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Sample records for pterygium meibomian gland

  1. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

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    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  2. Uneven Meibomian Gland Dropout Over the Tarsal Plate and its Correlation With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

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    Yin, Yue; Gong, Lan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distribution of meibomian gland dropout and analyze the correlation between dropout and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). A total of 161 eyes of 85 patients with MGD were recruited as the MGD group; 88 eyes of 46 health volunteers were enrolled as the control group (2:1 matched for age and sex). Examinations included the Schirmer I test, breakup time, symptom questionnaire, corneal fluorescein staining, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressibility, and meibomian gland dropout. (1) The incidences of chalazion and eyelid surgery were significantly higher in patients with MGD. (2) All clinical indexes were better in healthy volunteers (all P dropout in the upper eyelid was statistically lower (P dropout than did the middle part, except in the lower eyelid of the control group. (4) The entire or partial dropout was positively related to MGD occurrence. Both additive dropout of the entire 2 eyelids and that of the 2 nasal parts had the strongest correlation (r = 0.792, P dropout (r = -0.229, P dropout of additive (r = 0.185, P dropouts exist in different or single eyelids. (2) Dropout evaluation is better when covering the entire area of both upper and lower meibomians. (3) Nasal part dropout plays a more essential role than the other dropouts in MGD occurrence.

  3. Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction

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    Qiao J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qiao, Xiaoming YanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration, Ministry of Education, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics; it influences a great number of people, and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Given the increased recognition of the importance of MGD, a great amount of attention has been paid to therapies targeting this condition. The traditional treatments of MGD consist of warm compresses and lid hygiene for removing an obstructed meibum, as well as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents to improve the quality of the meibum. However, each of these treatments has a different shortcoming and the treatment of MGD remains challenging. Despite the numerous possible treatment options for MGD, it is still difficult to obtain complete relief of signs and symptoms. This review focuses on current emerging treatment options for MGD including intraductal meibomian gland probing, emulsion eye drops containing lipids, the LipiFlow® thermal pulsation system, N-acetyl-cysteine, azithromycin, oral supplementation with omega-3 essential fatty acids, and cyclosporine A.Keywords: meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye, emerging treatment

  4. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Associated With Periocular Radiotherapy.

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    Woo, Young Jun; Ko, JaeSang; Ji, Yong Woo; Kim, Tae-Im; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of periocular radiotherapy on meibomian glands. We evaluated 28 patients (40 eyes) who received radiotherapy (RT group) for conjunctival or orbital lymphoma and 30 age-matched control subjects (60 eyes). Subjects underwent slit-lamp examination of the eyelids, Schirmer test, meibography, and evaluation of tear film breakup time (TBUT), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores, meibomian glands evaluation (meiboscore, meibum expressibility, and lid margin abnormality scores), and tear film lipid layer thickness using an ocular surface interferometer. These parameters were compared between subjects in the RT and control groups. Meiboscores as well as meibum expressibility and OSDI scores in the RT group were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 0.4 ± 0.6, 1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, and 48.1 ± 21.4 vs. 6.2 ± 4.4, respectively, P radiotherapy exhibited relatively high tear film instability induced by meibomian gland dysfunction, contributing to the high severity of dry eye symptoms.

  5. Objective image analysis of the meibomian gland area.

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    Arita, Reiko; Suehiro, Jun; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Shirakawa, Rika; Tokoro, Hideaki; Amano, Shiro

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate objectively the meibomian gland area using newly developed software for non-invasive meibography. Eighty eyelids of 42 patients without meibomian gland loss (meiboscore=0), 105 eyelids of 57 patients with loss of less than one-third total meibomian gland area (meiboscore=1), 13 eyelids of 11 patients with between one-third and two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=2) and 20 eyelids of 14 patients with two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=3) were studied. Lid borders were automatically determined. The software evaluated the distribution of the luminance and, by enhancing the contrast and reducing image noise, the meibomian gland area was automatically discriminated. The software calculated the ratio of the total meibomian gland area relative to the total analysis area in all subjects. Repeatability of the software was also evaluated. The mean ratio of the meibomian gland area to the total analysis area in the upper/lower eyelids was 51.9±5.7%/54.7±5.4% in subjects with a meiboscore of 0, 47.7±6.0%/51.5±5.4% in those with a meiboscore of 1, 32.0±4.4%/37.2±3.5% in those with a meiboscore of 2 and 16.7±6.4%/19.5±5.8% in subjects with a meiboscore of 3. The meibomian gland area was objectively evaluated using the developed software. This system could be useful for objectively evaluating the effect of treatment on meibomian gland dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Effect of Meibomian gland massage before phacoemulsification on ocular surface after surgery in patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction

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    Bang-Tao Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the changes of ocular surface in cataract patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDwho treated with Meibomian gland massage before surgery. METHODS: Totally 90 patients(93 eyeswith cataract and MGD were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in experimental group were treated with hot compress and Meibomian gland massage every day before surgery, while the patients in the control group were not taken. Two groups of patients received phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Lid margin abnormalities, secretion characteristics, Schimer I test(SⅠtand tear film break-up time(BUTwere recorded and compared between two groups using slit lamp microscope inspection preoperatively and postoperatively 1wk. RESULTS: In the control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin and Meibomian gland secretion was increased significantly than preoperative, while the value of BUT and SⅠt was down significantly. Compared with control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin shape and Meibomian gland secretion in the experimental group was decreased significantly, while the value of BUT and SIT improved significantly(PCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification can aggravate the Meibomian gland dysfunction and have some extent of effects on the ocular surface. Meibomian gland massage before surgery can significantly improve the function of Meibomian gland and the state of ocular surface in patients with MDG.

  7. Historical overview of imaging the meibomian glands

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    William Ngo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing knowledge of the role of the meibomian glands in dry eye disease and contact lens discomfort has resulted in a surge of interest in visualizing these glands within the eyelids. This manuscript provides an overview of the many different visualization methods that have evolved over the past 30–40 years. Some of the visualization methods covered in this review include lid transillumination, video and non-contact meibography, and imaging methods employing confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography and ultrasound. This review has also highlighted all the studies to date that have employed meibography as part of their methods. An overview of the available meibography dropout grading systems will also be provided.

  8. A novel method of complex evaluation of meibomian glands morphological and functional state

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    V. N. Trubilin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method that provides complex assessment of meibomian glands morphological and functional state — biometry of meibomian glands — was developed. The results of complex examination (including meibomian glands biometry, correlation analysis data and clinical findings demonstrate direct association between the objective (i.e., meibomian glands dysfunction by biomicroscopy, tear film break-up time / TBUT, symptomatic TBUT, compression testing and subjective signs of meibomian glands dysfunction (patient’s complaints and the parameters of meibomian glands biometry. High direct correlation between biometrical index and compression test result was revealed (p = 0.002, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient = 0.6644. Meibomian glands dysfunction is characterized by biometric parameters abnormalities, i.e., dilatation of meibomian glands orifices, decrease of distance between meibomian glands orifices, partial or total atrophy of meibomian glands (even up to gland collapse with its visual reduction and increase of distance between the glands. The suppression of inflammatory process and the recovery of meibomian glands secretion improve biometric parameters and result in the opening of meibomian glands orifices, liquefaction of clogs, evacuation of meibomian glands secretion, narrowing of meibomian glands orifices and increase of distance between them. The proposed method expands the armamentarium of meibomian glands dysfunction and lipid-deficient dry eye diagnosing. Meibomian glands biometry can be applied in specialized ophthalmological hospitals and outpatient departments. It is a simple procedure of short duration that does not require any special equipment or professional skills. Meibomian glands biometry enables to prescribe pathogenically targeted therapy and to improve quality of life. 

  9. Clinical observation on treatment of Meibomian gland before IntraLase LASIK in patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction

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    He Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the changes of ocular surface inflammation and tear film state before and after the operation after preoperative targeted therapy for Meibomian gland in the patients scheduled for IntraLase-LASIK with Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD. METHODS: Thirty-five patients(70 eyesscheduled for IntraLase-LASIK with different degrees of MGD from March to September 2014 were enrolled in this study. All patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, 17 patients(34 eyesin the observation group accepted preoperative targeted therapy for Meibomian gland; 18 patients(36 eyesin the control group did not give the treatment for Meibomian gland, the rest treatments were the same. The change of conjunctival congestion, photophobia, dry symptom score and tear break-up time(BUTwere observed at 1d and 1wk after IntraLase-LASIK. RESULTS: At 1d and 1wk postoperatively, the scores of conjunctival congestion, photophobia, dry symptom and BUT of the observation group were all lower than those of the control group, and the differences were significant(PCONCLUSION: For the patients scheduled for IntraLase-LASIK with MGD, preoperative targeted therapy for Meibomian gland can reduce the postoperative symptoms of ocular surface irritation, stabilize the tear film, improve the postoperative effect and improve the comfort of patients.

  10. Biosynthesis of lipids by bovine meibomian glands

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    Kolattukudy, P.E.; Rogers, L.M.; Nicolaides, N.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated bovine meibomian glands incorporated exogenous [1- 14 C]acetate into lipids. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the lipids showed that wax esters and sterol esters contained 61% of the total label. Radio gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the acid and alcohol moieties of both ester fractions showed the label was distributed equally between the two portions of the ester in both cases. Cholesterol and 5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3 beta-ol were the major labeled sterols, and anteiso-C25, anteiso-C27 and anteiso-C23 were the most highly labeled alcohols. The major labeled fatty acids in the wax esters were anteiso-C15, n-C16, anteiso-C17 and n-C18:1, whereas anteiso-C25 and anteiso-C27 were the major labeled acids in the sterol esters. The diester region with 6% of the total label contained labeled fatty acids and fatty alcohols each with anteiso-C25 as the major component and omega-hydroxy acids in which n-C32:1 was the major labeled component. The triglyceride fraction which contained 8% of the total lipids was composed of labeled fatty acids similar to those found in both sterol and wax ester fractions. Chromatographic analyses of the labeled lipids derived from exogenous labeled isoleucine showed that anteiso-branched products were preferentially labeled. The labeled triglyceride fraction derived from [U- 14 C] isoleucine also contained esterified C15, C13, C11, C9, C7 and possibly shorter anteiso-branched acids

  11. Dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy.

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    Palamar, Melis; Kiyat, Pelin; Yagci, Ayse

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate dry eye tests and meibography of patients with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK). Thirty-seven patients with PBK were included. The eyes with PBK were compared with the normal pseudophakic fellow eyes. All patients had undergone a detailed ophthalmic examination including corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining and Oxford scoring, tear film breakup time, Schirmer 1 test, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score assessment, lid margin abnormalities, upper and lower eyelid Meibomian gland evaluation using infrared captures of a biomicroscope. Partial or complete loss of the Meibomian glands (Meibomian dropout) was scored for each eyelid from grade 0 (no loss) through grade 3 (lost area was > 2/3 of the total meibomian gland area). The mean age of the patients was 73.2 ± 8.9 (range, 50-93). Mean tear film breakup time value was statistically lower in PBK eyes (P ≤ 0.001). OSDI, Oxford, lid margin abnormalities, inferior meibography, total meibography score were significantly higher in PBK eyes (P ≤ 0.001). The comparison of Schirmer 1 and superior meibography scores of the groups was insignificant (P = 0.143, P = 0.793, respectively). The Meibomian gland morphology of the PBK eyes demonstrates significant differences when compared with normal fellow eyes and might be related to evaporative dry eye. For this reason, patients with PBK should be monitored for Meibomian gland dysfunction and when needed start prompt treatment in order to prevent further disturbance of the ocular surface.

  12. Diagnosis and management of meibomian gland dysfunction: optometrists' perspective

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    Opitz DL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dominick L Opitz,1 Jennifer S Harthan,1 Stephanie R Fromstein,1 Scott G Hauswirth2 1Department of Clinical Education, Illinois College of Optometry, Chicago, IL, 2Minnesota Eye Consultants, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is commonly encountered among eye care professionals. Our understanding of the pathophysiology for the development of MGD has greatly expanded in recent years, which helped increase awareness of the disease. Despite increased awareness, it is essential for eye care professionals to make a conscious effort to properly examine the meibomian glands through gland expression even for asymptomatic patients. At minimum, early management should include patient education and supportive therapy such as warm compresses, lid hygiene, and gland expression. As patients become more symptomatic and as the ocular surface becomes more affected, employing additional therapeutic management is recommended and may include oral omega-3 essential fatty acids, topical azithromycin, oral tetracycline, and topical anti-inflammatories to improve clinical signs and patient comfort. In addition to treatment of MGD, clinicians should be mindful of the comorbid conditions of MGD and simultaneously manage them in conjunction of MGD treatment. Keywords: meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye, blepharitis, ocular surface disease

  13. Expression profiles of aquaporins in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland and Meibomian gland.

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    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R; Randell, Scott H; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate aquaporin (AQP) family member mRNA expression and protein expression/localization in the rat lacrimal functional unit. The mRNA expression of all rat AQPs (AQP0-9, 11-12) in palpebral, fornical, and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland was measured by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR. Antibodies against AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were used in Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to determine protein expression and distribution. Our study demonstrated characteristic AQP expression profiles in rat ocular tissues. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were detected in conjunctiva. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, and 12 mRNA were expressed in cornea. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 11 mRNA were detected in lacrimal gland. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were identified in Meibomian gland. By Western blot, AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were detected in conjunctiva; AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were identified in cornea; AQP1, 3, 4, 5, and 11 were detected in lacrimal gland; and AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were present in Meibomian gland. Immunohistochemistry localized AQPs to distinct sites in the various tissues. This study rigorously analyzed AQPs expression and localization in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland tissues. Our findings provide a comprehensive platform for further investigation into the physiological or pathophysiological relevance of AQPs in ocular surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Dry Eye and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Teenagers with Myopia through Noninvasive Keratograph

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    Wang, Xiu; Lu, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Jun; Wei, Ruihua; Yang, Liyuan; Zhao, Shaozhen; Wang, Xilian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study aims to evaluate dry eye and ocular surface conditions of myopic teenagers by using questionnaire and clinical examinations. Methods. A total of 496 eyes from 248 myopic teenagers (7–18 years old) were studied. We administered Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, slit-lamp examination, and Keratograph 5M. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on OSDI dry eye standard, and their ocular surfaces and meibomian gland conditions were evaluated. Results. The tear meniscus heights of the dry eye and normal groups were in normal range. Corneal fluorescein scores were significantly higher whereas noninvasive break-up time was dramatically shorter in the dry eye group than in the normal group. All three meibomian gland dysfunction parameters (i.e., meibomian gland orifice scores, meibomian gland secretion scores, and meibomian gland dropout scores) of the dry eye group were significantly higher than those of the normal group (P dry eye in myopic teenagers is 18.95%. Meibomian gland dysfunction plays an important role in dry eye in myopic teenagers. The Keratograph 5M appears to provide an effective noninvasive method for assessing ocular surface situation of myopic teenagers. PMID:26881059

  15. Application of the microprobe dredging operation in the treatment of the meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD

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    Qing-Qiang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the function of the microprobe dredging technology in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDand to provide fast, efficient, economical and practical method of treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD. METHODS:The 100μm diameter stainless steel wire was made as the microprobe with the total length of 3cm, which the needle was about 5mm and hand shank was about 2.5cm. Selected 140 cases with dry eyes of meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD, patients were divided into two groups and made them have comparability. Observation group(n=70used microprobe to dredge meibomian gland pipe accompanied with drugs, hot compress and meibomian gland massage treatment. The control group(n=70was given conventional drugs, hot compress and meibomian massage treatment. To compare the tear break-up time(BUT, efficient rate and the cure rate of the two groups after treatment of 1d, 1wk, 2wk, 1 mo, 2mo and 3mo.RESULTS: BUT were significantly prolonged in observation group and control group after treatment, and the observation group improved more obviously; the efficient rate and cure rate of the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group after 1d, 1wk, 2wk, 1mo, 2mo and 3mo treatment. CONCLUSION:Using microprobe to unclog the meibomian gland tube can provide the fast and efficient, economical and practical treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD, which can be promoted in the clinical practice.

  16. Meibomian gland dropout in patients with dry eye disease in China.

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    Feng, Yun; Gao, Ziqing; Feng, Kang; Qu, Hongqiang; Hong, Jing

    2014-10-01

    To examine the morphological changes in the meibomian glands of eyes of patients with dry eye disease using the non-contact infrared meibography system and to assess their relationship with meibomian dropout, signs, and tear-film function. Subjects included 264 randomly selected patients (528 eyes) suffering from dry eye disease (95 males, 169 females; age range, 7-85 years; mean male age, 39.83 ± 19.17 years; mean female age, 46.16 ± 17.38 years). Tear-film break-up time (BUT) was measured and tear-film production was evaluated by the Schirmer test I (SIT). Subjective symptoms were also scored. The upper and lower eyelids were turned over, and the meibomian glands were observed using the non-contact meibography system. Partial or complete loss of the meibomian glands (meibomian dropout) was scored for each eyelid from grade 0 (no loss) through grade 3 (lost area was >2/3 of the total meibomian gland area). The average SIT result was 6.71 ± 6.13 mm (range 0-30 mm) and that for BUT was 3.13 ± 2.39 s (range 0-10 s). The average fluorescein staining score was 4.25 ± 4.05 (range 0-12). In addition, the mean meibomian gland photographic score was 4.35 ± 1.39. The correlation between the meibomian gland photographic scores and various ocular surface examinations were evaluated using Kendall's correlation. SIT and BUT were significantly negatively correlated with the meibomian gland photographic score, whereas corneal fluorescein staining was positively correlated. The results suggest a large proportion of meibomian dropout cases among patients with dry eye disease, indicating that treatment targeted at the meibomian gland will become an important direction for treating dry eye disease. Meibography is recommended as a routine test for dry eye disease.

  17. Dyslipidemia and its association with meibomian gland dysfunction.

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    Braich, Puneet S; Howard, Mary K; Singh, Jorawer S

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal serum lipid levels significantly increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, abnormal compositions of cholesterol in glandular secretions have been hypothesized as an etiology for meibomian gland dysfunction, yet this relationship has not been well studied in clinical settings. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between dyslipidemia and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The secondary purpose was to identify the factors, if any, that play a role in this association. A case-control study was performed between October 2013 and February 2015 which recruited 109 patients with MGD and 115 control patients without MGD. All participants were of Indian descent and had no history of dyslipidemia. Basic demographic information was collected as well as fasting levels of serum glucose, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). To calculate differences between groups, Z test or Student t test were used. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to calculate the estimates of odds ratios (ORs), where MGD was the dependent variable, making the independent variables consist of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL, LDL ≥130 mg/dL, or HDL ≤40 mg/dL, serum glucose, and serum creatinine. Dyslipidemia, defined by either a fasting total cholesterol level of ≥ 200 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, LDL ≥130 mg/dL, or HDL ≤40 mg/dL, was detected in 70 cases (64 %) and 21 controls (18 %), P 65 years (OR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.2-3.2, P = 0.04), serum triglyceride concentration ≥150 mg/dL (OR 3.2; 95 % CI 1.9-4.4; P = 0.03), total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL (OR 14.3; 95 % CI 8.2-20.7, P dyslipidemia, an important risk factor for cardiovascular illness.

  18. Semifluorinated Alkane Eye Drops for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease Due to Meibomian Gland Disease.

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    Steven, Philipp; Augustin, Albert J; Geerling, Gerd; Kaercher, Thomas; Kretz, Florian; Kunert, Kathleen; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schrage, Norbert; Schrems, Wolfgang; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Messmer, Elisabeth M

    2017-11-01

    Meibomian gland disease is generally accepted as the leading cause for evaporative dry eye disease (DED). In a previous study, perfluorohexyloctane, a semifluorinated alkane, has been demonstrated to significantly increase tear film breakup time and to reduce corneal fluorescein staining in patients with evaporative DED, thereby vastly reducing dry eye-related symptoms. This study was set up to evaluate perfluorohexyloctane in a larger population of patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction. Seventy-two patients with Meibomian gland disease and associated dry eye received 1 drop of perfluorohexyloctane 4 times daily during an observational, prospective, multicenter, 6-8-week study. Clinical assessment included best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer test I, tear film breakup time, anterior and posterior blepharitis assessment, number of expressible Meibomian glands, meibum quality and quantity, ocular surface fluorescein staining, lid margin and symptom assessment, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI © ). From the 72 patients recruited, 61 completed the trial per protocol. Nine patients did not apply the medication as recommended and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Tear film breakup time, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining, number of expressible Meibomian glands, and severity of anterior and posterior blepharitis significantly improved after 6-8 weeks of perfluorohexyloctane application. In addition, symptoms improved as demonstrated by a significant decrease of OSDI-values from 37 (±13) to 26 (±16). In concordance with previous findings, 6-8 weeks of topical application of perfluorohexyloctane significantly improves clinical signs of Meibomian gland disease and associated mild to moderate DED.

  19. Limited Azithromycin Localization to Rabbit Meibomian Glands Revealed by LC-MS-Based Bioanalysis and DESI Imaging.

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    Asano, Nagayoshi; Wiseman, Justin Michael; Tsuji, Fumio; Kawazu, Kouichi

    2017-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the leading cause of dry eye, and although it affects approximately 4% of the population, treatment options remain limited. Topical azithromycin is one of the most promising pharmacological agents because of its multiple mechanisms of action and long sustainability. Azithromycin is frequently used as an off-label medication in the U.S. However, although azithromycin is presumed to act directly on meibomian gland cells, the mechanisms of action that contribute to its clinical efficacy remain unclear because no studies using a pharmacokinetic approach have been performed. Therefore, we aimed to clarify whether topical azithromycin reaches the meibomian glands sufficiently to generate a biological effect. We measured azithromycin concentrations in rabbit meibomian glands collected using a recently developed method. Moreover, we also visualized the azithromycin micro-distribution using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) imaging. Azithromycin concentration in the meibomian glands reached only 0.8 µg/g tissue following a single application of a 1% azithromycin ophthalmic solution and was 1000-fold lower than the concentration in conjunctival epithelium. Similarly, no signal was observed in the meibomian glands on DESI images. Our results clearly demonstrated that topical azithromycin had limited access to the meibomian glands and was predominantly distributed in ocular surface tissues such as the palpebral conjunctiva and lid margins. These findings provide new insight into the clinical responses to topical azithromycin therapy and will aid in the further development of effective drugs with more suitable pharmacokinetic properties.

  20. PREVALENCE OF MEIBOMIAN GLAND DISEASE IN TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS & ITS CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS

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    Reshma Pathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS : To study the prevalence of the meibomian gland disease in typ e 2 diabetic patients and its clinical presentations. SETTING AND DESIGN : A hospital based cross sectional descriptive study of 100 type 2 diabetic patients attending a medical college was conducted. METHODS : Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of ocular surface i.e. the lid margins , conjunctiva , corneal surface was done via slit lamp biomicroscopy. Meibomian gland disease (MGD severity was assessed by the quality and expressibility of the meibomian secretion. Dry eye tests like schir mer’s test and tear film breakup time were done. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : SPSS statistical software version 17 was used. RESULTS : 56% of the patients out of 100 diabetic patients had MGD. The most common symptom was burning (46.9% , followed by dryness ( 23.5% , 5.6% had conjunctival injection , 7.14% had corneal erosions , 25% had mucus debris , 53.65% had dry eye which was statistically significant (p=0.001 , 56.25% males and 72.2% females had the disease which was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION : The prevalence of Meibomian gland disease in the diabetic population was 56% which is more than the general population prevalence. Apart from other disorders diabetics are also more prone for ocular surface diseases like Meibomian gland disease. MGD is an important pre disposer for severe diseases like Dry eye in this subgroup of patients which can lead to complications like conjunctival keratinisations , corneal erosions and perforations. Careful examination of these patients for ocular surface disease and prompt treatment is required.

  1. Efficacy of intra-meibomian gland injection of the anti-VEGF agent bevacizumab for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction with lid-margin vascularity

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    Jiang X

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaodan Jiang,* Yuexin Wang,* Huibin Lv, Yan Liu, Mingzhou Zhang, Xuemin Li Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a novel treatment – intra-meibomian gland (MG injection of the anti-VEGF agent bevacizumab – for MG dysfunction (MGD with eyelid-margin vascularity. Methods: A total of 26 eyes from 13 patients diagnosed with MGD and eyelid-margin vascularity were included in our study. Patients received intra-meibomian gland injections of bevacizumab (150 µL, 2.5 mg/0.1 mL at multiple sites with a 29 G needle where telangiectasia was severe. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI, tear film, tear-breakup time (TBUT, eyelid-margin features, MG features, conjunctiva, and corneal staining were assessed at 1 day before injection and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Blood pressure, best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and slit lamp examinations were performed to assure the safety of patients at 1 day before and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Results: Lid-margin vascularity, conjunctival injection, expressed secretion quality, expressivity of the MG, TBUT, corneal staining, and OSDI were significantly improved 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection compared to baseline values. Lid-margin vascularity, conjunctival injection, meibomian gland expressivity, TBUT, and OSDI continued to improve; the greatest improvements were observed at 1 month and sustained for 3 months. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that age and sex significantly influenced TBUT improvement. Females and older patients tended to have shorter baseline TBUT that followed a different trend from that of males and younger patients during postinjection visits, revealed by subgroup analysis. No local or systemic side effects were observed at follow-up visits. Conclusion: This study is the first to

  2. Manifestation of meibomian gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, non-Sjögren's dry eye, and non-dry eye controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yeon Soo; Lee, Hyo Seok; Li, Ying; Choi, Won; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the manifestation of meibomian gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (non-SS) patients, and non-dry eye controls. We recruited 31 participants with SS dry eye, 30 participants with non-SS dry eye, and 35 healthy controls without dry eye symptoms. Noninvasive tear breakup time (NITBUT) and meibomian gland dropout score (meiboscore) were measured using the Oculus Keratograph 5 M. Meibomian gland expressibility and secretion quality were evaluated via slit lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between measurements was analyzed. NITBUT was lower, and the meiboscore, meibomian gland expressibility, and secretion quality scores were significantly higher in the SS and non-SS groups than in the control group (p dry eye controls. SS patients had more severe meibomian gland dysfunction with poorer mean meiboscore and meibomian gland expressibility than non-SS patients.

  3. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: IVCM application provides a strong support to differentiate dry eye patients with different symptoms: meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD plays a pivotal role in dry eye aggravation, and using IVCM to observe MG fibrosis, changes in size and density of MG as well as status of inflammation cells can help not only correctly diagnose the type and severity of dry eye, but also possibly prognosticate in routine eye examination in the occurrence of MGD.

  4. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Primary and Secondary Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, David A; Dana, Reza; Sullivan, Rose M; Krenzer, Kathleen L; Sahin, Afsun; Arica, Beril; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R; Papas, Athena S; Cermak, Jennifer M

    2018-01-01

    We hypothesized that women with primary (pSS) and secondary Sjögren syndrome (sSS; with systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] or rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) have meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). We sought to test our hypothesis. Subjects with pSS, sSS + SLE, sSS + RA, and non-SS-related MGD were recruited from the Sjögren's Syndrome Foundation or outpatient clinics at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine or Brigham and Women's Hospital. The control population was recruited from the Greater Boston area. After providing written informed consent, the subjects underwent an eye examination and/or completed two questionnaires that assess symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). Our results demonstrate that pSS and sSS patients have MGD. These subjects had meibomian gland orifice metaplasia, an increased number of occluded meibomian gland orifices, and a reduced quality of meibomian gland secretions. Further, patients with pSS, sSS + SLE, sSS + RA, and MGD had significant alterations in their tear film, lid margin, cornea, and conjunctiva. Symptoms of DED were increased ∼10-fold in all pSS, sSS, and MGD groups relative to controls. Our findings support our hypothesis and show that individuals with pSS, sSS + SLE, and sSS + RA have MGD. In addition, our study indicates that patients with pSS and sSS have both aqueous-deficient and evaporative DED. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Oral Antibiotics for Meibomian Gland-Related Ocular Surface Disease: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Edward J; Bradley, Elizabeth A; Bilyk, Jurij R; Yen, Michael T; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-03-01

    To review the existing medical literature on the role of oral antibiotics in the management of ocular surface disease (OSD) that arises from disorders of the meibomian glands and to assess the efficacy of oral antibiotics in the management of this common ocular disease. A literature search was last conducted on August 12, 2015, in the PubMed and Cochrane databases for English-language original research investigations that evaluated the role of doxycycline, minocycline, and azithromycin in OSD among adult patients. The searches identified 87 articles, and 8 studies ultimately met the criteria outlined for this assessment. The 8 studies identified in the search documented an improvement in meibomian gland-related OSD after treatment with these agents, although side effects were common. This search identified only 1 randomized, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of these medications. Although oral antibiotics are used commonly in the management of OSD, there is no level I evidence to support their use. There are only a few studies that have assessed the efficacy of oral antibiotics in clinically meaningful ways in the management of OSD that arises from disorders of the meibomian glands. The current level of evidence is insufficient to conclude that antibiotics are useful in managing OSD arising from disorders of the meibomian glands. The few existing studies on the topic indicate that oral antibiotics may be an effective treatment for OSD that results from meibomian gland disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion in patients with dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Christine W; Foulks, Gary N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to assess the efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion for the treatment of dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). At five clinics, patients completed a 1-week treatment with their habitual topical therapy and then a 4-week treatment with open-label study medication: Systane® Balance Lubricant Eye Drops (Alcon, Alcon Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA). Subjective assessments included a preference survey, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Objective assessments by unmasked investigators included visual acuity, meibomian gland expression and dropout, tear film breakup time, corneal staining, and dosing frequency. At baseline, the 49 patients had mean meibomian gland expression grades and gland dropout that indicated mild to moderate MGD. Patients administered their habitual therapy 2.5 ± 1.3 times per day. After 4 weeks of study medication, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire results indicated statistically and clinically significant improvements. Fewer than half of the participants were employed, limiting the usefulness of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Visual acuity remained statistically similar, while corneal staining and tear film breakup time improved significantly (P < 0.05) but modestly. The outcomes were achieved with 1.9 ± 1.1 doses per day of study medication, a significantly lower frequency than the habitual frequency (P < 0.001). The most common medication-related adverse event was blurred vision (3/49 patients, 6.1%). At study conclusion, 27/44 (61.4%) survey respondents preferred the study medication to their habitual therapy. The artificial tear emulsion was effective for treating the signs and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients.

  7. The Spectrophotometric Sulfo-Phospho-Vanillin Assessment of Total Lipids in Human Meibomian Gland Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen. PMID:23345137

  8. Influence of Meibomian Gland Expression Methods on Human Lipid Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Carolina M E; Brown, Simon H J; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Holden, Brien A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Papas, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    To compare the lipid composition of human meibum across three different meibum expression techniques. Meibum was collected from five healthy non-contact lens wearers (aged 20-35 years) after cleaning the eyelid margin using three meibum expression methods: cotton buds (CB), meibomian gland evaluator (MGE) and meibomian gland forceps (MGF). Meibum was also collected using cotton buds without cleaning the eyelid margin (CBn). Lipids were analyzed by chip-based, nano-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Comparisons were made using linear mixed models. Tandem MS enabled identification and quantification of over 200 lipid species across ten lipid classes. There were significant differences between collection techniques in the relative quantities of polar lipids obtained (P<.05). The MGE method returned smaller polar lipid quantities than the CB approaches. No significant differences were found between techniques for nonpolar lipids. No significant differences were found between cleaned and non-cleaned eyelids for polar or nonpolar lipids. Meibum expression technique influences the relative amount of phospholipids in the resulting sample. The highest amounts of phospholipids were detected with the CB approaches and the lowest with the MGE technique. Cleaning the eyelid margin prior to expression was not found to affect the lipid composition of the sample. This may be a consequence of the more forceful expression resulting in cell membrane contamination or higher risk of tear lipid contamination as a result of reflex tearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion in patients with dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindt CW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Christine W Sindt,1 Gary N Foulks2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 2Kentucky Lions Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA Objectives: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion for the treatment of dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD. Methods: At five clinics, patients completed a 1-week treatment with their habitual topical therapy and then a 4-week treatment with open-label study medication: Systane® Balance Lubricant Eye Drops (Alcon, Alcon Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA. Subjective assessments included a preference survey, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Objective assessments by unmasked investigators included visual acuity, meibomian gland expression and dropout, tear film breakup time, corneal staining, and dosing frequency. Results: At baseline, the 49 patients had mean meibomian gland expression grades and gland dropout that indicated mild to moderate MGD. Patients administered their habitual therapy 2.5 ± 1.3 times per day. After 4 weeks of study medication, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire results indicated statistically and clinically significant improvements. Fewer than half of the participants were employed, limiting the usefulness of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Visual acuity remained statistically similar, while corneal staining and tear film breakup time improved significantly (P < 0.05 but modestly. The outcomes were achieved with 1.9 ± 1.1 doses per day of study medication, a significantly lower frequency than the habitual frequency (P < 0.001. The most common medication-related adverse event was blurred vision (3/49 patients, 6.1%. At study conclusion, 27/44 (61.4% survey respondents

  10. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Determines the Severity of the Dry Eye Conditions in Visual Display Terminal Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nuo; Yang, Fan; Lin, Zhirong; Shang, Xumin; Li, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT) workers. Methodology Prospective, case-control study carried out in China.106 eyes of 53 patients (VDT work time >4 hour per day) were recruited as the Long time VDT group; 80 eyes of 40 control subjects (VDT work time ≤4 hour per day) served as the Short time VDT group. A questionnaire of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and multiple tests were performed. Three dry eye tests: tear film breakup time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test; and three MGD parameters: lid margin abnormality score, meibum expression assessment (meibum score), and meibomian gland dropout degree (meiboscore) using Keratograph 5 M. Principal Findings OSDI and corneal fluorescein score were significantly higher while BUT was dramatically shorter in the long time VDT group than the short time VDT group. However, the average of Schirmer tear volumes was in normal ranges in both groups. Interestingly, the three MGD parameters were significantly higher in the long time VDT group than the short time one (Peyes with Schirmer eyes with Schirmer ≥10 mm were separated from the long time VDT workers, no significant differences were found between the two subgroups in OSDI, fluorescein staining and BUT, as well as the three MGD parameters. All three MGD parameters were positively correlated with VDT working time (Pdry eye patients in long term VDT workers with higher OSDI scores whereas some of those patients presenting a normal tear volume. PMID:25144638

  11. Identification of fatty acids and fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelly K; Ham, Bryan M; Nichols, Jason J; Ziegler, Corrie; Green-Church, Kari B

    2007-01-01

    The complex superficial lipid layer of the tear film functions to prevent evaporation and maintain tear stability. Although classes of lipids found in the tear film have been reported, individual lipid species are currently being studied with more sophisticated. The purpose of this work was to show the identification of fatty acids and the fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions by using electrospray mass spectrometry. methods. Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (positive- and negative-ion mode). Accurate mass determination and collision-induced dissociation of meibum, and lipid standards were used to identify lipid species. Mass analysis of meibum in an acidic chloroform-methanol solution in positive-ion mode revealed a mass peak of m/z 282.3, which was identified as the protonated molecule of oleamide [C(18)H(35)NO+H](+). The high-resolution mass analysis of the m/z 282.2788 peak (oleamide) demonstrated a mass accuracy of 3.2 parts per million (ppm). Collision-induced dissociation of this species from meibum, compared with an oleamide standard, confirmed its identification. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic free fatty acids were identified in a similar manner, as were the other fatty acid amides (myristamide, palmitamide, stearamide, and erucamide). The findings indicate that oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide), an endogenous fatty acid primary amide, is a predominant component of meibum when examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The novel finding of oleamide and other members of the fatty acid amide family in the tear film could lead to additional insights into the role of fatty acid amide activity in human biological systems and may indicate a new function for this lipid class of molecules in ocular surface signaling and/or in the maintenance of the complex tear film.

  12. Treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms with a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Caroline A; Carlson, Alan N; Korb, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is understood to be a highly prevalent, chronic progressive disease and the leading cause of dry eye. All available published peer-reviewed results of the novel vectored thermal pulsation therapy for patients with MGD are investigated. The PubMed and meeting abstract search revealed a total of 31 peer-reviewed reports on vectored thermal pulsation therapy at the time of the search (eight manuscripts and 23 meeting abstracts). All manuscripts evidence a significant increase in meibomian gland function (∼3×) and symptom improvement post a single 12-min treatment. Additional reported objective measures such as osmolarity, tear break-up time, or lipid layer thickness also increased as a result of the therapy; however, not all findings were statistically significant. The randomized controlled studies evidence sustained gland function and symptom relief lasting out to 12 months. The uncontrolled case series evidence significantly longer duration of effect. A single 12 minute vectored thermal pulsation treatment allows for reducing dry eye symptoms, improving meibomian gland function and other correlates of the ocular surface health.

  13. Regional Differences in Tear Film Stability and Meibomian Glands in Patients With Aqueous-Deficient Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Ikeda, Chikako; Fujimoto, Hisataka; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji

    2016-07-01

    To noninvasively investigate regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Forty-nine dry eyes and 31 normal eyes were analyzed. A corneal topographer with a tear film scanning function was used for noninvasive tear film break-up time (NI-TFBUT) measurements and meibomian gland observations. The NI-TFBUT values and location of the first tear film break-up point were recorded in four quadrants. Meibomian gland loss was graded for each eyelid using meiboscores. Lid margin abnormality was scored from zero to four according to the number of existing abnormalities. The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were compared between two groups, and regional differences in NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were analyzed. Also, the correlation between the NI-TFBUT and ocular surface examination results were investigated. The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were significantly lower and higher, respectively, for the dry eye group than for the normal group. In the dry eye group, the occurrence rate for first tear film break-up was the highest in the inferior nasal quadrant, and the mean meiboscore was significantly higher for the upper eyelids than for the lower eyelids. The NI-TFBUT and lid margin abnormality scores showed a weak negative correlation, and the NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores showed no correlation. Compared to normal eyes, aqueous-deficient dry eyes show significant regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands. Considering these regional differences, the overall observation of the ocular surface, including both upper and lower eyelids, will aid clinicians in understanding this condition better.

