and memory-enhancing effect of ondansetron in mice.

  15. Anticonvulsant properties of histamine H3 receptor ligands belonging to N-substituted carbamates of imidazopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Shehab, Safa; Więcek, Małgorzata; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Adem, Abdu

    2013-09-01

    Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. Therefore, the previously described and structurally strongly related imidazole-based derivatives belonging to carbamate class with high H3R in vitro affinity, in-vivo antagonist potency, and H3R selectivity profile were investigated on their anticonvulsant activity in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled seizure models in Wistar rats. The effects of systemic injection of H3R ligands 1-13 on MES-induced and PTZ-kindled seizures were screened and evaluated against the reference antiepileptic drug (AED) Phenytoin (PHT) and the standard histamine H3R inverse agonist/antagonist Thioperamide (THP) to determine their potential as new antiepileptic drugs. Following administration of the H3R ligands 1-13 (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, ip) there was a significant dose dependent reduction in MES-induced seizure duration. The protective action observed for the pentenyl carbamate derivative 4, the most protective H3R ligand among 1-13, was significantly higher (P histamine (RAMH) (10mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist Pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). In addition, subeffective dose of H3R ligand 4 (5mg/kg, ip) significantly potentiated the protective action in rats pretreated with PHT (5mg/kg, ip), a dose without appreciable protective effect when given alone. In contrast, pretreatment with H3R ligand 4 (10mg/kg ip) failed to modify PTZ-kindled convulsion, whereas the reference drug PHT was found to fully protect PTZ-induced seizure. These results indicate that some of the investigated imidazole-based H3R ligands 1-13 may be of future therapeutic value in epilepsy.

  16. 242例不同来源高热惊厥患儿电解质水平比较分析%Electrolyte Levels Comparative Analysis of 242 Cases of Febrile Convulsion Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋生; 徐昀; 陈玉勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the correlatlonshlp of seruifi electrolyte levels and convulsion from children of dif ferent sources Methods Selected 242 cases hyperpyrexia children aged 13 years,the an seruifi electrolyte levels are compared in simple Febrile Convulsions children group and Febrile non convulsion children group;The mean serum ion ized calcium levels are compared in urban source children group and migrant workers Source group;The convulsions in cidence were compared of urban source children group and migrant workers Source group Results The mean setuifi I onized calcium levels of simple Febrile Convulsions children group (n=130)lower than Febrile non convulsion children group(112 cases)(P<0.05);The mean setuifi ionized calcium levels in migrant workers Source group(143 cases)lower than urban source children group(P<0.05);The incidence of Febrile Convulsions was no significant difference (P>0.05)between urban source children group and migrant workers Source group.Conclusion Hypocalcaemia is a risk factor for the occurrence of simple Febrile Convulsions It should be actively promoted the development of commu nity medical and scientific upbringing and supervision to ensure the reduction of convulsions incidence both of urban source and migrant workers Source children.%目的 观察不同来源的高热患儿血清钙、钠、钾、氯离子的水平与发生惊厥的关系.方法 选择242例1-3岁高热患儿,采集动脉血,应用干化学式血气电解质分析系统进行血气分析.按照单纯性高热惊厥患儿以及高热无惊厥患儿进行分组,比较平均血清离子水平;按照患儿来源于城市或外来务工人员进行分组,比较患儿平均血清离子钙水平,并比较惊厥发生率.结果 高热惊厥患儿血清钙离子水平显著低于高热无惊厥患儿血清离子钙水平(P0.05).结论 低钙是发生高热惊厥的危险因素,对于来源于城市及外来务工人员的儿童,均应积极倡导合理补钙并发

  17. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Gahlot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS R.Br. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES. The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o. did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl

  18. Clinical Exploration of Factors Related to Recurrence of Febrile Convulsion in Children%小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素的临床探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the factors related to the recurrence of febrile convulsion in children. Methods:Select 6 9 cases of child patient in relapse of febrile convulsion as the treatment group and 6 9 cases of concurrent non-recurrent child patient as the control group.Compare their differences on gender ,age,the condition and temperature when convulsion recurs,anomalies during perinatal period ,family history, weight,preictal complications and otherwise.Results:Compare some of the factors of the patients in the two groups,the number of male,age,weight,convulsion times,EEG anomaly,convulsion duration,family his-tory and complications and other factors in treatment group was found to be obviously different from that in the control group,P0.05.Conclusion:The recurrence rate of febrile convulsion is quite high,some may even transform to epilepsia,scientific and effective measures would prevent sequela in nervous system and lower the recurrence effectively.%目的::对小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素进行研究分析。方法:从某院小儿热性惊厥复发患者中选取69例为治疗组,选取同期没有复发的69例小儿热性惊厥患者为对照组,对比分析两组患者在性别、年龄、惊厥发作情况、体温、围生期异常、家族史、体重和发作前合并症等因素之间的差异性。结果:对比两组患者部分因素,治疗组患者男性比率、年龄、体温、惊厥次数、复杂型、脑电图异常、惊厥发作时间、家族史和合并症等因素同对照组患者间存在显著差异性,P0.05。结论:热性惊厥疾病具有较高复发率,部分患者会转化为癫痫,科学有效的处理措施可有效避免患者出现神经系统后遗症,降低患者出现复发现象发生率。

  19. Panchagavya Ghrita, an Ayurvedic formulation attenuates seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R; Reeta, K H; Sharma, S K; Tripathi, M; Gupta, Y K

    2015-07-01

    Panchagavya Ghrita (PG), according to Ayurvedic formulary of India (AFI), is used to treat epilepsy (apasmara), fever (jvara), mania (unmade) and jaundice (kamala). In the present study, we examined its effect on convulsions, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in rats. PG @ 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg was administered orally for 7 days to male Wistar rats. On day 7, PTZ (60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 2 h after the last dose of PG. Sodium valproate (300 mg/kg) was used as positive control. Latency to myoclonic jerks, clonus and generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded for seizure severity. Cognitive impairment was assessed using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. Malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels were measured in rat brain. The results have shown that pretreatment with PG @ 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg exhibited 16.6, 33.3, 50 and 100% protection against occurrence of GTCS. The pretreatment with PG has significantly improved cognitive functions and the oxidative stress induced by seizures demonstrating its protective effect against PTZ induced seizures, and further, use of PG as an anticonvulsant in Ayurvedic system of medicine.

  20. Anticonvulsant activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose isolated from leaves of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanatha, G L; Mohan, C G; Shylaja, H; Yuvaraj, H C; Sunil, V

    2013-07-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG) isolated from methanolic leaf extracts of Mangifera indica in mice. Anticonvulsant activity of PGG was evaluated against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in mice. Additionally, locomotor activity and GABA levels in the brain were estimated to explore the possible CNS-depressant activity and mechanism behind the anticonvulsant activity, respectively. In these studies, PGG (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) showed significant and dose-dependent inhibition of PTZ and MES-induced convulsions. Furthermore, PGG administration showed significant decrease in the locomotor activity as an indication of its CNS-depressant property; also, PGG has significantly increased the GABA levels in the cerebellum and whole brain other than the cerebellum. In conclusion, PGG isolated from M. indica showed potent anticonvulsant activity, and possible mechanism may be due to enhanced GABA levels in the brain.

  1. 236例高热惊厥患儿的血清钠分析%236 Cases of Serum Sodium Level Change in Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate influential factors and clinical significance of serum sodium reduction in children with febrile convulsion. Methods To analyze retrospectively the serum sodium concentration changes in children with febrile convulsion.Results In 236 cases,girls (90/236) serum sodium values for (135.97 ±3.04) mmol/L,boys(146/236) serum sodium values for (134.55±3.57) mmol/L,P=0.002,31.11% of the girls (28/90) had lower serum sodium,54.11% of the boy (79/146) had lower serum sodium,χ2=11.883,P=0.001;twitching time ranging from 30 seconds to 20 minutes,3 minutes,5 minutes and 10 minutes respectively grouped boundaries,in dif erent groups of children serum sodium statistics P>0.05;serum sodium and serum sodium reduction rate was no significant statistical dif erence between children with previous twitching history (89/236) and no twitching history (147/236);in children with having family history (78/236) and no family history (158/236),serum sodium and serum sodium reduction rate was no significant statistical dif erence.Conclusion In children with febrile convulsion,there is often decreased serum sodium,the proportion of reduction with serum sodium is higher in male children;and there is no clear correlation with twitching time,twitching history,family history.%目的:探讨高热惊厥(Fc)患儿发生血清钠降低的影响因素及其临床意义。方法对236例高热惊厥患儿血清钠浓度变化进行回顾分析。结果236病例中,女童(90/236)血钠值为(135.97±3.04) mmol/L,男童(146/236)血钠值为(134.55±3.57) mmol/L, P=0.002,女童中31.11%(28/90)有血清钠降低,男童中54.11%(79/146)有血清钠降低,χ2=11.883,P=0.001;抽搐时间在30s~20min不等,分别以3min、5min及10min为分组界限,不同组别的患儿血清钠统计 P>0.05;既往有抽搐史者(89/236)与无抽搐史者(147/236)血钠值及血钠降低率统计学差异无显著意义;有家族史者(78/236)与无家族史(158/236)血钠

  2. Very high dose phenobarbital for refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamkao, Somsak; Mayurasakorn, Nattakarn; Suko, Panit; Jitpimolmard, Suthipun; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Phuttharak, Warinthorn; Auevitchayapat, Narong; Vannaprasaht, Suda; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Phunikhom, Kutcharin; Chaiyakum, Aporanee; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit

    2007-12-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE), defined as status epilepticus that fails to respond to first, second and third-line therapy. The RSE is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment guidelines of RSE give a spectrum of options, such as, continuous intravenous (i.v.) midazolam (MDL), or continuous i.v. propofol (PRO) as alternatives to phenobarbital (PB) or continuous i.v. pentobarbital (PTB). To study the efficacy of very-high-dose phenobarbital (VHDPB) for treatment RSE. Retrospective study The authors collected and analyzed data from adult patients who were diagnosed with RSE. The authors present 10 patients with RSE who were treated with VHDPB. All of them were generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE). Ages ranged from 16-86 years old (mean.: 43 years). PB dosage ranged 40-140 mg/kg/day (mean: 70 mg/kg/day). The duration of status epilepticus (SE) varied widely, ranged 1-44 days (mean: 7 days). PB level ranged 35.29-218.34 ug/mL (mean 88.1 ug/mL). RSE was controlled by VHDPB 70%, 30% were not controlled. VHDPB were considered as alternative treatment for RSE.

  3. The anti-convulsion effect of verapamil on mice model induced by pentylenetetrazol%维拉帕米抗戊四唑诱导小鼠惊厥的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珣; 柳佳利; 孙浩; 李勤; 刘洋; 林熙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of verapamil on anti-convulsion and provide a new therapeutic method for convulsion. Methods Sixty mice were divided into 3 groups as follow, the blank group, MgSO4 group and experimental group (the low, middle, high dosage of verapamil ). Pentylenetetrazol was intraperitoneally injected into mice after medication to make the model of convulsion. The occurrence time of convulsion, survival time of mice, the incidence rate of convulsion and the mortality of mice were observed. Results Compared with the blank group, either of MgSO4 and verapamil ( low,middle or high dosage) groups had longer occurrence time of convulsion. The group of MgSO4 had significantly longer survival time and lower mortality of mice ( P < 0.01 ). The groups of verapamil ( low,middle or high dosage) had also longer living time of mice ( P < 0.01 ) and the lower mortality in the low and middle dosage groups ( P <0.01 ). Conclusion The low or middle dosages of verapamil had a better curative effect of anticonvulsion in the convulsion model mice induced with pentylenetetrazol, but the high dosage of verapamil was not suitable for the anti-convulsion therapy.%目的 研究维拉帕米抗惊厥的治疗效果,为临床治疗惊厥提供新方法.方法 将实验小鼠60只分为模型对照组、硫酸镁(MgSO)组和实验组(维拉帕米低、中、高剂量组),每组12只.预先给予相应的治疗药物之后,腹腔注射戊四唑制造惊厥模型;造模成功后观察并记录小鼠的惊厥发生时间、存活时间、惊厥发生率和死亡率等.结果 与模型对照组相比,硫酸镁组和维拉帕米各剂量组惊厥发生所需时间均有所增加(P<0.01),硫酸镁组小鼠的存活时间显著延长且死亡率降低(P<0.01);维拉帕米各剂量组小鼠的存活时间延长(P<0.01),低、中剂量组死亡率明显降低(P<0.01).结论 低、中剂量维拉帕米对于戊四唑所致的惊厥模型有较好的疗效;高剂量维拉帕米不宜用于抗惊厥治疗.

  4. The clinical features and follow-up of neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons%病因不明新生儿惊厥的临床特征及随访观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆竹山

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical manifestations and follow-up of the neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons.MethodsThe clinical manifestations and the outcome of 12 patients with the agnogenic neonatal convulsion have been summarized.ResultsAll the patients were full term infants,7 boys,5 girls;The behaviour of convulsion was subtle;The AEEG of 2 patients show interrupted low voltage,the other 10 patients' were normal;The AEEG of all 12 patients were reexamined,3 patients show spike and slow wave,the other 9 patients' were normal;The MRI of 12 patients were normal during in hospital;4 patients' MRI were reexamined,normal;3 patients were diagnosed as epilepsy,One has growth retardation,who was diagnosised methylmalon academia;6 patients had no convulsion after treatment in hospital,At present they developed normally,The convulsion of 3 patients discontinued in 10 weeks after discharge,They had a good follow-up till now.ConclusionBoth epilepsy and benign idiopathic neonatal convulsions was the potential origin of neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons. It is important to follow-up and find reason for the neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons.%目的:探讨病因不明新生儿惊厥的临床特征及转归。方法总结12例病因不明的新生儿惊厥病例的临床特征及随访结果。结果12例患儿均为足月儿,男7例,女5例;惊厥发作以微小型发作为主;2例住院期动态脑电图示间断低电压改变,10例正常;12例均复查动态脑电图,3例出现爆发棘慢波,9例正常;12例住院期颅部MRI均正常,4例复查颅部MRI未见异常;3例随访中诊断为癫痫,其中1例合并发育迟缓,遗传代谢病筛查诊断为甲基丙二酸血症;6例出院后未再抽搐,3例出院10周内未特殊治疗抽搐停止,目前均生长发育良好。结论病因不明新生儿惊厥的潜在原因可能为癫痫、某种遗传代谢病或良性特发性新生儿惊厥等,应加强随访,追

  5. 儿童化脓性脑膜炎急性期惊厥发作62例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 62 cases of convulsion associated with acute purulent meningitis of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁泽淑; 张洁; 杨理明; 江志; 陈波

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性期发生惊厥的化脓性脑膜炎患儿的临床表现、影像学及脑电图(EEG)检查等相关因素分析.方法 回顾性分析本院收治的301例化脓性脑膜炎患儿的临床资料,其中62例出现急性期惊厥发作,分析化脓性脑膜炎急性期发生惊厥的发病率、相关危险因素及转归.结果 化脓性脑膜炎急性期惊厥的发病率为20.60%,部分性发作8例(占12.90%),部分性发作继发全身性发作15例(占24.19%);全身性发作32例(占51.61%)%,惊厥持续状态7例(占11.29%),有惊厥发作组脑电图异常率高于无惊厥发作组(P<0.05),脑器质性损害发生率高于无惊厥发作组(P<0.05).经多因素非条件Logistic回归分析,病因、首发症状、意识障碍、阳性体征及脑脊液培养阳性与惊厥发作为相关因素(P<0.01).结论 化脓性脑膜炎急性期惊厥发作以全面性发作为主,脑器质性损害易继发惊厥发作,惊厥发作与病因、首发症状、意识障碍、阳性体征及脑脊液培养阳性相关,结合临床表现、头颅影像学及EEG异常对本病的诊治及预后评估具有指导意义.%Objective The study was conducted to investigate the acute phase of convulsion related problem on the clinical manifestations,imaging and electroencephalograph (EEG) examination of purulent meningitis.Methods Cluster sampling method was employed to select children in our hospital,a total of 301 cases with purulent meningitis was analyzed retrospectively.Among them,62 cases had convulsion.The incidence of convulsion in the acute phase of the purulent meningitis,risk factors,and prognosis were analyzed.Results The convulsion incidence rate of acute purulent meningitis was 20.60%.The partial seizure was eight cases (12.90%).The secondarily generalized seizure following partial seizure was 15 cases (24.19%).The generalized seizure was 32 cases (51.61%).The convulsive status was 7 cases (11.29%).The EEG

  6. Adult tonic-clonic convulsive status epilepticus over the last 11 years in a resource-poor country: a tertiary referral centre study from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phabphal, Kanitpong; Geater, Alan; Limapichart, Kitti; Sathirapanya, Pornchai; Setthawatcharawanich, Suwanna

    2013-09-01

    Status epilepticus is a common condition in patients admitted to hospital in resource-poor countries and reports indicate that aetiology, factors of poor outcome, and treatment strategies are variable. To date, there is no report of a prospective study in Thai adults. Herein, we investigated the aetiology, clinical features, factors of predicted poor outcome, and treatment strategies in Thai adult patients who presented with convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 180 patients, whose ages ranged from 15 to 106 years, were included. Of these, 121 patients (67.2%) had acute symptomatic aetiology. The most common aetiology of status epilepticus was encephalitis (36.1%), followed by scarring of the cerebral hemisphere (15%). The median duration of status epilepticus before treatment was three hours. The rate of mortality in the study was 26.7%. Poor outcome was identified in 112 (62.2%) patients. For referral patients, all received only intravenous drugs before referral. The variables that correlated with poor outcome were aetiology and duration of status epilepticus. An approach to incorporate improved prevention of encephalitis, a more effective transportation system, and provision of the essential intravenous antiepileptic drugs would effectively increase the response to treatment.

  7. Anticonvulsant effects of acute treatment with cyane-carvone at repeated oral doses in epilepsy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Marques, Maria Leonildes Boavista Gomes Castelo Branco; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy affects about 40 million people worldwide. Many drugs block seizures, but have little effect in preventing or curing this disease. So the search for new drugs for epilepsy treatment using animal models prior to testing in humans is important. Increasingly pharmaceutical industries invest in the Re​search & Drug Development area to seek safe and effective new therapeutic alternatives to the currently available epilepsy treatment. In this perspective, natural compounds have been investigated in epilepsy models, particularly the monoterpenes obtained from medicinal plants. In our study we investigated the effects of cyane-carvone (CC), a synthetic substance prepared from natural a monoterpene, carvone, against pilocarpine- (PILO), pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ) and picrotoxine (PTX)-induced seizures in mice after acute treatment with repeated oral doses (CC 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) for 14 days. CC in all doses tested showed increase in latency to first seizure, decrease in percentages of seizuring animals as well as reduction percentages of dead animals (pepilepsy models. In addition, our data suggest that CC could act in an allosteric site of GABAA, which would be different from the site in which BDZ acts, since flumazenil was not able to reverse any of CC effects on the modulation of seizure parameters related with epilepsy models investigated. New studies should be conducted to investigate CC effects in other neurotransmitter systems. Nevertheless, our study reinforces the hypothesis that CC could be used, after further research, as a new pharmaceutical formulation and a promising alternative for epilepsy treatment, since it showed anticonvulsant effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Yusuf,1 Riaz A Khan,3 Maria Khan,2 Bahar Ahmed11Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; 3Department of Chemistry, Manav Rachna International University, National Capital Region, Aravali Hills, Faridabad, IndiaAbstract: β-Carotene has been established as a known free radical scavenger with chain-breaking antioxidant properties. It has been documented for the treatment of epileptic convulsions at a 200 mg/kg body weight dose. The reported pathogenesis for epileptic convulsions is oxidative stress. Hence, experimental epileptic convulsions via oxidative stress was induced in albino mice epileptic models (maximal electroshock seizure and pentylenetetrazole [PTZ]. A dose concentration equivalent to 2 mg/kg was efficaciously administered in the form of brain-targeted polysorbate-80-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation technique and further characterized for their physical parameters, in-vitro release kinetics, and in-vivo brain release via various standard methods. Normal β-carotene nanoparticles (BCNP and polysorbate-80-coated β-carotene nanoparticles (P-80-BCNP of 169.8 ± 4.8 nm and 176.3 ± 3.2 nm in size, respectively, were formulated and characterized. Their zeta potential and polydispersity index were subsequently evaluated after 5 months of storage to confirm stability. In vivo activity results showed that a 2 mg unformulated β-carotene dose was ineffective as an anticonvulsant. However, salutary response was reported from BCNP at the same dose, as the hind limb duration decreased significantly in maximal electroshock seizure to 9.30 ± 0.86 seconds, which further decreased with polysorbate-80 coating to 2.10 ± 1.16 seconds as compared to normal control (15.8 ± 1.49 seconds and placebo control (16.50 ± 1.43 seconds. In the PTZ model, the duration of