  14. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. © 2015 UICC.

  15. Longitudinal Changes in Tear Evaporation Rates After Eyelid Warming Therapies in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sharon; Tan, Jen Hong; Acharya, U Rajendra; Sudarshan, Vidya K; Tong, Louis

    2016-04-01

    Lid warming is the major treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The purpose of the study was to determine the longitudinal changes of tear evaporation after lid warming in patients with MGD. Ninety patients with MGD were enrolled from a dry eye clinic at Singapore National Eye Center in an interventional trial. Participants were treated with hot towel (n = 22), EyeGiene (n = 22), or Blephasteam (n = 22) twice daily or a single 12-minute session of Lipiflow (n = 24). Ocular surface infrared thermography was performed at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after the treatment, and image features were extracted from the captured images. The baseline of conjunctival tear evaporation (TE) rate (n = 90) was 66.1 ± 21.1 W/min. The rates were not significantly different between sexes, ages, symptom severities, tear breakup times, Schirmer test, corneal fluorescein staining, or treatment groups. Using a general linear model (repeat measures), the conjunctival TE rate was reduced with time after treatment. A higher baseline evaporation rate (≥ 66 W/min) was associated with greater reduction of evaporation rate after treatment. Seven of 10 thermography features at baseline were predictive of reduction in irritative symptoms after treatment. Conjunctival TE rates can be effectively reduced by lid warming treatment in some MGD patients. Individual baseline thermography image features can be predictive of the response to lid warming therapy. For patients that do not have excessive TE, additional therapy, for example, anti-inflammatory therapy, may be required.

  16. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of topical antibacterial Manuka (Leptospermum species) honey for evaporative dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albietz, Julie M; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of standardised Manuka (Leptospermum species) antibacterial honey as adjunctive twice daily treatment to conventional therapy (warm compresses, lid massage and preservative-free lubricant), in participants with evaporative dry eye due to moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction. This prospective, open-label study involved 114 participants. After two weeks of conventional therapy participants were randomised to one of three treatment groups: Optimel Antibacterial Manuka Eye Gel (98 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37), Optimel Manuka plus Lubricant Eye Drops (16 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37) and a control (conventional therapy) (n = 40). Clinical evaluations performed at baseline and Week 8 included: symptom scores (Ocular Surface Disease Index, Ocular Comfort Index), daily lubricant use, tear assessments (break-up time, secretion, osmolarity and InflammaDry), corneal sensation, ocular surface staining, meibomian gland secretion quality and expressibility, bulbar conjunctival, limbal and lid marginal redness and eyelid marginal bacterial cultures and colony counts. Significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) occurred at Week 8 in symptoms, tear break-up time, staining, tear osmolarity, meibum quality and bulbar, limbal and lid margin redness for all treatments. Improvement in staining was significantly greater with Optimel 16 per cent drops (p = 0.035). Significant improvements (p < 0.05) in meibomian gland expressibility and InflammaDry occurred for both Optimel treatments. Optimel 98 per cent gel was significantly more effective in improving meibum quality (p = 0.005) and gland expressibility (p = 0.042). Total eyelid marginal bacterial colony counts reduced significantly with Optimel 16 per cent drops (p = 0.03) but not the other treatments. Staphylococcus epidermidis counts reduced significantly with Optimel 16

  18. The sustained effect (12 months) of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure for meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Caroline A; Coleman, Christy A; Holland, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the sustained effect (up to 1 year) of a single, 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) treatment in improving meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. The prospective, multicenter, open-label clinical trial included 200 subjects (400 eyes) who were randomized to a single VTP treatment (treatment group) or twice-daily, 3-month, conventional warm compress and eyelid hygiene therapy (control group). Control group subjects received crossover VTP treatment at 3 months (crossover group). Effectiveness measures of meibomian gland secretion (MGS) and dry eye symptoms were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Subjects with inadequate symptom relief could receive additional meibomian gland dysfunction therapy after 3 (treatment group) and 6 months (crossover group). At 3 months, the treatment group had greater mean improvement in MGS (Pdry eye symptoms (P=0.0068), compared to controls. At 12 months, 86% of the treatment group had received only one VTP treatment, and sustained a mean improvement in MGS from 6.4±3.7 (baseline) to 17.3±9.1 (Pdry eye symptoms from 44.1±20.4 to 21.6±21.3 (Pdry eye symptoms from 49.1±21.0 to 24.0±23.2 (Pdry eye symptoms, over 12 months. A single VTP treatment provides significantly greater mean improvement in meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms as compared to a conventional, twice-daily, 3-month regimen. Early VTP intervention for meibomian gland dysfunction is associated with improved treatment outcomes.

  19. Long-term (12-month) improvement in meibomian gland function and reduced dry eye symptoms with a single thermal pulsation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jack V

    2013-08-01

    To determine the 1-year post-treatment dry eye status of subjects with meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms after receiving a single LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation System treatment. Single-centre, prospective, observational, open-label, 1-month-registered clinical trial with a 1-year follow-up examination. Patients with evaporative dry eye disease with meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms who had participated in the registered 1-month clinical trial. Eighteen of 30 subjects initially enrolled were able to return for a 1-year follow-up. Both eyes of all patients were treated with a single 12-min treatment using the LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation System. Meibomian gland function, tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms were measured. Data are presented for pretreatment (baseline), and 1-month and 1-year post-treatment. Meibomian gland secretion scores, and tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms. Significant improvement in meibomian gland secretion scores from baseline measurements (4.0 ± 3.4) to 1-month post-treatment (11.3 ± 4.7; P treatment (6.0 ± 4.4). The significant improvement in symptom scores on Ocular Surface Disease Index and Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness questionnaires observed at 1-month (P Eye Dryness [P treatment with the Lipi Flow Thermal Pulsation System offers an effective treatment for evaporative dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction resulting in significant and sustained improvement in signs and symptoms for up to 1 year. © 2012 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. A single LipiFlow® Thermal Pulsation System treatment improves meibomian gland function and reduces dry eye symptoms for 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jack V

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a single treatment with the LipiFlow(®) Thermal Pulsation System on signs of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms over a 9-month period. Patients (n = 42 eyes, 21 subjects) diagnosed with MGD and dry eye symptoms were recruited for a non-significant risk, prospective, open-label, 1-month clinical trial. Patients received a single 12-minute treatment using the LipiFlow(®) Thermal Pulsation System on each eye. The LipiFlow(®) device applies heat to the conjunctival surfaces of the upper and lower inner eyelids while simultaneously applying pulsatile pressure to the outer eyelid surfaces to express the meibomian glands. Patient symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Standard Patient Evaluation for Eye Dryness (SPEED) dry eye questionnaires; tear break-up time was measured with the dry eye test (DET™); and meibomian gland function was evaluated using a standardized diagnostic expression technique. Data are presented for patient's pre-treatment (baseline) and at 1-month and 9-month post-treatment. Meibomian gland secretion scores improved significantly from baseline (4.4 ± 4.0) to 1-month post-treatment (11.3 ± 6.2; p dry eye disease, the LipiFlow(®) Thermal Pulsation System offers a technological advancement for the treatment of dry eye disease secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction. A single 12-minute LipiFlow(®) treatment results in up to 9 months of sustained improvement of meibomian gland function, tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms that are unparalleled with current dry eye treatments.

  1. The function and morphology of Meibomian glands in patients with thyroid eye disease: a preliminary study.

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    Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Ren-Wen; Fang, Po-Chiung; Yu, Hun-Ju; Chien, Chun-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2018-04-12

    To investigate function and morphology of the meibomian gland (MG) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). In this prospective case series study, patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of TED was based on the typical orbital findings and/or radiographic evidence. The disease activity of TED was classified according to the clinical activity score (CAS). Degrees of lagophthalmos and exophthalmos, blinking rates, and results of the Schirmer test 1 were also recorded. All patients completed the SPEED questionnaire and underwent MG assessment, including lipid layer thickness (LLT), MG dropout (MGd), and MG expression. In total 31 eyes from 17 patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were included. Patients were divided into inactive TED (CAS 0-1; 20 eyes from 11 patients) and active TED (CAS 2-3, 11 eyes from 6 patients) groups. MGd was significantly more severe in the active TED than the inactive TED group [Median (Inter-quartile region): 3.0 (2.0-3.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-2.0) degree, P = 0.04]. However, patients with active TED had thicker LLT than those with inactive TED (90.0 [80.0-100.0] vs. 65.0 [47.8-82.5] nm, P = 0.02), and LLT was positively correlated with lagophthalmos (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Patients with active TED had more severe MGd, but thicker LLT. Active TED may cause periglandular inflammation of MGs, leading to MGd, but compensatory secretion from residual MGs and lagophthalmos-induced forceful blinking might temporarily release more lipids over the tear film.

  2. Meibomian gland dysfunction and ocular discomfort in video display terminal workers.

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    Fenga, C; Aragona, P; Cacciola, A; Spinella, R; Di Nola, C; Ferreri, F; Rania, L

    2008-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common ocular disorders encountered in clinical practice. The clinical manifestations of MGD are related to the changes in the tear film and ocular surface with symptoms of ocular discomfort. In recent years, many surveys have evaluated symptoms associated with the use of Video Display Terminals (VDT), and VDT use is recognized as a risk factor for eye discomfort. The aim of the present study was to determine if the presence of MGD contributes to the signs and symptoms of ocular discomfort during the use of VDT. In course of a routine health surveillance programme, a group of 70 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria and responded to a questionnaire about symptoms of ocular discomfort. The following ocular tests were performed: tear break-up time, fluorescein corneal stain, and basal tear secretion test. A total of 52 subjects out of 70 (74.3%) had MGD. A statistically significant correlation between the symptoms of ocular discomfort and hours spent on VDT work was observed in the total population (r=0.358; P=0.002; 95% CI 0.13-0.54) and in the group of subjects with MGD (r=0.365; P=0.009; 95% CI 0.103-0.58). Such correlation was not shown in subjects without MGD. The high prevalence of MGD among the subjects with symptoms of ocular discomfort suggests that this diagnosis should be considered when occupational health practitioners encounter ocular complaints among VDT operators. It appears that MGD can contribute to the development of ocular discomfort in VDT operators.

  3. Relationships Between Meibomian Gland Loss and Age, Sex, and Dry Eye.

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    Pult, Heiko

    2018-02-12

    This study evaluated relationships between meibomian gland loss (MGL) and age, sex, and dry eye. Dry eye and MGL of the lower eyelid was evaluated from 112 randomly selected subjects (66 women; mean age 62.8; SD ±15.7; and age range: 19-89 years) from Horst Riede GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. In addition, subjects were grouped into dry eye and non-dry eye by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, lid-parallel conjunctival folds and non-invasive break-up time. Symptoms were evaluated by the OSDI. Meibography of the lower eyelid was performed using a Cobra camera (bon Optic, Lübeck, Germany), and images were analyzed by its digital grading tool. Data were analyzed by backward, multiple regression analyses and Pearson correlation. Analyzing all subjects, multiple regression analyses detected that age and dry eye status (dry eye diagnosis or OSDI) but not sex were significantly related to MGL. In both, non-dry eye (n=66) and dry eye subjects (n=46), dry eye status (OSDI) but not age or sex was significantly related to MGL. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were significantly correlated with MGL, but this correlation was stronger among all subjects (Pearson correlation; r=0.536, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.520, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.275, P=0.014). Dry eye group subjects showed significantly increased MGL of the lower eyelid. Age and dry eye status were related to MGL of the lower eyelid, but sex was not; dry eye status was the dominant factor.

  4. NADPH-diaphorase expression in the Meibomian glands of rat palpebra in postnatal development

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    D. Kluchova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aimed at investigating the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS positive nerve fibers in rat meibomian glands (MGs at various stages of development. There is good evidence to suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d is a surrogate for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Sections of the central, upper eyelids of Wistar rats were processed histochemically for NADPH-d to investigate the presence and distribution of NOS-positive nerve fibers at the following time points: day 1 and weeks 1, 2 and 3 post partum, and in adult controls. At day 1, MG acini were lightly stained and located at a distance from the mucosal border. Vessels were accompanied by intensely stained NADPH-d positive nerve fibers. At the week 1 time point, both the vessels and the NADPH-d positive fibers were still present, but less numerous. MGs were now closer to the mucosa, so that the submucosa was thinner. The acini were mostly pale but occasionally darker. At week 3, there were fewer blood vessels in both the submucosa and within the septa. Darker acini were more common than lightly stained acini. NADPH-d positive dots were observed in the vicinity of the MGs. At the week 3 time point, MGs were adjacent to the mucosal border and stained more intensely than at earlier times; almost all acini were stained. The microscopic appearances were almost identical with those of adult palpebra. Submucosal and septal blood vessels and NADPH-d positive nerve fibers were less numerous. NADPH-d histochemical staining confirmed differences in the density of stained nerve fibers at different developmental stages. The greatest density of NADPH-d -positive nerve fibers occurred in 1-day-old rats whereas they were less numerous in adult rat eyelids. Nerves innervating MGs utilize nitric oxide (NO as a neurotransmitter mostly in early developmental stages and this need thereafter decreases and stabilizes at 3 weeks postnatally.

  5. Topical azithromycin and oral doxycycline therapy of meibomian gland dysfunction: a comparative clinical and spectroscopic pilot study.

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    Foulks, Gary N; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta; Kakar, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common clinical problem that is often associated with evaporative dry eye disease. Alterations of the lipids of the meibomian glands have been identified in several studies of MGD. This prospective, observational, open-label clinical trial documents the improvement in both clinical signs and symptoms of disease as well as spectroscopic characteristics of the meibomian gland lipids after therapy with topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution and oral doxycycline treatment. Subjects with symptomatic MGD were recruited. Signs of MGD were evaluated with a slit lamp. Symptoms of MGD were measured by the response of subjects to a questionnaire. Meibum lipid-lipid interaction strength, conformation, and phase transition parameters, and meibum protein content were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Terpenoids, short-chain CH3 moieties, lipid oxidation, wax, cholesterylesters and glycerides were measured with a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectrometer. Topical therapy with azithromycin and oral therapy with doxycycline relieved signs and symptoms and restored the lipid properties of the meibomian gland secretion toward normal. Compared with 4 weeks of azithromycin treatment reported in our previous study, oral doxycycline treatment was slightly less effective in improving foreign body sensation and the signs of plugging and secretion. In subjects with clinical evidence of MGD, changes in ordering of the lipids and phase transition temperature were brought closer to normal with azithromycin treatment than doxycycline treatment. Treatment with doxycycline but not azithromycin restored the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-principal component analysis scores and relative area of the H-NMR resonance at 1.26 ppm. Both doxycycline and azithromycin treatment restored the levels of the relative areas of the H-NMR resonance at 5.2 and 7.9 ppm to normal levels. The levels

  6. Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Intense Pulsed Light in the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

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    Xiaodan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims to explore the safety and efficacy of a novel treatment-intense pulsed light (IPL in MGD eyes. Methods. This study is a prospective and open label study. Forty eyes of 40 MGD patients were recruited in the study and received 4 consecutive IPL treatments on day 1, day 15, day 45, and day 75. Ten ocular surface symptoms were evaluated with a subjective face score at every visit. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, conjunctival injection, upper and lower tear meniscus height (TMH, tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal staining, lid margin and meibomian gland assessments, and meibography were also recorded at every visit, as well as the adverse effects on the eye and ocular surface. Results. Significant improvements were observed in single and total ocular surface symptom scores, TBUT, and conjunctival injection at all the visits after the initial IPL treatment (P<0.05. Compared to baseline, the signs of eyelid margin, meibomian gland secretion quality, and expressibility were significantly improved at every visit after treatments. There was no regional and systemic threat observed in any patient. Conclusion. Intense pulsed light (IPL therapy is a safe and efficient treatment in relieving symptoms and signs of MGD eyes.

  7. Impact of duration of contact lens wear on the structure and function of the meibomian glands.

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    Alghamdi, Waleed M; Markoulli, Maria; Holden, Brien A; Papas, Eric B

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of the duration of contact lens (CL) wear on the meibomian glands (MGs), eyelid and tear film. This was a cross-sectional study of CL wearers and non-wearers (NWs) aged between 18 and 35 years. The sample comprised of: (i) Three groups of CL wearers of different duration profiles (short, moderate and long experience of CL wear); (ii) a group of previous CL wearers (PWs) who had ceased wear for at least 6 months prior to the present study; (iii) healthy non-wearers as a control group. Study procedures were conducted in the order from least invasive to most invasive as follows: symptom assessment, lipid assessment, non-invasive break-up time, tear meniscus area, tear osmolarity and evaporation, Phenol red thread, MG expressibility, ocular surface and eyelid assessments, meibography, Marx line and lid wiper assessment using lissamine green. For statistical comparison of continuous data, one-way analysis of variance was used with Bonferroni post-hoc correction, where appropriate. Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson Chi-Square respectively were used for ordinal and categorical variables. A total of 100 participants (49 males and 51 females; mean age ± SD: 25.4 ± 4.1) were enrolled across the five groups, such that each was composed of 20 age/sex matched individuals. Significant differences between the study groups were found for MG expressibility (p < 0.001), number of plugged orifices (p = 0.001), number of expressed orifices (p < 0.001), MG dropout (p = 0.001), Marx line score (p < 0.001), palpebral redness (p = 0.003), and roughness (p = 0.002), non-invasive break-up time (p < 0.001), Phenol red thread (p = 0.005), and tear meniscus area (p = 0.029). For all these variables, the NW group was statistically different from all other groups. Duration of wear was not a significant factor, except for Marx line score which was different in PWs compared to those with longer experience of CL wear (p = 0.03) CONCLUSION: Alterations to MG morphology and

  8. Intense pulsed light treatment for dry eye disease due to meibomian gland dysfunction; a 3-year retrospective study.

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    Toyos, Rolando; McGill, William; Briscoe, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical benefits of intense-pulsed-light therapy for the treatment of dry-eye disease caused by meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye disease. It is currently treated with a range of methods that have been shown to be only somewhat effective, leading to the need for advanced treatment options. A retrospective noncomparative interventional case series was conducted with 91 patients presenting with severe dry eye syndrome. Treatment included intense-pulsed-light therapy and gland expression at a single outpatient clinic over a 30-month study. Pre/post tear breakup time data were available for a subset of 78 patients. For all patients, a specially developed technique for the treatment of dry eye syndrome was applied as a series of monthly treatments until there was adequate improvement in dry eye syndrome symptoms by physician judgment, or until patient discontinuation. Primary outcomes included change in tear breakup time, self-reported patient satisfaction, and adverse events. Physician-judged improvement in dry eye tear breakup time was found for 68 of 78 patients (87%) with seven treatment visits and four maintenance visits on average (medians), and 93% of patients reported post-treatment satisfaction with degree of dry eye syndrome symptoms. Adverse events, most typically redness or swelling, were found for 13% of patients. No serious adverse events were found. Although preliminary, study results of intense-pulsed-light therapy treatment for dry eye syndrome caused by meibomian gland dysfunction are promising. A multisite clinical trial with a larger sample, treatment comparison groups, and randomized controlled trials is currently underway.

  9. Analysis of Cytokine Levels in Tears and Clinical Correlations After Intense Pulsed Light Treating Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

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    Liu, Ruixing; Rong, Bei; Tu, Ping; Tang, Yun; Song, Wenjing; Toyos, Rolando; Toyos, Melissa; Yan, Xiaoming

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the change from baseline of inflammatory markers in tears of dry eye disease (DED) subjects owing to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) after intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment and meibomian gland expression (MGE) compared to sham treatment, and the correlations with ocular surface parameters. Randomized, double-masked, controlled study. Those randomized into the active treatment arm received 3 consecutive treatments (14∼16 J/cm 2 ) approximately 4 weeks apart in the periocular region. Control eyes received 3 treatments in the same intervals of 0 J/cm 2 . Tear samples in all eyes were collected and analyzed at baseline, week 12, and/or week 4 for interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The correlations between cytokines and ocular surface parameters were analyzed before and after IPL treatment. All of the inflammatory markers declined in value compared to baselines. IL-17A and IL-6 showed statistically significant decreases compared to sham treatment at each measured time point. PGE2 showed statistically significant decreases compared to sham at week 12. Results showed that the expressions of IL-17A and IL-6 correlated well with ocular surface parameters of the lower eyelid before IPL. The changed values of IL-6 and PGE2 in tears correlated with the changed values of partial ocular surface parameters after IPL treatment in study eyes, respectively. The study results suggest that IPL can significantly reduce inflammatory markers in tears of patients suffering with DED owing to MGD after IPL treatment. These findings indicate that IL-17A and IL-6 play roles in the pathogenesis of DED owing to MGD, and the reduction of the inflammatory factors is consistent with the improvement of partial clinical symptoms and signs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

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    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1 −/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1 −/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1 −/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1 −/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1 −/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  11. The effects of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop application on meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations in the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) knockout mice.

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    Ikeda, Keisuke; Simsek, Cem; Kojima, Takashi; Higa, Kazunari; Kawashima, Motoko; Dogru, Murat; Shimizu, Takahiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drops on meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1 -/- ) mice in comparison to the wild-type mouse. Three percent diquafosol sodium eye drop was instilled to 20 eyes of 10 50-week-old male Sod1 -/- mice and 22 eyes of 11 C57BL/6 strain 50-week-old wild-type (WT) male mice six times a day for 2 weeks. Aqueous tear secretion quantity was measured with phenol red-impregnated cotton threads without anesthesia. Tear film stability and corneal epithelial damage were assessed by fluorescein and lissamine green staining. We also performed oil red O (ORO) lipid staining to evaluate the lipid changes in the meibomian glands. Meibomian gland specimens underwent hematoxylin and eosin staining to examine histopathological changes and meibomian gland acinar unit density after sacrifice. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed using cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, and transglutaminase-1 antibodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, and transglutaminase-1 mRNA expression was also performed. The aqueous tear quantity, the mean tear film breakup time, and the number of lipid droplets significantly improved in the Sod1 -/- mice with treatment. The mean meibomian acinar unit density did not change in the Sod1 -/- mice and WT mice after treatment. Application of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop significantly decreased the corneal fluorescein and lissamine green staining scores in the Sod1 -/- mice after 2 weeks. We showed a notable increase in cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13 immunohistochemistry staining, and cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13 mRNA expressions with a marked decrease in immunohistochemistry staining and significant decline in mRNA expression of transglutaminase-1 after 3% diquafosol sodium treatment. Topical application of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drop improved the number of lipid droplets, tear stability

  12. Evaluation of the Adhesive Properties of the Cornea by Means of Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Lacrimal Tear Deficiency

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    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Galantuomo, Maria Silvana; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine the influence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and aqueous tear deficiency dry eye (ADDE) on the adhesive properties of the central cornea by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to investigate the relationship between corneal adhesiveness and classical tear tests, as well as the reliability of results, in these lacrimal functional unit disorders. Design Prospective, case-control study. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MGD and 27 patients w...

  13. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

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    Oleñik A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Oleñik,1 Ignacio Jiménez-Alfaro,1 Nicolás Alejandre-Alba,1 Ignacio Mahillo-Fernández2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Statistics, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain Background: Dysfunction of the meibomian gland (MG is among the most frequent causes of ophthalmological symptoms. The inflammation seen in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is part of its pathogenesis, and evidence of the antioxidant-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids suggests this to be an appropriate treatment for MGD. Objective: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids versus placebo, in improving the symptoms and signs of MGD. Methods: We conducted a randomized and double-mask trial of 3 months duration. We enrolled 61 patients who presented with symptomatic MGD and no tear instability (defined as tear breakup time [TBUT] <10 seconds. Participants were randomly assigned to two homogeneous subgroups. For patients in group A, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus a placebo oral agent. For patients in group B, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. We performed the following tests: (1 TBUT; (2 Schirmer I test; (3 Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; (4 MG expression; (5 evaluation of lid margin inflammation; and (6 interpalpebral and corneal dye staining. Results: After 3 months of evaluation, the mean OSDI, TBUT, lid margin inflammation, and MG expression presented improvement from the baseline values, in group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively. The Schirmer test results were also improved and statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Oral omega-3 fatty acids, 1.5 grams per

  14. Changes in the evaporation rate of tear film after digital expression of meibomian glands in patients with and without dry eye.

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    Arciniega, Juan Carlos; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga Cristina; Mohamed, Engy Mostafa; McCulley, James Parker

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of excess meibum on tear evaporation rate in patients with and without dry eye. Eleven healthy subjects and 16 patients with dry eye were tested. The dry eye group was divided into 2 subgroups: classic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) with clear and easily expressed meibum and KCS with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) with turbid secretions and difficult-to-express meibum. Evaporative measurements were performed at baseline and after digital expression of meibomian glands at 12, 24, 36, and 48 minutes. Two ranges of relative humidity were used, 25% to 35% and 35% to 45%. The data were expressed as microliters per square centimeter per minute. An increase in the evaporation rate of the tear film was noted for all measurements at both relative humidities in the classic KCS and KCS with MGD groups compared with healthy subjects (P evaporation rates at relative humidities of 25% to 35% and 35% to 45% were 0.056 ± 0.016 and 0.040 ± 0.008 for the classic KCS group; 0.055 ± 0.026 and 0.037 ± 0.019 for the KCS with MGD group and 0.033 ± 0.012 and 0.023 ± 0.008 for the healthy group. Also, a decrease in the evaporation rate was observed in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups between baseline and the first measurement after digital expression for both relative humidities (P evaporation rates compared with the healthy group. Aqueous tear evaporation diminished in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups after expression of meibomian glands. However, this effect was transient and negligible after the second measurement.

  15. Long-Term (3 Year) Effects of a Single Thermal Pulsation System Treatment on Meibomian Gland Function and Dry Eye Symptoms.

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    Greiner, Jack V

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the long-term (3 years) effects of a single (12 min) thermal pulsation system (TPS) treatment on symptomatic patients with evaporative dry eye disease (DED) secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). In this prospective, cohort, observational, single-center study design, signs (meibomian gland secretion [MGS] scores and tear film breakup time [TBUT]) and symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness [SPEED] questionnaires) were determined in 20 patients (40 eyes) with MGD and dry eye symptoms at baseline (BL), 1 month, and 3 years post-TPS treatment using LipiFlow. Meibomian gland secretion scores increased from BL (4.5±0.8) to 1 month (12.0±1.1, P≤0.001). Improvement persisted at 3 years (18.4±1.4) relative to BL (P≤0.001). Meibomian gland secretion scores in all regions of the lower eyelid were improved over BL at 1 month (nasal [P≤0.001], central [P≤0.001], temporal [P≤0.01]) and 3 years (nasal [P≤0.001], central [P≤0.001], temporal [P≤0.001]). TBUT increased from BL (4.1±0.4) to 1 month (7.9±1.4, P≤0.05) but was not significantly different than BL at 3 years (4.5±0.6, P>0.05). The OSDI scores decreased from BL (26.0±4.6) to 1 month (14.7±4.3, P≤0.001) but returned to BL levels at 3 years (22.5±5.4, P>0.05). The SPEED scores decreased from BL (13.4±1.0) to 1 month (6.5±1.3, P≤0.001), and this improvement persisted at 3 years (9.5±1.6, P≤0.001). Thermal pulsation may be a uniquely efficacious treatment option for DED secondary to MGD in that a single 12-min procedure is associated with significant improvement in MGS and SPEED scores for up to 3 years.

  16. Does endogenous serum oestrogen play a role in meibomian gland dysfunction in postmenopausal women with dry eye?

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    Golebiowski, Blanka; Badarudin, Noor; Eden, John; You, Jingjing; Hampel, Ulrike; Stapleton, Fiona

    2017-02-01

    To explore the relationship between serum concentration of sex hormones and dry eye symptoms and signs in postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken. Subjects were 46 postmenopausal women with dry eye (mean age 64.4±5.2 years, 13.7±6.4 years since menopause; not undergoing hormone replacement therapy). Ocular symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Ocular Comfort Index (OCI)), tear function (tear osmolarity, non-invasive tear break-up time, tear secretion), corneal and conjunctival staining, and meibomian gland (MG) appearance, were recorded. Venous blood was collected and serum concentrations of 17β-oestradiol (E2), 3-α-androstanediol-glucuronide (3α-diol-G), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were determined using ELISA. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine predictors of dry eye symptoms and signs. Mean serum concentration of E2, 3α-diol-G and DHEA-S was 9.02±13.40 pg/mL, 1.59±1.02 ng/mL and 0.74±0.53 μg/mL, respectively. Ocular symptoms were elevated (mean scores 27.0±18.1 (OSDI) and 40.3±8.4 (OCI)) but signs were within normal ranges. Higher serum E2 concentration along with capped glands, lid telangiectasia and older age was a significant predictor of worse MG secretion quality (p0.05). Serum oestrogen appears to be a key factor in MG signs. Although serum hormone levels did not contribute significantly to dry eye symptoms in this study, it is possible that oestrogen plays a role through its effect on meibum secretion. These findings suggest that MG dysfunction underpins dry eye symptoms in non-Sjögren's dry eye in postmenopausal women. ACTRN12612000281897. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Meibomian gland dysfunction patients with novel Sjögren’s syndrome biomarkers benefit significantly from a single vectored thermal pulsation procedure: a retrospective analysis

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    Epitropoulos AT

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alice T Epitropoulos,1,2 Krysta Goslin,2 Raman Bedi,3 Caroline A Blackie4 1Ophthalmic Surgeons and Consultants of Ohio, The Eye Center of Columbus, 2The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Iris Advanced Eye Centre, Chandigarh, India; 4TearScience Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA Purpose: To measure the effects from a single vectored thermal pulsation treatment of the meibomian glands on dry eye signs and symptoms in patients who tested positively versus negatively for novel Sjögren’s syndrome (SS biomarkers. Methods: The retrospective study included the deidentified data of 102 eyes of 59 patients with dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD, who were also tested for novel biomarkers for SS and underwent a single 12-minute LipiFlow thermal pulsation procedure. All patients were already being treated with individualized dry eye therapy but remained symptomatic. Meibomian gland secretion (MGS scores, Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED questionnaire scores and tear breakup times (TBUTs before and 8 weeks after thermal pulsation treatment were analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients tested positive for novel biomarkers of SS and 36 patients tested negative. At baseline, MGS, SPEED and TBUT of both SS-positive and SS-negative patients were equivalent. At 8 weeks’ post-treatment, mean MGS score, SPEED and TBUT were 13.0±7.8, 12.5±6.8 and 9.6±4.6, respectively, in SS-positive patients and 15.9±7.9, 10.0±6.3 and 8.3±4.6, respectively, in SS-negative patients (P<0.001. While the post-treatment MGS was significantly better in SS-negative patients than SS-positive (P=0.021, no significant difference between post-treatment SPEED and TBUT was observed between the two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: LipiFlow treatment in MGD patients who were SS-positive for novel biomarkers of SS demonstrated improvement in signs and symptoms of dry eye. While improvement in MGS scores in SS

  18. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study

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    Asuka Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods. Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results. In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions. Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  19. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Asuka; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Miki, Emiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Toda, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL) for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods . Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results . In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions . Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  20. Comparison of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure with a 3-month course of daily oral doxycycline for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen KB

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kerry B Hagen,1 Raman Bedi,2 Caroline A Blackie,3 Kellie J Christenson-Akagi1 1EyeHealth Northwest, Portland, OR, USA; 2Iris Advanced Eye Centre, Chandigarh, India; 3TearScience, Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single bilateral 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP procedure versus daily oral doxycycline for 3 months for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD.Methods: This prospective, randomized, parallel-group, single-masked study included 28 subjects who received either a single-dose VTP or 3 months of doxycycline treatment. At baseline and 3 months post treatment, all subjects were evaluated for the following: dry eye symptoms with a standard dry eye questionnaire (the Standard Patient Evaluation for Eye Dryness [SPEED], meibomian gland (MG function by counting the number of glands yielding liquid secretion with the MG evaluator (MGE, tear breakup time (TBUT and corneal and conjunctival staining.Results: In the VTP group, at 3 months, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.00±1.47 to 7.73±5.53, SPEED score (11.00±3.30 to 5.42±2.15, TBUT (6.26±2.01 to 8.44±1.81, corneal staining (0.38±0.50 to 0.12±0.33 and conjunctival staining (1.69±1.93 to 0.62±0.85. In the doxycycline group, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.63±1.41 to 10.63±5.91, SPEED score (13.42±4.17 to 9.42±5.47 and conjunctival staining (2.38±1.88 to 1.13±1.51, but the improvement in TBUT (6.90±2.56 to 7.59±2.03 and corneal staining (0.21±0.41 to 0.13±0.34 was not statistically significant (p=0.262 and p=0.414, respectively. At 3 months, SPEED score was significantly better in the VTP group (p<0.05; other parameters were comparable between the two groups.Conclusion: A single 12-minute bilateral VTP procedure was significantly more effective than the 3-month daily course of oral doxycycline at improving the dry eye symptoms secondary to MGD. A single

  1. Comparison of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure with a 3-month course of daily oral doxycycline for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Kerry B; Bedi, Raman; Blackie, Caroline A; Christenson-Akagi, Kellie J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single bilateral 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) procedure versus daily oral doxycycline for 3 months for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). This prospective, randomized, parallel-group, single-masked study included 28 subjects who received either a single-dose VTP or 3 months of doxycycline treatment. At baseline and 3 months post treatment, all subjects were evaluated for the following: dry eye symptoms with a standard dry eye questionnaire (the Standard Patient Evaluation for Eye Dryness [SPEED]), meibomian gland (MG) function by counting the number of glands yielding liquid secretion with the MG evaluator (MGE), tear breakup time (TBUT) and corneal and conjunctival staining. In the VTP group, at 3 months, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.00±1.47 to 7.73±5.53), SPEED score (11.00±3.30 to 5.42±2.15), TBUT (6.26±2.01 to 8.44±1.81), corneal staining (0.38±0.50 to 0.12±0.33) and conjunctival staining (1.69±1.93 to 0.62±0.85). In the doxycycline group, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.63±1.41 to 10.63±5.91), SPEED score (13.42±4.17 to 9.42±5.47) and conjunctival staining (2.38±1.88 to 1.13±1.51), but the improvement in TBUT (6.90±2.56 to 7.59±2.03) and corneal staining (0.21±0.41 to 0.13±0.34) was not statistically significant ( p =0.262 and p =0.414, respectively). At 3 months, SPEED score was significantly better in the VTP group ( p oral doxycycline at improving the dry eye symptoms secondary to MGD. A single 12-minute VTP treatment was at least as effective as a dose of doxycycline for 3 months, in improving MG function and all measured signs of MGD. Given the minimal risk profile of the single VTP procedure over long-term doxycycline use, a single VTP presents a favorable alternative to long-term antibiotic use.

  2. Automated Measurement of Tear Film Dynamics and Lipid Layer Thickness for Assessment of Non-Sjögren Dry Eye Syndrome With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yong Woo; Lee, Jeihoon; Lee, Hun; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-02-01

    To investigate automated values from an advanced corneal topographer with a built-in real keratometer, color camera, and ocular surface interferometer for the evaluation of non-Sjögren dry eye syndrome (NSDES) with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Sixty-four patients (64 eyes) diagnosed with NSDES with MGD were enrolled. All eyes were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), fluorescence staining score, tear film breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test, and MGD grade. Noninvasive Keratograph average tear film breakup time (NIKBUTav), tear meniscus height (TMHk), meibomian gland (MG) dropout grade, and lipid layer thickness (LLT) using interferometry were measured. Among automated indexes, NIKBUTav (mean 7.68 ± 4.07 s) and the MG dropout grade (mean 1.0 ± 0.5) significantly correlated with the OSDI (mean 40.6 ± 22.9) (r = -0.337, P = 0.006; and r = 0.201, P = 0.023, respectively), as did all conventional indicators, except the Schirmer score (mean 9.1 ± 5.9 mm). TMHk (mean 0.21 ± 0.18 mm) had significant correlation with the Schirmer score, the staining score (mean 1.2 ± 0.7), TBUT (mean 3.8 ± 1.8 s), and NIKBUTav (r = 0.298, P = 0.007; r = -0.268, P = 0.016; r = 0.459, P < 0.001; and r = 0.439, P < 0.001, respectively), but not any MGD indicator, even the MG dropout grade. NIKBUTav showed significant correlations with all clinical parameters and other automated values, except the Schirmer score and LLT (mean 83.94 ± 20.82 nm) (all (Equation is included in full-text article.)≥ 0.25 and P < 0.01). The MG dropout grade highly correlated with all indexes except TMHk (all (Equation is included in full-text article.)≥ 0.25 and P < 0.05). LLT was significantly associated with TBUT, MGD grade (mean 2.0 ± 0.7), and MG dropout grade (r = 0.219, P = 0.047; r = -0.221, P = 0.039; and r = 0.433, P < 0.001, respectively), although it was not related to patient symptoms. Automated noninvasive measurements using an advanced corneal topographer and LLT

  3. Evaluation of the adhesive properties of the cornea by means of optical coherence tomography in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and lacrimal tear deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Galantuomo, Maria Silvana; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and aqueous tear deficiency dry eye (ADDE) on the adhesive properties of the central cornea by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to investigate the relationship between corneal adhesiveness and classical tear tests, as well as the reliability of results, in these lacrimal functional unit disorders. Prospective, case-control study. Twenty-eight patients with MGD and 27 patients with ADDE were studied. A group of 32 healthy subjects of similar age and gender distribution served as a control group. The adhesive properties of the anterior corneal surface were measured by OCT, based on the retention time of adhesion marker above it, in all participants. An excellent (≥5 minutes), borderline (within 3-5 minutes), fair (within 1-3 minutes) and poor (<1 minute) values of corneal adhesiveness were found, respectively, in 0%, 7.1%, 64.3% and 28.6% of MGD, in 0%, 7.4%, 63% and 29.6% of ADDE, and in 31.3%, 65.6%, 3.1% and 0% of healthy patients. The differences in time of corneal adhesiveness between MGD and healthy patients, as well as between ADDE and healthy patients, were found to be statistically significant (p<0.001; p<0.001; respectively). Conversely, no statistical significant differences between MGD and ADDE were found (p = 0.952). Data analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between corneal adhesiveness and clinical tests of dry eye, as well as an excellent degree of inter-rater reliability and reproducibility for OCT measurements (p<0.001). ADDE and MGD share similar abnormalities on OCT imaging. Decreased adhesive properties of the anterior cornea were identified as a common feature of MGD and ADDE. This simple OCT approach may provide new clues into the mechanism and evaluation of dry eye syndrome.