  9. Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and kaempferitrin as potential anticonvulsant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Trujano, Ma Eva; Domínguez, Fabiola; Pérez-Ortega, Gimena; Aguillón, Miguel; Martínez-Vargas, David; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Martínez, Adrián

    2017-08-01

    Justicia spicigera Schltdl. is a vegetal species traditionally used to control epilepsy, but scientific evidence is required to reinforce this activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant-like activity of J. spicigera aqueous extract (JsAE) and a bioactive compound. JsAE was assessed in a dose-response manner (30, 100 and 1000mg/kg, i.p.) using the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures and maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice in comparison to ethosuximide (ETX, reference drug 100mg/kg, i.p.) or phenytoin (25mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. Then a significant dosage (1000mg/kg, i.p.) was chosen to examine electrographic activity (EEG) in rats. Treatment groups were compared to the vehicle and ETX in the convulsive behavior alone or simultaneous to EEG after PTZ-induced seizures (80 or 35mg/kg, i.p., mice or rats). Kaempferitrin (a flavonoid of JsAE) and ETX were administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, 4th ventricle, 1μg/μL) and tested in the presence of PTZ in rats. Results confirmed that JsAE delayed the onset of seizures and reduced frequency of tonic convulsion and mortality in mice. JsAE or kaempferitrin also decreased the EEG spikes frequency and amplitude in a similar manner than EXT in rats. In conclusion, these preliminary data give evidence of the potential of J. spicigera as possible anticonvulsant as recommended in folk medicine for treating epilepsy, where kaempferitrin is suggested as a partial responsible bioactive compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The potential anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Soliman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently available antiepileptic drugs have debilitating adverse effects. Natural products and plants already used in traditional medicine can be a good place to start in the search for safer and more effective options. Aims: To investigate the anticonvulsant potential of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia extracts in maximal electroshock (MES, as well as pentylenetetrazole (PTZ- and strychnine nitrate (STN- induced seizure models in rats. Methods: For each model, eight groups of 21-day-old male Albino rats were used. The 1st group was kept as control, 2nd as standard (diazepam, 7.5 mg/kg; 3rd – 5th treated with A. nobilis (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg; and 6th – 8th administered M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. After 30 min, rats were exposed to a shock of 150 mA by a convulsiometer, via ear electrodes for 2 s (in MES test or sc injection of PTZ (85 mg/kg or STN (2.5 mg/kg. Results: A. nobilis and M. charantia extracts (200 and 300 mg/kg demonstrated dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect against MES-induced seizures. In the PTZ induced convulsion, A. nobilis and M. charantia (200 and 300 mg/kg significantly slowed the commencement of convulsions and minimized the duration of seizures. A. nobilis (300 mg/kg showed 60% protection in rats against STN induced seizures. In contrast, A. nobilis (100 and 200 mg/kg and M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg showed no significant protection against STN-induced seizures in rats. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that both extracts exhibited marked anticonvulsant activities.

  11. 综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿进行的护理效果观察%Observation of nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利霞; 黄电芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿的护理效果。方法60例高热惊厥患儿采用随机数字表法分为对照组与试验组,每组30例。对照组采用常规护理方法,试验组采用综合护理干预,观察比较两组患儿护理后的临床效果。结果试验组患儿惊厥复发率3.33%明显低于对照的30.00%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高热惊厥患儿进行综合护理干预后,惊厥复发率明显降低,可显著提高护理质量,促进患儿恢复健康,安全可靠,值得临床推广应用。%Objcetive To investigate the nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion. Methods A total of 60 children with febrile convulsion were divided by random number table into control group and experimental group, and each group contained 30 cases. The control group received conventional nursing method, and the experimental group received comprehensive nursing intervention. Clinical effects were observed and compared between the two groups after nursing. Results The relapse rate of convulsion was 3.33%in the experimental group, and that was obviously lower than 30.00%of the control group. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Implememt of comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion can remarkably decrease relapse rate of convulsion, improve nursing quality and promote children’s rehabilitation. This method is safe and reliable, and it is worth clinical promotion and application.

  12. Etiological Analysis and Curative Effect Observation of Emergency Convul-sions in Children%小儿急诊惊厥病因分析及疗效探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿急诊惊厥病因及其治疗效果。方法整群选取于2014年9月—2015年9月在该院接受治疗的惊厥患儿共110例。了解患者疾病的相关信息,并对患者进行辅助检查,针对病因实施针对性治疗。观察小儿的惊厥病因及其治疗方法。结果惊厥病因分析中,热性惊厥占53.6%,癫痫占20.9%,颅内感染占8.2%。其中,新生儿以低血糖为主,婴幼儿与6岁以下小儿以热性惊厥为主,6岁以上小儿以癫痫为主;治疗总有效率为97.3%,不良反应率为1.8%。结论小儿急诊惊厥的病因复杂,以热性惊厥最为常见。临床治疗中,选择必要的辅助检查手段,并进行对症治疗,能够预防疾病复发,保障小儿生命安全。%Objective To discuss the etiology and treatment effect of emergency convulsions in children. Methods 110 cas-es of children with convulsions treated in our hospital from September 2014 to September 2015 were selected, the related information of the patient’s disease was known, the patients were given accessory examination, targeted treatment were im-plemented according to the etiologies, the etiology and treatment method of children were observed. Results The convul-sions etiology analysis showed that febrile convulsion accounted for 53.6%, epilepsia accounted for 20.9%, intracranial in-fection accounted for 8.2%, among them, the neonates were mainly with glucopenia, infants and children less than 6 years old were mainly with febrile convulsion, children more than 6 years old were mainly with epilepsia, the total treatment ef-fective rat e was 97.3%, the adverse reaction rate was 1.8%. Conclusion The etiology of emergency convulsions in children is complex and the febrile convulsion is most common, in clinic treatment, choosing necessary accessory examination means and symptomatic treatment can prevent disease recurrence and ensure the safety of children’s life.

  13. Immediate post-dosing paralysis following severe soman and VX toxicosis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bide, R W; Schofield, L; Risk, D J

    2005-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of the central nervous system (CNS) involvement in organophosphate (OP) poisoning showing status epilepticus and/or 'electrographic seizures'. Brain damage has been demonstrated as 'neuronal necrosis' primarily in the cortex, thalamus and hippocampus. To the authors' knowledge there have been no reports of partial/total paralysis following close upon OP exposure although delayed paralysis has been reported. This report summarizes the immediate, OP induced paralytic events recorded in guinea pigs during development of the Canadian reactive skin decontaminant lotion (RSDL). As part of the development work, supra-lethal cutaneous doses of OP were applied to large numbers of guinea pigs followed by decontamination with the RSDL or predecessor lotions and solvents. Soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate; GD) challenges were applied to 1277 animals and S-(2-diisopropyl-aminoethyl) methylphosphorothiolate (VX) challenges to 108. The classic sequence of clinical signs--ptyalism, tremors, fasciculations, convulsions, apnea and flaccid paralysis before death--was seen in the 658 animals that died and in many of the survivors. Eighty-four of 688 survivors of GD and 4 of 39 survivors of VX showed random paralysis of various distal regions following recovery from an insult which produced convulsions and/or flaccid paralysis. Because the experiments were designed to assess the decontamination procedures, there were no apparent relationships between the amounts of OP applied and the sequellae recorded. The observations of paralysis were also incidental to the prime focus of the experiments. Because of this, only ten animals paralysed following GD exposure were examined for histological effects. The pathologist diagnosed 'encephalomalacia' and 'focal necrotic lesions' in the cerebral cortex and 'focal necrotic lesions' in one spinal cord. Of the 84 guinea pigs paralysed after GD challenge, one was not decontaminated and the decontaminants used

  14. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jtar@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  15. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngugi Anthony K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC. Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE, which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems. We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as ‘gold standard’. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. Results We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18 were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18 in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. Conclusion This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC.

  16. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Convulsion in 3- to 60-Month-Old Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Habibian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding the association between Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA, iron status, and Febrile Convulsion (FC during childhood. In this article, a systematic review and meta-analysis is conducted in order to determine possible association and the degree of association between these statuses and FC. To identify all studies related to IDA and FC, various references such as MEDLINE (PubMed, Embase (OVID, Web of sciences (Thomson Reuters and Google scholar were searched (up until 15 January 2013. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic, Tau2, and I2. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed. The outcome of primary interest was the overall Odds Ratio (OR of FC for IDA and standard mean differences (SMD of ferritin level. In total, 21 articles were considered to assess the association between IDA and FC. Anemia was more prevalent among the FC patients compared with the controls and the overall OR was 1.52 (95% CI=1.03 to 2.25. In addition, the pooled OR for 17 studies performed in the populations with low and moderate prevalence of anemia was 2.04 (95% CI=1.46 to 2.85. Furthermore, 12 studies assessed the association between the ferritin level and FC. The overall SMD was -0.02 with a 95% CI of -0.09 to 0.06. Besides, the pooled SMD of ferritin was -0.57 (95% CI=-0.7 to -0.46 in 6 studies reporting no difference between the FC and the control group with respect to temperature. IDA was associated with a moderate increased risk of FC in children, particularly in the areas with low and moderate prevalence of anemia.

  17. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality...... group). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. RESULTS:  Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination...... was not associated with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval...

  18. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  19. Benign Infantile Convulsions with Mild Gastroenteritis:Report of 42 Cases%婴幼儿良性惊厥并轻度胃肠炎42例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 宋元华

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究良性惊厥并轻度胃肠炎(BICE)婴幼儿的临床特征、病因及治疗措施。方法对42例BICE的患儿详细观察记录其住院期间的胃肠炎及惊厥的表现特点。先后用金标法对患儿粪便行轮状病毒抗原,检测血生化(Na+,K+,Ca2+,Cl-,HCO-),跟踪随访半年以上。结果本病患儿胃肠症状多较轻微,无脱水或仅有轻度脱水;惊厥多为成簇发作;血生化(Na+,K+,Ca2+,Cl-,HCO-)正常或基本正常;脑脊液及头颅影像学检查正常;发作间期脑电图9例(21.4%)于中央中线或中央区或额区见少量痫样放电,1例中央中线及顶区见痫样波发放,其他32例正常或睡眠时背景活动稍差。轮状病毒抗原:粪便阳性23例。苯巴比妥预防性肌内注射1次后惊厥再发率为79.2%。结论婴幼儿BICE消化系统表现轻,惊厥往往成簇发作。巴比妥肌内注射对惊厥镇痉作用不明显,BICE后遗癫痫的概率很小。%Objective To study the benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICE) clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment of infants and young children.Methods 42 cases of BICE patients with observed features recorded gastroenteritis and convulsions during their hospital stay. The blood biochemical(Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO-) of the stool rotavirus antigen of the children were detected by gold standard method, followed up for more than half year.Results The disease of children gastrointestinal symptoms more mild, no dehydration or only mild dehydration; convulsions clustered children;serum(Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO-) normal or nearly normal; of cerebrospinal lfuid and brain imaging examination was normal; seizure interictal EEG in 9 cases (21.4%) in the central line or central or frontal region to see a small amount of epileptiform discharge, 1 case medial and apical area see epileptiform wave distribution, the other 32 cases normal or sleep background activity slightly

  20. 轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥264例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 264 cases of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远达; 冀超玉; 李荣敏; 张小龙; 张瑜; 董青伟; 韩立坡

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥(BICE)复发以及转化为癫痫的可能危险因素。方法将264例BICE患儿按惊厥发生次数分为单次组134例(惊厥1次),多发组130例(惊厥次数≥2次);按惊厥持续时间分为,短时组186例(惊厥持续时间<5 min),长时组78例(惊厥时间≥5 min),分析其住院及随访资料。结果多发组有9.23%复发,6.15%转化为癫痫;单次组有2.99%复发,0.75%转化为癫痫,两组间复发及转化为癫痫比例的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。长时组有12.82%复发,8.97%转化为癫痫;短时组有3.23%复发,1.08%转化为癫痫,两组间复发及转化为癫痫比例的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01)。结论 BICE患儿有复发以及转化为癫痫的可能,惊厥次数≥2次,惊厥持续时间≥5 min是BICE患儿复发以及转化为癫痫的可能危险因素。%ObjectiveTo analyze the potential risk factors for relapse and development of epilepsy in patients with benign in-fantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE).MethodsA total of 264 cases of BICE were recruited. Accord-ing to the frequency of convulsions, the patients were divided into single group (n=134, convulsion once), and multiple group (n=130, convulsions≥2 times). According to convulsion duration, the patients were divided into short-term group (n=186, con-vulsions duration <5 minutes) , and long-term group (n=78, convulsion duration≥5 minutes). The clinical data obtained during hospitalization and follow-up were analyzed.ResultsIn multiple group, 9.23% were relapsed and 6.15% developed epilepsy. In single group, 2.99% were relapsed and 0.75% developed epilepsy. There were signiifcantly different in the rate of relapses and development of epilepsy between two groups (P<0.05). In the long-term group, 12.82% were relapsed and 8.97% developed epi-lepsy. In the short-term group, 3.23% were relapsed and 1

  1. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  2. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  3. 用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果探讨%Curative Effect Discussion on Combination of Diazepam and Phenobarbital in the Treatment of Children Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐中贤; 许正香; 周泉良

    2016-01-01

    Objective To Discuss the Curative effect of combination of diazepam and phenobarbital in the treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods Randomly divided 98 children with febrile convulsion from October 2013 to October 2015 into diazepam group,phenobarbital group and combined treatment group, respective intravenous with diazepam,phenobarbital and combination of diazepam and Phenobarbital.Compare the anticonvulsant effect and recurrence of convulsion rate.Results Combined treatment group anticonvulsant effect is better than that of phenobarbit al group and the recurrence rate is lower than that of diazepam group, the differences shows statis tically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Combination of diazepam and phenobarbital has a better anticonvulsant effect and low recurrence rate in treatment of children febrile convulsion,and is worth clinical application.%目的:探讨用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的临床效果。方法:将我院于2013年10月~2015年10月期间收治的98例热性惊厥患儿随机分为地西泮组、苯巴比妥组和联合用药组,为这三组患儿分别使用地西泮、苯巴比妥、地西泮和苯巴比妥进行治疗。比较三组患儿所用药物的镇惊效果及其病情的复发率。结果:经治疗,联合用药组患儿镇惊的效果、惊厥的复发率均好于苯巴比妥组和地西泮组患儿,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果理想,而且能有效地降低此病患儿惊厥的复发率。

  4. Clinical Study on Diazepam Combined with Phenobarbital in Treatment of Children Patients with Convulsions%地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵剑峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical study on diazepam combined with Phenobarbital in treatment of children patients with convulsions is to be investigated. Methods Choose 43 children patients with convulsions who are treated in hospital from October 2013 to November 2014 and separate them into two groups according to their hospitalization sequence with 23 patients in study group and 20 patients in control group;patients in control group are given diazepam medication treatment only,while patients in study group are given diazepam combined with Phenobarbital medication treatment; and then compare treatment effects between two groups. Results Patients’treatment efficacy,complication incidence and il ness reoccurrence rate in study group are much better than counterparts in control group;there is a treatment differential between two groups,and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Diazepam combined with Phenobarbital medication is quite effective in treatment of children patients with convulsions; it is conducive to increasing treatment efficacy,reducing complication incidence and decreasing convulsion attack times; thus,such an effective treatment is quite worthwhile to be promoted clinical y.%目的:探讨地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床研究。方法选取2013年10月到2014年11月我院接诊的43例小儿惊厥患者,按照入院的先后顺序分为两组,实验组23例和对照组20例,对照组采用单纯地西泮药物,实验组采用地西泮联合苯巴比妥,观察两组患者的治疗效果。结果实验组患者的治疗总有效率、并发症的发生率及总复发率明显优于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床效果显著,能够有效提高患儿的治愈率,降低并发症的发生率,减少复发次数,值得临床推广。

  5. Effect of Health Education on Prevention of Simple Feverilsh Convulsion in Infants%健康教育对预防单纯性热性惊厥的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍世英

    2003-01-01

    @@ 热性惊厥(feverilsh convulsion,FC)多见于3岁以下婴幼儿,是儿科急性热性病高热时的合并症,其再发率高.在初次惊厥以后约25%~40%(平均33%)的患儿在以后的热性病时出现惊厥复发[1].如果反复发作,会不同程度的影响脑功能.

  6. Evaluation of Behavioral and Pharmacological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. from Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iandra Holzmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP, known as “Valeriana del monte”, and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM, forced swimming (FST, strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5% and time spent (44.7% in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

  7. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  8. T dose Vaccine Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Programme of Immunization (NPI), measles remains a disturbing cause ... or as a supplement is expected to offer a second opportunity to children who ... available in 1963, the world welcomed it with joy .... one dose of vaccine were not always protected from .... begins a long story Starting now is still early enough.

  9. 非抽搐性癫痫持续状态五例及文献复习%Non-convulsive status epilepticus: 5 cases report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春波; 刘晓原; 裴立英; 席晓芳; 杨靓; 刘献增; 朱继红

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨非抽搐性癫痫持续状态(NCSE)患者的临床表现及持续脑电监测的脑电图(EEG)特征.方法 对自2008年11月至2009年12月北京大学人民医院急诊科收治的5例NCSE患者行持续EEG监测检查,观察其EEG特征及临床表现.结果 5例均出现发作性意识障碍,其中4例出现烦躁、易怒或躁狂,3例表现出精神运动迟滞和遗忘,2例出现言语自动症和失认,1例出现定向障碍.所有患者的EEG均出现广泛性但一侧明显的异常放电.静脉注射地两泮后,3例患者临床症状迅速改善.结论 NCSE并非罕见,持续EEG监测能查出本病,早期诊断,及时治疗可改善患者预后,临床应注意与其他引起意识紊乱的疾病相鉴别.%Objective To describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features as well as the possible etiology and treatment of patients with non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Methods We identified 5 adult patients with NCSE from the epilepsy database of the comprehensive epilepsy. Continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was analyzed and chart review was performed to analyze their clinical and electroencephalographic features. Results The patients ranged from 19 to 66 years old. All of the 5 patients showed impaired consciousness: 4 demonstrated agitation and paranoia; 3 had both psychomotor retardation and amnesia; 2 developed verbal automatisms and agnosia; and 1 had disorientation. All the patients had associated generalized discharges but lateralized dominant. Three patients showed clinical improvement following administration of benzodiazepines. Conclusion The NCSE is not a rare case and continuous EEG monitoring can help the diagnosis. Prompt recognition and treatment may be necessary in improving the neurological outcome, and attention should be paid to the identification with other diseases that cause impairment of conscience.