  4. Evaluation of the adhesive properties of the cornea by means of optical coherence tomography in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and lacrimal tear deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Emanuele Napoli

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the influence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD and aqueous tear deficiency dry eye (ADDE on the adhesive properties of the central cornea by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT, and to investigate the relationship between corneal adhesiveness and classical tear tests, as well as the reliability of results, in these lacrimal functional unit disorders.Prospective, case-control study.Twenty-eight patients with MGD and 27 patients with ADDE were studied. A group of 32 healthy subjects of similar age and gender distribution served as a control group. The adhesive properties of the anterior corneal surface were measured by OCT, based on the retention time of adhesion marker above it, in all participants.An excellent (≥5 minutes, borderline (within 3-5 minutes, fair (within 1-3 minutes and poor (<1 minute values of corneal adhesiveness were found, respectively, in 0%, 7.1%, 64.3% and 28.6% of MGD, in 0%, 7.4%, 63% and 29.6% of ADDE, and in 31.3%, 65.6%, 3.1% and 0% of healthy patients. The differences in time of corneal adhesiveness between MGD and healthy patients, as well as between ADDE and healthy patients, were found to be statistically significant (p<0.001; p<0.001; respectively. Conversely, no statistical significant differences between MGD and ADDE were found (p = 0.952. Data analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between corneal adhesiveness and clinical tests of dry eye, as well as an excellent degree of inter-rater reliability and reproducibility for OCT measurements (p<0.001.ADDE and MGD share similar abnormalities on OCT imaging. Decreased adhesive properties of the anterior cornea were identified as a common feature of MGD and ADDE. This simple OCT approach may provide new clues into the mechanism and evaluation of dry eye syndrome.

  5. Human eyelid meibomian glands and tarsal muscle are recognized by autoantibodies from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Hashimoto, Takashi; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2010-03-01

    Previously, we described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF). Continuing our characterization of this variant of EPF, we now focus on one of our previously reported clinical findings: the presence of ocular lesions. These ocular lesions are seen in patients having extensive skin involvement, as measured by the Lund and Browder scale, which is generally used for patients with skin burns. We specifically searched for evidence of autoreactivity to various eyelid structures in these patients and correlated our immunologic data with the clinical findings. We performed indirect immunofluorescence studies using normal-appearing human eyelid skin from routine blepharoplasties as substrate tissue. We tested sera from 12 patients with El Bagre-EPF and ocular lesions, 5 patients with sporadic (nonendemic) pemphigus foliaceus, and 20 healthy control subjects (10 from the El Bagre-EPF endemic area and 10 from nonendemic areas). We used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated goat antiserum to human total IgG/IgA/IgM as a secondary antibody. In addition, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated antibodies to human fibrinogen, albumin, IgG, IgE, C1q, and C3, Texas Red (Rockland Immunochemicals, Inc, Gilbertsville, PA), Alexa Fluor 555, or Alexa Fluor 594 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker) was used to determine the cell proliferation rate, and nuclear counterstaining was performed with either 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole or Topro III (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). We observed autoreactivity to multiple eyelid structures, including meibomian glands and tarsal muscle bundles at different levels, and some areas of the epidermis and the dermis close to the isthmus of the eyelids. Tarsal plate autoreactivity was seen in 10 of 12 of the El Bagre-EPF sera and in one control with pemphigus erythematosus. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation using an eyelid sample as a substrate with 1 mmol/L of sodium

  6. on pterygium recurrence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... and any other ocular disease. Complete ocular examination noted the gross features of the pterygia (fleshy (vascularised), intermediate, or atrophic) based on the translucency of the pterygium, presence or absence of calcification, its laterality. (unilateral or bilateral), location (nasal, temporal or kissing), its ...

  7. Treatment of pterygium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    Chemotherapy. Over the years, various chemotherapeutic agents have been used in the treatment of pterygium. All were applied as adjuvant therapy with the .... from other countries thereby adding to the cost of surgery. This is as a result of the present paucity of tissue banks on the continent. The advantages of. AMT over ...

  8. Conjunctival autograft for pterygium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Elizabeth; Muthappan, Valliammai; Wang, Xue; Kuo, Irene C

    2016-01-01

    Background A pterygium is a fleshy, wing-shaped growth from the conjunctiva, crossing over the limbus onto the cornea. Prevalence ranges widely around the world. Evidence suggests that ultraviolet light is a major contributor in the formation of pterygia. Pterygia impair vision, limit eye movements, and can cause eye irritation, foreign body sensation, and dryness. In some susceptible patients, the pterygium can grow over the entire corneal surface, blocking the visual axis. Surgery is the only effective treatment for pterygium, though recurrences are common. With simple excision techniques (that is, excising the pterygium and leaving bare sclera), the risk of recurrence has been reported to be upwards of 80%. Pterygium excision combined with a tissue graft has a lower risk of recurrence. In conjunctival autograft surgery, conjunctival tissue from another part of the person’s eye along with limbal tissue is resected in one piece and used to cover the area from which the pterygium was excised. Another type of tissue graft surgery for pterygium is amniotic membrane graft, whereby a piece of donor amniotic membrane is fixed to the remaining limbus and bare sclera area after the pterygium has been excised. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of conjunctival autograft (with or without adjunctive therapy) compared with amniotic membrane graft (with or without adjunctive therapy) for pterygium. We also planned to determine whether use of MMC yielded better surgical results and to assess the direct and indirect comparative costs of these procedures. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (Issue 10, 2015), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2015), PubMed (1948 to November 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature

  9. The Effect of Pterygium and Pterygium Surgery on Corneal Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Mustafa; Yavrum, Fuat; Uzel, Mehmet Murat; Aydemir, Emre; Özülken, Kemal; Yılmazbaş, Pelin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pterygium and pterygium surgery on corneal biomechanics by ocular response analyzer (ORA, Reichert, USA). This study considered 68 eyes (from 34 patients with a mean age of 21.2±7.1 years) with unilateral nasal, primary pterygium (horizontal length biomechanics. The correlation of the ORA measurements with the pterygium area was evaluated. Mean pterygium horizontal length and area were 3.31±1.43 mm and 6.82±2.17 mm 2 , respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the eyes with and without pterygium in corneal hysteresis (CH, p=0.442), corneal resistance factor (CRF, p=0.554), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOP cc , p=0.906), and Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOP g , p=0.836). All preoperative parameters decreased after surgery; however, none of them were statistically significant (CH, p=0.688; CRF, p=0.197; IOP cc , p=0.503; IOP g , p=0.231). There were no correlations between pterygium area and ORA measurements (p>0.05). Pterygium biomechanics. These results may be taken into account when cornea biomechanics, mainly intraocular pressure measurements, are important.

  10. Induced videokeratography alterations in patients with excessive meibomian secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Kymionis, George D; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Astyrakakis, Nikolaos; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2005-01-01

    To describe lipid-induced specific videokeratographic (VKG) corneal changes and subsequent resolution after eyelid washing. VKG was performed with C-Scan corneal topography. In all patients an excessive meibomian gland lipid secretion was found with or without coexistent chronic posterior blepharitis. After the initial VKG, a meticulous cleaning of the lids with a mild alkali shampoo (10% Johnson's baby shampoo in sterile water) was done, first by gently scrubbing the closed eyelid fissure with the solution to mobilize and emulsify any Meibomian gland secretions followed by cleaning of the upper and lower margins individually, using Q-tip applicators soaked in the detergent. Three patients with tear film lipid layer excess (TFLE), which correlated with the presence of a superior or central corneal steepening in VKG, were studied. In two of the subjects, careful lid washing reversed either completely or partially this VKG effect, whereas in the last patient the VKG changes after artificially increasing the tear film lipid content is described. Meibomian gland lipid secretions may induce mainly superior and occasionally central VKG corneal steepening that is not correlated with any slit-lamp pathologic findings. Computerized corneal topography can help detect such corneal abnormalities, and their reversibility may distinguish them from other pathologic conditions (such as contact lens-induced warpage, eccentric ablations, irregular astigmatism, superior keratoconus).

  11. Inferior limbal conjunctival autografting in primary pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk M Othman

    2015-01-01

    In patients with primary pterygium, conjunctival limbal autografting from the lower bulbar conjunctiva is an effective technique with a low recurrence rate. It can be a suitable treatment for glaucomatous patients with pterygium to leave the upper bulbar conjunctiva untouched.

  12. Spectrum of Features in Pterygium Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Y. Parashar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pterygium syndrome is a complex and rare congenital deformity that consists of contractures involving multiple flexural surfaces and associated craniofacial anomalies. It often has associated conditions, including anomalies of the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. It may present in different forms, including multiple pterygium syndrome of Escobar, lethal multiple pterygium syndrome, popliteal pterygium syndrome, lethal popliteal syndrome (Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. The clinical presentation, multidisciplinary management and the long-term outcome in three patients with this condition are presented.

  13. Surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas J

    2011-03-25

    Human meibomian lipids are the major part of the lipid layer of the tear film. Their surfactant properties enable their spread across the aqueous layer and help maintain a stable tear film. The purpose of this study was to investigate surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids in vitro and to determine effects of different physical conditions such as temperature and increased osmolarity, such as occur in dry eye, on these properties. Human meibomian lipids were spread on an artificial tear solution in a Langmuir trough. The lipid films were compressed and expanded to record the surface pressure-area (Π-A) isocycles. The isocycles were recorded under different physical conditions such as high pressure, increasing concentration and size of divalent cations, increasing osmolarity, and varying temperature. Π-A isocycles of meibomian lipids showed that they form liquid films that are compressible and multilayered. The isocycles were unaffected by increasing concentration or size of divalent cations and increasing osmolarity in the subphase. Temperature had a marked effect on the lipids. Increase in temperature caused lipid films to become fluid, an expected feature, but decrease in temperature unexpectedly caused expansion of lipids and an increase in pressure suggesting enhanced surfactant properties. Human meibomian lipids form highly compressible, non-collapsible, multilayered liquid films. These lipids have surfactants that allow them to spread across an aqueous subphase. Their surfactant properties are unaffected by increasing divalent cations or hyperosmolarity but are sensitive to temperature. Cooling of meibomian lipids enhances their surfactant properties.

  14. Chronic inflammatory cells and damaged limbal cells in pterygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic inflammation in pterygium occurrence has not been explained. Whether damaged limbal basal epithelial cells are associated with pterygium occurrence in black Africans is not clear. Objective: To explain chronic inflammation in pterygium, and to clarify whether damaged limbal basal epithelial cells ...

  15. Determining Factors for Fast Corneal Sensitivity Recovery After Pterygium Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Morán, Gemma; Campos, Pamela; Pujol Vives, Pere; Munguia, Aitana; Mas Aixalà, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish determining factors for fast corneal sensitivity (CS) recovery after pterygium excision. Methods: Thirty-two eyes of 14 males and 18 females with primary nasal pterygium were recruited. Differences in CS (in the 4 quadrants and the center using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer), pterygium corneal area (PCA), tear osmolarity, tear break-up time, Schirmer test, and ocular symptoms were analyzed before and 1 month after lesion excision. The relationship between CS recovery...

  16. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  17. A mathematical approach to human pterygium shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajic B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bojan Pajic,1–4 Iraklis Vastardis,1 Predrag Rajkovic,5 Brigitte Pajic-Eggspuehler,1 Daniel M Aebersold,6 Zeljka Cvejic2 1Eye Clinic ORASIS, Swiss Eye Research Foundation, Reinach AG, Switzerland; 2Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad,3Faculty of Medicine of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defence, Belgrade, Serbia; 4Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 5Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia; 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland Purpose: Pterygium is a common lesion affecting the population in countries with high levels of ultraviolet exposure. The final shape of a pterygium is the result of a growth pattern, which remains poorly understood. This manuscript provides a mathematical analysis as a tool to determine the shape of human pterygia.Materials and methods: Eighteen patients, all affected by nasal unilateral pterygia, were randomly selected from our patient database independently of sex, origin, or race. We included all primary or recurrent pterygia with signs of proliferation, dry eye, and induction of astigmatism. Pseudopterygia were excluded from this study. Pterygia were outlined and analyzed mathematically using a Cartesian coordinate system with two axes (X, Y and five accurate landmarks of the pterygium.Results: In 13 patients (72%, the shape of the pterygia was hyperbolic and in five patients (28%, the shape was rather elliptical.Conclusion: This analysis gives a highly accurate mathematical description of the shape of human pterygia. This might help to better assess the clinical results and outcome of the great variety of therapeutic approaches concerning these lesions. Keywords: etiology, pterygium, limbal stem cells, stem cells dysfunction, mathematical shape analysis

  18. Antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids at the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam

    2014-10-14

    Human meibomian lipids form the outermost lipid layer of the tear film and serve many important functions to maintain its integrity. Although not investigated earlier, these lipids may have antimicrobial properties that help in strengthening the innate host defense of tears at the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. Ocular pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus 31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20, and Serratia marcescens 35, were grown in the presence and absence of human meibomian lipids in an artificial tear solution at the physiological temperature. Viable counts were obtained to note the number of bacteria surviving the treatment with meibomian lipids. Bacterial cells were imaged using scanning electron microscopy to observe the damages caused by meibomian lipids. Viable count results showed that in the presence of meibomian lipids, growth of all bacteria was considerably lower. Scanning electron microscopy showed that meibomian lipids caused extensive cellular damage to bacteria as manifested in smaller size, loss of aggregation, abnormal phenotype, cellular distortion, damaged cell wall, and cell lysis. This is the first-ever report of the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. These lipids possess antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are involved in the innate host defense of tears in protecting the ocular surface against microbial pathogens. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. The Impact of Pterygium Excision on Corneal Astigmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F. A.; Niazi, S. P. K.; Khan, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the corneal astigmatism before and after the excision of pterygium and also to determine the correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Study Design: Cross-sectional interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department, Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad, from May 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Thirty patients underwent pterygium excision. Pre-operatively Snellen visual acuity, manifest refraction and slit lamp examination was done. The size of the pterygium was recorded in mm by projecting a horizontal slit lamp beam from the limbus to the apex. All the pterygium were equal to or greater than 2.5 mm. Keratometry was performed with an automated keratometer. Keratometric data was recorded pre-operatively and at 28 days postoperatively. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparing the pre-operative and the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Spearman's rank order was calculated to observe correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative astigmatism. Results: The median (mean rank) pre-operative astigmatism of 2.25 (15.50) reduced to a median (mean rank) postoperative astigmatism of 1.30 (14.96). This decrease in the postoperative astigmatism was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically non-significant correlation between the postoperative astigmatism and the pterygium size (rs = -0.29, p = 0.12). Conclusion: Pterygium excision caused significant reduction in corneal astigmatism. (author)

  20. Incidence of pterygium in patients admitted to a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Gülden Turgut

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pterygium in a particular district of Istanbul, its association with age, and gender, and the severity of the disease. Methods: All patients aged ≥ 30 years referred to our outpatient clinics between January 2009 and December 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Age, gender, anterior segment photos, and findings of biomicroscopic eye examination were evaluated. Results: The incidence of pterygium for all age groups was 2.91% (male 1.75%, female 3.67% with an increasing incidence with age. A significant difference was detected in its incidence favoring female patients in 40-49, and 70-79, and male patients in ≥ 80 age groups, respectively. In addition, pterygium was seen in one (75.4% or both eyes (24.6% preferring right or left eye in 50.7%, and 49.3% of the patients, respectively. Pterygium was in nasal or temporal region in 98%, and 2% of the patients, respectively. The disease state in 59.9% of the patients was consistent with Stage 2 pterygium. The distance of pterygium from limbus was observed greatest in 60-69, and at a minimum in 40-49 age groups. No relationship was found between eye colour and development of pterygium. Conclusion: The incidence of pterygium increases with age. Incidence of pterygium differs between genders but without any significant difference. Its occurrence in one or both eyes and in right and left eyes was not influenced by gender of the patients. A statistically significant impact of eye colour of the patient on the development of pterygium was not disclosed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 436-442

  1. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gimeno, Ana; Martínez-Costa, Lucía; Ayala, Guillermo

    2012-08-08

    To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  2. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

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    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  3. Multiple pterygium syndrome: Challenge for anesthesiologist

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    P Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by flexion of joint and digit contractures, skin webbing, cleft palate, deformity of the spine, and cervical spine fusion. Difficult airway is associated mainly due to micrognathia, retrognathia, webbing of the neck, and limitation of the mouth opening and neck extension. We are reporting a case of a 5-year-old female diagnosed with MPS and exhibiting a bilateral club foot and congenital vertical talus. The patient was posted for manipulation and above the knee casting under general anesthesia.

  4. Adsorption of human tear lipocalin to human meibomian lipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J; Mudgil, Poonam; Butovich, Igor A; Palaniappan, Chendur K

    2009-01-01

    Tear lipocalin (Tlc) is a major lipid binding protein in tears and is thought to have an important role in stabilizing the Meibomian lipid layer by transferring lipids to it from the aqueous layer or ocular surface, or by adsorbing to it directly. These possible roles have been investigated in vitro using human Tlc. Tlc was purified from human tears by size exclusion chromatography followed by ion exchange chromatography. Three additional samples of the Tlc were prepared by lipidation, delipidation, and relipidation. The lipids extracted from the purified Tlc were analyzed by HPLC-MS followed by fragmentation. Adsorption of these different forms of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film spread on the surface of an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough were observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (Pi-T profile) and monitoring the appearance of the film microscopically. These results were compared with similar experiments using a bovine Meibomian lipid film. The results indicated that Tlc binds slowly to a human Meibomian lipid film compared with lysozyme or lactoferrin, even at 37 degrees C. The adsorption of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film was very different from its adsorption to a bovine Meibomian lipid film, indicating the nature of the lipids in the film is critical to the adsorption process. Similarly, the different forms of Tlc had quite distinct adsorption patterns, as indicated both by changes in Pi-T profiles and the microscopic appearance of the films. It was concluded that human Tlc was capable of adsorbing to and penetrating into a Meibomian lipid layer, but this process is very complex and depends on both the types of lipids bound to Tlc and the lipid complement comprising the Meibomian lipid film.

  5. Adsorption of Human Tear Lipocalin to Human Meibomian Lipid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J.; Mudgil, Poonam; Butovich, Igor A.; Palaniappan, Chendur K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tear lipocalin (Tlc) is a major lipid binding protein in tears and is thought to have an important role in stabilizing the Meibomian lipid layer by transferring lipids to it from the aqueous layer or ocular surface, or by adsorbing to it directly. These possible roles have been investigated in vitro using human Tlc. Methods Tlc was purified from human tears by size exclusion chromatography followed by ion exchange chromatography. Three additional samples of the Tlc were prepared by lipidation, delipidation, and relipidation. The lipids extracted from the purified Tlc were analyzed by HPLC-MS followed by fragmentation. Adsorption of these different forms of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film spread on the surface of an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough were observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (∏-T profile) and monitoring the appearance of the film microscopically. These results were compared with similar experiments using a bovine Meibomian lipid film. Results The results indicated that Tlc binds slowly to a human Meibomian lipid film compared with lysozyme or lactoferrin, even at 37°C. The adsorption of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film was very different from its adsorption to a bovine Meibomian lipid film, indicating the nature of the lipids in the film is critical to the adsorption process. Similarly, the different forms of Tlc had quite distinct adsorption patterns, as indicated both by changes in ∏-T profiles and the microscopic appearance of the films. Conclusions It was concluded that human Tlc was capable of adsorbing to and penetrating into a Meibomian lipid layer, but this process is very complex and depends on both the types of lipids bound to Tlc and the lipid complement comprising the Meibomian lipid film. PMID:18757516

  6. Serratia marcescens endophthalmitis after pterygium surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myeong Yeon; Chung, Jin Kwon; Choi, Kyung Seek

    2017-11-02

    To report a case of Serratia marcescens endophthalmitis after pterygium surgery using the bare sclera technique with mitomycin C (MMC). A 69-year-old male patient underwent pterygium excision surgery using the bare sclera technique and 0.02% MMC. The patient presented with decreased visual acuity and pain from the day after the operation. Trans pars plana vitrectomy was performed and intravitreal antibiotics were administered. Cultures from the aqueous humor and intraocular lens were all positive for S. marcescens, which was sensitive to an empiric antibiotic regimen. The best corrected distant visual acuity, 1 month after treatment, was a finger count/50 cm, but the retinal layer structure and the vasculature were relatively well preserved. This is the first reported case of S. marcescens endophthalmitis after pterygium surgery. Endophthalmitis caused by S. marcescens has a devastating visual prognosis and may show a high clinical risk-benefit ratio for the application of MMC in pterygium surgery.

  7. Sonographic features of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 14 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chan, Gavin Shueng Wai; Lee, Chin Peng; Tang, Mary Hoi Yin

    2005-06-01

    Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare inherited disorder. Previous reports suggest that the diagnosis may be based on prenatal sonographic demonstration of severe limb flexion, absence of fetal motion, and a large cystic hygroma in the second and third trimesters. We present the sonographic features and postmortem features of a fetus with lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation, which shows that the condition can possibly be diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  8. [Pathogenetic relationship between pterygium and dry eye syndrome (clinical and cytological study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraevskiĭ, A V; Trishkin, K S

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in patients with initial primary pterygium for determination of a possible pathogenetic role of dry eye syndrome in the development of pterygium. 30 patients with initial primary pterygium; besides conventional ophthalmic assessment, cytological examination of bulbar conjunctiva was performed in all cases. Signs of dry eye syndrome, of similar severity in both eyes, were found in 100% of patients. Dry eye can be one of the precipitating factors of primary pterygium.

  9. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study.

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    Tyler Hyungtaek Rim

    Full Text Available Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC. The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60-79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period.

  10. [Expression of embryonic markers in pterygium derived mesenchymal cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, G; Montes, M A; Pérez-Rico, C; Pérez-Kohler, B; Bellón, J M; Buján, J

    2010-12-01

    Destruction of the limbal epithelium barrier is the most important mechanism of pterygium formation (conjunctiva proliferation, encroaching onto the cornea). It is thought to arise from activated and proliferating limbal epithelial stem cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presence of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (stem cells) in cultured cells extracted from human pterygium. Cells from 6 human pterygium were isolated by explantation and placed in cultures with amniomax medium. Once the monolayer was reached the cells were seeded onto 24 well microplates. The cells were studied in the second sub-culture. The immunohistochemical expression of different embryonic stem cell markers, OCT3/4 and CD9, was analysed. The differentiated phenotypes were characterised with the monoclonal antibodies anti-CD31, α-actin and vimentin. All the cell populations obtained from pterygium showed vimentin expression. Less than 1% of the cells were positive for CD31 and α-actin markers. The majority of the cell population was positive for OCT3/4 and CD9. The cell population obtained from pterygium expressed mesenchymal cell phenotype and embryonic markers, such us OCT3/4 and CD9. This undifferentiated population could be involved in the large recurrence rate of this type of tissue after surgery. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and severity of pterygium among commercial motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pterygium is common among outdoor workers who are daily exposed to sunlight and dust due to repeated conjunctival /corneal drying and microtrauma especially in the tropics. Commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria are outdoor workers who spend the greater part of the day outdoors under the intense heat and ...

  12. Young patient's age determines pterygium recurrence after surgery.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... and degree of fleshiness, and laterality were compared between recurrent and no recurrent pterygia. ... was performed to determine the predictors of pterygium recurrence. Recurrence rates after surgery were compared between. CAT and LCAT. Results. ... obstruction of vision, disfigurement, or frequent.

  13. Chronic inflammatory cells and damaged limbal cells in pterygium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objective: To explain chronic inflammation in pterygium, and to clarify whether damaged limbal basal epithelial cells were ..... Jiang Y, Goldberg ID, Shi YE. Complex roles of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in cancer. Oncogene 2002; 21: 2245-2252. 6. Kato S, Aoshima H, Saitoh Y, Miwa N. Fullerene-.

  14. Adsorption of lysozyme to phospholipid and meibomian lipid monolayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Torres, Margaux; Millar, Thomas J

    2006-03-15

    It is believed that a lipid layer forms the outer layer of the pre-ocular tear film and this layer helps maintain tear film stability by lowering its surface tension. Proteins of the aqueous layer of the tear film (beneath the lipid layer) may also contribute to reducing surface tension by adsorbing to, or penetrating the lipid layer. The purpose of this study was to compare the penetration of lysozyme, a tear protein, into films of meibomian lipids and phospholipids held at different surface pressures to determine if lysozyme were part of the surface layer of the tear film. Films of meibomian lipids or phospholipids were spread onto the surface of a buffered aqueous subphase. Films were compressed to particular pressures and lysozyme was injected into the subphase. Changes in surface pressure were monitored to determine adsorption or penetration of lysozyme into the surface film. Lysozyme penetrated a meibomian lipid film at all pressures tested (max=20 mN/m). It also penetrated phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine lipid films up to a pressure of 20 mN/m. It was not able to penetrate a phosphatidylcholine film at pressures >or=10 mN/m irrespective of the temperature being at 20 or 37 degrees C. However, it was able to penetrate it at very low pressures (<10 mN/m). Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the protein either adsorbs to or penetrates the lipid layer and the pattern of mixing depended upon the lipid at the surface. These results indicate that lysozyme is present at the surface of the tear film where it contributes to decreasing the surface tension by adsorbing and penetrating the meibomian lipids. Thus it helps to stabilize the tear film.

  15. A STUDY ON CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM IN PTERYGIUM CASES BEFORE AND AFTER SURGERY

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    Kalanchiarani S

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pterygium is a common degenerative condition seen in the Indian subcontinent. One of the indications for pterygium excision is visual impairment due to astigmatism. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the induced astigmatism – a pooling of the tear film at the leading edge of the pterygium, b mechanical traction exerted by the pterygium on cornea. Hence this study was done retrospectively to assess the effect of pterygium excision on the induced astigmatism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Records of patients operated for primary ocular pterygium by pterygium excision with primary conjunctival closure/ conjunctival autograft in the age group 18 - 70 years over a 1-year period were analysed retrospectively. Pre-operative and post-operative follow up records of day 1 and 1 st month were analysed for changes in corneal curvature and astigmatism using the recorded Automated Refractometry and Keratometry readings. RESULTS Out of the 44 cases analysed retrospectively as 2 groups – pterygium excision with primary conjunctival closure and pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft, majority of them were found to be females (70%, and between 40 - 50 years (90%. Most of the pterygium cases were found to be nasal, and commonly in the right eye and also that the amount of astigmatism increased with the grading of pterygium (p<.000. The most common type of astigmatism noted was “with the rule” astigmatism (75%. The percentage of “against the rule” and oblique astigmatism were 9% & 15% respectively. The decrease in the mean astigmatism after surgery was found to be statistically significant. The difference in t value between the preoperative and one-month postoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.5 D (p<.018. Steepening of both horizontal and vertical meridian was found in conjunctival autograft cases, but in simple closure cases steepening was found only in the vertical meridian. CONCLUSION To conclude, pterygium leads to a

  16. Demographics of Patients with Double-headed Pterygium and Surgical Outcomes

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    Fulya Duman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze demographic and ophthalmologic characteristics of patients with double-headed pterygium in the Mediterranean region of Turkey and to evaluate their surgical outcomes. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients who underwent surgery for pterygium in Antalya Atatürk State Hospital between November 2012 and March 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with pterygia on both sides of the cornea (nasal and temporal were included in the study. Patients with less than six months of follow-up were excluded. Age, occupation and smoking status of patients, recurrence of pterygium and any existing complications in records were evaluated. Fibrovascular proliferation more than 0.5 mm over the cornea was accepted as recurrence. Results: Eight (5% of 158 patients who underwent pterygium surgery were diagnosed with double-headed pterygium. Six (75% of the patients were male and two (25% were female. Mean age was 42.63 (26-71 years. It was recorded that all patients had worked under the sun for at least 5 hours a day. No intra-operative or post-operative complications were found. Mean follow-up time after surgery was 12 (6-21 months and no recurrence was detected. Conclusion: Pterygium, especially double-headed pterygium is mostly seen in warm climates and individuals who work outdoors. Dividing the free conjunctival autograft into two and suturing in place of the excised pterygium on both sides of the cornea is a good choice in these patients.

  17. Curcuma longa Is Able to Induce Apoptotic Cell Death of Pterygium-Derived Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancilio, Silvia; Di Staso, Silvio; Sebastiani, Stefano; Centurione, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Nick; Ciancaglini, Marco; Di Pietro, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Pterygium is a relatively common eye disease that can display an aggressive clinical behaviour. To evaluate the in vitro effects of Curcuma longa on human pterygium-derived keratinocytes, specimens of pterygium from 20 patients undergoing pterygium surgical excision were collected. Pterygium explants were put into culture and derived keratinocytes were treated with an alcoholic extract of 1.3% Curcuma longa in 0.001% Benzalkonium Chloride for 3, 6, and 24 h. Cultured cells were examined for CAM5.2 (anti-cytokeratin antibody) and CD140 (anti-fibroblast transmembrane glycoprotein antibody) expression between 3th and 16th passage to assess cell homogeneity. TUNEL technique and Annexin-V/PI staining in flow cytometry were used to detect keratinocyte apoptosis. We showed that Curcuma longa exerts a proapoptotic effect on pterygium-derived keratinocytes already after 3 h treatment. Moreover, after 24 h treatment, Curcuma longa induces a significant increase in TUNEL as well as Annexin-V/PI positive cells in comparison to untreated samples. Our study confirms previous observations highlighting the expression, in pterygium keratinocytes, of nuclear VEGF and gives evidence for the first time to the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic VEGF-R1. All in all, these findings suggest that Curcuma longa could have some therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of human pterygium.

  18. Curcuma longa Is Able to Induce Apoptotic Cell Death of Pterygium-Derived Human Keratinocytes

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    Silvia Sancilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterygium is a relatively common eye disease that can display an aggressive clinical behaviour. To evaluate the in vitro effects of Curcuma longa on human pterygium-derived keratinocytes, specimens of pterygium from 20 patients undergoing pterygium surgical excision were collected. Pterygium explants were put into culture and derived keratinocytes were treated with an alcoholic extract of 1.3% Curcuma longa in 0.001% Benzalkonium Chloride for 3, 6, and 24 h. Cultured cells were examined for CAM5.2 (anti-cytokeratin antibody and CD140 (anti-fibroblast transmembrane glycoprotein antibody expression between 3th and 16th passage to assess cell homogeneity. TUNEL technique and Annexin-V/PI staining in flow cytometry were used to detect keratinocyte apoptosis. We showed that Curcuma longa exerts a proapoptotic effect on pterygium-derived keratinocytes already after 3 h treatment. Moreover, after 24 h treatment, Curcuma longa induces a significant increase in TUNEL as well as Annexin-V/PI positive cells in comparison to untreated samples. Our study confirms previous observations highlighting the expression, in pterygium keratinocytes, of nuclear VEGF and gives evidence for the first time to the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic VEGF-R1. All in all, these findings suggest that Curcuma longa could have some therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of human pterygium.

  19. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and receptor I(P55in pterygium

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    Bing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the expression of tumor necrosis factor- alpha(TNF-αand its receptor I(P55in different pterygium and discuss the role of TNF-α and receptor I(P55in pterygium.METHODS: Immunohistochemistical staining method(PVwas adopted to detect the expression of TNF-α and receptor I in pterygium(72 eyesand para-pterygium conjunctival tissue(30 eyes. The relationship between the expression and clinical-pathological parameters was also analyzed. RESULTS: The positive rates of TNF-α were 65.3%(47/72, 26.7%(8/30in pterygium and para-pterygium conjunctival tissue. The positive expression of TNF-α had statistic difference between the two groups(χ2=12.706, Pχ2=13.875, Pχ2=6.547, P=0.011. There had no statistically significance of the expression intensity between the two groups(F=1.288, P=0.393; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than quiescent pterygium group(χ2=4.082, P=0.043. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.489, P=0.708. The positive rate of P55 in recurrent pterygium group was higher than primary pterygium group(χ2=9.907, P=0.002. There had no statistically significance of the two group's expression intensity(F=1.175, P=0.424; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than in quiescent pterygium group(χ2=11.140, P=0.001. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.665, P=0.621. CONCLUSION:The expression of TNF-α and P55 are changing according to the development of clinical staging and onset. The expression of TNF-α and P55 may be related to clinical classification, staging and patient's working conditions of pterygium. There has no significant difference expression intensity of TNF-α and P55 in clinical staging and onset of pterygium.

  1. The effect of Meibomian lipids and tear proteins on evaporation rate under controlled in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herok, George Henryk; Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas James

    2009-07-01

    The lipid layer of the tear film is associated with preventing evaporative loss. The ability of human Meibomian lipids to reduce evaporation in vitro was tested. Films of human or animal Meibomian lipids or mixtures of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine were spread on the surface of either artificial buffer or on whole tears and placed on a mass balance that was enclosed in a sealed chamber. The temperature was adjusted to 37 degrees C and gas flow was controlled. Increasing the amounts of Meibomian lipids gave a very small reduction in evaporation. It was concluded from these in vitro experiments that prevention of evaporation from the tear film is not due to the Meibomian lipids alone, but is more likely to be due to a complex interaction between components of the aqueous and the Meibomian lipids.

  2. Ethnic Variations in Pterygium in a Rural Population in Southwestern China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Chen, Qin; Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Sheng, Xun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Wei, Tao; Yuan, Yuansheng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and associations of pterygium in a multiethnic adult population in rural China and to examine potential ethnic differences Methods: A total of 6418 adults (2133 ethnic Bai, 2130 ethnic Yi, and 2155 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Anterior segment examination was performed without pupil dilation using a slit lamp. Pterygium was defined as a raised fleshy triangular fibrovascular tissue growth of the conjunctiva encroaching onto a clear cornea. Pterygium was least prevalent among adults of Yi ethnicity (29.5%) compared with Bai (39.0%, p ethnicities. Those of Bai ethnicity were most likely to be affected by severe pterygium (7.5%), while Yi were least likely to be affected (3.8%). Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing age (odds ratio, OR, 1.017), female sex (OR 1.53), lower educational level (OR 1.25), higher blood pressure levels (OR 1.002), and greater time spent outdoors per day (OR 1.09) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of pterygium, while Yi ethnicity (OR 0.65, comparing Yi with Han) and wearing brimmed hats outdoors (OR 0.82) were protective factors. Ethnicity was significantly associated with prevalence of pterygium. Our findings may be applicable to many other countries located within the "pterygium belt" for health resource allocation among different ethnic groups.

  3. Pterygium in Indonesia: prevalence, severity and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, G; Saw, S-M; Farook, M; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Chia, S-E; Hong, C-Y; Tan, D T H

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine prevalence rates, severity, and risk factors for pterygium in adults in provincial Indonesia and to validate a clinical grading scheme in a population based setting. Methods: A population based prevalence survey of 1210 adults aged 21 years and above was conducted in five rural villages and one provincial town in Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area near to the equator. A one stage household cluster sampling procedure was employed: 100 households were randomly selected from each village or town. Pterygia were graded for severity (T1 to T3, by visibility of episcleral vessels) and the basal and apical extent measured by an ophthalmologist (GG) with a hand held slit lamp. Refraction was measured by hand held autorefractor (Retinomax). Face to face household interviews assessed outdoor activity, occupation, and smoking. The participation rate was 96.7%. Results: The mean age was 36.6 years (SD 13.1), 612 were male. The age adjusted prevalence rate of any pterygium was 10.0% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 8.2 to 11.7) and of bilateral pterygia was 4.1% (95% CI 2.9 to 5.3). There was a significant dose-response relation with age (2.9% (95% CI 0.4 to 5.8) for 21–29 years versus 17.3% (95% CI 10.4 to 24.2) 50 years and above; p for trend <0.001) and occupations with more time outdoors (p for trend = 0.02). This was true for both sexes, all grades of lesion (T1 to T3), and bilateral disease. A multivariate logistic regression model showed pterygium was independently related to increasing age and outdoor activity 10 years earlier. The mean basal diameter = 3.3 mm (SD 1.51, range 0.1–9.5) and extent from limbus = 1.4 mm (SD 1.18, range 0.1–8.0). Higher grade pterygia were larger for basal and apical extent (p for trend <0.001). The presence of pterygium was associated with astigmatism (defined as cylinder at least −0.5 dioptres (D); p <0.001). This association increased with increasing grade of lesion (p for trend <0.001). Median cylinder for

  4. The surface activity of purified ocular mucin at the air-liquid interface and interactions with meibomian lipids.

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    Millar, Thomas J; Tragoulias, Sophia T; Anderton, Philip J; Ball, Malcolm S; Miano, Fausto; Dennis, Gary R; Mudgil, Poonam

    2006-01-01

    Ocular mucins are thought to contribute to the stability of the tear film by reducing surface tension. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different mucins and hyaluronic acid (HA) alone and mixed with meibomian lipids on the surface pressure at an air-liquid interface. A Langmuir trough and Wilhelmy balance were used to measure and compare the surface activity of bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM), purified BSM, purified bovine ocular mucin and HA, and mixtures of these with meibomian lipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Their appearance at the surface of an air-buffer interface was examined using epifluorescence microscopy. Purified ocular mucin had no surface activity even at concentrations that were 100 times more than normally occur in tears. By contrast, commercial BSM caused changes to surface pressure that were concentration dependent. The surface pressure-area profiles showed surface activity with maximum surface pressures of 12.3-22.5 mN/m depending on the concentration. Purified BSM showed no surface activity at low concentrations, whereas higher concentrations reached a maximum surface pressure of 25 mN/m. HA showed no surface activity, at low or high concentrations. Epifluorescence showed that the mucins were located at the air-buffer interface and changed the appearance of lipid films. Purified bovine ocular mucin and HA have no surface activity. However, despite having no surface activity in their own right, ocular mucins are likely to be present at the surface of the tear film, where they cause an increase in surface pressure by causing a compression of the lipids (a reorganization of the lipids) and alter the viscoelastic properties at the surface.