  10. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons respond to convulsant drugs when co-cultured with hiPSC-derived astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Misawa Niki; Yamamoto, Koji; Shoji, Masanobu; Asami, Asano; Kawamata, Yuji

    2017-08-15

    activity in response to convulsant drugs. Our study indicates the possibility that co-culture system of hiPSC-derived neurons with hiPSC-derived astrocytes could be useful in the risk assessment of drug-induced seizure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, J.H.; Rusek, A.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C.; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X.S.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  12. An Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    0...’Ii I I I I I I I In conducting the research described in this report, the investigator(s) adhered to the *Guide for the Care and Use of...Laboratory Animals," prepared by the Comittre on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research...differentials of loaded and spent syringes. (C)Animal died at 18 hr. (M)Animal died at 74 hr.. W’Animal died at 22 hr. I MAnimal died at 52 min. W(OAnimal

  13. Winner of the young physician's section of the Gowers' prize 2000. Too good to be true? Thomas Willis--neonatal convulsions, childhood stroke and infanticide in seventeenth century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N

    2001-10-01

    A case of neonatal convulsion reported by Thomas Willis (1621-1675) together with its post mortem findings is quoted as being congenital intracerebral haemorrhage or strongly suggested as being the earliest pathological description of childhood cerebrovascular disease. However these authors only reviewed the incomplete written record left by Willis, describing how this case was the fourth consecutive child that the mother had lost to neonatal convulsions. The medical record is completed by notes taken by John Locke from a lecture delivered by Willis 3 or 4 years before the case was first published. Here, Locke relates how the mother subsequently had three further children who were all treated by Willis soon after birth and all survived uneventfully. Reviewing the post mortem findings and the full case histories modern medical science gives a different interpretation. Instead, I suggest that the case history given and pathological features described are more in keeping with a whiplash shaking injury than with cerebrovascular disease or a stroke. I believe that this is the earliest pathological description of shaking injury in childhood. We can never know why Willis did not publish the full success of his management of the subsequent children but it may have been due to his dramatic experience of a similar mother early on in his medical career.

  14. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  15. Entrance surface dose according to dose calculation: Head and wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ho Jin [Dept. Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Song, Jong Nam; Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study were compared with the direct measurement and indirect dose methods through various dose calculation in head and wrist. And, the modified equation was proposed considering equipment type, setting conditions, tube voltage, inherent filter, added filter and its accompanied back scatter factor. As a result, it decreased the error of the direct measurement than the existing dose calculation. Accordingly, diagnostic radiography patient dose comparison would become easier and radiographic exposure control and evaluation will become more efficient. The study findings are expected to be useful in patients' effective dose rate evaluation and dose reduction.

  16. First dose in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Du er blevet ansat som læge i et lægemiddelfirma med ansvar for planlægning og sikkerhed i fase 1 forsøg. Firmaet har udviklet tre dopamin D2-receptor antagonister til behandling af skizofreni. Lægemidlerne har undergået et omfattende farmakologisk, toksikologisk og farmaceutisk afprøvningsprogra...... fase 1 forsøg alias »First dose in man«....

  17. STUDY OF EFFICACY OF LOW DOSE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE REGIMEN (DHAKA REGIMEN AS COMPARED TO STANDARD REGIMEN (PRITCHARD IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Eclampsia is one of the most important cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide Dr . J . A . Pritchard in 1955 , introduced magnesium sulphate for control of convulsions in eclampsia and now magnesium sulfate is the anticonvulsant drug of choice for both prevention and treatment of eclampsia , but due to its narrow therapeutic window its dose - related toxicity is a major concern . Considering the lower body weight of Indian women than wes tern counter part , different low dose magnesium sulphate regime has been formulated in different parts of India and Bangladesh and these modifications appeared to reduce drug toxicity . The Objective was to compare the efficacy of low dose magnesium sulphat e regimen ( Dhaka regimen with standard Pritchard’s regimen for management of eclampsia . METHODS: This was a hospital based prospective study conducted in the Dept . of O & G of VSSMCH , Burla from Oct . 2012 to S ept . 2014 . Total 300 patients with eclampsia were included in study and randomly distributed into two groups containing 150 patients each in both Dhaka & Pritchard groups . The statistical software SPSS version 20 has been used for the analysis . An alpha error of 5% has been taken as significant . RESU LTS: In the present study , there is no recurrence of convulsion among both the groups . The Dhaka regimen was associated with significantly lower deep tendon reflex loss ( 2 . 67% vs 8 . 0%; P =0 . 040 , significantly lower total amount of Mgso4 requirement , and lower maternal mortality ( 3 . 33% vs 6 . 67%; P = 0 . 185 as compared with the standerd Pritchard regimen . CONCLUSIONS : The maternal morbidity and mortality in the present study were comparable to those of standard Pritchard’s regimen . The Dhaka regimen was equ ally effective and more safe for the management of eclampsia in a region where most women are of low body weight KEYWORDS: Antepartum E clampsia ; Magnesium S ulphate; Dhaka R egimen; Pritchard R

  18. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  19. Dose reduction in evacuation proctography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, C.; Halligan, S.; Bartram, C.I.; Gupta, R.; Walker, A.E.; Renfrew, I. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St. Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    The goal of this study was to reduce the patient radiation dose from evacuation proctography. Ninety-eight consecutive adult patients referred for proctography to investigate difficult rectal evacuation were studied using a digital imaging system with either a standard digital program for barium examinations, a reduced dose digital program (both with and without additional copper filtration), or Video fluoroscopy. Dose-area products were recorded for each examination and the groups were compared. All four protocols produced technically acceptable examinations. The low-dose program with copper filtration (median dose 382 cGy cm{sup 2}) and Video fluoroscopy (median dose 705 cGy cm{sup 2}) were associated with significantly less dose than other groups (p < 0.0001). Patient dose during evacuation proctography can be reduced significantly without compromising the diagnostic quality of the examination. A digital program with added copper filtration conveyed the lowest dose. (orig.)

  20. Study on the protective function and its mechanism of cyclosporin A to immature brain tissue with convulsive brain damage%环孢素A对未成熟脑惊厥性损伤的保护作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚乐; 黄绍平; 李丹; 杨琳; 周戬平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective function and its mechanisms of eyclosporin A to immature brain tissue with convulsive brain damage. Methods 21-day-old SD rats were given lithium-pilocarpine to make the epilepsy model. Total 67 male rats had been investigated. Cyclosporin A (CsA) were injected three times at 6, 30, 54 hrs after model had been established. Three dosages had been chosen: 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg each time. The level of apoptotic cells, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CA1 area of hippocampus had been determined, and compared with the rats without giving CsA. Results Rats from epilepsy model group had higher level of apoptosis, P-gp, GFAP expression than those from pseudo-model group. CsA injection by dose 5 mg/kg each time for three times reduced the level of P-gp, GFAP. Model group and pseudo-model group were same. Both the interventions of CsA injection by 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg can reduce the level of P-gp, GFAP, however neither of their effectiveness was better than CsA 5 mg/kg each time. Conclusions Small dosage of CsA may protect the immature brain tissue from convulsive brain damage by reducing the level of P-gp, GFAP in CA1 area of hippocampus.%目的 探讨环孢素A(CsA)对未成熟脑惊厥性损伤的保护作用及机制.方法 21日龄SD雄性大鼠67只,制作氯化锂-匹鲁卡品癫(癎)模型,分别于制模后6、30、54 h采用CsA干预,分5、10、25 ms/(kg·次),三个干预剂量,与模型不干预组对比,观察制模后72 h脑海马CA1区凋亡细胞、多药耐药基因产物P-糖蛋白(P-gp)、星形胶质细胞纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)表达情况等.结果 模型组比假手术组海马CA1区凋亡细胞、P-gP、GFAP表达明显增加,CsA 5 me,/(kg·次)干预组可显著减少P-gP、GFAP表达,且与假手术组水平接近,CsA 10 ms/(kg·次)、CsA 25 me,/(kg·次)有相似效果,但不及CsA 5 ms/(kg·次)效果明显.CsA干预不能减少凋亡细胞.结论 中小剂量Cs

  1. Anticonvulsant activity of alcoholic extract of bark of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.%西藏长叶松树皮乙醇提取物的抗惊厥作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhirender Kaushik; Ajay Kumar; Pawan Kaushik; Avatar C.Rana

    2012-01-01

    action.In the PTZ model,the anticonvulsant property of AEPR was assessed by its ability to delay the onset of myoclonic spasm and clonic convulsions produced by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ.RESULTS:In the MES-induced seizure model,AEPR in doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight reduced all the phases of convulsion significantly (P<0.01).Standard drug phenytoin at a dose of 25 mg/kg significantly reduced flexion phase (P<0.01) and abolished all phases of convulsion.In the PTZ-induced seizure model,the administration of the extract at doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg 30 min prior to injection of PTZ significantly delayed the onset of clonic seizure (P<0.01).AEPR at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight could not exert any significant protective effect on PTZ-induced convulsions.Standard drug diazepam at a dose of 4 mg/kg showed much delayed onset of clonic seizure. CONCLUSION:The study suggests that AEPR would be effective against generalized tonicclonic and partial seizures.Thus AEPR possesses anticonvulsant property against MES- and PTZ-induced seizures in Wistar rats.However,further research is in progress to isolate the compound responsible for its activity.

  2. Ethosuximide and phenytoin dose-dependently attenuate acute nonconvulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountney, Andrea; Shear, Deborah A; Potter, Brittney; Marcsisin, Sean R; Sousa, Jason; Melendez, Victor; Tortella, Frank C; Lu, Xi-Chun M

    2013-12-01

    Acute seizures frequently occur following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and have been associated with poor patient prognosis. Silent or nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) manifest in the absence of motor convulsion, can only be detected via continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and are often unidentified and untreated. Identification of effective anti-epileptic drugs (AED) against post-traumatic NCS remains crucial to improve neurological outcome. Here, we assessed the anti-seizure profile of ethosuximide (ETX, 12.5-187.5 mg/kg) and phenytoin (PHT, 5-30 mg/kg) in a spontaneously occurring NCS model associated with penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Rats were divided between two drug cohorts, PHT or ETX, and randomly assigned to one of four doses or vehicle within each cohort. Following PBBI, NCS were detected by continuous EEG monitoring for 72 h post-injury. Drug efficacy was evaluated on NCS parameters of incidence, frequency, episode duration, total duration, and onset latency. Both PHT and ETX attenuated NCS in a dose-dependent manner. In vehicle-treated animals, 69-73% experienced NCS (averaging 9-10 episodes/rat) with average onset of NCS occurring at 30 h post-injury. Compared with control treatment, the two highest PHT and ETX doses significantly reduced NCS incidence to 13-40%, reduced NCS frequency (1.8-6.2 episodes/rat), and delayed seizure onset: <20% of treated animals exhibited NCS within the first 48 h. NCS durations were also dose-dependently mitigated. For the first time, we demonstrate that ETX and PHT are effective against spontaneously occurring NCS following PBBI, and suggest that these AEDs may be effective at treating post-traumatic NCS.

  3. O advento do tratamento psiquiátrico moderno: a terapia convulsiva de László Meduna Lessons from an early account of convulsive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Baran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A terapia convulsiva (TC constitui uma das principais contribuições européias ao tratamento psiquiátrico moderno e à psiquiatria biológica. A TC foi introduzida na psiquiatria em 1934 por László Meduna, neuropsiquiatra húngaro. As publicações subseqüentes sobre o primeiro paciente tratado com TC, Zoltán L (ZL, baseiam-se nos artigos e na autobiografia de Meduna. De acordo com essas referências, após quatro anos de estupor catatônico, ZL recebeu TC induzida por cânfora que resultou em plena remissão dos sintomas esquizofrênicos, culminando com alta da instituição. Este artigo reconstrói a história do caso de ZL a partir da recente recuperação de anotações - algumas escritas pelo próprio Meduna - dos Arquivos do Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria e Neurologia (Hungria. Essas anotações mostram que ZL recebeu repetidas sessões de TC entre 1934 e 1937, primeiramente induzidas por cânfora e depois por cardiazol. A primeira série de TC resultou na suspensão do estupor catatônico e na remissão parcial da psicose. Entretanto, a remissão foi breve e, a despeito de repetidas sessões de TC, ZL nunca esteve inteiramente livre de sintomas, nunca teve alta hospitalar e veio a falecer no Instituto em 1945. Na discussão do caso de ZL, tentamos explicar as possíveis razões das discrepâncias entre o relato de Meduna e as notas originais do prontuário médico.Convulsive therapy (COT is a major European contribution to the psychiatric armamentarium and biological psychiatry. COT was introduced in psychiatry by László Meduna, a Hungarian neuropsychiatrist. All subsequent publications about the first patient treated with COT, Zoltán L (ZL, were based on Meduna's papers and autobiography. After 4 years of catatonic stupor, ZL received camphor-induced COT which resulted in full remission and discharge from the institution. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct ZL's case history from the original case notes-partly written by

  4. Dose distributions around selectron applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, C.; Evans, M.D.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1987-11-01

    Measured and calculated dose distributions around selectron applicators, loaded with /sup 60/Co high dose rate pellets, are presented. The effect of the stopping screw, spacers, pellets themselves and the applicator wall on the dose distribution is discussed. The measured dose distribution is in almost perfect agreement with the calculated distribution in planes perpendicular to the applicator axis and containing a source. On the applicator axis directly below the applicator the measured dose amounts to about 75% of the calculated value, when only the stopping screw attenuates the beam from a pellet. When the beam is attenuated by spacers in addition to the stopping screw, the discrepancy between the calculated and measured dose may exceed 50%. Clinically relevant source geometries are also discussed. It is shown that for most regions around the applicator the method of a simple addition of dose contributions from individual point sources is an acceptable approximation for the calculation of dose distributions around the selectron applicators.

  5. Evaluating dose response from flexible dose clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true dose effect in flexible-dose clinical trials may be obscured and even reversed because dose and outcome are related. Methods To evaluate dose effect in response on primary efficacy scales from 2 randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose trials of patients with bipolar mania who received olanzapine (N = 234, 5–20 mg/day, or patients with schizophrenia who received olanzapine (N = 172, 10–20 mg/day, we used marginal structural models, inverse probability of treatment weighting (MSM, IPTW methodology. Dose profiles for mean changes from baseline were evaluated using weighted MSM with a repeated measures model. To adjust for selection bias due to non-random dose assignment and dropouts, patient-specific time-dependent weights were determined as products of (i stable weights based on inverse probability of receiving the sequence of dose assignments that was actually received by a patient up to given time multiplied by (ii stable weights based on inverse probability of patient remaining on treatment by that time. Results were compared with those by unweighted analyses. Results While the observed difference in efficacy scores for dose groups for the unweighted analysis strongly favored lower doses, the weighted analyses showed no strong dose effects and, in some cases, reversed the apparent "negative dose effect." Conclusion While naïve comparison of groups by last or modal dose in a flexible-dose trial may result in severely biased efficacy analyses, the MSM with IPTW estimators approach may be a valuable method of removing these biases and evaluating potential dose effect, which may prove useful for planning confirmatory trials.

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  7. Expressions of F-actin, Calponin3, and ROCK2 in cerebral neurons of rats with acute epileptic seizure induced by PTZ%PTZ诱导的癫痫急性发作大鼠大脑神经元中F-actin、Calponin3和ROCK2的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春旭; 李树蕾; 古小云; 黄可欣; 李艳超; 张舒岩; 杨立彬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨戊四氮(PTZ)诱发的大鼠癫痫急性发作对大脑神经元中F-actin、Calponin3和ROCK2蛋白表达水平的影响,阐明癫痫急性发作时阻断F-actin异常解聚、触发F-actin重构的可能机制.方法:3周龄Wistar幼鼠56只分为对照组(n=6)和癫痫组(n=50).对照组大鼠给予腹腔注射生理盐水;癫痫组大鼠经腹腔注射60 mg.kg-1 PTZ建立癫痫急性发作模型,造模成功的24只大鼠分别在癫痫急性发作后的相应时间点(1、2、3和7d时)随机处死6只用于取材.采用Alex-488标记的phalloidine进行荧光染色观察大鼠大脑海马组织中分子层的F-actin荧光强度;采用免疫荧光染色法观察大鼠大脑皮层和海马神经元中Calponin3和ROCK2的分布;采用Western blotting法检测大鼠海马组织中Calponin3、ROCK2和磷酸化ROCK2蛋白的相对表达水平.结果:与对照组比较,癫痫急性发作ld后,癫痫组大鼠大脑树突棘密集的海马中分子层的F-actin荧光强度降低(P<0.05),点状聚集结构消失.免疫荧光染色,对照组大鼠Calponin3在神经元胞质中弥漫性分布,而癫痫急性发作7d后,癫痫组大鼠神经元中Calponin3则聚集在细胞皮质;对照组大鼠ROCK2仅在少量神经元突起中分布,而癫痫急性发作7d后,癫痫组大鼠大量神经元胞体和突起中均可见ROCK2分布.Westernblotting检测,与对照组比较,癫痫组大鼠各时间点海马组织中Calponin3相对表达水平显著降低(P<0.05),但是随着时间延长,1周内逐渐升高并趋向正常水平.与对照组比较,癫痫组大鼠海马组织中ROCK2蛋白相对表达水平从癫痫急性发作后3d开始显著增加并持续至造模后7 d(P<0.05);磷酸化ROCK2蛋白相对表达水平则从癫痫急性发作后1d就开始显著增加并持续到7 d(P<0.05),且随着时间延长逐渐降低.结论:PTZ诱导幼鼠癫痫急性发作导致F-actin异常解聚,同时激活RhoA/ROCK2信号途径,上调ROCK2和Calponin3蛋白表达水平.

  8. Effects of a lyophilized aqueous extract of Feretia apodanthera Del. (Rubiaceae) on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwe, G S; Moto, F C O; Ayissi, E R M; Ngoupaye, G T; Njapdounke, J S K; Nkantchoua, G C N; Kouemou, N; Omam, J P O; Kandeda, A K; Pale, S; Pahaye, D; Ngo Bum, E

    2015-02-01

    Feretia apodanthera Del. (Rubiaceae) is extensively used in ethnomedicine in Cameroon and Nigeria for epilepsy, febrile convulsions, and rheumatic pains and for enhancing cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a lyophilized aqueous extract of F. apodanthera on the course of kindling development, kindling-induced learning deficit, oxidative stress markers, and cholinesterase activity in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled mice. Pentylenetetrazole, 30mg/kg, induced kindling in mice after 30.00±1.67days. The aqueous extract of F. apodanthera showed dose-dependent antiseizure effects. Feretia apodanthera (150-200mg/kg) significantly increased the latency to myoclonic jerks, clonic seizures, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The extract also improved the seizure score and decreased the number of myoclonic jerks. Pentylenetetrazole kindling induced significant oxidative stress and cognitive impairment which were reversed by pretreatment with F. apodanthera in a dose-dependent manner. The significant decrease in cholinesterase activity observed in the PTZ-kindled mice was reversed by pretreatment with the F. apodanthera extract. The results indicated that pretreatment with the aqueous extract of F. apodanthera antagonizes seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in PTZ-kindled mice. The aqueous extract of F. apodanthera also showed anxiolytic activities, but the inhibition of memory impairment was not attributed to the anxiolytic activities of the plant. These results thus suggest the potential of F. apodanthera as an adjuvant in epilepsy both to prevent seizures as well as to protect against seizure-induced oxidative stress and memory impairment.