  5. Therapeutical evaluation of bevacizumab application in relapsed pterygium

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    Mayara Martins Abrahão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Therapeutic evaluation of Bevacizumab application in relapsed pterygium concerning visual acuity, keratometry, refraction, symptomatology. Methods: Group 1 (4 patients received 0.1 ml of Bevacizumab (avastin, being evaluated posteriorly on the tenth and thirtieth days after the application, seeking to compare with the exam previously made, being it realized with the other two groups, in which Group 2 (4 patients received 0.2 ml of Bevacizumab and the Group 3 (3 patients received 1 ml of the placebo injection. Results: In this study, eleven eyes of eleven patients were evaluated. Among these patients, 7 were women (63.6% and 4 men (36.4%. There was a variation in the cylindrical diopter after the treatment with a dose of 0.1 ml of bevaciumab during the evaluation on the thirtieth day. Whereas the cylindrical shaft had a significantly larger modification after the application of 0.2 ml. Regarding the spherical diopter variation, there were modifications in the 3 groups. The keratometry varied in the 3 groups, mostly after the thirtieth day of evaluation. In relation to symptomatology, it was observed a reduction in the subjective evaluation of the eye burning sensation, the prurience mentioned by the patient and a reduction of the hyperemia biomicroscopy evaluation. Conclusion: In bevacizumab application in the recurrent pterygium treatment, there is modification of the spherical and cylindrical parameters of refraction, besides the changes in keratometry and the reduction of the symptomatology.

  6. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

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    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  7. Combined Conjunctival Autograft and Overlay Amniotic Membrane Transplantation; a Novel Surgical Treatment for Pterygium

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    Siamak Zarei Ghanavati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the long-term results of combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT for treatment of pterygium as a new surgical technique. Nineteen patients including 12 male and 7 female subjects with pterygium (primary, 14 cases; recurrent, 5 cases underwent combined conjunctival autograft and overlay AMT and were followed from 10 to 26 months. Mean age was 44.21±12.49 (range, 29.0-73.0 years. In one patient with grade T3 primary pterygium, the lesion recurred (5.2%, recurrence rate. No intra-and postoperative complication developed. This procedure seems a safe and effective surgical technique for pterygium treatment. Protection of the ocular surface during the early postoperative period reduces the friction-induced inflammation and might be helpful to prevent the recurrence.

  8. Primary Pterygium in a 7-Year-Old Boy: A Report of a Rare Case and Dilemma of its Management

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    Noor, Raja Azmi Mohd

    2003-01-01

    Primary pterygium in children is uncommon but is associated with severe visual problems. Astigmatism is the main visual problem caused by pterygium. Significant amounts of astigmatism occur long before a pterygium encroaches the visual axis. Early surgical intervention is safe and effective. It is associated with significant visual improvement in outcome. This is a case report on seven-year-old Malay boy who presented with a growth over nasal aspect of the right eye of 1 year duration. His ri...

  9. ANALYSIS OF CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM BEFORE AND AFTER PTERYGIUM SURGERY- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN PATIENTS ATTENDING KIMS, HUBLI

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    Y. B. Bajantri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pterygium is a very common degenerative condition seen in Indian subcontinent. It is a wing-shaped fibrovascular encroaching up on the cornea from either sides. The prevalence rate is 5.2%. Pterygium is known to affect refractive astigmatism. The induced astigmatism may become significant to cause visual distortion, even though the pterygium remains distant from visual axis induced astigmatism maybe either “with-the-rule” or “against-the-rule.” The aim of the study is to- 1. Compare preoperative with postoperative astigmatism in case of pterygium. 2. Assess the amount of astigmatism in case of pterygia of different lengths measured from the limbus over the cornea. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 70 eyes of 70 patients with primary pterygium. Preoperative evaluation included pterygium size, visual acuity, keratometry and refraction with subjective correction. Patients included in the study were divided into three groups based on length of pterygium encroaching on cornea (1 to 2 mm, 2 to 3 mm, >3 mm. Each eye underwent bare sclera pterygium excision. Postoperative visual acuity, keratometry and refraction were evaluated on 1st day, at the end of 1st week, 4 th week and 9th week. The pre and postoperative results were compared and analysed. RESULTS An average of all 70 cases with mean pterygium length 3.2 mm had a mean keratometry astigmatism of 1.84 ± 0.89D preoperatively and 0.514 ± 0.52D postoperatively indicating a reduction of pterygium-induced corneal astigmatism by 1.45 ± 0.77D (p value <0.0001, which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION Pterygium-induced corneal astigmatism is directly proportional to the size of the pterygium. Thus, early surgical excision reduces the corneal astigmatism, and hence, improves the visual acuity.

  10. Clinical outcome of combined conjunctival autograft transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation in pterygium surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Tejsu Malla; Jing Jiang; Kai Hu

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To compare long-term outcome of primary and recurrent pterygium surgery with three different techniques: combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (CAT with AMT), conjunctival autograft transplantation (CAT) alone and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) alone. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 142 eyes of 142 pterygium patients (104 primary, 38 recurrent) who underwent CAT (group A), AMT (group B) or CAT with AMT (group C) respectively follo...

  11. Analysis on the relation of pterygium with VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and Survivin

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    Ying Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze and study the relation of pterygium with vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF,stroma cell-derived factor 1(SDF-1,tumor proliferating antigen(Ki-67,proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNAand survivin. METHODS:Seventy-nine patients(106 eyeswith pterygium from January 2013 to May 2015 in our hospital were selected as observation group. Seventy-nine persons with normal conjunctiva during the same period were selected as control group. Then the number of positive cells and staining intensity classification of the two groups for VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and survivin were compared,and the detection results of patients with different gender,stages and types were compared too. Then the relation between pterygium and those indexes were analyzed by the Logistic analysis. RESULTS:The number of positive cells and staining intensity classification of observation group for VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and survivin were all higher than those of control group,and the detection results of patients with different stages and types had certain differences too(all PP>0.05. All those indexes had close relation to pterygium by the Logistic analysis. CONCLUSION:The expression of VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and survivin in tissue of patients with pterygium all show abnormal state,and those indexes all have close relation to pterygium.

  12. Reducing Postoperative Pterygium Recurrence: Comparison of Free Conjunctival Auto-Graft and Conjunctival Rotation Flap Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, W.; Tayyab, A.; Kausar, A.; Masrur, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the recurrence of pterygium between free conjunctival auto-graft and conjunctival rotation flap following simple surgical excision of pterygium. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa Foundation Community Health Clinic, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, from January to November 2012. Methodology: Fifty seven cases aged above 18 years, with a pterygium corneal encroachment of 2 mm which was responsible for visual disability or was cosmetically undesirable were recruited for the study and randomly assigned to conjunctival auto-graft group and conjunctival rotation flap group. Cases with a history of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect, prior pterygium surgery, pterygium with concurrent ocular surface and lid disease, conjunctival inflammation and scarring, pseudo-pterygium or collagen vascular disease were excluded. After simple pterygium excision conjunctival auto-graft group (n=26) cases received a free conjunctival flap was transplanted, while conjunctival rotation flap group (n=31) cases received a conjunctival rotation flap. All cases were followed-up for 6 months after surgery for recurrence and complications. Frequency distribution and significance of association of recurrence using Fisher's exact test and Mann- Whitney U-test was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: The median (and inter-quartile range) age and surgery duration in conjunctival auto-graft group and conjunctival rotation flap group were 60 (51.50 - 63.00) and 57 (45.00 - 60.00) years, 28.50 (27.00 - 30.50) and 16.00 (15.00 - 17.00) minutes respectively. Recurrence was seen in 2 (7.96%) and 3 (9.76%) cases in auto-graft and rotation flap groups respectively. No significant difference was seen in postoperative complications between the two groups (p=0.60). Conclusion: The surgical time for conjunctival rotation flap procedure is less as compared to free auto-graft, while their recurrence and

  13. Aberrant DNA methylation of matrix remodeling and cell adhesion related genes in pterygium.

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    Andri K Riau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by abnormal epithelial and fibrovascular proliferation, invasion, and matrix remodeling. This lesion, which migrates from the periphery to the center of the cornea, impairs vision and causes considerable irritation. The mechanism of pterygium formation remains ambiguous, and current treatment is solely surgical excision, with a significant risk of recurrence after surgery. Here, we investigate the role of methylation in DNA sequences that regulate matrix remodeling and cell adhesion in pterygium formation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pterygium and uninvolved conjunctiva samples were obtained from the same eye of patients undergoing surgery. The EpiTYPER Sequenom technology, based on differential base cleavage and bisulfite sequencing was used to evaluate the extent of methylation of 29 matrix and adhesion related genes. In pterygium, three CpG sites at -268, -32 and -29 bp upstream of transglutaminase 2 (TGM-2 transcription initiation were significantly hypermethylated (p<0.05, whereas hypomethylation was detected at CpGs +484 and +602 bp downstream of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 transcription start site, and -809, -762, -631 and -629 bp upstream of the CD24 transcription start site. RT-qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescent staining showed that transcript and protein expression were reduced for TGM-2 and increased for MMP-2 and CD24. Inhibition of methylation in cultured conjunctival epithelial cells increased these transcripts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found regions of aberrant DNA methylation which were consistent with alteration of TGM-2, MMP-2, and CD24 transcript and protein expression, and that inhibition of methylation in cultured cells can increase the expression of these genes. Since these genes were related to cell adhesion and matrix remodeling, dysregulation may lead to fibroblastic and neovascular changes and pterygium formation. These results

  14. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THERAPEUTIC EYELID HYGIENE IN MEIBOMIAN GLAND DYSFUNCTION TREATMENT

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    V. N. Trubilin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of dry eye for general public health increases due to its high occurence in elderly persons and aging population. Non-specific questionnaires are adopted for dry eye. Additionally, 36‑item Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS-SF-36 and benefit evaluation method were developed. Methods. Information analysis and mathematical methods and public health technology evaluation methods (i.e., modelling, analysis of disease burden, and budget impact analysis were applied to economic aspect study. Decision tree model based on these finding was developed and applied to cost estimating of blepharoconjunctival and exogenous dry eye treatment in computer vision syndrome. Two scenarios of patient management were considered, i.e., typical management and management using therapeutic eyelid hygiene. Similar model was developed for early postoperative period after LASIK. Short-run analysis (1 year was performed, direct medical costs were considered. This analysis implies the calculation of overall cost (economic burden of the disease. Official data on adult population size in 2014 and the occurrence of the disease were used to assess prevalence. Budget impact analysis evaluates the difference in total economic effects due to comparison technology use in money terms. Sensitivity analysis assesses the stability of simulation results. Medical treatment cost was considered the most valuable parameter. Results and conclusions. Direct medical costs of typical management and management using therapeutic eyelid hygiene in demodicosis, computer vision syndrome, and after LASIK were 14,623 RUB and 9,200 RUB (savings of 37 %, 17,630 RUB and 9,200 RUB (savings of 47 %, 4,425.5 RUB and 3,004 RUB (savings of 32 %, respectively. Analysis of economic burden with respect to disease occurrence and typical management costs demonstrated that in 2015 this parameter was estimated as 576,198,416,556 RUB. In terms of direct medical costs, therapeutic eyelid hygiene saves 44 % (on average.

  15. Detection of human papillomavirus in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma by hybrid capture II and PCR assays.

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    Takamura, Y; Kubo, E; Tsuzuki, S; Akagi, Y

    2008-11-01

    To elucidate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma. Hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect HPV in pterygium (42 samples obtained from 40 patients) and conjunctival papilloma (8 samples from 6 patients). The amount of HPV DNA was evaluated by measurement of relative light units (RLUs) on a luminometer. All papilloma samples were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and HC-II. The RLU values for specimens of recurrent and re-recurrent papilloma were markedly higher than those for specimens of primary lesions. HPV was detected by PCR in 2 of 42 (4.8%) beta-globin-positive pterygium specimens, whereas HC-II showed that HPV was negative in all pterygium samples. Our results support the hypothesis that HPV DNA is associated with the pathogenesis of conjunctival papilloma, but not pterygium. RLU measurement by HC-II may serve as a marker for evaluating the activity of HPV in conjunctival tumours.

  16. Clinical observation on fibrin glue technique in pterygium surgery performed with limbal autograft transplantation

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    Hui Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the efficiency and safety of fibrin glue to suture technique in pterygium surgery performed with limbal autograft.METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out in 60 eyes of 48 patients operated for primary nasal pterygium. Autologous limbal graft taken from the superotemporal limbus was used to cover the sclera after pterygium excision under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine. In 22 cases(30 eyes, the transplant was attached to the sclera with a fibrin tissue adhesive(group 1and in 26 cases(30 eyeswith 10-0 Virgin silk sutures(group 2. Patients were followed up at least for 3 months. Time of operation, matching degree of graft and visual analogue scale(VASscore were mainly observed and recorded. RESULTS: Patient symptoms were significantly less and biomicroscopic findings were better in group 1. Pterygium recurrence was seen in 1 case of group 1, and 1 case of group 2. Average surgery time was shorter(PCONCLUSION: Using fibrin glue for graft fixation in pterygium surgery causes significantly less postoperative pain and shortens surgery time significantly.

  17. Fixation and its role in the causation, laterality and location of pterygium: a study in amblyopes and non-amblyopes.

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    Sudhalkar, A

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the role of fixation in causing pterygium and determining its laterality and location. This is a prospective, observational, case-control study. Cases were defined as patients with primary pterygium who had unilateral amblyopia with eccentric fixation. Controls were age-matched patients with primary pterygium, but without amblyopia and eccentric fixation. All patients underwent complete ocular, orthoptic, and systemic examination and a detailed risk-factor assessment (latitude of residence, exposure to sunlight, sand, and a high-reflectance environment). The role of fixation in the causation, laterality and location of pterygium was evaluated. Fisher's exact test, the unpaired t-test, and odds ratio (OR) were carried out to determine the significance of the observations. The mean age of subjects was 47.1±5.25 years in cases (n=107) and 48.2±4.75 years in controls (n=310; P=0.78). As far as known risk factors were concerned, both groups were evenly matched. Among the cases, 88 (82.2%) patients demonstrated suppression of the amblyopic eye and 19 (17.8%) patients had abnormal retinal correspondence (ARC). Patients with suppression had a unilateral pterygium in the better (fixating) eye, whereas those with ARC had bilateral pterygia. Among the controls, 192 (61.9%) eyes had bilateral pterygia and 118 (38.1%) eyes had unilateral pterygium. In controls, the dominant eye had a higher prevalence of pterygium. All patients in both groups had a nasal pterygium. Pterygium and fixation were strongly associated (P=0.007; Fisher's exact test; OR -15.98; P=0.008). Fixation appears to have an important role in causing pterygium and determining its location and laterality.

  18. Endocrine glands

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    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  19. Adsorption of apo- and holo-tear lipocalin to a bovine Meibomian lipid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption of apo- and holo-tear lipocalin (Tlc) to bovine Meibomian lipid film was studied. A Langmuir trough was used for these studies and the adsorption of protein was observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (pi-T profile). The films were photographed at different stages of adsorption by doping Meibomian lipids with a fluorescently tagged lipid. The results indicated that apo-Tlc adsorbed much more quickly than holo-Tlc to the Meibomian lipid film. Contrary to the expectation that holo-Tlc would release lipids to the surface and surface pressure would be higher, it was found that the surface pressure was higher with the adsorption of apo-Tlc to the surface. Photography of the films showed that apo- and holo-Tlc interacted differently with the Meibomian lipid layer. Adsorption of holo-Tlc resulted in big bright patches and adsorption of apo-Tlc resulted in many small patches along with the big patches. Both forms of Tlc produced a more stable film as indicated by decreased movement of the protein adsorbed films, and a higher maximum surface pressure upon compression of these films compared with Meibomian lipid films alone. Isocyles of apo-Tlc adsorbed films gave a higher surface pressure than that of holo-Tlc. From these results, it is concluded that both apo- and holo-Tlc adsorbed to the Meibomian lipid layer and the delivery of the lipids from Tlc to the outer lipid layer could not be detected by our techniques. Its scavenging role to remove lipids from the corneal surface and bind with them might be beneficial for increasing tear viscosity but whether those lipids are delivered to the outermost lipid layer still remains unclear.

  20. The Prevalence and Determinants of Pterygium and Pinguecula in an Urban Population in Shahroud, Iran

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    Mehdi Khabazkhoob

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While pterygium is considered a common eye disorder, the etiology and pathogenesis is still not known. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of pterygium and pinguecula in the over 40 population of Shahroud and assess associated factors. The present study is part of the phase one of the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study conducted in 2009, in which the target population was people between 40 and 64 years of age. Ophthalmic examinations were performed by two ophthalmologists who made the diagnosis of pterygium and pinguecula. We used Chi-square tests, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression tests to examine associations. Of the 6311 invitees, 5190 people participated in the study (response rate: 82.2%. The prevalence of pterygium in at least one eye was 9.4% (95% CI, 8.6-10.3, while 2.9% (95%CI, 2.4-3.3 had bilateral pterygium. The prevalence was significantly higher in men (11.4% vs. 8.0%, and remained relatively constant with age, while the prevalence in women significantly increased with age. The prevalence of pinguecula was 61.0% (95%CI, 59.1-62.9 in at least one eye, and 49.0% (95%CI, 47.1-50.9 in both eyes. The age difference between those with and without pinguecula was significant and the prevalence was significantly higher among men than women (70.6% vs. 53.8%. The prevalence of pterygium in our study was lower than reported rates in the world but higher than Tehran and was significantly associated with age, gender, working outdoors, and the level of education. The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral pinguecula falls in the mid range and was significantly associated with age, male gender, smoking, working outdoors, and level of education.

  1. Prevalence of pterygium and cataract in indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon rain forest.

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    Paula, J S; Thorn, F; Cruz, A A V

    2006-05-01

    To compare the prevalence of pterygium and cataract in four indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazonian rain forest (Arawak, Tukano, Maku, and Yanomami) with different ethnic and social behaviour backgrounds. A cross-sectional pterygium and cataract survey was performed in 624 adult Indians of the Brazilian rain forest belonging to four different ethnic groups. The Indians were classified according to their social behaviour in two groups: Arawak and Tukano (group 1) and Maku and Yanomami (group 2). Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to examine the entire sample. All subjects were classified as 1 or 0 according to the presence or absence pterygium and cataract. Sex and age were also recorded. chi(2)-tests revealed that the prevalence of pterygium and cataract differed significantly between groups 1 and 2. For pterygia: 36.6% (97/265) and 5.0% (18/359), respectively (chi(2)=101.2, P<0.0001), and for cataracts: 24.5% (65/265) and 13.7% (49/359) respectively (chi(2)=12.09, P=0.0005). Gender was not associated with pterygium (P=0.1326) and cataract (P=0.2263) in both groups. Elderly subjects showed a significantly higher prevalence of cataract (P<0.0001). The prevalence of pterygia did not increase with age (P=0.8079) in both groups. Indians of group 1 have higher prevalence of pterygia and cataract than Indians of group 2. Social behaviour, especially the rate of sun exposure, appears to be the main factor for the different rates of pterygium and cataract displayed by these indigenous people of the Brazilian rain forest.

  2. Pre- and intraoperative mitomycin C for recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon

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    Mohammed I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isyaku MohammedDepartment of Ophthalmology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, NigeriaBackground: Treatment of recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon usually involves the use of tissue grafting and/or the intraoperative application of mitomycin C (MMC. For the graft, a conjunctival/limbal autograft and/or amniotic membrane may be used. This generally requires extra technical skills and assistance, an increase in the cost and duration of surgery, and a more extensive anesthesia (a complete eye block or general anesthesia. Although widely used, safety concerns have been raised over MMC in the treatment of pterygia.Objective: The objective of this case report is to report the successful use of preoperative subconjunctival injection of low-dose (0.02% MMC one month before bare sclera excision of a multirecurrent pterygium, as well as the concomitant intraoperative application of MMC to the conjunctival fornix of the same eye after the excision of an associated symblepharon.Case report: A 31-year-old man from Kano, Northern Nigeria, presented to the eye clinic with a recurrent pterygium associated with an upper lid symblepharon in his right eye. He has had five previous pterygium excisions, with the last surgery involving conjunctival autografting and subconjunctival steroid injection. He was subsequently given 0.1 mL of 0.02% MMC as a subpterygial injection; one month later he had an alcohol-assisted bare sclera pterygium excision and a symblepharolysis with the intraoperative application of 0.02% MMC for 1 minute to the upper conjunctival fornix. Except for a Tenon granuloma that was simply excised, there has been no recurrence or other complications up to a year after surgery.Conclusion: As a cheaper and technically easier treatment option, a preoperative subconjunctival MMC injection followed by bare sclera pterygium excision was found to be effective in this patient with a recurrent pterygium. As at one-year follow-up, low

  3. Use of fibrin glue in the management of recurrent pterygium by conjunctival autograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virendra K. Malik; Sandeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether use of fibrin glue instead of sutures for the treatment of recurrent pterygium with conjunctival auto-graft (CAG) further decreases its recurrence. A prospective, clinical open trial of 50 eyes of 50 patients with recurrent pterygium, who were randomly assigned to either, pterygium excision and CAG with fibrin glue (Group 1) or with 6 interrupted sutures (Group 2), was carried out from January 2009 to July 2010 at the outpatient department of Subharti Medical College, Meerut, North India. Both groups had 25 patients each. The groups were compared with regards to the surgical time taken, development of recurrence, postoperative symptoms (irritation, watering, and redness), and complications. Recurrence was seen in one (4%) eye in group I, and 3 (12%) eyes in group II after 9-13 months of follow up. The difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. The surgical time was significantly reduced, and postoperative inflammation and complications were less in group I. Postoperative symptoms were significantly more in group II patients. While conjunctival autograft with sutures for management of recurrent pterygium appears to be a safe and feasible modality, fibrin glue fixation of the autograft is a more viable option in terms of surgical ease, less time consuming, less postoperative complications, and less recurrence (Author).

  4. Dose Assessment of Phosphorus-32 (32P for the Treatment of Recurrent Pterygium

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    Alireza Nazempoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pterygium is a wing-shaped, vascular, fleshy growth that originates from the conjunctiva and can spread into the corneal limbus and beyond. Beta irradiation after bare sclera surgery of primary pterygium is a simple, effective, and safe treatment, which reduces the risk of local recurrence. Materials and Methods Dosimetric components of strontium-90 (90Sr, phosphorous-32 (32P, and ruthenium-106 (106Ru, in form of ophthalmic applicators, were evaluated, using the Monte Carlo method. Results The obtained results indicated that 32P applicator could deliver higher doses (about 10 Gy to a target, located within a close distance from the surface, compared to 90Sr and 106Ru; it also delivered a lower dose to normal tissues. Conclusion The risk of pterygium has increased given the geographical location and climate of Iran. Spread of dust in the country over the past few years has also contributed to the rising rate of this condition. Our results showed that using 32P applicator is a cost-effective method for pterygium treatment.

  5. The influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery

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    Cai-Ni Ji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery. METHODS: Thirty six patients(40 eyeswith primary nasal pterygium were enrolled in this study, which were divided into study group and control group randomly, with 20 eyes in each group. All patients received pterygium excision and limbal stem cell autograft surgery and tobramicin dexamethasone eye drops after surgery. Patients of the study group received protein free calf blood extract eye gel while those of the control group received 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops furthermore. Ocular surface disease index(OSDIquestionnaire, tear film break-up time(BUTand Schirmer's Ⅰ test Ⅰ(SⅠtwere carried before and 3 months after surgery to evaluate the dry eye degree of the patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the age, gender and size of the pterygium of the study and control groups preoperatively. There was no statistical difference between the OSDI(2.33±1.02 vs 2.32±0.93, BUT(8.80±2.48 vs 8.35±2.28seconds and SⅠt(4.30±2.30 vs 4.40±2.44of the two groups preoperatively. There was statistical difference between the OSDI(1.45±0.47 vs 1.81±0.60, BUT(11.20±2.07 vs 9.50±2.40seconds and SⅠt(8.35±3.13 vs 6.35±2.18of the two groups 3 months postoperatively, which was also different from that of the preoperative data correspondingly. CONCLUSION: Protein free calf blood extract eye gel could reduce the dry eye after pterygium surgery.

  6. Expression and significance of VEGF, CD34, Ki-67 and p21 in pterygium

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    Li-Bo Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the expression of VEGF, CD34, Ki-67 and p21 in pterygium as well as the correlation between their expression and clinical pathological characteristics; explore its pathogenesis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical S-P staining method was adopted in detecting the expression of VEGF, CD34, Ki-67 and p21 in 62 cases of pterygia and 20 cases of normal conjunctival tissues. Relationship between these markers and clinical pathological characteristics was analyzed. RESULTS:(1The positive expression of VEGF, CD34, Ki-67 and p21 in 62 cases of pterygia was 74.2%(46/62, 77.4%(48/62, 66.1%(41/62and 40.3%(25/62respectively. The differences were statistically significant compared with normal conjunctival tissues(PPP>0.05; the expression of Ki-67 was correlated with clinical stages(PP>0.05; the expression of p21 was correlated with clinical stages and pterygium characters(PP>0.05.(3Spearman correlation showed that there was a positive correlation between VEGF and Ki-67(r=0.279, Pr=0.299, Pr=-0.267, PP>0.05.CONCLUSION:(1Overexpression of VEGF, Ki-67, CD34 and low expression of p21 suggest that these markers are concerned with the development and progression of pterygium.(2Expression of VEGF and CD34 increases along with the increase of clinical types and stages, expression of Ki-67 increases along with the increase of clinical stages, and expression of p21 decreases along with the improvement of clinical types or stages; they suggest that these markers may play important roles in the development and recurrence of pterygium.(3There is positive correlation between VEGF and Ki-67, VEGF and CD34 as well as negative correlation between VEGF and p21. They suggest that there may be synergistic action between two factors during the development and progression of pterygium.

  7. Detection of increase in corneal irregularity due to pterygium using Fourier series harmonic analyses with multiple diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Otani, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Tadatoshi; Tokuda, Shouta; Amano, Shiro

    2018-05-01

    To determine steep increase of corneal irregularity induced by advancement of pterygium. A total of 456 eyes from 456 consecutive patients with primary pterygia were examined for corneal topography and advancement of pterygium with respect to the corneal diameter. Corneal irregularity induced by the pterygium advancement was evaluated by Fourier harmonic analyses of the topographic data that were modified for a series of analysis diameters from 1 mm to 6 mm. Incidences of steep increases in the asymmetry or higher-order irregularity components (inflection points) were determined by using segmented regression analysis for each analysis diameter. The pterygium advancement ranged from 2% to 57%, with a mean of 22.0%. Both components showed steep increases from the inflection points. The inflection points in the higher-order irregularity component altered with the analysis diameter (14.0%-30.6%), while there was no alternation in the asymmetry components (35.5%-36.8%). For the former component, the values at the inflection points were obtained in a range of 0.16 to 0.25 D. The Fourier harmonic analyses for a series of analysis diameters revealed that the higher-order irregularity component increased with the pterygium advancement. The analysis results confirmed the precedence of corneal irregularity due to pterygium advancement.

  8. Evaluation of socioeconomic status as a risk factor of pterygium using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Young; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Jin-Wou; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Young Chun

    2017-03-01

    Pterygium is a common conjunctival disorder. The socioeconomic risk factors of pterygium have not been systematically evaluated in Korea. The study investigated risk factors of pterygium considering socioeconomic status.Participants were 9839 adults aged 19 to 74 years, who underwent ophthalmic slit-lamp examinations as part of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011. Pterygium was diagnosed as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. The socioeconomic risk factors were analyzed in association with the presence of pterygium. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the odds ratios for differences in socioeconomic status.The presence of pterygium was associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and sun exposure time (>5 h/d). The blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was higher in the pterygium group than in the control group, but both groups were deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared with the normal reference level. Pterygium was almost 3 times as frequent among persons who worked outdoors, such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, than among those who worked indoors (odds ratio 3.061, 95% confidence interval 1.946-4.813). Low educational status and longer working hours were also significantly associated with pterygium.This study used a nationwide population-based survey conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reveal that pterygium is associated with low socioeconomic status. Efforts should be made to reduce the risk of pterygium by changing modifiable risk factors, especially among people with low socioeconomic status.

  9. Pterygium excision with or without postoperative irradiation, a double-blind study

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    de Keizer, R.J.W. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1982-01-29

    A double-blind study (covering 40 months) of 40 eyes with a pterygium which had not previously been operated on, was carried out to study the effect of post-operative irradiation. Nineteen eyes were treated by the 'bare sclera' operation technique only and in 13 cases (68%) a recurrence occurred within 4 months. In 18 eyes from the group of patients treated with Sr 90 irradiation on the 1st, 7th and 14th postoperative day (maximum 3 x 1000 rad) no recurrences were seen. Patients with a recurrent pterygium and diplopia, symblepharon, visual disturbances (growth over the pupil or severe astigmatism) or many previous operations, were treated by lamellar keratoplasty (Dake, 1980). The recurrences without these complications were treated with success by the 'bare sclera' technique and postoperative irradiation. Complications did not occur in any of the series.

  10. Using the eye fixation speculum as an adjunct to pterygium surgery.

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    Mulhern, M G

    2012-02-03

    A technique is described that overcomes the two biggest problems facing the surgeon when dissecting a pterygium from the cornea-bleeding and eye movement. Our technique however, requires only minimal anesthesia (topical and subconjunctival) and the use of a disposable speculum and suction ring. An added advantage is this particular speculum gives good exposure of the superior bulbar conjunctiva; this facilitates harvesting a conjunctival autograft.

  11. Preoperative subpterygeal injection vs intraoperative mitomycin C for pterygium removal: comparison of results and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakshoor, Hamid; Razavi, Mohammad Etezad; Daneshvar, Ramin; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Ghate, Majid Farrokh; Ghooshkhanehi, Haleh

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the recurrence rates and complications between 2 therapeutic methods for primary pterygium: subconjunctival injection of mitomycin C (MMC) 1 month before bare scleral excision and conjunctival rotational flap with intraoperative MMC use. Prospective, interventional, randomized clinical trial. setting: Institutional clinical trial in a tertiary, specialty eye hospital. study population and intervention: We included 82 eyes diagnosed with primary pterygium and randomly allocated them into 2 groups. Group A consisted of 36 eyes treated with subconjunctival injection of 0.02% MMC 1 month before bare scleral excision, and group B comprised 46 eyes that underwent conjunctival rotational flap with intraoperative 0.02% MMC for 2 minutes. Follow-up periods were at least 12 months (range, 12 to 18 months). main outcome measure: Recurrence and complication rate in each arm of study. During the 1-year follow-up, 2 cases of clinical recurrence in third and sixth month of follow-up occurred in group B (recurrence rate, 4.3%). In group A, there was no clinically significant recurrence, but 2 cases of hypovascularity and whitening of sclera at the site of pterygium excision was observed. There was no other serious complication. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for recurrence rate, mean age, sex, or pterygium area. Subconjunctival injection of MMC 0.02% (0.1 ml of 0.02% solution) 1 month before bare scleral excision is a quick, easy, and safe surgical procedure and is at least as effective as conjunctival rotational flap with intraoperative MMC for 2 minutes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inverse Implantation and Rapid Postoperative Necrosis of Conjunctival Autograft in Pterygium Surgery

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    Murat Küçükevcilioğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 72 year-old female underwent surgery for nasal pterygium in the right eye. Conjunctival autograft with Mytomycine-C was performed. In the postoperative period slit lamp examination revealed a pale and avascular appearance of the conjunctival graft. On postoperative fifth day inverse graft implantation and graft necrosis was diagnosed. The graft was removed. We herein discuss the reason and possible preventive measures of this unusual outcome. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 298-9

  13. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  14. Autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium

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    Yun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effectiveness and practicality the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium.METHODS: Of the 53 recurrent pterygium patients(57 eyes, after all pathological tissues were removed, underwent the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea which were locked above conjunctival transplantation of the operated eye.RESULTS: Postopretive follow-up was 1-12 months for all 57 eyes, of which 3 eyes(5%relapsed. The corneoscleral autolysis was occurred in one eye and surgery treatment was conducted. Corneal wounds were healing and transplantations survived well for the remaining 53 patients without obvious surgical marks. Cure rate was 93%.CONCLUSION: Autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium can meet the aesthetic requirements of the some patients, with the advantages of obtaining material easily, faster wound healing, lower postoperative recurrence rate, meeting the aesthetic needs of some patients and improving postoperative results. Thus, it is an ideal surgery and is worthy of applying on primary hospital.

  15. Clinical outcome of combined conjunctival autograft transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation in pterygium surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Tejsu; Jiang, Jing; Hu, Kai

    2018-01-01

    AIM To compare long-term outcome of primary and recurrent pterygium surgery with three different techniques: combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (CAT with AMT), conjunctival autograft transplantation (CAT) alone and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) alone. METHODS In this retrospective study, 142 eyes of 142 pterygium patients (104 primary, 38 recurrent) who underwent CAT (group A), AMT (group B) or CAT with AMT (group C) respectively following surgical excision were reviewed and compared based on the recurrences and post-operative complications. RESULTS The number of recurrence post-surgery were 17 (9 from primary, 8 from recurrent; the same description below), 18 (10, 8) and 2 (1, 1) in groups A, B, and C respectively; dry eyes were 22 (16, 6), 27 (18, 9) and 7 (3, 4); conjunctival inflammations were 30 (17, 13), 27 (16, 11) and 11 (6, 5). Patients in group C (either primary or recurrent or both) mainly showed significantly better results than those in group A or B (P<0.05) regarding above-mentioned clinical effects. CONCLUSION Combined CAT and overly AMT have significantly lower rates of recurrence and postoperative complications for primary and recurrent pterygium surgery than CAT or AMT alone. PMID:29600172

  16. Clinical outcome of combined conjunctival autograft transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejsu Malla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare long-term outcome of primary and recurrent pterygium surgery with three different techniques: combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (CAT with AMT, conjunctival autograft transplantation (CAT alone and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT alone. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 142 eyes of 142 pterygium patients (104 primary, 38 recurrent who underwent CAT (group A, AMT (group B or CAT with AMT (group C respectively following surgical excision were reviewed and compared based on the recurrences and post-operative complications. RESULTS: The number of recurrence post-surgery were 17 (9 from primary, 8 from recurrent; the same description below, 18 (10, 8 and 2 (1, 1 in groups A, B, and C respectively; dry eyes were 22 (16, 6, 27 (18, 9 and 7 (3, 4; conjunctival inflammations were 30 (17, 13, 27 (16, 11 and 11 (6, 5. Patients in group C (either primary or recurrent or both mainly showed significantly better results than those in group A or B (P<0.05 regarding above-mentioned clinical effects. CONCLUSION: Combined CAT and overly AMT have significantly lower rates of recurrence and postoperative complications for primary and recurrent pterygium surgery than CAT or AMT alone.

  17. Mycophenolic acid suppresses human pterygium and normal tenon fibroblast proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Radgonde; Rabinowich, Liane; Maftsir, Genia; Puxeddu, Ilaria; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca; Solomon, Abraham

    2010-10-01

    To investigate whether mycophenolic acid (MPA) exerts antifibrotic effects on pterygium fibroblasts (PFB) with and without stimulation with fibrogenic cytokines, and to compare the efficacy of MPA with mitomycin (MMC) and dexamethasone (DXM) on PFB and tenon fibroblasts (TFB). TFB and PFB were obtained from tissue explants during strabismus or pterygium surgery. Proliferation of subconfluent fibroblasts ± basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (10 ng/ml) was assessed by using the (3H) thymidine-incorporation assay. Cell cultures were incubated with MPA, MMC or DXM. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantifying Annexin V and propidium iodide positive cells with flow cytometry. MPA showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation of PFB ± bFGF as well as TFB ± bFGF. The antiproliferative effect of MPA was comparable with that of MMC and DXM. Short exposure of PFB to MPA under profibrogenic conditions was significantly inhibitory. No apoptotic effect was found on TFB. MPA suppressed tenon and pterygium fibroblast proliferation in vitro under basal and profibrogenic conditions. It was comparable with MMC under long-term exposure, but MMC was more suppressive under short-term exposure. MPA may be safer than MMC due to a more specific mechanism of action and lack of cytotoxicity. Further investigation is warranted regarding MPA concentrations that will lead to a potent antiproliferative effect in vivo.