  9. Clinical analysis of 39 rotavirus gastroenteritis cases with benign infantile convulsions%轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥39例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡耘; 窦娟; 李晓峰; 张萍萍; 王清文

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥的临床特点.方法 回顾分析2004年10月~2009年12月本院轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥患者的临床表现、实验室检查和治疗效果并进行随访.结果 39例患儿男23例,女16例,发病年龄4~26个月,病程3天内发生惊厥,呈全身强直一阵挛性发作,一次病程中发作1~4次,持续时间短,易控制.发作间期脑电图无明显异常,血生化、脑脊液及颅脑影像学检查正常.惊厥停止后来予抗癫痫治疗.随访3~66月,2例复发,病程<1年.所有患儿预后良好,生长发育如正常儿童.结论 轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥多为良性过程,预后好,不必长期抗癫痫治疗,但须注意复发可能.%Aim To investigate the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases with benign infantile convulsions.Methods There 39 hospitalized infant rotavirus gastroenteritis cases accompanied with benign afebrile seizures including 23 boys and 16 girls,aged 4~26 months old from October 2004 to December 2009 were observed. Results The convulsions were generalized tonic-clonic seizures,occurring between the first and the third day of gastroenteritis, 1 to 4 times during a single episode and easy to be controlled with short duration. All displayed normal EEG background in interictal period. The serum biochemistry, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging studies were performed with a normal results.No patient was put on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs. After 3~66 months follow-up,relapse occurred in 2 patients,with an episode less than 1 year. All showed a favorable prognosis. Conclusion Recognition of rotavirus gastroenteritis with benign infantile convulsions can avoids extensive evaluation and long-term antiepileptic therapy.Attention should be paid to recurrence.

  10. 新生儿低钠血症致惊厥的发生率及原因分析%Analysis of the incidence and causes of con-vulsion induced by neonatal hyponatremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛荣利

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析新生儿低钠血症致惊厥的发生率及原因.方法:选取2014-02/2015-02我院收治的84例惊厥新生儿作为研究对象,其中有36例伴低钠血症,分析其发病原因,并采取有效的治疗措施.结果:36例惊厥伴低钠血症患儿平均住院时间(9.12±1.24)d;随访3个月,有2例患儿失访,其余34例患儿中有1例因原发病为重度缺血缺氧性脑病而出现脑瘫外,其余患儿均正常,无神经系统后遗症发生.结论:临床医生必需给予低钠血症并发惊厥以足够的重视,通过早期诊断与治疗,可减少并发症的发生.%AIM: To analyze the incidence and causes of convulsion induced by neonatal hyponatremia. METHODS: A total of 84 cases of neonatal convulsion admitted into our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were selected as the research object, including 36 cases with hyponatremia. The causes of the disease were analyzed, and effective measures should be adopted to raise the treatment effect. RESULTS: The average hospital stay of 36 cases of children with convulsion and hyponatremia was ( 9. 12+1. 24 ) d. They were followed up in 3 months, and 2 cases of patients lost to follow⁃up, 1 case occurred cerebral palsy because of the primary disease named severe hypoxic⁃ischemic encephalopathy, the rest of the children were normal, and no neurological sequelae occurred. CONCLU⁃SION:It is necessary to pay enough attention to the complication caused by hyponatremia, which can reduce the incidence of com⁃plications by early diagnosis and treatment.

  11. 固本防惊汤预防小儿高热惊厥复发的疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Guben Fangjing Decoction on preventing recurrence of infantile febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董幼祺; 董继业; 郑含笑

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨固本防惊汤防治小儿高热惊厥(FC)复发的疗效,评价该方防治小儿FC复发的综合临床效应及应用前景.方法:将易发高热惊厥患儿272例随机分成治疗组138例,对照组134例.治疗组给予固本防惊汤治疗,对照组给予地西泮短期间歇治疗.随访1年,比较治疗组与对照组的总疗效、中医症候疗效以及各项检测指标有无差异.结果:治疗组的总疗效和中医症候疗效均明显优于对照组(P<0.01);治疗组的体质量、脑电图、免疫功能与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:固本防惊汤能有效降低小儿FC复发率(1年复发率降至20.3%)、改善患儿体质,是防治小儿FC复发的有效汤剂.%Objective: To investigate the curative effect of Guben Fangjing Decoction on preventing the recurrence of Infantile Febrile Convulsion (FC), together with its evaluation of comprehensive clinic results and the anticipation of application. Methods: 272 FC susceptible subjects are divided into treatment group (n=138) and control group (n=134). The treatment group subjects receive the Guben Fangjing Decoction therapy while the control group is intermittently treated with diazepam in short-terms. The general efficacy, TCM symptom efficacy and other detection indices between the two groups are compared to reveal discrepancy after one year's follow-up. Results: The outcome manifests that the general efficacy and TCM symptom efficacy of treatment group significantly excel the control group (P<0.01), while the comparison of weight, electroencephalogram and immune function between the two groups shows statistical significance (P<0.05) as well. Conclusion: Guben Fangjing Decoction improves patients' constitution and effectively reduces the recurrence rate of Infantile Febrile Convulsion (lower to 20.3% within one year), which proves to be an efficacious decoction against the recurrence of Infantile Febrile Convulsion.

  12. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Results: Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated...... with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI],.82-. 97...

  13. Effective dose and dose to crystalline lens during angiographic procedures; Dose effective et dose au cristallin lors de procedures angiographiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pages, J. [QUARAD and Radiology Dept., Vvije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    1998-07-01

    The highest radiation doses levels received by radiologists are observed during interventional procedures. Doses to forehead and neck received by a radiologist executing angiographic examinations at the department of radiology at the academic hospital (AZ-VUB) have been measured for a group of 34 examinations. The doses to crystalline lens and the effective doses for a period of one year have been estimated. For the crystalline lens the maximum dose approaches the ICRP limit, that indicates the necessity for the radiologist to use leaded glasses. (N.C.)

  14. Sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsive effects of an adenosine analogue WS090501%腺苷类似物WS090501的镇静、催眠和抗惊厥作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 张建军

    2011-01-01

    This study is to examine the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsive effects of an adenosine analogue, WS090501. The spontaneous locomotor activity was recorded by open field equipment, and the EEG of rats was recorded by polyphysiograph. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model was used. The spontaneous locomotor activity was decreased by WS090501 at various doses (0.06, 0.13, and 0.25 mg·kg-1), and the decreasing rate was 28.4%, 47.1% and 61.2% respectively. Furthermore, the effect of WS090501 on spontaneous locomotor activity of mice can be antagonized by DPCPX, a selective adenosine A1R antagonist, but cannot be antagonized by SCH58261, a selective adenosine A2AR antagonist. The NREM sleep was significantly increased by WS090501 (0.05 and 0.2 mg·kg-1), and the increasing rate was 27.6% and 102.8%, respectively, at 6th hour after administration. The REM sleep decreased significantly at the higher dose. PTZ induced serious convulsion in mice. The latency of convulsion was prolonged, and the number of seizure and mortality decreased after administration of WS090501. These results show that WS090501 has potent sedative, hypnotic and anticonwlsive effects, which may be mediated through adenosine A1R.%@@ 腺苷是一种内源性的嘌呤核苷,具有广泛的生理性调节作用.腺苷类似物具有显著的镇静、催眠和抗惊厥作用,可以抑制啮齿类动物的自主活动、诱导NREM睡眠(non rapid-eye-movement sleep,非快动眼睡眠).腺苷及其类似物通过腺苷受体发挥作用.

  15. Evaluation of central nervous system effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidianne Mayra Lopes Campêlo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities of Citrus limon (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, essential oil (EO were investigated in animal models. The EO (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg injected by oral route (p.o. in mice caused a significant decrease in the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to thirty days after the administration and the dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Additionally, C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. The administration of FLU (10 mg/kg, i.p., GABA A-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZD receptor antagonist, antagonized the effect of C. limon essential oil at higher dose. This C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by picrotoxin (PIC at higher dose. In the same way, the anticonvulsant effect of the EO was affected by pretreatment with flumazenil, a selective antagonist of benzodiazepine site of GABA A receptor. These results suggest a possible CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice that needs further investigation.

  16. Evaluation and Comparison of Anticonvulsant Activity of Telmisartan and Olmesartan in Experimentally Induced Animal Models of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    V H, Pushpa; R N, Suresha; M K, Jayanthi; V, Ashwini; P S, Vaibhavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is one common neurological disorder requiring newer targets and newer drugs for its efficient management. In the recent days brain renin angiotensin system has gained immense importance because of its involvement in seizure regulation. Objective: To evaluate and compare antiepileptic activity of different doses olmesartan and telmisartan on MES and PTZ induced seizure models. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice weighing around 25-30g of either sex were divided into 6 groups: Control ( Distilled Water- 10ml/kg), Standard – Sodium valproate (40mg/kg), O1 – Olmesartan (2.5mg/kg), O2 – Olmesartan (5mg/kg), T1 - Telmisartan (5mg/kg), T2 – Telmisartan (10mg/kg). After 1hour of administration of control , test and standard drugs (orally), convulsions were induced by administering PTZ (70mg/kg – i.p.) in PTZ model. Seizure latency was the parameter recorded. In MES model, suppression of tonic hind limb extension was taken as measure of efficacy. Result: The results were analysed by one-way-ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test. In MES test, dose dependently olmesartan and telmisartan significantly reduced the duration of tonic hindlimb extension in comparison to control (p<0.05). T2 – 9 + 0.89secs significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension compared to other test groups (p<0.05). The percentage inhibition of seizure was T2-44.3%, O2-28.2%, T1-17.5%, O1- 12.3% respectively. In PTZ test, dose dependently olmesartan and telmisartan produced significant increase in seizure latency (p<0.05). T2 - 206.6+9.83secs significantly increased seizure latency compared to other test groups (p<0.05). Percentage protection from seizure is T2-52.6%, O2- 45.13%, T1- 37.5%, O1- 38.4% respectively. Conclusion: AT1 receptor antagonist, telmisartan and olmesartan in a dose dependent manner showed increase in antiepileptic activity. Temisartan at higher dose produced significant antiepileptic activity in comparison to olmesartan

  17. Effects of pentylenetetrazole kindling on mitogen-activated protein kinases levels in neocortex and hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Juliana; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The epileptogenesis process involves cell signaling events associated with neuroplasticity. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) integrate signals originating from a variety of extracellular stimuli and may regulate cell differentiation, survival, cell death and synaptic plasticity. Here we compared the total and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38(MAPK)) levels in the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Swiss male mice quantified by western blotting analysis 48 h after the last injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), according to the kindling protocol (35 mg/kg, i.p., on alternated days, with a total of eight injections). The total levels of the investigated MAPKs and the phospho-p38(MAPK) in the neocortex and hippocampus were not affected by the PTZ injections. The MAPKs phosphorylation levels remain unaltered in PTZ-treated animals without convulsive seizures. The phospho-JNK2 phosphorylation, but not the phospho-JNK1, was increased in the hippocampus of PTZ-treated animals showing 1-3 days with convulsive seizures, whereas no significant changes were observed in those animals with more than 3 days with convulsive seizures. The phospho-ERK1/2 phosphorylation decreased in the neocortex and increased in the hippocampus of animals with 1-4 days with convulsive seizures and became unaltered in mice that showed convulsive seizures for more than 4 days. These findings indicate that resistance to PTZ kindling is associated with unaltered ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation levels in the neocortex and hippocampus. Moreover, when the PTZ kindling-induced epileptogenesis manifests behaviorally, the activation of the different MAPKs sub-families shows a variable and non-linear pattern in the neocortex and hippocampus.