  18. Frequency of chromosome 17 aneuploidy in primary and recurrent pterygium by interphase-fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Umit; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Ozkagnici, Ahmet; Acar, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    To investigate chromosome 17 numerical aberrations by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in pterygia and to find out whether there is any association between chromosome 17 aneuploidy and recurrent pterygia. Pterygium tissue samples were taken from 21 patients by surgical excision. Eighteen of them had primary and 3 had recurrent pterygium. Peripheral whole blood interphase cells obtained from 11 healthy subjects were assigned as control group. The cells from pterygium tissue and peripheral blood were incubated with a hypotonic solution and fixed in order to obtain interphase nuclei. FISH analysis with chromosome-17-specific alpha-satellite DNA probe was performed on both the interphase nuclei of pterygium tissue (of patients) and peripheral whole blood cells of controls. The mean percentage of chromosome 17 aneuploidy was 4.71% for the pterygia group and 4.41% for the controls. No significant difference of chromosome 17 aneuploidy was observed between the patients and the controls. When the group of patients with recurrences was compared with the group without recurrences, there was a significant difference in the frequency of chromosome 17 aneuploidy (U = 17, p = 0.029). Chromosome 17 aneuploidy is probably not an important factor in the formation of pterygium, but it may be related to recurrence.

  19. Primary pterygium in a 7-year-old boy: a report of a rare case and dilemma of its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Raja Azmi Mohd

    2003-07-01

    Primary pterygium in children is uncommon but is associated with severe visual problems. Astigmatism is the main visual problem caused by pterygium. Significant amounts of astigmatism occur long before a pterygium encroaches the visual axis. Early surgical intervention is safe and effective. It is associated with significant visual improvement in outcome. This is a case report on seven-year-old Malay boy who presented with a growth over nasal aspect of the right eye of 1 year duration. His right eye visual acuity is affected up to 6/12. The dilemma pased to early surgical interview is the high rate of recurrancean the young age group. This problem is highlighted in this case report.

  20. Comparison of Different Measurement Tools and Dimensional Parameters of Pterygium to Investigate its Impact on Refractive Indices and Ocular Aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Koray; Guven, Aysegul; Altinkaynak, Miray; Keskin, Merve

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different measurement tools and parameters, including a new computer-assisted image processing technique for the quantitative analysis of the percentage of pterygium on the corneal surface, horizontal/vertical lengths obtained using slitlamp beam and surgical compass. A total of 21 pterygia of 17 patients were included in the study. The pterygia were measured by three different methods: a slitlamp beam, a surgical compass, and a new computer-assisted image processing method. Refractive indices and higher-order aberrations were analyzed in all cases. The new computer-assisted image processing technique revealed excellent intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver and interobserver reliability (0.999 and 0.995, respectively). However, horizontal and vertical lengths revealed more deviation between the measurements obtained with slitlamp beam and surgical compass. Although uncorrected visual acuity did not show any significant correlation between horizontal and vertical lengths of pterygia measured by either slitlamp beam or surgical compass, it was correlated with the digital pterygium ratio (rho, 0.462; P=0.035). All ocular aberration (total, higher-order, coma, trefoil, quatrefoil, spherical, and higher-order astigmatism) Root-mean-square values more strongly correlated with higher percentage values of pterygium that covers the cornea, measured by the new computer-assisted image processing technique. The percentage of pterygium covering the corneal surface seems to be more associated with the pterygium-related visual disturbances than with horizontal and vertical lengths measured by conventional techniques. Moreover, the new computer-assisted image processing technique can accurately and reliably measure the percentage extension of pterygium on cornea.

  1. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

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    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  3. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  4. Application of fibrin glue with bandage contact lens in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the efficacy of fibrin glue with bandage contact lens for pain relief after pterygium surgery performed with limbal autograft transplantation.METHODS: A prospective clinical trial was carried out in 52 patients(72 eyesoperated for primary nasal pterygium. All patients were randomly divided into the fibrin glue with bandage contact lens group(experimental group, 28 cases, 38 eyesand suture group(control group, 24 cases, 34 eyes. Autologous limbal graft taken from the superotemporal limbus was used to cover the sclera after pterygium excision under local anesthesia with 20g/L lidocaine. In experimental group, the transplant was attached to the sclera with fibrin tissue adhesive and in control group with 10-0 Virgin silk sutures. Experimental group weared bandage contact lens after surgery while the control group did not. The degree of pain after surgery was evaluated at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7d after surgery. Follow-up was 6mo, matching degree of graft and complication such as infection, relapse, implant healing badness and subconjunctival cyst were mainly observed and recorded.RESULTS: The pain index scores of the experimental group were significantly less than those of control group(all P=0.000. In observation period, all conjunctival autografts in both groups were successfully attached and were intact without falling off, dissolution or recurrence and there were no complications such as infection, relapse, implant healing badness and subconjunctival cyst.CONCLUSION: Fibrin glue with bandage contact lens could significantly release pain response afterpterygium excision surgery.

  5. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  6. Clinical observation on bandage type corneal contact lens applied after pterygium excision combined with fresh amniotic membrane transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of fresh amniotic membrane transplantation in combination with bandage type corneal contact lens in the treatment of pterygium. METHODS: This study was a prospective analysis of 600 pterygium excision patients(600 cases, 600 eyesin the He Eye Hospital from January 2016 to June 2016. The patients were randomly and evenly divided into two groups: observation group and control group, 300 cases in each group(300 eyes. Observation group wore the bandage type corneal contact lens after surgery and took it down at fifth day. The control group did not. The degree of pain after surgery were evaluated at 2h, 1, 3 and 5d after surgery. The clinical outcomes in these two groups were compared in a 12mo postoperative follow-up observation. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the observation and control group in the percentage of age and gender and size of the pterygium(P>0.05. After surgery, the degree of pain of treatment group significantly decreased compared to control group, the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Bandage contact lenses could significantly release pain response after pterygium excision. But it can not reduce the recurrence rate.

  7. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on pterygium epithelial cells through redox imbalance and induction of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Chu; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2017-07-01

    Pterygium is a common tumor-like ocular disease, which may be related to exposure to chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Although the standard treatment for pterygium is surgical intervention, the recurrence rate of pterygium is high when no effective inhibitory drug is used after surgery. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol antioxidant with many biological activities, including anti-UV and anti-tumor properties. This study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of RA on pterygium epithelial cells (PECs). Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to examine the cell cytotoxicity of PECs after RA treatment. A fluorescent probe, DCFH-DA (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate), was stained with PECs to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Antioxidant activity assays were used to measure the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in PECs. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and apoptosis-associated proteins. RA significantly reduced the cell viability of the PECs. Treatment with RA remarkably increased the Nrf2 protein expression levels in the nucleus, HO-1 and NQO1 protein expression levels, and the activities of SOD and CAT. As a result, intracellular ROS levels in PECs were decreased. Additionally, the induction of extrinsic apoptosis on PECs by RA was associated with increasing expressions levels of Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and caspase 8 protein. Moreover, the induction of intrinsic apoptotic cell death in PECs was confirmed through upregulation of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 3. Our study demonstrated that RA could inhibit the viability of PECs through regulation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Therefore, RA may have

  8. Immunohistochemical profile of VEGF, TGF-β and PGE₂ in human pterygium and normal conjunctiva: experimental study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, E; Scarinci, F; Grande, C; Plateroti, R; Plateroti, P; Plateroti, A M; Fumagalli, L; Capozzi, P; Feher, J; Artico, M

    2012-01-01

    Human pterygium is made up of chronic proliferative fibro-vascular tissue growing on the ocular surface. This disease exhibits both degenerative and hyperplastic properties. Some fibroangiogenic factors have recently been shown to play a potential role in fibrovascular diseases via the angiogenesis process. The aim of this study is to evaluate VEGF, TGF-β and PGE₂ expression in the epithelial, endothelial and stromal cells of human pterygium and normal conjunctiva in order to determine whether these factors participate in the development of pterygium. Ten specimens from patients with pterygium and two normal conjunctivas (cadavers) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies against these growth factors. The technique used was ABC/HRP (Avidin complexed with biotinylated peroxidase). Immunoreactivity of VEGF was significantly increased in the epithelium, vascular endothelium and stromal cells in primary pterygium as compared with normal conjunctiva. A moderate expression of TGF-β in the pterygium was observed in the epithelial and stromal layers. On the contrary, immunolabeling of this growth factor in the human normal conjunctiva was weak. PGE₂ was strongly expressed in the epithelium of patients with pterygium, as in control conjunctival tissues, and the immunolabeling was moderate in the stroma from the same patients. Our results suggest that these growth factors may contribute to the progression of primary pterygium by increasing angiogenesis, thus leading to the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature. We conclude that VEGF, TGF-β and PGE₂ may be potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of this disease although proof of this evidence requires further studies.

  9. Enhanced Edar signalling has pleiotropic effects on craniofacial and cutaneous glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shie Hong Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The skin carries a number of appendages, including hair follicles and a range of glands, which develop under the influence of EDAR signalling. A gain of function allele of EDAR is found at high frequency in human populations of East Asia, with genetic evidence suggesting recent positive selection at this locus. The derived EDAR allele, estimated to have reached fixation more than 10,000 years ago, causes thickening of hair fibres, but the full spectrum of phenotypic changes induced by this allele is unknown. We have examined the changes in glandular structure caused by elevation of Edar signalling in a transgenic mouse model. We find that sebaceous and Meibomian glands are enlarged and that salivary and mammary glands are more elaborately branched with increased Edar activity, while the morphology of eccrine sweat and tracheal submucosal glands appears to be unaffected. Similar changes to gland sizes and structures may occur in human populations carrying the derived East Asian EDAR allele. As this allele attained high frequency in an environment that was notably cold and dry, increased glandular secretions could represent a trait that was positively selected to achieve increased lubrication and reduced evaporation from exposed facial structures and upper airways.

  10. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M E; Beuerman, R W; Fox, R I; Gao, J; Mircheff, A K; Pflugfelder, S C

    1998-11-01

    Most dry-eye symptoms result from an abnormal, nonlubricative ocular surface that increases shear forces under the eyelids and diminishes the ability of the ocular surface to respond to environmental challenges. This ocular-surface dysfunction may result from immunocompromise due to systemic autoimmune disease or may occur locally from a decrease in systemic androgen support to the lacrimal gland as seen in aging, most frequently in the menopausal female. Components of the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva, accessory lacrimal glands, and meibomian glands), the main lacrimal gland, and interconnecting innervation act as a functional unit. When one portion is compromised, normal lacrimal support of the ocular surface is impaired. Resulting immune-based inflammation can lead to lacrimal gland and neural dysfunction. This progression yields the OS symptoms associated with dry eye. Restoration of lacrimal function involves resolution of lymphocytic activation and inflammation. This has been demonstrated in the MRL/lpr mouse using systemic androgens or cyclosporine and in the dry-eye dog using topical cyclosporine. The efficacy of cyclosporine may be due to its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory (phosphatase inhibitory capability) functions on the ocular surface, resulting in a normalization of nerve traffic. Although the etiologies of dry eye are varied, common to all ocular-surface disease is an underlying cytokine/receptor-mediated inflammatory process. By treating this process, it may be possible to normalize the ocular surface/lacrimal neural reflex and facilitate ocular surface healing.

  11. Valve spindle gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Z.; Harazim, A.; Kerlin, K.

    1979-01-01

    A gland is proposed of the valve spindle designed for radioactive or otherwise harmful media, such as in nuclear power plant primary circuits. The gland is installed in the valve cover and consists of a primary and a secondary part and of a gland case partitioning the gland space into two chambers. The bottom face of the gland case is provided with a double-sided collar for controlling the elements of the bottom primary gland while the top face is provided with a removable flange. (M.S.)

  12. Occupational Exposure to Solar Radiation at Different Latitudes and Pterygium: A Systematic Review of the Last 10 Years of Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Modenese

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pterygium is a chronic eye disease: among its recognized risk factors there is long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation. The Sun is the main source of UV exposure: according to the World Health Organization, the Population Attributable Fraction of pterygium due to solar radiation (SR is 42–74%. Outdoor work can deeply influence the eye exposure to solar UV rays, but, despite this, pterygium is currently not adequately considered as a possible occupational disease in this working category, at least in Europe. For this reason, we performed a systematic review of the scientific literature published in the last ten years (2008–2017 considering the role of outdoor work as a risk factor for pterygium, in order to give new support for the prevention of this UV related disease in workers. We identified 29 relevant papers. Our results show that pterygium prevalence highly increased with latitude and mean annual UV index, and outdoor work is one of the most relevant risk factors, as well as age and male sex, both in high risk and in moderate risk World areas considering the environmental UV levels. Accordingly, pterygium occurring in outdoor workers should be considered an occupational disease. Moreover, our findings clearly support the need of further research on more effective prevention of the occupational risk related to long-term solar radiation exposure of the eye.

  13. Inactivation of p53 in pterygium influence miR-200a expression resulting in ZEB1/ZEB2 up-regulation and EMT processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chueh-Wei; Peng, Mei-Ling; Yeh, Ken-Tu; Tsai, Yi-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-05-01

    Loss of p53 function has been linked to progression of pterygium. MiR-200a is known to be controlled by p53. Here, we hypothesize that expression of miR-200a and downstream ZEB1/ZEB2 genes are regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) involved in the pathogenesis and recurrence of pterygium. For this study, 120 primary pterygial samples were collected. Immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR were performed to determine the expression of p53, p53 down-stream EMT associated protein and miR-200a. The molecular correlation of p53, miR-200a and downstream genes were confirmed using primary pterygium cells (PECs). Expression of miR-200a in pterygium tissues was significantly lower than in conjunctiva controls (p = 0.015). Up-regulated miR-200a levels were positively correlated with and p53 protein expression (p influence miR-200a, resulting in ZEB1/ZEB2 up-regulation and EMT processing of pterygium. Therefore, we suggest that expression of miR-200a play an important role in EMT processing and recurrence of pterygium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  15. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  17. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  18. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  19. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors ...

  20. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  2. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  3. Soft X-ray therapy of recurrent pterygium - an alternative to {sup 90}Sr eye applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, J.; Flentje, M. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Lieb, W. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Background: Analysis of effectiveness of perioperative 20 kV soft X-ray irradiation in recurrent pterygium as an alternative to postoperative {sup 90}Sr beta irradiation. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000 a total of 65 patients with 81 pterygia were treated with 20 kV X-ray therapy in the course of surgical treatment of recurrent pterygium. Until 1995 simple excision (bare sclera technique) followed by postoperative irradiation (generally four fractions of 5 Gy) was applied, with radiation starting on mean 4 days following surgery (34 cases, mean follow-up 52 months). Since 1995 we have changed our policy to a perioperative regimen starting with a single dose of 7 Gy prior to microsurgical excision with conjunctival autograft and proceeding within 24 hours with 5 Gy single dose to the surgical bed and then every other day to a total dose of 27 Gy (47 cases, mean follow-up 31 months). Recurrence rate was calculated by Kaplan Meier method. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of prognostic factors for recurrence was performed. Results: A total of 19 recurrences were observed, 15 in the historical postoperative group and four in the perioperative group. Actuarial 2- and 5-year recurrence rate is 9% in the ''new treatment group'' compared to 34% and 56% in the historical group (p = 0,001). Only one of the four recurrences among the pre- and postoperatively irradiated group required a new surgical procedure. In this case radiation had been terminated at 17 Gy. Actuarial rate of surgical reintervention was only 2% at 2 and 5 years compared to 28% and 36% in the historical group. In multivariate Cox regression analysis only the new treatment strategy was found to influence control rate significantly. Until now no case of severe side effects like scleral necrosis or thinning, symble-pharon, radiation-induced cataract or glaucoma were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The combination of pre- and postoperative 20 kV X-ray therapy and

  4. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of pterygium: A review of the literature including more than 6000 treated lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.; Thariat, J.; Thyss, A.; Gerard, J.P.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Rostom, Y.; El-Haddad, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pterygium is a benign conjunctival neo-formation usually treated by surgical excision, but recurrences may affect 30% to 89% of cases, so that adjunctive therapies like conjunctival auto-grafting, antimitotic drugs and beta-irradiation (β-irradiation) are often used to improve the rate of local control. Our essay has reviewed relevant studies addressing the role of postoperative irradiation in the treatment of pterygium in the last 30 years through an Internet-based search and hand search in libraries. Sixteen studies on β-irradiation and one on soft X-ray irradiation were accessible. They covered more than 6000 lesions treated by surgical excision and postoperative β-irradiation using strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) applicators at doses varying from 10 to 60 Gy/1-6 fractions/1-6 weeks starting within 3 days postoperatively. The rates of local recurrence were in general lower than 15% and major complications such as scleral thinning, ulceration, infections, or radiation-induced cataract were rarely encountered. Early postoperative (β-irradiation at a dose of 30 Gy/three fractions/2-3 weeks starting within 24 h from surgical excision is an effective and safe procedure with local control rates comparable to chemotherapeutic agents and conjunctival auto-grafting and superior to simple excision alone. (authors)

  5. Population-based assessment of prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-08-09

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of individuals aged 30 years and older in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one urban and three rural locations in which 10,293 subjects were examined. All the subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and a detailed interview by trained professionals. Pterygium was defined as fleshy fibro vascular growth, crossing the limbus, and typically seen on the nasal conjunctiva in either eye. Data were analyzed for 5586 subjects who were aged 30 years and older at the time of participation. The mean age of the participants was 47.5 years (SD 13 years; range 30-102 years). In total, 46.4% were male, 56.7% had no education, 52.2% of them were involved in outdoor occupations, and 25% belonged to urban area. The prevalence of pterygium was 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-12.6). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of pterygium among older age groups, rural residents (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; P > 0.01), and those involved in outdoor occupations (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2, P protective effect (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7; P Protecting the eyes from sunlight may decrease the risk of pterygium. However, the important public health challenge is to encourage the use of this protection as a routine in developing countries such as India.

  6. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  7. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  8. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and xerophtalmia; case 2: A 53-year-old man, presented with headache, proptosis and chemosis and case 3: A 73-year-old man, presenting with chemosis and a corneal abscess. All three cases were characterized morphologically including immunohistochemistry and genetically with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH...... HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  9. A new dry eye mouse model produced by exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal gland excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2018-01-24

    Chronic dry eye is an increasingly prevalent condition worldwide, with resulting loss of visual function and quality of life. Relevant, repeatable, and stable animal models of dry eye are still needed. We have developed an improved surgical mouse model for dry eye based on severe aqueous fluid deficiency, by excising both the exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal glands (ELG and ILG, respectively) of mice. After ELG plus ILG excision, dry eye symptoms were evaluated using fluorescein infiltration observation, tear production measurement, and histological evaluation of ocular surface. Tear production in the model mice was significantly decreased compared with the controls. The corneal fluorescein infiltration score of the model mice was also significantly increased compared with the controls. Histological examination revealed significant severe inflammatory changes in the cornea, conjunctiva or meibomian glands of the model mice after surgery. In the observation of LysM-eGFP (+/-) mice tissues, postsurgical infiltration of green fluorescent neutrophils was observed in the ocular surface tissues. We theorize that the inflammatory changes on the ocular surface of this model were induced secondarily by persistent severe tear reduction. The mouse model will be useful for investigations of both pathophysiology as well as new therapies for tear-volume-reduction type dry eye.

  10. Relación de la radiación ultravioleta y el pterigión primario Relation of ultraviolet radiation and primary pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmary Aragonés Cruz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El pterigión está presente a nivel mundial, pero es más común en climas cálidos y secos, predomina en países comprendidos entre 0º y 30º de latitud norte y sur. Existe evidencia epidemiológica en estudios poblacionales experimentales y observacionales que confirman que la radiación ultravioleta es el desencadenante inicial en la aparición del pterigión y un factor de riesgo significativo en su desarrollo. Los fenómenos físicos y climatológicos que explican la patogenia del pterigión son poco conocidos. La epidemiología del pterigión es una herramienta básica para conocer tanto su incidencia como su prevalencia. A partir de esta revisión nos propusimos reflexionar acerca del pterigión como marcador del grado de insolación del organismo y enfatizar en cuanto a la importancia de protección ante la posible exposición a la radiación ultravioleta en el resultado final de una cirugía de pterigión.Pterygium is present worldwide but it is more common in dry warm climates and predominates in countries situated 0º and 30º on North and South latitudes. There are epidemiological pieces of evidence in experimental and observational population studies that confirm that ultraviolet radiation is the initial unleashing factor in occurrence of pterygium and a significant risk factor for its development. The physical and climate phenomena accounting for the pathogeny of pterygium are almost unknown. Pterygium epidemiology is a basic tool for identifying its incidence and prevalence. On the basis of this review, we intended to make reflections on pterygium as a marker of degree of insolation of the human body and to emphasize the importance of protection against possible exposure to ultraviolet radiations in the final outcome of pterygium surgery.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN SURGICAL OUTCOME OF PATIENT’S OWN BLOOD VS. 10-0 NYLON FOR CONJUNCTIVAL AUTOGRAFTING IN PTERYGIUM EXCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Mahendra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND Pterygium is a frequently occurring progressive ocular surface disorder which is a fleshy triangular wing shaped growth, encroaching from conjunctiva on cornea. Pterygium is frequent in hot, dry, dusty environment and prevalence is 0.3% to 29%. Surgical removal is main treatment for pterygium. The recurrence rate after pterygium surgery varies according to type of surgery. Various surgical modalities tried like simple excision, bare sclera technique, amniotic membrane transplantation and conjunctival autografting. AIM To compare surgical outcome of patient’s own blood Vs 10-0 Nylon for conjunctival autografting in pterygium excision. SETTINGS AND DESIGN It is a prospective randomised interventional control trial, with a sample size of minimum 30 patients in each group studied in a tertiary care hospital from Oct. 2013 to Dec. 2015. METHODS AND MATERIAL Out of 63 patients who underwent pterygium excision, patient’s own blood was used in 32 patients (Group A and 10-0 Nylon suture was used in 31 patients (Group B for conjunctival autografting. All patients were followed up regularly on postoperative day 1, 8, 30, 90 and 180. Variables for postoperative assessment were pain, watering, irritation, redness, graft displacement, graft loss and recurrence. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 (SPSS, Chicago. Outcome variables between the two groups were compared using the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U Test. RESULTS The mean surgical time of group B (31.48±6.15 min is significantly high as compared to group A (19.71±5.13 min with p<0.001. The regression analysis revealed that except surgery type, no other variable had significant impact on the duration of surgery. Postoperative symptoms are less in group A as compared to group B. Group B showed two recurrences whereas no recurrence was seen in group A. CONCLUSIONS Conjunctival autografting by patient’s own blood is better than 10-0 Nylon

  12. Major salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with two important features of treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid and submandibular gland: the lack of a satisfactory means of staging these lesions, and the all-important treatment considerations relative to the facial nerve in parotid gland malignancies. The imaging physician and the clinician should also consider that many suspected parotid mass lesions turn out to arise from structures extrinsic to the gland. The authors discuss in detail the sources of such mass lesions as well as how CT can be used to differentiate these from intrinsic lesions in the parotid and submandibular glands. Computed tomography and, perhaps in the near future, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will provide us with a means to diagnose these tumors earlier. This is especially true when studies are used in situations such as unexplained peripheral seventh nerve paralysis or in the early screening of patients with parotid or periparotid masses. Unfortunately, it is usually patient delay that leads to late diagnosis of palpable mass lesions in this region, and there is little that any imaging study can do to reduce this factor

  13. Physical therapy intervention for an adolescent with a knee flexion contracture and diagnosis of multiple pterygium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Sandra Gail; Gibbs, Karen; Lazaro, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a course of physical therapy for a client with a rare genetic condition, multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS). MPS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by connective tissue webbing across multiple joints, dysmorphic facies, and various visceral and skeletal deformities. Before the patient commenced physical therapy, surgical amputation was recommended for the client's knee flexion contracture. The client's treatment plan included stretching, manual therapy, and resisted exercise. Long-term outcomes were decreased back and knee pain and improved range of motion, strength, and ambulation. Therapists using techniques to improve joint range of motion in clients with MPS should be aware that pterygia may include contractile tissue, nerves, and blood vessels and there may be underlying skeletal deformity or weakness in these areas. Children with MPS are at high risk of developing scoliosis and should be appropriately assessed in early childhood.

  14. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  15. Effectiveness of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane transplantation vs conjunctival auto graft implant in the pterygium surgery with intraoperative mitomycin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Y, L.; Martinez P, M. E.; Vazquez M, L.

    2009-01-01

    At the present time the traditional surgical handling of the pterygium with conjunctival implant presents high frequency. In this work the obtained results of a controlled clinic practice blind double are presented of the period of December from 2008 to December 2009, realized in the Medical Unit of Ambulatory Attention 231 of the Mexican Institute of the Public Health located in Metepec, Mexico State, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and security of the alternative use of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane and intraoperative mitomycin C. For the study was included patients with diagnostic of primary nasal pterygium in one or both eyes, adults of both genus with an age range of 20 to 60 years, and was used radio sterilized amniotic membrane processed in the Bank of Radio Sterilized Tissues of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  16. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  17. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  18. Uso do 5-fluorouracil no intra-operatório da cirurgia do pterígio Intra-operative use of 5-fluorouracil in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana A. Schellini

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade e as complicações com a aplicação do 5- fluorouracil (5-FLU no intra-operatório da cirurgia do pterígio. Método: Foram avaliados 28 olhos de 26 indivíduos quanto ao tipo e tamanho do pterígio, cirurgias prévias e a resposta ao tratamento cirúrgico (no 7º , 21º , 60º e 90º dia de pós-operatório. Logo após a exerese do pterígio, aplicou-se 5-FLU (25 mg/ml no leito cirúrgico, durante cinco minutos; a seguir, realizou-se a técnica de deslizamento de retalho conjuntival. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes tinha mais de 50 anos de idade e apresentava pterígio primário (70,0%, grau II (60,7%, do tipo involutivo (60,7%. No pós-operatório observaram-se: isquemia (10,7%, deiscência da conjuntiva (7,1%, ceratite (3,5%, conjuntivite (3,5% e recidiva da lesão em 1 olho (3,5%.Conclusão: O 5-FLU se mostrou droga segura e efetiva na prevenção das recidivas, podendo ser usado como coadjuvante no tratamento do pterígio para prevenir recidivas.Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and the complications on intraoperative application of 5-fluorouracil (5FLU in pterygium surgery. Method: We studied 28 eyes of 26 patients with pterygium, evaluating the type and size of the pterygium, previous surgeries and the response to surgical treatment (on the 7th, 21st, 60th, 90th postoperative day. The application of 5-FLU (25 mg/ml was done soon after resection, for five minutes, followed by the sliding flap technique.Results: Most of the patients were more than 50 years old, presented with primary (70.0%, degree II (60.7%, involu-tionary type (60.7% pterygium. After surgery ischemic area (10.7%, conjunctival deiscence (7.1%, keratitis (3.5%, conjunctivitis (3.5% and lesion relapse (3.5% were observed.Conclusion: 5-FLU is a safe and effective drug and could be of help in the treatment of pterygium to prevent relapse.

  19. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... crinology with short stature, delayed bone age and biochemical features suggestive of hypo pituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of the infundibular stalk and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (Fig.

  20. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  1. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  2. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  3. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  4. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  5. Streaming submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajicek, G.; Yagil, C.; Michaeli, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar cross sections could be distinguished by their cell number. Narrow tubuli had fewer nuclei than the wider ones. The nuclear number of a cross section was defined as its class and the location of a labelled epithelial cell was expressed in relationship to the class where it was found. The location of a labelled stromal cell was determined by the class of its neighboring tubular or acinar cross sections. The mean cell numbers of intercalated, granular, and striated duct cross sections were, respectively, 4.7, 10.5, and 10.2, while the average cell content of acini was 4.7 cells. One hour after labelling most labelled tubular epithelial and stromal cells were found in tubular cross sections (or low tubular classes), while in the acini, labelled epithelial and stromal cells were found mainly in wider cross sections (or higher acinar classes). Within the next 23 days labelled tubular cells and stroma proceeded into higher classes, while labelled acinar epithelium and stroma cells were displaced into narrower cross sections (or lower classes). The displaced tubular epithelium and stroma covered daily 0.26 classes. At this velocity the cell will reach the highest tubular class in 62 days and the estimated maximal tubular cell life span is 62 days

  6. El pterigión: más allá de los aspectos médicos Pterygium: going beyond the medical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas Álvarez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio exploratorio acerca de los aspectos ambientales, económicos, psicológicos y sociales relacionados con el pterigión, con el objetivo de realizar un análisis integral del tema que nos permita comprenderlo en toda su amplitud y elevar la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Se llegó a las siguientes conclusiones: la distribución geográfica del pterigión se encuentra íntimamente relacionada con las características ambientales, el costo del diagnóstico y tratamiento del pterigión apunta en los próximos años a la mayor presencia de la gratuidad de los servicios, la continua información por todas las vías acerca de la “Misión milagro”, y por tanto de todo el proceso salud-enfermedad del pterigión, influye notoriamente en la toma de decisiones de nuestros pacientes. Los elementos psicológicos de imagen, autoimagen y nivel de frustración son aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta para el análisis integral del pterigión. La ocupación laboral y las características del medio ambiente resultan determinantes en la implementación de estrategias de promoción y prevención de salud efectivas, atendiendo a zonas y grupos de riesgo.An exploratory study was conducted about the environmental, economic, psychological and Social aspects related to pterygium, with the objective of making a comprehensive analysis of this topic that allows us to fully understand it and raise the quality of life of those patients suffering this disorder. The following conclusions were drawn> the geographical distribution of pterygium is closely related to the environmental characteristics, the cost of diagnosis and treatment of this disease points to an extension of free services in the coming years; the ongoing information using all the possible channels about "Miracle Mission" and the whole health-disease process of pterygium has a remarkable impact on the decision-making process of our patients. The psychological elements of image, self

  7. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  8. [Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Ruiz, Maykel

    2014-04-01

    Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb.

  9. Prolapso de gordura orbitária bilateral associado a pterígio: relato de caso Bilateral orbital fat prolapse associated with pterygium: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Glerian Dias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O prolapso de gordura orbitária é entidade benigna incomum que pode causar defeitos estéticos. Os autores apresentam uma paciente de 63 anos com prolapso de gordura orbitária temporal bilateral associado a pterígio medial bilateral, ressaltando aspectos clínicos e cirúrgicos. Discute-se a importância do diagnóstico clínico e de imagem, além da comprovação histopatológica da lesão.Orbital fat prolapse is an uncommon benign entity that can cause esthetic defects. The authors present a 63-year-old patient with bilateral temporal orbital fat prolapse associated with a bilateral nasal pterygium. Clinical and surgical features are described. The clinical, imaging and histopathological diagnoses are discussed.

  10. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  11. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  12. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Prognosis and submandibular gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Hanaoka, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1984-01-01

    Submandibular gland function was tested with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan 10 days and 3-4 weeks after the onset Bell's palsy, and the results and prognoses were correlated. In the first report we divided the cases into groups A, B and C, and this time group D classified in S.S.R. was poor. Groups A and D can be differentiated by submandibular gland scan within 10 days after the onset; that is to say, the prognosis of more than half the cases can be determined in this early phase. Especially, it is noticeable that group D showing the poor prognosis is differentiated within 10 days after the onset. This method was compared with other tests of facial palsy. Four to five weeks after the onset all tests were of equal accuracy in predicting the prognosis of each group. Within 10 days after the onset, however, submandibular gland scan seems to be more useful than the other tests. (author)

  14. Transplante de membrana amniótica associado ao transplante de conjuntiva autólogo no tratamento do pterígio primário Amniotic membrane transplantation associated with conjunctival autograft for primary pterygium treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Guerra Daros Castellano

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a eficácia do transplante de membrana amniótica associada ao transplante de conjuntiva autólogo no tratamento do pterígio primário. MÉTODOS: Analisou-se prospectivamente 26 pacientes (14 mulheres e 12 homens com idade entre 20 e 60 anos, atendidos no ambulatório de oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba e que foram submetidos ao tratamento do pterígio primário com cirurgia de exérese do pterígio e uso de membrana amniótica associada ao transplante de conjuntiva autólogo, entre abril e novembro de 2001. Foram analisados: grau do pterígio, complicações pós-operatórias e recidivas. RESULTADOS: No pós-operatório 4 casos (15,38% tiveram complicações, nenhuma considerada séria, sendo a mais freqüente a retração do enxerto em 2 casos. No sexto mês após a cirurgia, 24 pacientes (92,3% obtiveram sucesso cirúrgico e 2 pacientes (7,69% tiveram recidiva corneana ou conjuntival. Dos pacientes que tiveram complicações, 50% sofreram recidiva do pterígio (PPURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation associated with conjunctival autograft in primary pterygium treatment. METHODS: We have analyzed, prospectively, 26 patients (14 women and 12 men, from 20 to 60 years old, examined at the Evangelic Hospital Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic. They were submitted to primary pterygium treatment with pterygium excision surgery, amniotic membrane transplantation and conjunctival autograft, from April to November, 2001. The evaluated aspects were: degree of pterygium, postoperative complications and recurrence. RESULTS: Four cases (15,38% showed complications, none of them considered serious, conjunctival graft contraction in 2 cases being the most frequent. After a follow-up of 6 months, 24 patients (92,3% had a successful result and 2 patients (7,69% had corneal or conjunctival recurrence. Among the patients with complications 50% presented pterygium recurrence (P

  15. Radiological diagnosis of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.

    2005-01-01

    The adrenal gland is a common site of disease involving hormonal dysfunction as well as benign and malignant masses. Radiology, especially computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR), plays a critical role in detecting and characterizing diseases affecting the adrenal gland. This paper contains a summary of the most important diseases of the adrenal gland and presents criteria for differentiating between benign and malignant masses as well as an algorithm for the diagnostic steps in incidentaloma. (orig.)

  16. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exocrine glands of Schwarziana quadripunctata (Hymenoptera, Apinae, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. CRUZ-LANDIM

    Full Text Available This article describes the location, anatomy, histology and ontogeny of adult Schwarziana quadripunctata exocrine glands. These glands appear either as individualized organs (salivary gland system and Dufour gland or as epidermis differentiation (tegumentary glands. Variations in the occurrence and degree of development among colony components with regard to their degree of maturity are also described.

  18. Morphological Features of the Porcine Lacrimal Gland and Its Compatibility for Human Lacrimal Gland Xenografting

    OpenAIRE

    Henker, Robert; Scholz, Michael; Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain ...

  19. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Schwannoma of the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunayi Jeshtadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral schwannomas are extremely rare and are usually discov-ered incidentally on USG/CT-Scan. Primary schwannomas of the adrenal gland are extremely uncommon. It has been theorized that they originate from Schwann cells that insulate the nerve fi-bers innervating the adrenal medulla. Histopathological examina-tion coupled with immunohistochemistry provides the definitive diagnosis. A 55 year old normotensive female presented with pain in the right loin since 5 months. Her renal parameters were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen showed a well delineated 6.5 x 5cms mass at upper pole of her right kidney. 24-hour urinary metanephrine was slightly elevated (3.07mg/24hrs. A decline in Serum cortisol levels was observed following a dexamethasone suppression test (18.89nmol/l. Histopathological examination revealed a spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positive staining for S-100 with negative expression for CD-117, desmin, CD-34, HMB-45, synaptophysin, chromogranin, cytokeratin, and SMA. Ki-67 index was 2%.A diagnosis of cellular schwannoma of adrenal gland was confirmed.

  1. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  2. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  3. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  4. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  5. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  6. Anatomic Severity, Midfacial Growth, and Speech Outcomes in Van der Woude/Popliteal Pterygium Syndromes Compared to Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip/Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Jeffrey B; Brustowicz, Katherine A; Marrinan, Eileen M; Mulliken, John B; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2015-11-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics and surgical and speech outcomes for patients with Van der Woude/popliteal pterygium syndromes (VWS/PPS) and to compare them with a historic cohort of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip/cleft palate (CL/P). Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care center. All patients with VWS/PPS seen at Boston Children's Hospital from 1979 to 2012: 28 patients with VWS (n = 21)/PPS (n = 7) whose mean age was 17.3 ± 10.4 years, including 18 females (64%) and 10 males (36%); 18 patients (64%) had a family history of VWS/PPS. Cleft type, operative procedures, speech, and midfacial growth. Data were compared with historic cohorts of patients with nonsyndromic CL/P treated at one tertiary care center. There were 24 patients (86%) with CP±L, Veau types I (n = 4, 17%), II (n = 4, 17%), III (n = 5, 21%), and IV (n = 11, 46%). Nine patients (38%) had palatal fistula after palatoplasty. Fourteen of 23 (61%) patients with CL/P age 5 years or older had midfacial retrusion, and 10 (43%) required a pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency. Fisher's exact test demonstrated higher frequencies of Veau type IV CP±L (P = .0016), bilateral CL±P (P = .0001), and complete CL±P (P palatal fistula (P clefting and higher incidences of midfacial retrusion, palatal fistula, and velopharyngeal insufficiency following primary repair as compared with nonsyndromic CL/P.

  7. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  8. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Hirayama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy.

  9. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  10. Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Katsaronis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.

  11. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  12. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  13. Hydatid disease of the submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.; Yousaf, N.

    2001-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a tissue infection of the human caused by the larval stage of echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis. Hydatid cyst of the head and neck region is uncommon and the involvement of salivary glands, especially the submandibular gland, is very rare. A case of submandibular gland hydatid cyst is reported in this article, in a patient who was presented with swelling of this area of three months' duration. Examination revealed a soft, non-tender, mobile mass measuring 6x4 cm. Chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography were normal. Excision of the whole mass was performed and pathological examination confirmed the fine needle aspiration cytology report. (author)

  14. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  15. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para el pterigium en la población de "Hebi": Henan provincia, China 2009 Prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the population of "Hebi" Henan province, China 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Moreno Domínguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y los factores epidemiológicos del pterigium y propiciar las estrategias que permitan el control de estas causas en los pobladores de la provincia de Henan, República Popular de China. Método: se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y transversal, teniendo como universo a 3940 pacientes con un diagnóstico presuntivo de pterigium en el pesquisaje activo casa a casa, en el período abril de 2008 a enero de 2009, de los cuales se tomaron como muestra 415, que acudieron a la consulta de evaluación en el Hospital de Hebi. Resultados: el sexo femenino con el 53%, el grupo de edades entre 31 y 50 años y los campesinos predominaron en el estudio. El grado II, primario y activo, la localización nasal y el tipo carnoso fueron preponderantes. El film lagrimal se afectó en el 57,5% de los casos estudiados con una afectación de la córnea en el 55,9%. Conclusiones: se encontró una fuerte conexión entre la hiposecreción lagrimal, alteraciones corneales y la presencia de pterigium en dependencia del grado de la dolencia, que permitirá establecer protocolos personalizados en la conducta para cada paciente que tenga esta enfermedad.Objective: to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pterygium to favor the strategies to control the causes of the disease in Henan province, People's Republic of China. Method: an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out having a target group of 3940 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of pterygium in an active screening "house to house" during April 2008 to January 2009 taking a sample of 415 patients attending to "Hebi" Hospital. Results: female sex (53%, the age bracket of 31-50 years old and farmers prevailed in the study. Pterygium of degree II, primary and active, having nasal location and fleshy type was predominant. Lachrymal film affected the 57, 5% of the cases in study and 55,9% presented

  16. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Hyla, Rana, BUfo, Pelobates and Triturus more pep- sinogen was produced in these glands than in the gastric glands. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the occurrence of oesophageal glands in selected anurans from Tanzania and to compare their structure with the better known gastric glands. Materials ...

  18. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saneem Ahamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth. there are various methods of investigation available today, of which Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can be used to provide an immediate diagnosis of a lymphoepithelial cyst. The other investigations include, Ultrasonogram,and Computed tomography.It usually occurs due to the process of lymphocyte-induced cystic ductular dilatation and the confirmatory diagnosis is always made postoperatively by histopathological examination. The mainstay in the treatment of a lymphoepithelial cyst remains the surgical approach, which includes complete enucleation of the cyst along with total excision of the involved salivary gland. This is a report of a lymphoepithelial cyst involving the submandibular salivary gland and its management.

  19. The surgical management of lacrimal gland pseudotumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Koornneef, L.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lacrimal gland pseudotumors belong to the group of orbital pseudotumor. Systemic corticosteroids are advocated as the primary treatment of choice in orbital pseudotumor, but recurrent and refractory cases are commonly described. In this retrospective study, the authors evaluate alteerative

  20. Computed tomographic diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Hitoki; Nishimura, Tadao; Takasu, Akihiko; Yagizawa, Mikio; Suzuki, Akio

    1983-01-01

    Investigation with CT has been performed on 20 cases of parotid gland tumors. The intravenous contrast enhancement method was performed in all cases. Six cases were examined by CT and simultaneous sialography. The results were as follows: 1) If and when the margin of the tumor was indistinct and irregular, malignancy was suspected. However, it was difficult to diagnose malignancy by CT examination only. 2) CT for parotid gland tumor was effective in indentifying invasion of tumor into the parapharyngeal space and intracranial space. 3) CT with simultaneous sialography was very effective in locating the parotid gland tumor. 4) CT of axial sections for parotid gland tumor was more reliable if coronaly sections are taken together. 5) CT of malignant and benign tumors were diffusely enhanced by the intravenous contrast enhancement method. However, this was not an indispensable method. (author)

  1. The labral gland on termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palma-Onetto, V.; Hošková, K.; Křížková, B.; Krejčířová, R.; Pflegerová, Jitka; Bubeníčková, F.; Plarre, R.; Dahlsjö, C. A. L.; Synek, J.; Bourguignon, T.; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Šobotník, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 3 (2018), s. 535-544 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : exocrine gland * hypopharynx * labrum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Entomology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  2. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  3. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  4. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  5. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...... prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:  Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors....

  7. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegliante, Francesca; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands. Functional studies on the remaining structures are insufficient; in some cases (mandibular gland and adenosma) homologous glands may play a different role depending on the species, and only a few taxa have been examined. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically. The histology of 11 glands is known at the ultrastructural level, whereas that of 6 glands and 7 putative glandular structures is completely unknown. Comparative anatomical studies of the osmeterium, adenosma, and Verson's glands may yield useful information for phylogenetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  9. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  10. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CT of submandibular gland sialolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrahami, E.; Englender, M.; Chen, E.; Shabtay, D.; Katz, R.; Harell, M.

    1996-01-01

    We emphasise the importance of high-resolution CT with reconstruction in the demonstration of submandibular gland (SMG) sialolithiasis and its role in monitoring treatment. We studied 76 patients with swollen and tender SMG, some with fever. They underwent conventional radiography, sonography (US) and high-resolution CT with reconstructions. Conventional radiographs demonstrated single stones in 29 patients. Axial CT, before reconstructions, demonstrated single stones in 63 patients and multiple stones in another 5. Following CT reconstructions, multiple stones were demonstrated in 37 patients. On US stones were diagnosed in only 33 patients, and multiple stones in only 1. All 68 patients with stones shown on imaging and 2 without stones underwent surgery, with good clinical results. Total removal of the SMG and its duct was performed in patients with multiple stones, chronic inflammatory changes in the SMG, or a solitary stone in the SMG or deep in the duct. A small incision for removal of a solitary stone in the distal aspects of Wharton's duct was performed in 15 patients, with excellent clinical results. Another 14 patients with multiple salivary glad stones, diagnosed on CT reconstructions, did not improve following this procedure and needed further surgery; clinical improvement occurred following excision of the SMG and Wharton's duct. Histological examination in all of these confirmed the presence of additional stones. Conservative anti-inflammatory treatment was recommended for 6 patients in whom CT reconstructions did not demonstrate stones. (orig.)

  12. [Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  13. Development of lacrimal gland spheroids for lacrimal gland tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Isobel; Spaniol, Kristina; Barbian, Andreas; Geerling, Gerd; Metzger, Marco; Schrader, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Severe dry eye syndrome resulting from lacrimal gland (LG) dysfunction can cause blindness, yet treatments remain palliative. In vitro reconstruction of LG tissue could provide a curative treatment. We aimed to combine epithelial cells with endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to form a 3D functional unit. Epithelial cells and MSCs were isolated from porcine LG; endothelial cells were isolated from human foreskin. MSCs were characterised (flow cytometry and differentiation potential assays). All 3 cell types were combined on Matrigel and spheroid formation observed. Spheroids were characterised [immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy] and function assessed (β-hexosaminidase assay). Spheroids were transferred to decellularised jejunum (SIS-Muc) in dynamic cultures for 1 week before further characterisation. MSCs did not express CD31 but expressed CD44 and CD105 and differentiated towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Spheroids formed on Matrigel within 18 hr, contracting to ~10% of the well area (p function was increased in spheroids cf. monolayer controls (p function (p < .05), viability (p < .05), and proliferation decreased, whilst apoptosis increased. On SIS-Muc under dynamic culture, however, spheroids continued to proliferate to repopulate SIS-Muc. IHC revealed LG epithelial cells coexpressing pan-cytokeratin and lysozyme, as well as endothelial cells and MSCs and cells remained capable of responding to carbachol (p < .05). These spheroids could form the basis of a regenerative medicine treatment approach for dry eye syndrome. In vivo studies are required to evaluate this further. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  15. Lacrimal Gland Radiosensitivity in Uveal Melanoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Karin; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Naus, Nicole; Pan, Connie de; Santen, Cornelis A. van; Levendag, Peter; Luyten, Gre P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To find a dose-volume effect for inhomogeneous irradiated lacrimal glands. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2006, 72 patients (42 men and 30 women) were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial (median follow-up, 32 months). A total dose of 50 Gy was given on 5 consecutive days. The mean of all Schirmer test results obtained ≥6 months after treatment was correlated with the radiation dose delivered to the lacrimal gland. Also, the appearance of dry eye syndrome (DES) was related to the lacrimal gland dose distribution. Results: Of the 72 patients, 17 developed a late Schirmer value <10 mm; 9 patients developed DES. A statistically significant relationship was found between the received median dose in the lacrimal gland vs. reduced tear production (p = 0.000) and vs. the appearance of DES (p = 0.003), respectively. A median dose of 7 Gy/fraction to the lacrimal gland caused a 50% risk of low Schirmer results. A median dose of 10 Gy resulted in a 50% probability of DES. Conclusion: We found a clear dose-volume relationship for irradiated lacrimal glands with regard to reduced tear production and the appearance of DES.

  16. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  17. A study on the efficacy and adverse effects of post-operative beta-radiation in the prevention of recurrence of Pterygium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Nisa, L.; Kabir, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Beta irradiation by Strontium (Sr-90) has been in use for about 20 years in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate its efficacy and the risk and incidence of complications, both short-term and long-term. A retrospective analysis was done of all 417 patients receiving post-operative beta irradiation from January 2001 to January 2006.There were 303 males and 114 females, age ranged from 18 to 65 years with a mean of 38 years. Each patient received 2500cGy to the post-operative sclera surface in five fractions by hand held Sr-90 surface applicator from Amersham International. The patients were followed up at one week, one month, six months and one year after beta irradiation. All 417 cases reported for follow up at one week. But then gradually some patients did not turn up according to the schedule. The number of patients who reported for follow up at one month, 6 months and one year were 401, 325 and 288 respectively. Eighteen cases had recurrence within one year and received a second dose of beta radiation. Short-term complications included conjunctivitis, photophobia, watering of eyes etc. As for long term complications, two patients developed cataract and one patient developed ophthalmomalacia. The short-term complications were self limiting and had no serious effects. The two cases who developed cataracts were over 50 years old, so it could not be clearly understood whether the normal ageing process or the radiation contributed more in the development of the cataract. The rare ophthalmo-malacia developed in a case, which had simultaneous Graves' disease. All other patients in the study are doing well with significant improvement in visual acuity. The results of this retrospective study reveal that Sr- 90 beta irradiation is an effective and safe treatment option to prevent recurrence of Pterygium. (author)

  18. Morphological features of the porcine lacrimal gland and its compatibility for human lacrimal gland xenografting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, Robert; Scholz, Michael; Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations.

  19. Morphological features of the porcine lacrimal gland and its compatibility for human lacrimal gland xenografting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Henker

    Full Text Available In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations.

  20. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Streicher, Katie L

    2002-04-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating mammals, but is especially problematic for dairy cattle. The most recent estimates from the National Mastitis Council suggest that mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and will cost the dairy industry over 2 billion dollars annually in the United States in lost profits (National Mastitis Council (1996) Current Concepts in Bovine Mastitis, National Mastitis Council, Madison, WI). The overall impact of mastitis on the quality and quantity of milk produced for human consumption has provided the impetus to better understand the pathophysiology of the mammary gland and develop ways to enhance disease resistance through immunoregulation. As such, the bovine species has played a critical and prominent role in our current understanding of mammary gland immunobiology. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity and how the stage of lactation can impact important host defenses While this review emphasizes the bovine system, comparisons to humans and other domestic mammals will be addressed as well.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  4. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2002-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of 99m Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  5. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front

  6. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Reiser, U.; Heuck, F.

    1982-01-01

    Whole body CT opens a third dimension - in addition with the advantage of being a non-invasive method with relatively negligible risk. Both, the normal CT findings of the adrenal gland and the normal variants in shape and position are described. With help of morphometry and image processing measurements of the size of the adrenal gland of 20 healthy patients were made and are listed; not only the respective normal variants but also hypo-hyperplasia are pointed out. Some examples are suitable for the illustration of pathologic conditions, such as inflammation and benign and malignant primary and secondary neoplasis. Finally, the value of adrenal gland CT is discussed with reference to the other radiologic methods. (orig.)

  7. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  8. The Role of Pineal Gland and Exogenous Melatonin on the Irradiation Stress Response of Suprarenal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aličelebić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group or shampinealectomy (control group, adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatoninintraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  9. [Isolated thyroid gland sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsteger, W; Lind, P; Beham, A; Költringer, P; Eber, O

    1989-04-29

    A case of isolated sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland, associated with hyperthyroidism, is reported in a 28-year-old male patient whose thyroid was removed for hyperthyroid multinodular goitre. Histology revealed a regressive adenoma and sarcoidosis in non-adenomatous thyroid residue. Further diagnosis, therapeutic management and a 3-year follow-up did not disclose any specific changes or involvement of other tissues. Isolated thyroidal sarcoidosis with hyperthyroid alterations are extremely rare and mostly chance findings; simultaneous occurrence of thyroid sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism may be a symptom of gland infiltration for which an adequate explanation is still lacking.

  10. MR imaging of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Dresel, S.; Lissner, J.; Grevers, G.; Riederer, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this study MR imaging combined with Gd-DTPA as a new effective diagnostic tool is compared with plain MR imaging. Seventy-two patients with lesions of the parotid gland were examined. In the author's patient group, they found 25 malignant tumors, 19 benign lesions, 20 Sjogren syndromes, and eight inflamed parotid glands. Axial and coronal images were acquired with long (TR = 1,600 msec, TE = 25/90 msec) and short (TR = 500 msec, TE = 25 msec) spin-echo sequences before and after Gd-DTPA

  11. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  12. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until the adrenal glands start functioning normally again. Addison's Disease This rare disorder develops when the adrenal glands ... not make enough cortisol. In most cases of Addison's disease, the body also doesn't make enough of ...

  13. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature ... Objective: To outline the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumors in Uganda.

  14. Estudio comparativo de 2 técnicas quirúrgicas para la cirugía del pterigión primario Comparative study of 2 surgical techniques for the operation of primary Pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor R Díaz Alfonso

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio comparativo de 2 técnicas quirúrgicas para la cirugía del Pterigión Primario. Nuestra muestra estuvo conformada por 100 pacientes portadores del Pterigión Primario Grado II, que fueron enviados a una consulta creada al efecto, según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión establecidos. Les fue llenada una encuesta. Según el método de muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados en el tiempo del Programa ALE de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. A 50 de estos pacientes se les realizó la autoplastia conjuntival y al resto la exéresis simple; estos pacientes se siguieron en consulta evolutivamente durante 6 meses. Comparamos los resultados obtenidos con la utilización de las 2 técnicas y encontramos que la autoplastia conjuntival resultó ser más eficaz; pues la frecuencia de complicaciones fue solamente del 6,0 %; mientras que con la técnica convencional la recidiva es del 20,0 %; por lo que esperamos resultados alentadores en cuanto al tratamiento del Pterigión PrimarioA comparative study of 2 surgical techniques used in the operation of primary Pterygium was conducted. Our sample was composed of 100 patients carriers of primary Pterygium degree II that were referred to to the consulting room created to this end according to the established criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Patients were surveyed according to the method of randomized sampling by clusters at the time of the implementation of the ALE Program in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos. 50 of these patients underwent Conjunctival Autoplasty and the rest Simple Exeresis. The evolution of these patients was followed-up at the consulting room during 6 months. The results obtained on using both techiques were compared and we found that the Conjunctival Autoplasty was more efficient, since the frequence of complications was just 6.0%, whereas with the conventional technique the relapse was 20.0%. We hope to attain encouraging results in

  15. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  16. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  17. Gigantic enlargement of the thymus gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regal, Mohamed A.

    2007-01-01

    True massive thymic hyperplasia is a very rare entity, characterized by an increase in the size and weight of the thymus gland without an apparent cause. Surgery has been required in patients with severe respiratory distress. We present an idiopathic true massive thymic hyperplasia in a 5-month-old boy. (author)

  18. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of 125 I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less 125 I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less 125 I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands

  19. Parotid gland lipoma: two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islim, F.; Ors, S.; Salik, A.; Selcuk, H.; Sever, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Lipoma is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the human body but very rarely in the parotid gland. Objective: The aim of this study was to document retrospectively the imaging findings of lipomas with the use of computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Material and methods: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging were performed to the patients after clinical evaluation and physical examination. Both for two patients after fine needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced. Case 1: 14-wear-old woman was applied to the hospital with swelling of the right jaw. In physical examination a palpable mass was detected on the parotid gland. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion was observed. This tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images. Case 2: 65-wear-old man presented with a 10 month history of a painless, slow growing mass in the left preauricular area. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion with hyperechoic areas was observed. Also this tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images with low ADC level. Both for two patients after fine-needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced, superficial parotidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed parotid lipoma. Conclusion: Lipomas are common soft tissue neoplasms but found very rarely in the parotid gland, and so, are after not considered in the initial differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

  20. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  1. Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland with hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Canamar, G.; Vogel, H.

    1983-02-01

    A patient with an endocrine-active carcinoma of the parathyroid gland was observed. The typical signs of hyperthyroidism could be seen in the skelettal system. Symptoms of bone and kidney diseases dominated the clinical picture. The symptomatology corresponded to a subchronic primary hyperparathyroidism.

  2. Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland with hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevino Canamar, G.; Vogel, H.

    1983-01-01

    A patient with an endocrine-active carcinoma of the parathyroid gland was observed. The typical signs of hyperthyroidism could be seen in the skelettal system. Symptoms of bone and kidney diseases dominated the clinical picture. The symptomatology corresponded to a subchronic primary hyperparathyroidism. (orig.) [de

  3. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  4. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    of the lacrimal gland, displacement of the eyeball, reduced eye motility and diplopia. Pain and symptoms of short duration before the first ophthalmic consultation are characteristic of malignant tumours. The histological diagnosis determines the subsequent treatment regimen and provides important clues regarding...

  5. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most salivary gland tumors in children are benign (not cancer) and do not spread to other tissues, but some are malignant (cancer). The prognosis for salivary gland cancer in children is usually good. Get information about of the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masami; Uozumi, Tohru; Sakoda, Katsuaki; Ohta, Masahiro; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Kajima, Toshio.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable procedure for diagnosing such midline-positioned lesions as pituitary adenomas. To differentiate them from microadenomas fifty-seven cases (9 - 74 years old, 29 men and 28 women), including 50 patients without any sellar or parasellar diseases and seven normal volunteers, were studied in order to clarify the MR findings of the shape, height, and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland, especially at the median sagittal section. The height of a normal pituitary gland varied from 2 to 9 mm (mean: 5.7 mm); the upper surface of the gland was convex in 19.3 %, flat in 49.1 %, and concave in 31.6 %. The mean height of the gland in women in their twenties was 7.5 mm, and the upper convex shape appeared exclusively in women of the second to fourth decades. Nine intrasellar pituitary adenomas (PRL-secreting: 4, GH-secreting: 4, ACTH-secreting: 1), all verified by surgery, were diagnosed using a resistive MR system. The heights of the gland in these cases were from 7 to 15 mm (mean: 11.3 mm); the upper surface was convex in 7 cases. A localized bulging of the upper surface of the gland and a localized depression of the sellar floor were depicted on the coronal and sagittal sections in most cases. Although the GH- and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases showed homogeneous intrasellar contents, in all the PRL-secreting adenoma cases a low-signal-intensity area was detected in the IR images. The mean T1 values of the intrasellar content of the normal volunteers, the PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases, were 367, 416, 355, and 411 ms respectively. However, in the PRL-secreting adenoma cases, the mean T1 value of the areas showing a low signal intensity on IR images was 455 ms; this was a significant prolongation in comparison with that of a normal pituitary gland. (J.P.N.)

  7. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  8. Transcriptional profiling reveals gland-specific differential expression in the three major salivary glands of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Oei, Maria S; Ovitt, Catherine E; Sincan, Murat; Melvin, James E

    2018-04-01

    RNA-Seq was used to better understand the molecular nature of the biological differences among the three major exocrine salivary glands in mammals. Transcriptional profiling found that the adult murine parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands express greater than 14,300 protein-coding genes, and nearly 2,000 of these genes were differentially expressed. Principle component analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed three distinct clusters according to gland type. The three salivary gland transcriptomes were dominated by a relatively few number of highly expressed genes (6.3%) that accounted for more than 90% of transcriptional output. Of the 912 transcription factors expressed in the major salivary glands, greater than 90% of them were detected in all three glands, while expression for ~2% of them was enriched in an individual gland. Expression of these unique transcription factors correlated with sublingual and parotid specific subsets of both highly expressed and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the highly expressed genes common to all glands were associated with global functions, while many of the genes expressed in a single gland play a major role in the function of that gland. In summary, transcriptional profiling of the three murine major salivary glands identified a limited number of highly expressed genes, differentially expressed genes, and unique transcription factors that represent the transcriptional signatures underlying gland-specific biological properties.

  9. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  10. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Keiko; Kozuka, Takahiro; Morimoto, Shizuo; Ikezoe, Junpei; Arisawa, Jun; Akira, Masanori; Koide, Takuo; Oka, Toshitsugu; Sone, Shusuke.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the neck were performed in 12 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-eight of 44 excised parathyroid glands were visualized by US preoperatively (64 %). By CT, 20 parathyroid glands were detected (45 %). US was superior to CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing between 500 and 1500 mg. There was no difference between US and CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing more than 1500 mg and less than 500 mg. For definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism and preoperative localization, US is modality of choice initially, and then CT can be employed to search for mediastinal parathyroid gland. (author)

  11. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori; Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  12. High resolution computed tomography of the post partum pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, D.B.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Davidson, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eight volunteer post partum female patients were examined with high resolution computed tomography during the week immediately after delivery. All patients received high dose (40-70 gm) intravenous iodine contrast administration. The scans were examined for pituitary gland height, shape and homogeneity. All of the patients had enlarged glands by the traditional standards (i.e. gland height of 8 mm or greater). The diaphragma sellae in every call bulged upward with a convex domed appearance. The glands were generally inhomogeneous. One gland had a 4 mm focal well defined area of decreased attenuation. Two patients who were studied again months later had glands which had returned to ''normal'' size. The enlarged, upwardly convex pituitary gland appears to be typical and normal for the recently post partum period. (orig.)

  13. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  14. Effectiveness of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane transplantation vs conjunctival auto graft implant in the pterygium surgery with intraoperative mitomycin C;Eficacia del trasplante de membrana amniotica radioesterilizada vs injerto autologo conjuntival en la cirugia de pterigion con mitocomina C intraoperatoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez Y, L.; Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Banco de Tejidos Radioesterilizados, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L. [Hospital General de Mexico, Departamento de Cornea, Dr. Balmis No. 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    At the present time the traditional surgical handling of the pterygium with conjunctival implant presents high frequency. In this work the obtained results of a controlled clinic practice blind double are presented of the period of December from 2008 to December 2009, realized in the Medical Unit of Ambulatory Attention 231 of the Mexican Institute of the Public Health located in Metepec, Mexico State, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and security of the alternative use of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane and intraoperative mitomycin C. For the study was included patients with diagnostic of primary nasal pterygium in one or both eyes, adults of both genus with an age range of 20 to 60 years, and was used radio sterilized amniotic membrane processed in the Bank of Radio Sterilized Tissues of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  15. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to know the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck in order to minimize the rate of thyroid surgery morbidity, especially the lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves. The aim of this study was the identification of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts and their histological confirmation. Twenty cadaver parts were used to simulate thyroidectomies. During dissection, the thyroid glands and eventual parathyroid glands were isolated and then submitted to histological study. Twenty cadaver parts (anterior cervical organs) were used for macroscopic dissection during which 48 fragments that corresponded to eventual parathyroid glands were isolated, 35 of which were effectively confirmed through histological observation to be parathyroid glands. The 20 cadaver parts were then divided into three groups according to the number of histologically confirmed parathyroid glands. In the first group, composed of 11 cases, all eventual parathyroid glands were confirmed. In the second group, composed of six cases, only some glands were confirmed. In the third group, composed of three cases, none of the possible glands were confirmed. In seven of the 20 isolated thyroid glands, eight parathyroid glands were identified during histological study: four subcapsular, three extra-capsular, one intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical relation in the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. The knowledge of the anatomy of the central visceral compartment of the neck and its most frequent variations reduces but doesn't eliminate thyroid surgery morbidity, especially parathyroid iatrogenic excision, difficulty which has been demonstrated during the dissection of cadaver parts.

  16. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  17. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  18. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  19. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  20. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  1. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. E. Lyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT and malignant thermograms (MT.

  2. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Debraj; Arora, Vijinder

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies – the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases

  3. Paratiroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Carpio, Roberto; Jimenez Torres, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 62 year old woman with diagnose of parathyroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma admitted at the ION SOLCA in Quito by the surgery service. At her admission she was classified as a paraneoplasic syndrome associated witha a pulmonary mass + hypercalcemia. This case was presented because of the importance of the primary hyperparathyroidism as one of the principal endocrine pathologies, that in oncology are associated with the multiple neoplasia syndromes. (The author)

  4. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  5. Benign Fibrous Tumour of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Sreetharan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 44-year-old man with left parotid enlargement that was initially diagnosed as cementifying fibroma is presented. The lesion was found in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and was successfully removed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well with intact facial nerve function and remained asymptomatic after 1 year. Subsequent histology revealed the mass to be a benign fibrous tumour. The diagnosis and management of this rare entity are discussed.

  6. Morphometric study of the avian adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aire, T A

    1980-01-01

    The interrenal and medullary cords as well as the blood vessels and connective tissue proportions in the adrenal glands of the male Nigerian fowl (Gallus domesticus) and guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris) were studied by microstereological techniques. Laying domestic fowl of the Rhode Island Red breed were entirely defeathered and maintained in a hot, humid pen for a period of three months, after which the adrenal glands were also studied microstereologically. Interrenal cord width was also measured in all the birds studied. The interrenal cords of the subscapular zone were consistently wider than those cords in the inner zone of the adrenal glands. This clearly suggested morphological zoning. The proportion of interrenal tissue was significantly greater in the guinea-fowl than in the Nigerian fowl, but the medullary tissue and the blood vessels and connective tissue were not significantly different. Interrenal hypoplasia or medullary hyperplasia occurred in the defeathered Rhode Island Red fowl as compared to the control birds of the same breed and sex. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7440402

  7. Differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolar, D.H.M.; Unger, B.; Preidler, K.; Ranner, G.; Heinz-Peer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are first line modalities in the evaluation of patients with adrenal gland masses, and have the potential to be very accurate for the localization of adrenal gland masses in patients with diseases associated with hyperfunctioning conditions of the adrenal gland. Both CT and MR imaging allow a specific diagnosis of acute adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal myelolipoma, and adrenal cysts. CT is also helpful in the assessment of patients with Addision's disease, particularly the subacute from secondary to granulomatous diseases. Quantitative evaluation of adrenal masses on unenhanced CT scans and/or qualitative analysis on chemical-shift MR imaging have been shown to be accurate in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas. Attenuation of 11 HE or less on unenhanced CT scans and/or signal loss on opposed phase MR images indicate adenoma with a high specificity and acceptable sensitivity. More recently, delayed-enhanced CT has yielded higher sensitivity and specificity values in distinguishing between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas than both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MR imaging do. On delayed-enhanced CT scans, adrenal adenomas exhibit a greater washout of contrast material than do adrenal non-adenomas. Therefore, adrenal non-adenomas have significantly higher attenuation than adenomas on delayed-enhanced CT scans obtained at several arbitrarily chosen time points (3-60 min) after the initiation of contrast material administration. (orig.) [de

  8. Bilateral parotid gland tuberculosis: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Takhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parotid gland tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic like India; however, it should be included as one of the differentials of discrete parotid swelling as it generally presents as a slow-growing mass indistinguishable from a malignancy and even imaging too, can’t differentiate these clearly. The majority of the previously reported cases were mostly unilateral and diagnosed by histopathological examination of post parotidectomy specimens. Here we are describing a case of tuberculosis of both parotid glands in a 25 year-old male who was referred to us with bilateral parotid region swelling of two month duration. Tubercular parotiditis was confirmed by demonstration of epithelioid granuloma and caseous necrosis compatible with TB on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. He was treated with four drug anti-TB regimen (2HERZ + 4HR leading to full recovery and complete disappearance of swelling and symptoms with no recurrence till one year of follow up. Apart from rarity due to bilateral involvement, this case report highlights the clinical presentation, ultrasonography and other imaging findings, and significance of FNAC in diagnosis of this uncommon entity reinforcing the fact that the diagnosis of parotid gland tuberculosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion.

  9. Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy in Prostate Glands 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayadev, Jyoti; Merrick, Gregory S.; Reed, Joshua R.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry, treatment-related morbidity, and biochemical outcomes for brachytherapy in patients with prostate glands 3 . Methods and Materials: From November 1996 to October 2006, 104 patients with prostate glands 3 underwent brachytherapy. Multiple prostate, urethral, and rectal dosimetric parameters were evaluated. Treatment-related urinary and rectal morbidity were assessed from patient questionnaires. Cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival were recorded. Results: The median patient age, follow up, and pre-treatment ultrasound volume was 64 years, 5.0 years and 17.6cm 3 , respectively. Median day 0 dosimetry was significant for the following: V100 98.5%, D90 126.1% and R100 <0.5% of prescription dose. The mean urethral and maximum urethral doses were 119.6% and 133.8% of prescription. The median time to International Prostate Symptom Score resolution was 4 months. There were no RTOG grade III or IV rectal complications. The cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 100%, 92.5%, and 77.8% at 9 years. For biochemically disease-free patients, the median most recent postbrachytherapy PSA value was 0.02 ng/mL. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that brachytherapy for small prostate glands is highly effective, with an acceptable morbidity profile, excellent postimplant dosimetry, acceptable treatment-related morbidity, and favorable biochemical outcomes.

  10. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  11. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine treatment and outcome. There are few absolutes in salivary gland tumor diagnosis given the marked spectrum and overlap of differentiated cell types that participate in the numerous benign and malignant tumors. Thus, there are enumerating antibodies that may be helpful in resolving difficult differential diagnoses when applied with astute morphologic correlation. In general, immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool should be used sparingly and wisely as a morphologic adjunct because of the lack of specificity of many markers for specific histologic tumor types. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular profiling of salivary gland neoplasms and correlate this with histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms. We have elected to discuss and illustrate some of the unusual salivary gland tumors that the practicing pathologist find difficult to diagnose. These have been selected because they readily simulate each other but have very different clinical therapies and, therefore, should be included routinely in differential diagnosis.

  12. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Conrady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction.

  13. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  14. The evaluation of computed tomography of the normal adrenal glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Cho Hye; Choi, Kyung Hee; Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    Radiology plays an important role in evaluating patients with suspected adrenal gland pathology. Morphologic delineation of adrenal gland is especially valuable in patients with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of a disturbance in adrenal function. Many diagnostic radiologic methods are available for demonstrating adrenal lesions. Computed tomography overcomes many of the disadvantages of these other radiologic techniques. The high degree of spatial and density resolution allows precise demonstration of the normal adrenal glands as well as detection of both small and large tumors in almost all patients. So CT of adrenal gland is an excellent noninvasive screening method and definitive imaging technique. The anthers have investigated the capability of CT to image the normal size, location and shape of both glands. Knowledge of the range of normal is useful for optimal interpretation of CT scans in patients with suspected adrenal pathology. We reviewed CT scan of 150 cases without evidence of adrenal disease. The following results were obtained; 1. There were 90 male and 60 female patients. 2. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. 3. On CT, both glands were shown in 135 (90.0%), the right in 143 (95.3%), the left in 142 (94.6%). 4. In the shape of adrenal glands, most of right adrenal gland was linear or comet shaped; 68 (47.6%), most of left adrenal gland was inverted-Y shaped; 103 (72.6%). 5. In the length of adrenal glands, the right was 2.5{+-}0.77cm, the left was 2.9{+-}0.75cm. 6. In the width of adrenal glands, the right was 3.2{+-}0.74cm, the left was 2.7{+-}0.57cm. 7. In the thickness of adrenal glands, the right was 0.5{+-}0.14cm, the left was 0.6{+-}0.16cm.

  15. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  16. Gland system, especially for nuclear power plant circulation pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.; Vesely, M.

    1975-01-01

    The invention claims a gland system suitable especially for the circulation pumps of nuclear power plants. The system prevents the release of the radioactive high-pressure cooling liquid in the atmosphere. The gland system consists of at least two mechanical glands arranged in series and of the closed circuit of the cooling high-pressure medium. The respective mechanical glands are linked with by-pass branches and discharge piping. The by-pass branches accommodating control manometers and flowmeters are linked with the storage reservoir with drain pipes provided with stop fittings. (Oy)

  17. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands in Addision's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzymski, K.; Sobieszczyk, S.; Kosowicz, J.; Akademia Medyczna, Poznan

    1984-01-01

    In 30 cases of chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) CT of the adrenal glands was performed using a fourth generation scanner and a 2 mm slice thickness. Adrenal glands were visualized in all the cases. In 26 patients the adrenals were atrophied; the adrenal shape was abnormal in 21 patients. In 15 patients CT disclosed calcifications in one or both glands, which were particularly frequent in patients over the age of 50. Atrophy of adrenal glands was of high occurrence in cases of autoimmune origin. (orig.) [de

  18. The Aging Lacrimal Gland: Changes in Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Eduardo M.; Alves, Monica; Rios, J. David; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2008-01-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mec...

  19. Note on glands present in meliponinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae bees legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the presence of glandular structures in legs of some stingless bee species. The glands appear as: the epidermis transformation in a glandular epithelium as in basitarsus, an epithelial sac inside the segment as in the femur of queens or in the last tarsomere, as round glandular cells, scattered or forming groupments. The saculiform gland of femur is present only in queens, the other glands are present in males, queens and workers of the studied species, apparently without any type of polymorphism. This occurrence seems indicate that the function of these glands have not to do with the sociality or specific behavior of castes.

  20. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  1. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  3. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Jandali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager.Case presentationA 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence.ConclusionThis is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  4. Branchial cysts within the parotid salivary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Cystic lesions within the parotid gland are uncommon and clinically they are frequently misdiagnosed as tumours. Many theories have been proposed as to their embryological origin. A 20-year retrospective review was undertaken of all pathological codes (SNOMED) of all of patients presenting with any parotid lesions requiring surgery. After analysis seven subjects were found to have histopathologically proven parotid branchial cysts in the absence of HIV infection and those patients are the aim of this review. Four of the most common embryological theories are also discussed with regard to these cases, as are their management. PMID:22607735

  5. Primary lymphocytic lymphoma of lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Caballero, M D; Lozano-García, I; Gómez-Molina, C; Gil-Liñán, A I; Arcas, I

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of primary small-cell lymphocytic lacrimal gland lymphoma in a male diagnosed with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. These rare lymphomas are usually presented in the clinic as disseminations secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and the primary site is rare in the orbit. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours. Although treatment in the IE stage is usually radiotherapy, due to its association with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic treatment with rituximab was administered. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery.

  7. Microbiology of Bartholin's Gland Abscess in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kaori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Ninomiya, Mochiyoshi; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current epidemiology concerning the causative organisms for Bartholin's gland abscess in Japan. Microbiological examination of 224 cases showed positive results in 219 cases and negative results in 5 cases. Of all of the bacterial isolates, 307 and 118 were aerobes and anaerobes, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Of the anaerobes, the most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides species, followed by Prevotella species. The organisms related to respiratory infectious diseases, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, including resistant bacteria, were sometimes involved between 2000 and 2004. PMID:16081994

  8. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods. From the 1(st) of January 1996 to 31(st) of December 2002 a total of 169 PMC patients were diagnosed and registered in the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and 131 of these were eligible for the study. Forty-three (33%) had histologically......Introduction. Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow...

  9. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  10. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies - the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases.

  11. Genetic disorders of the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, W M

    1985-01-01

    This survey deals with disorders caused by genetically disturbed function of the anterior pituitary gland. Genetic Dwarfism may be caused by isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) or panpituitary diseases, such as congenital absence of the pituitary or familial panhypopituitarism. Genetic disturbances of isolated pituitary hormone secretion without dwarfism may occur as isolated gonadotropin deficiency (IGD), isolated luteinizing hormone deficiency ("fertile eunuch"), Kallmann syndrome (olfactogenital dysplasia), isolated thyrotropin deficiency (ITD) and isolated corticotropin deficiency (ICD). Pituitary dysfunction may also be associated with other genetic disease entities.

  12. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  13. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...... and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more...

  14. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  15. Autoinjerto conjuntival y membrana amniótica en la cirugía del pterigión primario Use of conjunctival autograft and amniotic membrane in primary pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyly Fernández García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar la efectividad del autoinjerto conjuntival y el injerto de membrana amniótica en la cirugía del pterigión primario en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" de septiembre de 2009 a septiembre de 2010. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, comparativo y aleatorio. El universo estuvo constituido por 80 pacientes (80 ojos con diagnóstico de pterigión primario que se les realizó escisión quirúrgica de la hiperplasia fibrovascular nasal primaria. Se dividieron en 2 grupos al azar simple. Al grupo A (40 ojos se le implantó injerto de membrana amniótica y al grupo B (40 ojos autoinjerto de conjuntiva. Resultados: en seis meses de seguimiento se presentaron cuatro recurrencias (10 % en el grupo A y solo dos casos en el grupo B (5 %. En ninguno de los pacientes hubo complicación. Fue más efectivo el autoinjerto conjuntival. Conclusiones: la recidiva fue más frecuente en la cirugía con membrana amniótica aunque no existió una diferencia significativa. Se consideran ambas técnicas efectivas en esta afección.Objective: to compare the effectiveness of the conjunctival autograft and the amniotic membrane graft in the primary pterygium surgery at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from September 2009 to September 2010. Methods: a prospective, random and comparative study. The universe was composed by 80 eyes from 80 patients diagnosed with primary pterygium. They had undergone the surgical excision of a primary nasal fibrovascular hyperplasia. They were divided in two single-randomized groups (A and B; the group A patients (40 eyes were implanted with amniotic membrane graft whereas those of group B (40 eyes were implanted with conjunctival autograft. Results: during the 6 month follow-up, 4 recurrences were reported (10 % in group A and only 2 in group B (5 %. No complications were presented in both groups. The conjunctival autograft was more effective. Conclusions: the relapse was more

  16. Salivary gland function after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichiro; Shimane, Toshikazu; Uzuki, Aya; Sugimoto, Akane; Mori, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Rio; Gomibuchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Sei; Sanbe, Takeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more and more prevalent. In fact, it is considered to better maintain quality of life (QOL) of patients than operative treatment in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and structures, but recently I seems that it does not maintain the QOL of patients better than operative treatment because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We previously conducted a questionnaire survey that investigated the complications experienced by patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reported that xerostomia was markedly reduced QOL in these patients. In this study, we divided patients who were exposed to radiation in both major salivary glands into two groups: 20 patients who received a 36 Gy dose of radiation (36 Gy group) and 15 patients who underwent radiation therapy alone at a dose of 40 Gy (radiotherapy (RT) group). The gum test was conducted with the following results (mean volume of saliva): 11.2 ml in the 36 Gy group, 6.0 ml in the RT group. There was no significant difference between the 36 Gy group and RT group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in the extent of salivary gland dysfunction even after chemotherapy is carried out concurrently with radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Hedgehog signaling: endocrine gland development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-01-01

    The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.