  18. 婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥39例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 39 Cases of Mild Gastroenteritis with Benign Infantile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红; 高科; 李小鸣

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥的临床特点。[方法]回顾性分析本院2010年1月至2011年12月收治的39例婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥患儿的临床资料。[结果]惊厥发病率为6.81%。1~2岁患儿最多,占76.93%。患儿全年均有发病,而以冬春季节为多,多发生在急性胃肠炎的1~3 d 内,占87.18%,发作以1~2次者最多,共28例,占74.36%,平均发作1.96次。发作形式多表现为全身强直-阵挛性发作,间歇期脑电图背景活动正常。随访患儿均未长期应用抗癫痫药物治疗,出院后均无惊厥复发,随访期间精神神经发育和运动发育如正常同龄儿童。[结论]婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥在住院患儿中发病率较高,但经治疗后无复发,无需长期应用抗癫痫药物治疗,临床预后良好。%[Objective]To study the clinical features of mild gastroenteritis with benign infantile convul-sions.[Methods]Clinical data of 39 cases of mild gastroenteritis with benign infantile convulsions admitted to our hospital from Jan.2010 to Dec.2011 were analyzed retrospectively.[Results]The incidence rate of con-vulsions was 6.81%.The patients aged from 1 to 2 years old were most,accounting for 76.93%.The inci-dence of convulsions was throughout the year,and mostly occurred in winter and spring.The disease mainly occurred within 1~3d of acute gastroenteritis,accounting for 87.18%.Most of the patients attacked up 1 or 2 times,accounting for 74.36%,on average 1.96 times.The form of attack was mainly general tonic-clonic sei-zures with normal intermittent EEG background activity.During the follow up,none took long-term anti-epi-leptic drugs.No seizure recurred after discharge.Neurological development and motor development in the fol-low-up period were the same as the normal children with the same age.[Conclusion]Mild gastroenteritis with benign infantile convulsions has higher prevalence in

  19. Clinical features of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis%轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖宏; 郑承宁

    2005-01-01

    目的认识轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥(BICE)的临床特点,做到正确诊断和合理治疗.方法对年龄在3~36个月的轻度胃肠炎伴惊厥的患儿进行临床观察和出院后18个月以上的随访.结果12例诊断为BICE,发病年龄(16.0±6.5)个月,6例(50%)冬季发病,9例(75%)3 d内发生惊厥,为全身性或部分性发作,7例(58%)有早期频繁发作,一次病程中惊厥平均发作2.1次.发作间期EEG、脑影像学、血生化及脑脊液检查正常.惊厥停止后未行抗痫治疗,3例(25%)复发,复发≤2次,病程最长为8个月.所有病例精神运动发育正常.结论本组BICE具有以下特点:1~2岁高发,冬季多发,无家族史;无热惊厥多出现于病程的早期,全身性或部分性发作,早期频繁发作多见;血电解质、血生化、脑脊液、脑影像学和发作间期脑电图正常;部分病例可复发,病程少于1年,预后好.惊厥停止后不推荐应用抗癫痫药.%Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical features of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE) and provide helpful information for the accurate diagnosis and effective management of BICE. Methods The patients, aged 3-36 months, with gastroenteritis accompanied with convulsions were clinically observed and followed up for more than 18 months. Results BICE was diagnosed in 12 cases with a peak onset age of ( 16.0 ± 6.5) months. Six (50%) of the cases occurred in winter. All seizures developed within the first 5 days of the course and 9 (75%) within the first 3 days. The cases presented with generalized or partial seizures. Early clustering seizure attacks were seen in 7 patients (58%). Seizures averaged 2.1 attacks per course. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), brain imaging, blood biochemical profile and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing did not show abnormality in all cases. No antiepileptic medications were prescribed to the patients as the seizures had

  20. 咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入控制小儿热性惊厥的探讨%Clinical study on treating children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝栋; 江从春; 唐建宁; 王小春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of midazolam nasal drip in the treatment of children’s febrile convulsion. Methods 42 children who suffered from febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups(the treament group and the control group). 0.2 mg/kg midazolam nasal drip was delivered to each member of the treament group,while 0.3~0.5 mg/kg diazepam was given to each member of the control group by intravenous injection. Compared and evaluated the control time,effective rate and safefy regarding treament of children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip. Results Effective rate of treament group was 85.7%,while the control group was 90.5%. These weren’t significantly different from each other(P > 0.05). The control time of the treament group was(6.2 ±1.6)min,while the control group was(8.10 ±0.9)min(P<0.05). Both groups showed no obvious adverse reacitons. Conclusion It is effective and convenient to treat children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip.%目的:探讨咪达唑仑鼻腔给药治疗小儿高热惊厥的有效性和安全性。方法选取小儿热性惊厥患儿42例,随机分为治疗组和对照组各21例。治疗组鼻腔内滴入咪达唑仑0.2 mg/kg,对照组给予地西泮0.3~0.5 mg/kg静脉缓慢推注。比较分析两组患儿的惊厥控制时间、有效率及安全性。结果治疗组和对照组有效率分别为85.7%和90.5%,组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组患儿从到达医院急诊科至惊厥控制所用时间为(6.2±1.6)min,对照组为(8.1±0.9)min,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组均未发现明显不良反应。结论咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入可以有效地控制小儿热性惊厥,且更方便快捷。

  1. 老年期全面惊厥性癫持续状态预后不良的影响因素%To Explore the Influence Factors of senile Comprehensive Convulsive status Epilepticus of poor Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单玉民

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨老年期全面惊厥性癫持续状态预后不良的影响因素。方法对2013年6月至2014年6月我院收治的60例全面惊厥性癫患者资料进行回顾性分析。结果60例患者中病死7例,占11.7%,均死于多器官功能障碍综合征(MODS);53例生存患者中,32例出现不同程度的复发,21例得到完全控制,复发率为53.3%,治愈率为35.0%。结论老年期全面惊厥性癫持续状态预后不良的影响因素有MODS、原发病未根除以及机体的自身因素等。%Objective To explore the influence factors of senile comprehensive convulsive status epilepticus of poor prognosis.Methods In 2013 June to 2014 June in our hospital 60 cases of epilepsy patients comprehensive retrospective analysis..Results 7 patients died,60 death patients accounted for 11.7%,al died of multiple organ failure comprehensive disorder syndrome multiple organ(MODS);53 cases of survivors,32 cases occurred different degrees of recurrence,21 cases got complete control,the cure rate was 35.0%,the recurrence rate was 53.3%. Conclusion The influence factors of senile comprehensive convulsive status epilepticus of poor prognosis of MODS,the primary disease was not eradicated and the body's own factors etc.

  2. PABLM. Accumulated Environment Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E.Jr.; Soldat, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-04-01

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release, after deposition, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground or crops from contaminated air or irrigation water, radionuclides in contaminated drinking water, aquatic foods raised in contaminated water, and radionuclides in bodies of water and sediments where people might fish, boat, or swim. For vegetation, the radiation dose model considers both direct deposition and uptake through roots. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The program is designed to calculate accumulated radiation doses from the chronic ingestion of food products that contain radionuclides and doses from the external exposure to radionuclides in the environment. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.

  3. 轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥128例脑电图改变及随访%Electroencephalography and follow-up of 128 cases of infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路新国; 廖建湘; 韩春锡; 陈彦; 魏雪梅; 徐雅娜; 胡雁

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿惊厥发作期及发作间期的脑电图改变,并通过追踪随访了解此类患儿的脑电图演变及惊厥复发情况.方法 对2005年1月至2009年12月我院神经内科住院治疗的轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析,进行电话或门诊随访3~7年,了解患儿惊厥发作情况.结果 (1) 128例患儿中,胃肠炎急性期惊厥发作间期脑电图128份,发作期脑电图4份(共5次).其中63例发作间期脑电图未见癫(痫)样波发放,65例于不同导联见少许癫(痫)样波发放,48/65例位于中央及中央中线位置.在5次发作期脑电图中,2次发生于同一患儿的同一次监测过程中,异常波均起源于局部且起源部位不固定.2个月后脑电图复查57例,52例癫(痫)样波消失,其他5例仍可见少量的癫(痫)样波发放.(2) 128例患儿在随访中失访25例,96例无发作,3例以发热为诱因出现惊厥发作,2例又在胃肠炎期间再次出现惊厥发作,未予抗癫治(痫)疗,1.5~3.0年未再发作,2例出现数次不明原因的无热惊厥,诊断为癫(痫)并给予了抗癫(痫)治疗,现1.5 ~2.5年时间暂无发作.结论 (1)轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿在胃肠炎急性期惊厥发作间期脑电图近半数可见癫(痫)样放电,且放电部位多在中央区及其中线;(2)发作期脑电图均局部起源;(3)轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿有惊厥再发的危险,尤其是存在诱发因素情况下,个别患儿可转化为癫(痫).%Objective In present study,we aimed to investigate the ictal and interictal electroencephalography (EEG) changes in patients with infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis,to understand the evolution of EEG and recurrence of convulsion by follow-up.Methods In this retrospective study,all patients with infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis visited our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009 were included