  18. Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus arminius. J.M. Brand, L.V. Mabinya, E.D. Morgan. Abstract. Camponotus arminius is a large black carpenter ant that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and has extensive foraging trails both in trees and on the ground. Analysis of excised mandibular glands ...

  19. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1996-01-01

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  20. The aging lacrimal gland: changes in structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo M; Alves, Monica; Rios, J David; Dartt, Darlene A

    2008-10-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mechanism is known to induce the changes that occur with aging, although multiple different mechanisms have been associated with aging. These fall into two theoretical categories: programmed theories of aging (immunological, genetic, apoptotic, and neuroendocrine) and error theories of aging (protein alteration, somatic mutation, etc). Lacrimal glands undergo structural and functional alteration with increasing age. In mouse models of aging, it has been shown that neural stimulation of protein secretion is an early target of aging, accompanied by an increase in mast cells and lipofuscin accumulation. Hyperglycemia and increased lymphocytic infiltration can contribute to this loss of function at older ages. These findings suggest that an increase in oxidative stress may play a role in the loss of lacrimal gland function with age. For the afferent and efferent neural components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, immune or inflammatory mediated decrease in nerve function could contribute to loss of lacrimal gland secretion with age. More research in this area is critically needed.

  1. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  2. Epidemiology of a mammary glands cancer in Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzykulov, Zh.A.; Kanaf'yanov, G.S.; Igisinov, S.I.; Sejtkazina, G.D.; Makhataeva, A.Zh.

    2003-01-01

    The tendency of mammary glands cancer morbidity for 1980-2000 years in the former Semipalatinsk test site has been studied. The trends of mammary glands cancer morbidity in dynamic are increase (T±5.4), moreover legalities have been presented in indices standardization for world standard

  3. Oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: A Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler

    2017-01-01

    demographics, tumor site, clinical stage and treatment profiles were extracted. A follow-up was carried out. RESULTS: Of the 15 cases of salivary gland OC, eight were female. The incidence was 0.02/100.000 inhabitants per year in Denmark, 13 patients presented with OC in the parotid gland and two patients...

  4. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  5. Parotid gland function following accelerated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.D.; Dische, S.

    1991-01-01

    The function of parotid glands in patients treated by 3 different schedules of radiotherapy was studied 9 months or more after its conclusion. All had received radiotherapy for a malignancy confined to 1 side of the head and neck region and only the gland on the side of the lesion was in the treatment volume; the contralateral gland acted as an internal control. Saliva was selectively collected from the parotid glands and the stimulated flow rate and pH of the saliva determined. Flow rates were expressed in each case as a percentage of that of the contralateral ('untreated') gland. Twelve glands that had received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60-66 Gy showed a mean percentage flow of 20 percent and a significant fall in the pH of the saliva produced. Six glands that had received CHART (Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated RadioTherapy) and 8 conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 35-40 Gy showed mean percentage flows of 57 and 65 percent respectively, with only slight and non-significant falls in saliva pH. The results show that in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck the use of CHART can lead to considerable less late change in the function of the parotid gland. (author). 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  7. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  8. MR demonstration of a prostate gland in a female pseudohermaphrodite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sharma, Raju

    2006-01-01

    We present the rare case of a 14-year-old female pseudohermaphrodite due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). MRI revealed the presence of a hypoplastic uterus, ovaries, clitoromegaly, and prostate gland with its typical zonal anatomy. Transrectal sonography also confirmed the presence of a prostate gland. (orig.)

  9. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  10. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  11. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  12. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  13. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands .... be used in the silk-manufacture industry. This paper analyses .... (figure 3C); and are highly birefringent (figure 3D).

  14. A Histological Autopsy Study of the Thyroid gland in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the histological appearances of adult thyroid glands in patients who died of HIV related diseases at UTH in the period 2010 to 2012. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive retrospective study of adult thyroid glands collected at autopsy during the period 2010 ...

  15. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  16. Histomorphometry aspect of thyroid gland and biochemical profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... brain, as well as for many other aspects of pregnancy and fetal growth. ... gland and reproductive status (pregnant vs. non- pregnant) in camels. ... The left and right lobe of the thyroid gland from pregnant and non- pregnant ...

  17. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  18. Single and multiple gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjer, Jaap

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe scope of this thesis is: To review diagnostic procedures in primary hyperparathyroidism To review localization studies of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism primary To assess the optima! surgical hyperparathyroidism by studying the recurrent hyperparathyroidism treatment of primary rates of persistent or To attempt to classify primary hyperparathyroidism by histopathology To determine DNA patterns in parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism

  19. Isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis – Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar Alwohaib

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lacrimal gland agenesis, also called congenital alacrima, is a rare cause of dry eye and is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of lacrimal glands. We present two 5-year old children with congenital lacrimal gland agenesis. The two cases had the final diagnosis of isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis and we document the clinical aspects, treatment and present a literature review related to this rare condition. Keywords: Alacrima, Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal gland agenesis, Punctal plugs

  20. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  1. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... were found. Two out of three studies found a statistically significant increase in adrenal volume in patients compared to controls. Four out of eight studies found a statistically significant increase in pituitary volume in patients compared to controls. Different methodological problems were...

  2. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  3. Dual pathology of the submandibular gland: plasmacytoma and pleomorphic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Shalini; Pujary, Kailesh; Valiathan, Manna

    2014-03-03

    Synchronous tumours of different histological types involving the salivary gland are very rare. There have been cases reported in the literature of such tumours occurring in the parotid gland. A 52-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of gradually increasing painless swelling in the right submandibular region. The ultrasound scan of the neck showed features suggestive of a submandibular sialadenitis. The right submandibular gland was then surgically excised and sent for histopathological examination. The features showed a unique dual pathology of the submandibular gland, that is, a plasmacytoma and a pleomorphic adenoma. Such a synchronous double pathology involving the submandibular gland has not been reported in the literature. A review of the literature suggests a good prognosis for the extramedullary plasmacytoma, provided multiple myeloma is ruled out. In 18 months of follow-up, the patient has been asymptomatic with a negative myeloma workup.

  4. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Nakanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion.

  5. Computed tomography diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverková, Lucia; Bakaj-Zbrožková, Lenka; Hallamová, Lucie; Heřman, Miroslav

    2013-10-01

    Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

  6. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A. Badge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  7. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, H.; Tominaga, Y.; Uchida, K.; Yamada, N.; Morimoto, T.; Yasue, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-two out of 31 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy before operation underwent non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands by computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy with 201 TlCl and /sup 99m/TcO 4+ , and/or ultrasonography. CT visualized 39 of 45 parathyroid glands (86.7%), weighing more than 500 mg. Scintigraphy with a subtraction method using a computer performed the diagnosis in 19 of 27 glands (70.4%). Ultrasonography detected 21 of 27 glands (77.8%). Image diagnosis was also useful in the postoperative follow-up study. The non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure is thus valuable for 1) definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 2) localization, and 3) diagnosis for effectiveness of conservative treatment

  8. Management of minor salivary gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery in the treatment of patients with malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and November 1992, 95 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas of the head and neck received radiotherapy with curative intent. Eighty-seven patients were previously untreated, and 8 were treated for postsurgical recurrence. Fifty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, and 44 were treated by surgical resection plus radiotherapy. Patients were staged according to the 1983 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for squamous cell carcinomas. Results: The 20-year actuarial rate of local control was 57% with no significant difference according to histologic type. When tumor stage was taken into consideration, there were no significant differences in local control according to tumor site. The 12-year actuarial probability of distant metastases was 40% (19% as the only site of failure). In multivariate analyses, local control was significantly affected only by tumor stage and treatment type (combined therapy better than radiotherapy alone); tumor stage was a significant predictor of cause-specific survival and freedom from relapse. Freedom-from-relapse rates were higher for patients who received combined treatment (p = 0.068). Conclusions: Treatment of minor salivary gland carcinomas is usually by combined surgery and radiotherapy, but there are situations where surgery alone or radiotherapy alone may be used. The ability to control these tumors with radiotherapy alone is not widely recognized. In the present series, the tumor was locally controlled in 20 patients with previously untreated primary lesions after radiotherapy alone (2.5 to 21 years) and in 4 other patients who were treated by radiotherapy alone for postsurgical recurrent tumor (3.5 to 14 years after radiotherapy). Contrary to the widely held belief that local recurrence

  9. Histoanatomical study of the Sublingual Salivary Gland in the Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.a Ebrahimi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The heads of ten adult camels were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections stained with H & E for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. This part of the gland begins from the mandibular symphysis and is continued caudally to near the root of the tongue. The average length, width and thickness of this part were 15.2±0.02, 2.2±0.03 and 0.5±0.05 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as scattered and lobulated near the submucosa and in front of the monostomatic part with decreasing concentration caudally. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5±0.02 cm. The overall appearance of the gland was lobulated with a pink colour. The monostomatic part has a single duct entering the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the depressions alongside the tongue inside the oral cavity. These ducts are numerous. Histologically, the gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Trabcules from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobules. Loose connective tissue makes up the framework of the gland and there are tubulo-acinus glands in the spaces of this framework. Approximately 95% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells. Myoepithelial cells are seen on the external surface of the secretory cells and also alongside the connecting ducts.

  10. Role of thyroid gland on the peroxidase and iodinating enzymes of submaxillary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, T.; Das, R.; Datta, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and iodinase (EC 1.11.1.8) activities of rat submaxillary gland were found to be increased after thyroidectomy. The enzyme activities were maximal on the seventh day after operation and then decreased slightly. However, the enzyme activities were still more than 100% even 28 days following operation. Administration of thyroxine (10 μg/100 g body weight) prevented the increase. Puromycin, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D, the inhibitors of protein synthesis, as well as Thiouracil partially abolished the increase of activities. These results suggest that thyroxine acts as a regulator of the iodinase and peroxidase enzyme(s) of submaxillary gland. Iodine 131 was the isotope used in the experiments. (orig./AJ) [de

  11. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  12. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  13. Normal tissue complication probability for salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiotherapy is to make a profitable balance between the morbidity (due to side effects of radiation) and cure of malignancy. To achieve this, one needs to know the relation between NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) and various treatment variables of a schedule viz. daily dose, duration of treatment, total dose and fractionation along with tissue conditions. Prospective studies require that a large number of patients be treated with varied schedule parameters and a statistically acceptable number of patients develop complications so that a true relation between NTCP and a particular variable is established. In this study Salivary Glands Complications have been considered. The cases treated in 60 Co teletherapy machine during the period 1994 to 2002 were analyzed and the clinicians judgement in ascertaining the end points was the only means of observations. The only end points were early and late xerestomia which were considered for NTCP evaluations for a period of 5 years

  14. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Keun Yong; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Chae Seo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Bundang Seoul National University Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy, and determine prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Between 1980 and 2002, 130 patients with parotid malignancy were registered in the database of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital. The subjects of this analysis were the 72 of these 130 patients who underwent postoperative irradiation. There were 42 males and 30 females, with a median age of 46.5 years. The most common histological type was a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. There were 6, 23, 23 and 20 patients in Stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The median dose to the tumor bed was 60 Gy, with a median fraction size of 1.8 Gy. The overall 5 and 10 year survival rates were 85 and 76%, respectively. The five-year locoregional control rate was 85%, which reached a plateau phase after 6 years. Sex and histological type were found to be statistically significant for overall survival from a multivariate analysis. No other factors, including age, facial nerve palsy and stage, were related to overall survival. For locoregional control, nodal involvement and positive resection margin were associated with poor local control. Histological type, tumor size, perineural invasion and type of surgery were not significant for locoregional control. A high survival rate of parotid gland malignancies, with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, was confirmed. Sex and histological type were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Nodal involvement and a positive resection margin were associated with poor locoregional control.

  16. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of [ 3 H]captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril labeling of ACE. [ 3 H]Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. [ 3 H]Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, [ 3 H]captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor [ 3 H]GEMSA

  17. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  18. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  19. X-ray characteristics of mammary gland changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmikhajlova, Kh.

    1977-01-01

    The technical problems on the X-ray presentation of the mammary gland are discussed. The role of film mammography and electroroentgenography for detection of the structural changes in the gland is emphasized. The roentgenomorphologic characteristics of the most common X-ray shadows in the mammary glands, classified by their intensity, form, size, number, structure and arrangement, is presented. For a more rapid and easier characterization of the changes in the different mammary gland diseases, the author developed a practicable work formula. This formula is a decimal fraction, in whose numerator are written the morbidly altered numerically marked quadrants of the right mammary gland and in the dominator - those of the left. This formula is suitable for presentation both of diffuse and of solitary changes in the gland. A brief description of their types is given after the formula. The practical value of the formula for the diagnosis of mammary gland diseases is pointed out. It helps the roent--genologist and the surgeon in the exact localization of the changes and performance of an exact sectorial resection. This, in turn, furnishes better opportunities for the pathologist to gain access exactly to the morbidly altered area, which is of particular importance for detection of intraductal cancer. The convenience of the work formula for a rapid recognition and schematic designation of the findings and in mass prophylactic mammofluorographic screening of women is emphasized. (author)

  20. Microvascular transplantation and replantation of the dog submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wan Fu; Jen, Yee Min; Chen, Shyi Gen; Nieh, Shin; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2006-05-01

    Transplantation and replantation of the submandibular gland with microvascular techniques were demonstrated in a previous study, with good gland survival. The application of radiation on the neck bed was attempted to address an actual clinical scenario in this study. Five canine submandibular glands were transplanted using microvascular techniques to the ipsilateral femoral system. Radiotherapy at a dosage level of 3,600 cGy using 600 cGy q.d was delivered to the nasopharyngeal and neck regions 2 weeks after transplantation. The transferred glands were then reintroduced into the original but radiated neck bed. The glands were harvested for histological examination 8 weeks later. Four of five canine submandibular glands can withstand microvascular transplantation and then replantation into a radiated neck bed for at least 8 weeks. However, the salivary function was depleted. The canine submandibular gland can survive the transplantation and replantation for at least 8 weeks in spite of precipitating radiation insult on the neck bed for 3 weeks. Neurorraphy is, however, essential to maintaining the glandular function.

  1. MRI of normal pituitary glands and their surrounding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    Normal MRI appearances of the pituitary glands and their surrounding structures were evaluated in 332 patients without sellar and parasellar diseases. The height of the pituitary gland was maximum at 10-19 years of age reflecting hormonal activity. The width of the pituitary gland decreased, while that of the cavernous sinus increased with aging. This is probably due to atherosclerotic change of the internal carotid artery. Females younger than 30 years of age tended to show a convex upper surface of the pituitary gland and the displacement of the pituitary stalk was common after 50 years of age. Almost all of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland showed isointensity relative to the pons or cerebral cortex and the majority (85.1%) of the posterior lobe showed hyperintensity. However, the anterior lobe in 2 newborns showed hyperintensity similar to the normal posterior lobe in adults. The posterior lobe was located off the midline in 19.1% of the subjects. One case of pars intermedia cyst was discovered among 14 subjects who were administered Gd-DTPA. The dural membrane between the pituitary gland and cavernous sinus was recognizable only in 8.6% on the right side and 7.5% on the left side. Primary empty sella was identified in 4.5%. Knowledge of the above normal ranges and variations of the pituitary gland and its surrounding structures is important in diagnosing sellar and parasellar lesions. (author) 52 refs

  2. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  3. Condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls in Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunina A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to estimate the condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls. Material and methods. The study included 867 girls (aged 12-18. The questioning, total clinical examination, hormonal analysis and ultrasound examination were conducted. Results. The investigation shows that girls had breast dysmorphies (macromastia, hypoplasia, striae, asymmetry etc.. The dysplasia of mammary glands was diagnosed in 26% patients with menstrual disorders, thyroid diseases, mastalgia and obesity. High estradiol, LH, TSH, insulin, cortisole, testosterone and low progesterone level are the most specific hormonal markers of mastopathy in adolescent girls. Conclusion. Thyroid disorders, breast asymmetric form, mastalgia, obesity are the indicators for observation and examination of mammary glands

  4. Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Song Yiyang; Chen Qin; Chen Yannan

    2000-01-01

    A new dosimeter of 125 I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125 I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125 I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 10 6 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

  5. Cellular and molecular specificity of pituitary gland physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Castro, Carolina; Renner, Ulrich; Haedo, Mariana R; Stalla, Gunter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland has the ability to respond to complex signals derived from central and peripheral systems. Perception of these signals and their integration are mediated by cell interactions and cross-talk of multiple signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks that cooperate for hormone secretion, cell plasticity, and ultimately specific pituitary responses that are essential for an appropriate physiological response. We discuss the physiopathological and molecular mechanisms related to this integrative regulatory system of the anterior pituitary gland and how it contributes to modulate the gland functions and impacts on body homeostasis.

  6. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  7. Radioisotopic methods in the study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.; Focacci, C.

    1986-01-01

    The results achieved by dynamic and static salivary gland scintigraphy in 272 patients over a ten year time (January 1976-December 1985) are reported. On the basis of a semi-quantitative assessment of time/activity curves, dynamic studies prove to be the most suitable method for studying functional disorders (phlogosis, facial paralisis, etc.). Harmlesness, easy execution and functional results are the mains advantages of radioisotope techniques. Salivary gland scintigraphy has some limits in the study of space occupying lesions (SOL): however, ultrasounds, CT and sialography represent the methods of choice in this field of salivary gland pathology

  8. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered...... through a syringe. Time activity curves were generated for each of the four major salivary glands (i.e. the right and left submandibular and right and left parotid glands). Excretion fractions (the fraction of mobilizable radioactivity after administering lemon juice) and the gland activity...

  9. Fetal adrenal gland enlargement - prenatal and postnatal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackova, Eliska; Cunderlik, Anton; Ticha, Lubica; Gabor, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The enlargement of suprarenal gland is related to preterm birth and the birth weight. The ultrasound measurement of fetal adrenal gland volume may identify women at risk for impending preterm birth. The aim of our study was to investigate the newborns in the region of western Slovakia followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. To set the ratio of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal gland enlargment, postnatal managment and treatment and interventions. The newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. We have analyzed 6 years of medical records of all cases from the western Slovakia region of suprarenal gland enlargement encountered to 1st Pediatric Department, Children's University Hospital Bratislava Republic in the time period of January 2010 to Janurary 2016. The diagnosis of suprarenal gland enlargement was set by ultrasound examination performed on the 4th postnatal day as an overall screening test. Newborns with positive laboratory screening on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were excluded from our study. We analyzed the origin of surarenal gland enlargement, gestation week on the due date, the birth weight and other comorbidities and genetic pathologies in newborns with the enlarged suprarenal glands. There were 6 newborns followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. All of the patients had diagnosed the adrenal haemorrhage. Adrenal lesions like adrenal cysts or neuroblastomas were not confirmed. All of the adrenal enlargements were benign with no need of other medical or surgical intervention. None of the newborn patients had other genetic abnormalities, mineral or hormonal imbalances, problems with arterial pressure or haemodynamic instability. All of the patients underwent at least 5 prenatal ultrasound tests and at least 2 postnatal ultrasound measurements. The avarage birth weight was 3030 grams (2700 grams - to 3750 grams). The avarage birth lenght was 50 cm (47 centimeter to 53 cm).The average gestation week (gw) on due date

  10. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  11. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  12. Preparation of Murine Submandibular Salivary Gland for Upright Intravital Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficht, Xenia; Thelen, Flavian; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V

    2018-05-07

    The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems. We present representative intravital image sets of endogenous and adoptively transferred fluorescent cells, including the labeling of blood vessels or salivary ducts and second harmonic generation to visualize fibrillar collagen. In sum, our protocol allows for surgical preparation of mouse salivary glands in upright microscopy systems, which are commonly used for intravital imaging in the field of immunology.

  13. Radix bupleuri Extract Inhibits Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Section, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Haerbin 150010, ... lactation, occupation, sex hormone use, diet, and ... organ weight divided by body weight. .... Figure 1: Histologic images of mammary gland tissues.

  14. Gland segmentation in colon histology images : The glas challenge contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Pluim, J.P.W.; Chen, Hao; Qi, Xiaojuan; Heng, Pheng Ann; Guo, Yun Bo; Wang, Li Yang; Matuszewski, Bogdan J.; Bruni, Elia; Sanchez, Urko; Böhm, Anton; Ronneberger, Olaf; Cheikh, Bassem Ben; Racoceanu, Daniel; Kainz, Philipp; Pfeiffer, Michael; Urschler, Martin; Snead, David R.J.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal adenocarcinoma originating in intestinal glandular structures is the most common form of colon cancer. In clinical practice, the morphology of intestinal glands, including architectural appearance and glandular formation, is used by pathologists to inform prognosis and plan the treatment

  15. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Ravi Ram K. and Ramesh S. R. 2007 Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ..... quence of species-specific genetic responses to variations in .... Eberhard W. G. 1996 Female control: sexual selection by cryptic.

  16. [Treatment of small and sublingual salivary glands cysts by laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.

  17. MR imaging of the pituitary gland in central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, S.C.S.; Cook, J.S.; Hansen, J.R.; Simonson, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 17 children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 19 aged-matched controls to compare the appearance of the pituitary gland. Gland size was measured on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland was graded according to the concavity or convexity of the upper surface, and the signal intensity of the gland was assessed visually. The mean pituitary volume in 13 CPP children without hypothalamic tumor (292.6 mm 3 ) was significantly greater than that in normal controls (181.35 mm 3 ). The mean volume for the four CPP children with hypothalamic tumor was smaller (145.0 mm 3 ). Compared to controls, the upper pituitary surface in CPP patients appeared convex in a higher proportion. The anterior pituitary was isointense to pons in all patients and controls. Although the posterior pituitary bright spot was present in 14 controls and 11 CPP patients, none with hypothalamic tumor showed it. (orig.)

  18. Parotid Gland Biopsy, the Alternative Way to Diagnose Sjogren Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkervet, Fred. K.L.; Haacke, Erlin; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren syndrome (SS), lymphoma in SS, and connective tissue disorders (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis). In SS characteristic histology findings are found, including lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts in

  19. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Rocher, F.; Vigneron, N.; Pecking, A.; Najean, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment [fr

  1. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of sublingual glands. Surgery and radiotherapy combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnale, Ramiro; Campagnale, Rodrigo; Varalli, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) or Cilindroma is a strange entity classified by the WHO within the carcinomas of salivary glands. It represents only 1 % of all the wicked tumours of the oral and maxillofacial region although, when making reference to the salivary glands, it constitutes 5% of the parotid, submaxilar and sublingual carcinomas, and about 50% of the smallest ones. The most frequent location is in the palatine glands and its main characteristics are: slow but persistent growth, high rates of local relapse and metastasis at distance originating the death between the first 5 and 10 years in 50-70% of the cases approximately. A case of localization is presented in sublingual gland which was first treated surgically and later with radiotherapy, obtaining good results. (author) [es

  3. Clozapine- induced recurrent and transient parotid gland swelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of clozapine, may sometimes cause salivary gland swelling. Rarely, the ... side effect of clozapine to the attention of clinicians is to discuss its pathogenesis. Informed ... selective muscarinic M4 receptor agonist. Eur J Pharmacol 1994;.

  4. Plasma ACTH concentration and pituitary gland histo-pathology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and histology of the pituitary gland and paraventricular nucleus in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly ... symptoms and signs including motor, psychiatric and sensory disorders and .... tuitary and cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Circulating.

  5. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  7. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, prog...

  8. [The thyroid gland in emotional and pain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I Z

    1987-01-01

    The reaction of wild rodent thyroid gland on emotional and painful stress appearing as a result of animal's catching has been studied. The thyroid activity has been shown to raise considerably during the primary stage of stress reaction. Later on the function of the gland normalizes in animals without trauma and in traumatized animals it becomes weaker. The complete normalization of the thyroid function in traumatized animals coincides with osteal regeneration according to time.

  9. Human lacrimal gland regeneration: Perspectives and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Shubha; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Vemuganti, Geeta K.

    2014-01-01

    The human lacrimal gland is an essential component of the lacrimal functional unit (LFU). Any perturbation of this unit can lead to the debilitating morbid condition called the dry eye syndrome (DES). The current line of therapy available for dry eye remains supportive and palliative with the patient being dependent on life long and frequent administration of lubricating eye drops. Even advanced therapies like punctual plugs, cyclosporine B administration, and salivary gland auto-transplantat...

  10. Geometric changes of parotid glands caused by hydration during chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kager, Petronella M.; Weerdenburg, Sanne C. C. van; Kranen, Simon R. van; Beek, Suzanne van; Lamers-Kuijper, Elisabeth A.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Remeijer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plan adaptation during the course of (chemo)radiotherapy of H&N cancer requires repeat CT scanning to capture anatomy changes such as parotid gland shrinkage. Hydration, applied to prevent nephrotoxicity from cisplatin, could temporarily alter the hydrogen balance and hence the captured anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine geometric changes of parotid glands as function of hydration during chemoradiotherapy compared to a control group treated with radiotherapy only. This study included an experimental group (n = 19) receiving chemoradiotherapy, and a control group (n = 19) receiving radiotherapy only. Chemoradiotherapy patients received cisplatin with 9 l of saline solution during hydration in the first, fourth and seventh week. The delineations of the parotid glands on the planning CT scan were automatically propagated to Cone Beam CT scans using deformable image registration. Relative volume and position of the parotid glands were determined at the second chemotherapy cycle (week four) and at fraction 35. When saline solution was administrated, the volume temporarily increased on the first day (7.2 %, p < 0.001), second day (10.8 %, p < 0.001) and third day (7.0 %, p = 0.016). The gland positions shifted lateral, the distance between glands increased on the first day with 1.5 mm (p < 0.001), on the second day 2.2 mm (p < 0.001). At fraction 35, with both groups the mean shrinkage was 24 % ± 11 % (1SD) and the mean medial distance between the parotid glands decreased by 0.47 cm ± 0.27 cm. Hydration significantly modulates parotid gland geometry. Unless, in the context of adaptive RT, a repeat CT scan is timed during a chemotherapy cycle, these effects are of minor clinical relevance

  11. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Most earlier studies showing a radioprotective effect by cAMP show only slight degrees of protection. The present study demonstrates a substantial protective effect (DMF, 1.63) of exogenously administered cAMP on the rat parotid gland and supports the mechanism suggested previously for protection afforded the parotid glands by the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which is known to elevate endogenous intracellular cAMP

  12. Musculature of facial scent glands in the muntjac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrette, C

    1976-01-01

    The muscles associated with the very large preorbital glands of muntjacs (Muntiacus) are described. Although the two muntjac fawns examined were only 10 days old, their muscles were proportionately larger than those in adult specimens of North American cervids. A muscle, not found in North American cervids, but well developed in muntjacs, is probably responsible for the eversion of muntjacs' preorbital glands. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:977477

  13. Parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    The parotid gland is an uncommon site of metastasis from carcinomas arising outside the head and neck region. Involvement of the parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis or presentation is rare. The present case report is the first, to our knowledge, to describe the management and outcome of an elderly man whose first presentation of an asymptomatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was that of a rapidly growing fungating left parotid mass Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. The originality of Descartes' theory about the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhorst, G J; Kaitaro, T T

    2001-03-01

    René Descartes thought that the pineal gland is the part of the body with which the soul is most immediately associated. Several prominent historians (such as Soury, Thorndike and Sherrington) have claimed that this idea was not very original. We re-examine the evidence and conclude that their assessment was wrong. We pay special attention to the thesis about the pineal gland which Jean Cousin defended in January, 1641.

  15. Malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langezaal, O.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    By means of the present clinico-pathologic study the author has attempted, through analysis of the evolution in a group of 101 patients suffering from malignant epithelial tumors of the parotis, to obtain insight into the clinical and pathologic factors governing the prognosis. Furthermore it was tried to assess the value of the different modes of therapy, including radiotherapy. Starting from certain types of tumors defined according to the WHO classification of tumors of the salivary glands, chapter 2 presents the reports in the literature on the pathology, clinical description and prognosis of the individual types of tumors. The initial treatment of the tumors is analysed with the use of a number of factors discussed in chapter 3. The significance of tumor-associated factors ascertained by the clinician and the pathologist as well as of patient-associated factors is correlated with the tumor-free period; the treatment-associated factors are correlated with the period of time between therapy and the advent of a local recurrence. The tumor-free period, instead of the survival time, was chosen as a criterion because the survival time depends not only on the prognostic factors but also on collateral circumstances, such as different diseases and the effect of the treatment instituted for the local recurrence. (Auth.)

  16. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Kapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903 and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  17. The kidney, adrenal gland, and retroperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.; Thurnher, S.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    Although its unparalleled tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar imaging capability, and the fact that it does not require exogeneous contrast agents, allow very detailed anatomic delineation of retroperitoneal anatomy in a safe and completely noninvasive fashion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot at this time be used a screening procedure for evaluation of the adrenal glands and kidneys. At present, MRI remains time-consuming and expensive when compared with conventional X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), sonography, and quantitative scintigraphy. It is recommended, rather, that MRI can be reserved for situations in which its particular advantages can be expected to resolve questions raised by other imaging modalities. For example, MRI can be used t characterize an adrenal mass detected by CT, to evaluate extension of renal or adrenal neoplasms into adjacent organs when CT findings are equivocal, to assess vascular patency when intravenous contrast material is contraindicated or CT findings are equivocal, and to evaluate the cause of renal allograft failure when findings with other radiologic modalities are inconclusive and biopsy is medically contraindicated. Evaluation of the cause of ureteral obstruction and detection of calculi or lesional calcification are more reliably achieved with CT

  18. Arterial vascularization of the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Ugur, Hasan Caglar; Comert, Ayhan; Brohi, Recep Ali; Ozgural, Onur; Ozdemir, Mevci; Karahan, Suleyman Tuna

    2013-10-01

    The arterial vascularization of the pineal gland (PG) remains a debatable subject. This study aims to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the PG. Thirty adult human brains were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. The dissections were carried out using a surgical microscope. The diameters of the branches supplying the PG at their origin and vascularization areas of the branches of the arteries were investigated. The main artery of the PG was the lateral pineal artery, and it originated from the posterior circulation. The other arteries included the medial pineal artery from the posterior circulation and the rostral pineal artery mainly from the anterior circulation. Posteromedial choroidal artery was an important artery that branched to the PG. The arterial supply to the PG was studied comprehensively considering the debate and inadequacy of previously published studies on this issue available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge may be helpful for surgical treatment of pathologies of the PG, especially in children who develop more pathology in this region than adults.

  19. Leak processing system for valve gland portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Masami

    1990-01-01

    When a process fluid for a valve to be checked is at such a normal temperature as during reactor operation, leaked fluid can be detected depending on the temperature increase accompanying the leakage. However, detection is difficult if the temperature of the process fluid for the valve to be checked is low and, if leakage is detected after the reactor start-up, repair has to be applied after the shutdown of the plant. Then, gland leak is detected by detecting the pressure instead of the temperature in the pipeline system and the leak flow rate is calculated based on the pressure. As a result, leakage is detected irrespective of the temperature of the leaked fluid and, for instance, leakage can be detected even in a case where the temperature is not high as in the case of pressure proof test for the pressure vessel before start-up. It can contribute much to the improvement of the plant operation efficiency and can determine the leak flow rate at a high accuracy. (N.H.)

  20. Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.

  1. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  2. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2014-01-25

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, programmed cell death and stromal reorganization to clear the differentiated milk-producing cells. Not surprisingly, the signaling pathways responsible for bringing about these changes in breast cells are often subverted during the process of tumorigenesis. The STAT family of proteins is involved in every stage of mammary gland development, and is also frequently implicated in breast tumorigenesis. While the roles of STAT3 and STAT5 during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis are well studied, others members, e.g. STAT1 and STAT6, have only recently been observed to play a role in mammary gland biology. Continued investigation into the STAT protein network in the mammary gland will likely yield new biomarkers and risk factors for breast cancer, and may also lead to novel prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human lacrimal gland regeneration: Perspectives and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shubha; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2014-01-01

    The human lacrimal gland is an essential component of the lacrimal functional unit (LFU). Any perturbation of this unit can lead to the debilitating morbid condition called the dry eye syndrome (DES). The current line of therapy available for dry eye remains supportive and palliative with the patient being dependent on life long and frequent administration of lubricating eye drops. Even advanced therapies like punctual plugs, cyclosporine B administration, and salivary gland auto-transplantation have led to a limited success. Under these scenarios, the option of cell based therapy needs to be explored to provide better and long term relief to these patients. This review gives an overview of the efforts in lacrimal gland regeneration and examines the past and ongoing research in cell based therapies in animals as well as human lacrimal gland cultures. The authors discuss their first of its kind functionally viable human lacrimal gland in vitro culture system from fresh exenteration specimens. A brief overview of research in near future and the potential implications of lacrimal gland regenerative therapies have been discussed.

  4. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20156335

  5. Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland: Computed Tomographic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.; Xiao, J.; Pui, M.H.; Gong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of the parotid gland is rare, even in endemic regions. Approximately 100 cases have been reported in the English literature. The computed tomographic (CT) features, however, have seldom been studied. Purpose: To determine the diagnostic CT features of tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Material and Methods: CT studies of four histologically proven cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 15 enlarged lymph nodes were found in the superficial lobes of the parotid glands. The nodes were arranged linearly within the gland. Enhancement patterns included homogeneous enhancement (9/15, 60%), homogeneous enhancement with eccentric microcysts (3/15, 20%), and thick-walled rim enhancement with central lucency (3/15, 20%). Thickened adjacent fascial plane and platysma were seen in two patients. Ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in all patients. Conclusion: In patients presenting with unilateral parotid nodules, TB should be considered when linearly arranged enhancing nodules are demonstrated in the superficial lobes of the glands on CT scan

  6. Reduced statherin reactivity of human submandibular gland in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, M; Solinas, P; Proto, E; Cossu, M; Lantini, M S

    2011-03-01

     Statherin is a salivary protein involved in the formation of enamel pellicle and in regulation of calcium homeostasis. Diabetes and other pathologies affect both salivary flow and protein secretion by salivary glands, causing increased susceptibility to mucosal infections, tooth demineralization, and caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the statherin expression in submandibular glands of healthy and diabetic subjects.  Fragments of submandibular glands obtained from diabetic and non diabetic patients were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in Epon Resin and processed for the immunogold histochemistry. The results were statistically evaluated.  Specific statherin labeling was demonstrated in secretory granules of acinar cells in both diabetic and normal samples. The staining was much more intense in the latter compared to those of diabetics. The labeling density was quantified by evaluating the number and spatial distribution of gold particles within the granules. The number of gold particles was significantly lower in glands from diabetics than in control glands.  The results obtained suggest that a reduced statherin secretion by salivary glands might be partly responsible for a less effective protection of the oral tissues, resulting in an higher incidence of caries and oral infections associated with diabetes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  8. Changes in the thyroid gland under fluoric poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H

    1930-01-01

    Thyroid gland changes are studied in animals subjected to chronic poisoning by ingestion of small doses of alkaline fluorides or fluorosilicates. Because goiters are frequent in this area of the country, control animals were included in the experimental groups. Test results on 14 fluorinated animals (guinea-pigs) are tabulated. Death occurred in 19 to 94 days (average 53). All animals showed changes in the gland, the interstitial tissue. The changes here were rapid, but may be slower with smaller doses. All control animals were found to be healthy. Macroscopic changes occurred in the pituitary body in cases of fluorosis. The different endocrine glands react differently to fluoric poisoning. The pituitary gland is difficult to study because this gland varies with age, sex, pregnancy, etc. of the subject. Use was therefore made of adult guinea-pigs 6 to 8 months old, which had died of fluorosis. Their pituitary body was compared to that of control animals of the same age and sex. Results are tabulated, showing a shrinking of the gland in the test animals, to an average of 1.7 mm (after poisoning).

  9. Dengue virus replicates and accumulates in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raquin, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.raquin@univ-lyon1.fr [Insect-Virus Interactions Group, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 3012, 75015 Paris (France); Lambrechts, Louis, E-mail: louis.lambrechts@pasteur.fr [Insect-Virus Interactions Group, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 3012, 75015 Paris (France)

    2017-07-15

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we used a strand-specific quantitative RT-PCR assay to demonstrate that negative-strand DENV RNA is produced in Ae. aegypti salivary glands, providing conclusive evidence that viral replication occurs in this tissue. Furthermore, we showed that the concentration of DENV genomic RNA in salivary glands increases significantly over time, indicating that active replication likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission. These findings improve our understanding of the biological determinants of DENV fitness and evolution. - Highlights: •Strand-specific RT-qPCR allows accurate quantification of DENV (-) RNA in mosquito tissues. •Detection of DENV (-) RNA in salivary glands provides evidence of viral replication in this tissue. •Viral replication in salivary glands likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission.

  10. Dengue virus replicates and accumulates in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raquin, Vincent; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we used a strand-specific quantitative RT-PCR assay to demonstrate that negative-strand DENV RNA is produced in Ae. aegypti salivary glands, providing conclusive evidence that viral replication occurs in this tissue. Furthermore, we showed that the concentration of DENV genomic RNA in salivary glands increases significantly over time, indicating that active replication likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission. These findings improve our understanding of the biological determinants of DENV fitness and evolution. - Highlights: •Strand-specific RT-qPCR allows accurate quantification of DENV (-) RNA in mosquito tissues. •Detection of DENV (-) RNA in salivary glands provides evidence of viral replication in this tissue. •Viral replication in salivary glands likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission.

  11. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  12. The effects of diabetes on the rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chull Jea; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe microscopic change of salivary gland tissue, which is a cause of xerostomia in diabetic condition; for this target, the author injected streptozotocin 0.1 ml/100 gm b.w. on the rat, Sprague Dawley, to induce diabetes, and then observed microscopic changes in parotid gland tissue using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. Parotid gland tissue of the diabetic rat was atrophied or degenerated in lapse of experimental time, but began to re pair from 14 days alter diabetic induction. 2. In the basal lamina of the vessel of parotid gland tissue in the diabetic rat, lamina lucida was discontinued and la mina densa was increased in thickness, but the number of capillary was gradually increased and dilated. 3. In acinic and intercalated ductal cells of parotid gland in the diabetic rat, changes of mitochondria, RER, secretor y granule, free ribosome were prominent. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that degenerative changes of the parotid gland tissue were due to not completely thickening of the basal lamina of vessels, but many other causal factors, because thickness of the basal lamina of vessels was not related with degenerative changes.

  13. The morphometry of quadrifid digestive glands in traps of three Utricularia species: Does gland size correlate with trap size?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-38 ISSN 0079-2047 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic Utricularia * traps * digestive-absorptive glands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  14. Irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Irradiation des glandes salivaires dans la sclerose laterale amyotrophique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourry, N.; Lapeyre, M.; Tortochaux, J.; Gilliot, O.; Achard, J.L.; Verrelle, P. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Clavelou, P.; Rouvet, S. [CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Service de Neurologie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2006-11-15

    The irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is efficient. A dose about 20 Gy in five seances delivered by electrons seems a correct compromise between efficiency and toxicity. (N.C.)

  15. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was inject...

  16. Morphological pattern of parotid gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M.A.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the morphological pattern of parotid tumours. During this study, 204 patients with parotid tumours were registered. The patients of all ages and both gender were included in this study. All patients were evaluated by history, clinical examination, F.N.A.C. and ultrasound, C.T/MRI was done in selected cases. All patients were surgically managed and their tumour specimen was sent for histopathology. Classification of individual tumour was based on 1991 World Health Organization Classification. Discrete data was presented in percentage and proportions. Out of 204 cases, 152 (74.5%) were benign and 52 (25.5%) were malignant. Of these, 117 (57.35%) patients were females and 87 (42.65%) males. Benign tumours were more common in females whereas malignant tumours were common in males. The mean age of patients was 34 years and 42 years for benign and malignant tumours respectively. Pleomorphic adenoma was most common benign tumor (83.5%), followed by Warthins tumour. The most common malignant tumour was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (60%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma. Superficial lobe of parotid gland was the commonest site, 120 benign and all 52 malignant tumours arising from it while 32 benign tumours originated from deep lobe. Parotid swelling for years was main feature of benign tumours, whereas malignant tumours presented with pain, fixation to skin or underlying structure, cervical lymphadenopathy and facial palsy. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most common malignant tumour. The morphological patterns and distribution followed the known pattern. (author)

  17. Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon; Park, Man Soo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

  18. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I; Arnett, Deborah G; Klein, Rob R; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side

  19. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  20. Skin glands, poison and mimicry in dendrobatid and leptodactylid amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sciani, Juliana M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F B; Jared, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    In amphibians, secretions of toxins from specialized skin poison glands play a central role in defense against predators. The production of toxic secretions is often associated with conspicuous color patterns that warn potential predators, as it is the case of many dendrobatid frogs, including Ameerega picta. This species resembles the presumably nontoxic Leptodactylus lineatus. This study tests for mimicry by studying the morphology and distribution of skin glands, components of skin secretion, and defensive behavior. Dorsal skin was studied histologically and histochemically, and skin secretions were submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and assays for proteolytic activity. We found that poison glands in A. picta are filled with nonprotein granules that are rich in carbohydrates, while L. lineatus glands present protein granules. Accordingly, great amounts of proteins, at least some of them enzymes, were found in the poison of L. lineatus but not in that of A. picta. Both species differ greatly on profiles of gland distribution: In L. lineatus, poison glands are organized in clusters whose position coincides with colored elements of the dorsum. These regions are evidenced through a set of displays, suggesting that poison location is announced to predators through skin colors. In contrast, A. picta presents lower densities of glands, distributed homogeneously. This simpler profile suggests a rather qualitative than quantitative investment in chemical defense, in agreement with the high toxicity attributed to dendrobatids in general. Our data suggest that both species are toxic or unpalatable and transmit common warning signals to predators, which represents a case of Müllerian mimicry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ultrastructure of the intramandibular gland of workers and queens of the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F; Abdalla, Fábio C

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste.

  2. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kirsty L.; Gaete, Marcia; Matalova, Eva; Deutsch, Danny; Rice, David; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial–mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form. PMID:24167707

  3. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  4. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-09-15

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca(2+) activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X(7) receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X(7) receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion.

  5. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X7 receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X7 receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X7−/− (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca2+ activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X7−/− mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X7−/− mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca2+ activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X7 receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X7 receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X7 receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X7 receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion. PMID:20643770

  6. Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Normal Indian pituitary gland size on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Jena, A.N.; Gulati, P.K.; Marwah, R.K.; Tripathi, R.P.; Sharma, R.K.; Khanna, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the pituitary gland was measured in 294 subjects, who had no known pituitary or hypothalamic disorders. Mid sagittal TIW images showing maximum dimensions of the pituitary gland, were used for measurement of the height in each age and sex group. The mean pituitary height of all the subjects in men was 5.3 mm (SD=0.9 mm), whereas in women, the mean height was 5.9 mm (SD = 1.2 mm). Beyond 10 years of age, the pituitary height measured was greater in women than in men. The gland height showed a gradual decrease with increasing age after the age of 30 years in both men and women except in the age group of 51-60 years, which showed paradoxical increase in size. The minimum gland height found in this study was 2.5 mm and the maximum, 8.8 mm. The study presents a demographic profile of pituitary gland size in north Indian subjects as measured on MR images. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Automatic segmentation of colon glands using object-graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem; Kandemir, Melih; Tosun, Akif Burak; Sokmensuer, Cenk

    2010-02-01

    Gland segmentation is an important step to automate the analysis of biopsies that contain glandular structures. However, this remains a challenging problem as the variation in staining, fixation, and sectioning procedures lead to a considerable amount of artifacts and variances in tissue sections, which may result in huge variances in gland appearances. In this work, we report a new approach for gland segmentation. This approach decomposes the tissue image into a set of primitive objects and segments glands making use of the organizational properties of these objects, which are quantified with the definition of object-graphs. As opposed to the previous literature, the proposed approach employs the object-based information for the gland segmentation problem, instead of using the pixel-based information alone. Working with the images of colon tissues, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed object-graph approach yields high segmentation accuracies for the training and test sets and significantly improves the segmentation performance of its pixel-based counterparts. The experiments also show that the object-based structure of the proposed approach provides more tolerance to artifacts and variances in tissues.

  9. Dosimetry of parotid glands in IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiancheng; Yu Xinsheng; Jiang Guoliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan on the dosimetry of parotid in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Under the same constraints and objections, the IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid and the IMRT plan added plan tumor volume (PTV) margin for parotid gland was investigated. Results: Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan spared unilateral parotid, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. On PTV 60 , D min in the plan of sparing one parotid gland was more than that in normal IMRT plan (P 95 in the plan of sparing one parotid gland have improved (P 50%VOL and D mean of parotid gland were similar between the two plans. Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan added 2 or 3 mm margin for parotid gland, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. D min , D mean and D 95 of PTV 60 have decreased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. D max of brainstem and spine cord have increased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. Conclusions: The IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid may be adopted not to protect both two parotids, while PTV margin for parotid added as parotid move. (authors)

  10. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  11. Radioanatomic correlations in the study of the intact mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolganova, I P; Zolotarevskii, V B [Pervyj Moskovskii Meditsinskii Inst. (USSR)

    1981-03-01

    The technique and results of parallel X-ray and morphologic study of mammary gland preparations of 30 women of different age who have died for various reasons, are described. The whole preparation is X-rayed in the native state and after fixation in formalline under the same conditions as in the clinic. The mammary gland preparation is split layer-by-layer with the following roentgenography and the study of histological substrate of all shadow elements. The investigations permit to single out 4 types of shadows on the mammograms conditioned by connecting tissue structures with the elements of glandular tissue. A definite type of mammary gland structure on roentgenograms is characteristic of every age period (child-bearing, preclimacteric, climax).

  12. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: hard palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Canas, Wilmer; Benitez Narvaez, N.

    2006-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumor occurs in 4 to 14% of the accessory glands salivary. Different localizations exist: AEC, nasal block, lips, maxillary sinus, nasopharynx or in any other localization where salivate tissue exists, but the palate constitutes the most frequent localization, because it gathers more than 50% of minor salivary glands. In the palate, it can be developed a wide variety of tumors coming from the connective and epithelial tissue, 44% arise in the minor salivary glands. In 49 to 65% of them are benign tumors, principally pleomorphic adenomas, located preferably in the hard palate, nearby or in the union with the soft palate as in our case. We present a 42 year old patient with at pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate. (The author)

  13. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the major salivary glands, accounting for 15.5% of all cases, benign and malignant. The aim of this article is to report a case of MEC in a 73-years-old male patient who presented with a painless firm fluctuant swelling in left preauricular area. The lesion was thoroughly examined preoperatively, and investigations were carried out. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done for the lesion and report suggested tumor of the parotid gland. Superficial parotidectomy procedure was done, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Post recovery was uneventful with no defect of facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the tumor was MEC of parotid gland. Through the literature reviews of MEC the discussions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made.

  14. Trastuzumab for HER-2-Positive Advanced Salivary Gland Cancer

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    Yi-Tsung Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland adenocarcinoma is a rare type of head and neck cancer and often has aggressive behavior with propensity to recur and metastasize. Currently, there are no standard treatment guidelines. Surgery is however, the mainstay of treatment in resectable disease and radiation is also considered for most patients after surgery. Systemic chemotherapy is reserved for metastatic cases, but its results are often disappointing. Recent development of molecular biology has shown that salivary gland caner has several molecular changes which may guide potential therapeutic targets. Here, we report a 67 year-old man diagnosed to have metastasized minor salivary gland adenocarcinoma with diffuse human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2-positive, by the immunohistochemical (IHC stain. He was treated with a trastuzumab-containing chemotherapeutic regimen with encouraging results.

  15. Hormonal homeostasis during radiotherapy in patients with mammary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    248 patients with mammary gland cancer (stages 2 and 3) were studied. In 3 stage patients, inhibition of the thyroid gland function, increase of somatotropic hormones (STH) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, when compared with the respective data in stage 2 patients, were noted. Radiotherapy at stages 2 and 3 of the disease causes various changes of the above-mentioned values. Increase of CEA blood concentration results in inhibition of cellular immune reactions in the tumor stroma and its bed, which influences 5-years' survival of the patients. The authors suggest that at stage 3 mammary gland cancer, homeostasis state occurs in the organism; it differs from that occurring at stage 3 of the disease. Thus, different approaches to treatment at these two stages of the disease are required

  16. Radiological features of endocrine orbitopathy involving lacrimal gland

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    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to orbit computer tomography, lacrimal gland is involved in autoimmune process in 26.8% of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy. A short orbit is a predisposing factor of the lacrimal gland (LG involvement in the autoimmune process. In addition to increasing of the size of the lacrimal gland, formed thickening of the optic nerve in 1 cm from the eye posterior pole (in 60% of cases, the increase in x-ray density of orbital portions of optic nerve, proved «shortening» of length in axial projection with reliable reduc- tion of length to width ratio (with increase in width at the same time up to 5.8±0.2 are roentgenological features of this сlinical form. Change of spatial topography in orbit with reduction of the conversion rate was associated with increased rate of optic neuropathydevelopment.

  17. Radioanatomic correlations in the study of the intact mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolganova, I.P.; Zolotarevskij, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The technique and results of parallel X-ray and morphologic study of mammary gland preparations of 30 women of different age who have died for various reasons, are described. The whole preparation is X-rayed in the native state and after fixation in formalline under the same conditions as in the clinic. The mammary gland preparation is split layer-by-layer with the following roentgenography and the study of histological substrate of all shadow elements. The investigations permit to single out 4 types of shadows on the mammograms conditioned by connecting tissue structures with the elements of glandular tissue. A definite type of mammary gland structure on roentgenograms is characteristic of every age period (child-bearing, preclimacteric, climax) [ru

  18. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik

    1997-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  19. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  20. Rat parotid gland pathophysiology following 137Cs irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.C.; Izutsu, K.T.; Truelove, E.L.; Menard, T.W.; Anderson, M.C.; Morton, T.H.; Siegel, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in rat parotid gland function were measured between 3 and 30 days following exposure to 1800 R of 137 Cs irradiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretion capability as indicated by volume of secretion, maximum rate of secretion, and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation decreased concomitantly with gland weight following irradiation. Thus gland weight is probably indicative of residual glandular-potential for fluid secretion following irradiation. The relation between salivary sodium concentration and flow rate was assumed to be indicative of glandular electrolyte transport capability. Salivary sodium concentrations were not elevated over control values at any flow rate. Therefore, there is no evidence for an irradiation-induced defect in the ductal sodium resorption mechanism. Rather, the observed salivary sodium changes are consistent with a decrease in the relative glandular proportion of acini to ducts

  1. Isolated lacrimal gland involvement in Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease

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    Gulwani Hanni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy disease is an uncommon disease characterized by benign proliferation of histiocytes, with painless lymph node enlargement and frequent extranodal disease. Orbital involvement occurs in 9-11% of cases. However, isolated Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease of the lacrimal gland without any systemic involvement is very rare with only three case reports. We describe here one such young male patient with unilateral lacrimal gland swelling. Excision biopsy revealed almost complete replacement of the lacrimal gland by lymphocytes, plasma cells and large pale histiocytes. The latter exhibited emperipolesis and stained positive for S-100 and CD68 on immunohistochemistry. Patient is well and has no other manifestation or recurrence of the disease during a follow-up of 24 months.

  2. Detection of the involvement of salivary glands in autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland by using Ttc-99m MIBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Söylemez ¹

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the involvement in the salivary glands of the patients with Graves’ Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis and controls by detecting the changes of Tc-99m Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI uptake. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. 19 patients with Graves’ disease (6 men, 13 women, 28 Hashimoto Thyroiditis patients (5 men, 23 women and 11 euthyroid controls (4 men, 7 women were evaluated retrospectively. Uptake values of parotid and submandibular glands were calculated by drawing elliptical ROIs (region of interest and using the formula for uptake calculation. Result: In all three groups, in parotis glands, a statistical significant difference between Tc-99m MIBI uptake was not detected. The Tc-99m MIBI upateke values in submandibular glands were statistically different among patients with Graves’Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis, as well as in Control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: We concluded that the different uptake values of Tc-99m-MIBI in submandibular glands in Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis as compared to the control group patient would be results of the histopathological features, such as autoimmunity, high mitochondria number and inflammatory reaction. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 67-73

  3. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  4. Pituitary gland and its stalk observed by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Fukami, Tsuneharu; Matsumoto, Keizo.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed to be important to recognize the CT findings of normal pituitary gland and the stalk for the acurate morphological diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. In a consecutive series of normal 103 cases, the CT scans obtained by high resolution CT (CE-CT, Metrizamide CT) were analized and compared with 6 cases of microadenoma. The pituitary stalk demonstrated by the reconstructed coronal CT was examined and the inclination of the stalk was measured. The mean value of the inclination of pituitary stalk was 1.4 +- 1.7 0 in normal group and 9.3 +- 2.4 0 in microadenoma group. The form of the pituitary gland demonstrated by a reconstructed mid-saggital CT were classified into the following 3 types. Type I : The gland filling the whole pituitary fossa. Type II : The gland filled with small CSF space localized in the upper-anterior part in the pituitary fossa. Type III : The enlarged CSF space of more than half of the depth of pituitary fossa and the gland localized in the retro-lower part. As for the shape of pituitary gland, type I was revealed in 26 cases (7 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type II was revealed in 31 cases (12 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type III was revealed in 46 cases (25 cases in male and 21 cases in female). Type I was shown in female, especially in 10 years old young female. In 19 cases of 30 years to 40 years female, Type II was shown in 9 cases. In 44 male cases, Type I and Type II were shown in all ages. In the aged, Type III was shown in more than the other types. On the other hand, Type I was noted in 5 out of 6 cases of microadenoma group. (author)

  5. CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenifis in parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changfu; Wang Binjie; Zhang Heping; Jin Haiying; Nie Peng; Chang Liang; Wei Haigang; Zou Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland, so as to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis of parotid gland. Methods: Nine cases with tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland confirmed by surgical pathology and acid-fast bacilli after preoperative spiral CT plain scan and two phases dynamic enhancement scan were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging findings of CT were reviewed and compared with surgical pathology. Results: Seven of the 9 cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland occurred in the left side, and 2 in the right side, and superficial lobe involvement occurred in 8 cases and deep lobe in 1 case. The lesion was classified as tumour type (8 cases) and infiltration type (1 case). In turnout type, the number of lesion was from 1 to 4, and the size was from 2.7 to 5.3 cm in diameter. One case of infiltration type measured 3.4 cm in diameter. On CT plain scan, the lesions showed homogeneous slight high-density with regular edge in 5 cases and irregular low-density in 4 cases, and 2 of them with partly blurred edge. On CT enhanced scan, uniform moderate enhancement was seen in 3 cases, circular enhancement in 4 cases, inhomogeneous enhancement in 1 case, and lace-like enhancement in 1 case. Local infiltration occurred in 6 cases. Lymphadenovarix in the same side of lesion occurred in 2 cases. Conclusion: CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland present diversification, which correlate well with pathological changes. Understanding of characteristic CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland is helpful for differential diagnosis, but final diagnosis still depends on pathology and acid-fast bacilli. (authors)

  6. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  7. Changes of pituitary gland volume in Kennedy disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C C; Teismann, I K; Konrad, C; Heindel, W L; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy disease is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the first exon of the androgen-receptor gene. Apart from neurologic signs, this mutation can cause a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with typical alterations of gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the impact of Kennedy disease on pituitary gland volume under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes caused by partial androgen insensitivity may lead to morphologic changes (ie, hypertrophy) of the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland volume was measured in sagittal sections of 3D T1-weighted 3T-MR imaging data of 8 patients with genetically proven Kennedy disease and compared with 16 healthy age-matched control subjects by use of Multitracer by a blinded, experienced radiologist. The results were analyzed by a univariant ANOVA with total brain volume as a covariant. Furthermore, correlation and linear regression analyses were performed for pituitary volume, patient age, disease duration, and CAG repeat expansion length. Intraobserver reliability was evaluated by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Pituitary volume was significantly larger in patients with Kennedy disease (636 [±90] mm(3)) than in healthy control subjects (534 [±91] mm(3)) (P = .041). There was no significant difference in total brain volume (P = .379). Control subjects showed a significant decrease in volume with age (r = -0.712, P = .002), whereas there was a trend to increasing gland volume in patients with Kennedy disease (r = 0.443, P = .272). Gland volume correlated with CAG repeat expansion length in patients (r = 0.630, P = .047). The correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.94 (P pituitary volume that correlated with the CAG repeat expansion length. This could reflect hypertrophy as the result of elevated gonadotropic hormone secretion caused by the androgen receptor mutation with partial

  8. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non......-secretory tissue in leaves were manually isolated under the microscope. Hyperforin content was quantified by UV HPLC. Secretory structures were surveyed anatomically. KEY RESULTS: The hyperforin content of intact leaves was found to be about 3 mg g(-1) fresh tissue, whereas a content of about 7 mg g(-1) fresh...

  9. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  10. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  11. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well......-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures...

  12. Salivation induced better lacrimal gland function in dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, T; Ghising, R

    2009-12-01

    The dry eye syndrome is a common eye symptom causing blurry vision. To meet the demand of the modem world students and professionals are compelled to expose themselves to the computer screen for long stretch of time, which is one of the causes of dry eye. It is not always feasible to instil eyes with artificial tears time to time to protect them from dryness. Rather to adopt any simple physiological process associated with optimum lacrimation is a better option to keep eyes moist during computer works. Volunteers (n = 22) having mild dry eyes participated in this study. Tear production was assessed by Schirmer test by keeping Schirmer strip on ocular surface for 5 minutes and recording the length of the moistened area. Then the subject was allowed to keep a piece of lopsy candy (a sour fruit pulp mixed with sugar that is sweet and sour in taste) in mouth for 5 minutes that caused salivation. During salivation, again tear production was assessed. [It was standardized in such a way that, the length of the moistened strip will be 25 - 30 mm for normal eyes, 15 - 10 mm for dry eye, 06 - 10 mm for mild dry eye, 02 - 05 mm for moderate dryness and 00 - 01 mm for severe dry eye.] Tear production was found to be increased significantly (supported by increased length of moistened area of Schirmer strip) during salivation especially in dry eye in all volunteers. The lacrimal gland is the major contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film which consists of water, electrolytes and proteins; secretion of which are under tight neural control. Anticholinergic agents play an important role in ocular dryness because of hypo-secretion. The sensory root of facial nucleus contains efferent preganglionic parasympathetic fibers for submandibular and sublingual salivary gland and lacrimal gland. The sensory root conveys gustatory fibers from the presulcul area (anterior two-third) of the tongue via the chorda tympani and via the palatine and greater petrosal nerve, taste fibers from

  13. Recent advances in the endocrinology of the sebaceous gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Attila G; Oláh, Attila; Bíró, Tamás; Tóth, Balázs István

    2017-01-01

    The sebaceous gland, long considered an evolutionary relic with little-to-no physiological relevance in humans, has emerged in recent decades as a key orchestrator and contributor to many cutaneous functions. In addition to the classical physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, a more novel, neuro-immune modulatory role has also emerged. As part of the complex intercellular communication network of the integumentary system, the sebaceous gland acts as a "relay station" in the skin for many endocrine factors. This review aims to offer a comprehensive overview of endocrine effects and subsequent interactions on this much maligned mini-organ.

  14. Carcinoma ex mixed tumor arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma ex mixed tumor is a mixed tumor in which a second neoplasm develops from the epithelial component that fulfills the criteria for malignancy. This tumor occurs frequently in the parotid glands. Individuals in whom carcinoma ex mixed tumor have a past history of benign mixed tumor. These lesions contain both a benign mixed tumor as well as a malignant neoplasm. We report a case of carcinoma ex mixed tumor which occurred in the parotid gland. A 67-year-old woman presented with movable right mass. She complained pain and facial paralysis. The clinical presentation, several diagnostic images, and histopathologic findings are presented.

  15. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF-immunoreact......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF...

  16. Prostate malignancy grading using gland-related shape descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Scheibe, Patrick; Loeffler, Markus; Kristiansen, Glen; Wernert, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    A proof-of-principle study was accomplished assessing the descriptive potential of two simple geometric measures (shape descriptors) applied to sets of segmented glands within images of 125 prostate cancer tissue sections. Respective measures addressing glandular shapes were (i) inverse solidity and (ii) inverse compactness. Using a classifier based on logistic regression, Gleason grades 3 and 4/5 could be differentiated with an accuracy of approx. 95%. Results suggest not only good discriminatory properties, but also robustness against gland segmentation variations. False classifications in part were caused by inadvertent Gleason grade assignments, as a-posteriori re-inspections had turned out.

  17. Schwannoma of the sublingual gland: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sook; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    Schwannoma, also referred to as neurilemmoma, is a solitary, benign and slow growing tumor of nerve sheath origin. This rare lesion originates from Schwann cell of peripheral, autonomic and cranial nerve. Extracranial neurogenic tumor of the head and neck is uncommon. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor, with most presenting in the parotid gland originating from a peripheral branch of the facial nerve. In this report, an unusual case of schwannoma in the sublingual region is presented and the literature concerning this subject is reviewed.

  18. Salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland: CT and MR imaging findings with emphasis on intratumoral cystic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-Level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland with emphasis on intratumoral cystic components. Seventy-two histopathologically confirmed salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland (44 benign and 28 malignant), which underwent both CT and MR imaging including contrast-enhanced study, were included in this study. We retrospectively reviewed images for the presence, number, occupying rate, margin characteristics, distribution, and predominant MR signal intensity of intratumoral cystic components. The prevalence of cystic components was greater in malignant than benign tumors (79 vs. 50 %, p < 0.05). The number and occupying rate were similar between benign and malignant tumors. The irregular margins were more frequent in malignant than benign tumors (73 vs. 27 %, p < 0.01). The frequency of eccentric location was greater in benign than malignant tumors (91 vs. 55 %, p < 0.01), whereas the frequency of centric location was greater in malignant than benign tumors (32 vs. 0 %, p < 0.01). On T1-weighted images, the frequency of hyperintensity was greater in benign than malignant tumors (50 vs. 9 %, p < 0.01), whereas that of isointensity was greater in malignant than benign tumors (50 vs. 0 %, p < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the absence of irregular margins of cystic components only was significantly correlated with the presence of benign salivary gland tumors (p < 0.01). Imaging features of intratumoral cystic components may help to differentiate benign from malignant tumors of the parotid salivary gland. (orig.)

  19. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  20. Clinical evaluation of salivary gland imaging with technetium-99m pertechnetate 43 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Daming

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging in 36 patients with benign or malignant tumor all showed the size, extent and location of tumor in parotid glands. There was no pseudonegative diagnosis in salivary gland imaging, but in sailography there were three cases with pseudo-negative diagnosis. The authors believe salivary gland imaging with Technetium-99m pertechnetate although is nonspecific for Warthin's tumor of parotid gland, and is also not able to differentiate malignant tumor from benign tumor of salivary gland, but radionuclide examination is a safe and simple diagnostic technnique and proves to have greater sensitivity in demonstrating abnormalities of salivary gland than that of routine sailography. Contrast salivarry gland imaging with sailography one can differentiate inflammation from tumor and benign from malignant tumor

  1. Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Michio; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Togashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchimochi, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99m TcO 4 - sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P<0.0001). Depending on tumor size, abnormal function was significantly higher than normal function (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference among duration of illness, location of tumor, and salivary gland function. There was a significant difference between tumor invasion and salivary gland function (P<0.0001). The results showed that salivary gland function was disturbed in salivary gland tumor with larger size and positive invasion. (author)

  2. Survey of eye practitioners' preference of diagnostic tests and treatment modalities for dry eye in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu, Kofi; Kyei, Samuel; Ayobi, Benedict; Agyemang, Frank Okyere; Ablordeppey, Reynolds Kwame

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to provide an evidence-based profile of the diagnosis, treatment and knowledge or opinions on dry eye among optometrists and ophthalmologists in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional survey RESULTS: The responses of 162 participants are included in the analysis. The most commonly used test to diagnosed dry eye disease was tear break-up time followed by patient history. The most common symptom doctors heard from dry eye patients were burning sensation followed by foreign body sensation. The most often prescribed first- line treatment for dry eye was aqueous-based artificial tears followed by lipid-based artificial tears. Most practitioners considered meibomian gland dysfunction as the most common cause of dry eye followed by pterygium. The most often used test to guide or gauge therapeutic effect is patient history followed closely by tear break-up time. Most practitioners reported that 10%-20% of all their patients they see in a day are diagnosed of dry eye. This study showed tear break up time was the main test majority of practitioners in Ghana used to diagnose dry eye but patient history was the main test used to gauge therapeutic effect over time. Burning sensation was the commonest symptom practitioners heard from dry eye patients whilst artificial tears was their main and first-line treatment for dry eye. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Colloid cyst in pituitary gland: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hee Youn; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Colloid cyst is a congenital lesion which is thought to be derived from the primitive neuro epithelium, and is most frequently located in the anterior half of the third ventricle. Colloid cysts rarely occur in the pituitary gland, and we describe a case of pituitary colloid cyst, including the CT, MRI and pathologic findings

  5. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONAWAY, C.H. & METTER, D.E. 1967. Skin glands associated with breeding in Microhyla carolinensis. Copeia 3: 672 - 673. FITCH, H.S. 1956. A field study of the Kansas ant-eating frog,. Gaslrophryne olivacea. Univ. Kans. Publ. Mus. Nal. Hisl. 8;. 275 - 306. INGER, R.F. 1954. Systematics and zoogeography of Philippine.

  6. Submandibular salivary gland transfer prevents radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Seikaly, Hadi; McGaw, Timothy; Coulter, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Background: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation therapy in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to submental space, outside the proposed radiation field, prior to starting radiation treatment, would prevent xerostomia. Methods: We are conducting a prospective clinical trial where the submandibular gland is transferred as part of the surgical intervention. The patients are followed clinically, with salivary flow studies and University of Washington quality of life questionnaire. Results: We report early results of 16 patients who have undergone this procedure. Seven patients have finished and 2 patients are currently undergoing radiation treatment. In 2 patients, no postoperative radiation treatment was indicated. Two patients are waiting to start radiation treatment and 2 patients refused treatment after surgery. The surgical transfer was abandoned in 1 patient. All of the transferred salivary glands were positioned outside the proposed radiation fields and were functional. The patients did not complain of any xerostomia and developed only minimal oral mucositis. There were no surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (outside the radiation field) preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation-induced xerostomia

  7. Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma and Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta

    2014-01-01

    To study genetic alterations in lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) with focus on copy number changes and expression patterns of the translocation target genes PLAG1, HMGA2, and CRTC1-MAML2 in relation to clinical data....

  8. Pure intrasellar meningioma located under the pituitary gland: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, SAeung Ro

    2013-01-01

    Most intrasellar meningiomas are located in the subdiaphragmatic and supraglandular region because they originate from the diaphragma sellae. Subglandular meningiomas located under the pituitary gland are extremely rare. Intrasellar meningiomas in the subdiaphragmatic and subglandular region probably originate from the dura in the sellar floor. We report a case of a subglandular meningioma along with a review of the literature.

  9. Pure intrasellar meningioma located under the pituitary gland: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Pyo, Ju Yeon [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Jun; Lee, SAeung Ro [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Most intrasellar meningiomas are located in the subdiaphragmatic and supraglandular region because they originate from the diaphragma sellae. Subglandular meningiomas located under the pituitary gland are extremely rare. Intrasellar meningiomas in the subdiaphragmatic and subglandular region probably originate from the dura in the sellar floor. We report a case of a subglandular meningioma along with a review of the literature.

  10. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... the morphology and fine structure of the ion transporting epithelium ... The general structure of the salt gland of nauplii cultured at 180 g/L disappeared. ...... Wu G, Zhang H, Sun J, Liu F, Ge X, Chen WH, Yu, J, Wang W (2011).

  11. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  12. Construction of mammary gland specific expression plasmid pIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... its function in expressing goat insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The backbone ... Liver and mammary gland were harvested from Saanen dairy goats. ..... lactating mammary of goat, sheep and cattle found that αs1- and ...

  13. Recurrent Bartholin's gland abscess in pregnancy: An uncommon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent Bartholin's gland abscess in pregnancy: An uncommon presentation. ... This case involved a 25-year old grandmultipara, who presented at a gestational age of 24 weeks with a huge vulval swelling measuring 14cm x 10cm, following failure of its resolution from self-medicated antibiotics. She had experienced ...

  14. The Bartholin gland: An overview of anatomy, physiology and disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bartholin's glands are located bilaterally at the posterior portion of the vestibule, distal to the hymenal remnants and are secretory in function. Although not solely so, they are responsible for the natural lubrication of the vagina and vulva and are normally not palpable or visible on examination of the pelvis. Symptomatic ...

  15. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  16. Histological and histometrical changes of ostrich thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal changes of ostrich thyroid structure in Tehran, which has a hot summer and a relatively cold winter, were studied. The study was conducted on thyroid glands of 20 ostriches in two groups (summer and winter group). The samples were collected by autopsy with a maximum of 0.5 cm thickness and were fixed in ...

  17. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD 50 (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD 50 . Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  18. MR imaging of the pituitary gland in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, S.C.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Cook, J.S. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Hansen, J.R. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Simonson, T.M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 17 children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 19 aged-matched controls to compare the appearance of the pituitary gland. Gland size was measured on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland was graded according to the concavity or convexity of the upper surface, and the signal intensity of the gland was assessed visually. The mean pituitary volume in 13 CPP children without hypothalamic tumor (292.6 mm[sup 3]) was significantly greater than that in normal controls (181.35 mm[sup 3]). The mean volume for the four CPP children with hypothalamic tumor was smaller (145.0 mm[sup 3]). Compared to controls, the upper pituitary surface in CPP patients appeared convex in a higher proportion. The anterior pituitary was isointense to pons in all patients and controls. Although the posterior pituitary bright spot was present in 14 controls and 11 CPP patients, none with hypothalamic tumor showed it. (orig.)

  19. Towards identification of oesophageal gland proteins in Globodera rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.M.

    1996-01-01


    Secretory proteins from the dorsal and subventral oesophageal glands of potato cyst- nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G.pallida ) are considered to play an important role in the induction and exploitation of the

  20. Be careful….. She has a pituitary gland in her nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabelink, N.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Castelijns, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we describe a 38 year-old-female with galactorrhea several months after the birth of an anencephalic child. She had hyperpolactemia and imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a midline defect and a nasopharyngeal mass compatible with a meningo-(hypophyso-) encephalocele and

  1. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stains. The slides were reported independently by four pathologists. Diagnosis was made according to the world health organisation (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumours. Case files of these patients were ...

  2. Hidradenitis suppurativa: a disease of the absent sebaceous gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, S; Fiehn, A M; Stenderup, K

    2011-01-01

    in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin prior to volume estimation using the Cavalieri principle. RESULTS: Sebaceous gland tissue could be visualized in only 10 of 15 suitable hair follicle biopsies from patients with HS but was present in all biopsies from healthy controls (P = 0·05) and the mean...

  3. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  4. Cranium eroding sweat gland carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Karadeniz, A. N.; Aksu, G.; Guveli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare tumors. Eccrine sweat gland carcinomas are also very rare, with only about 200 cases reported in the world literature and only one of them was eroding the cranium. Treatment modalities of these carcinomas are not well known. Case report. Our patient was 47 years old female. Since 1989, she was operated on six times because of the tumour relapses. After each operation, the pathological results were: sweat gland adenoma, sweat gland tumour, cylindroma, turban tumour, malign cylindiroma. That was her seventh relapse. On examination, a lesion of the size 10 x 6 cm was observed in the left parietal region. Computed tomography showed the lesion had the size of 11 x 5 cm, and was destroying the tabula externa, diploic region and tabula. The tumour was invading the dura and causing periost reaction. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy treatment was planned because of malign transformation and risk of recurrence. Conclusions. Only one case with cranium erosion was reported in literature. In our case, also intracranial extension of the tumor was observed. (author)

  5. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K.; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

  6. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kinoshita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected.

  7. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Tze Ling; Tomlinson, Jeanne; Chin, Ronald; Eslick, Guy D.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  8. Xanthomatosis, pituitary gland, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sella turcica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seok Jin; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Bong Jin

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland of unknown prevalence that causes pituitary dysfunction and a mass-like lesion. The authors report a case of 40-year-old man with a visual disturbance and a confirmed diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis.

  9. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the parotid gland associated with polycythemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, J. J.; van Rensburg, P. G.; Coetzee, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Although malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is thought to be the most common soft tissue tumor of late adult life, it is extremely uncommon in the parotid gland. A case of MFH in the parotid is reported, associated with polycythemia, which remitted following surgical extirpation of the tumor

  10. Salivary gland masses. Dynamic MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinho; Inoue, Shingo; Ishizuka, Yasuhito; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kawanishi, Masayuki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Ebihara, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of salivary gland masses. We retrospectively examined 19 salivary gland masses that were pathologically diagnosed by surgical operation or biopsy. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images on MRI, performed dynamic studies on each mass and examined the correlation between enhancement patterns and pathological findings. Four enhancement patterns were recognized on contrast-enhanced MRI: type 1 showed marked, homogeneous enhancement; type 2 slights, homogeneous enhancement; type 3 marginal enhancement; and type 4 poor enhancement of the mass. Most pleomorphic adenomas had a type 1 enhancement pattern, but two had a type 2 pattern. Pathologically, each mass enhancement pattern had different tumor cell and matrix components. Warthin's tumor generally showed the type 4 pattern. Primary malignant tumors of the salivary gland all showed the type 3 pattern, and pathological specimens showed many tumor cells along the marginal portion of the tumor. One inflammatory cyst and one Warthin's tumor also showed the type 3 pattern. Except for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the enhancement patterns of late phase images and dynamic study images were the same. Dynamic MRI added little diagnostic information about salivary gland masses, but the contrast-enhanced MR features correlated well with the pathological findings. (author)

  11. [Anatomy and histology of salivary glands of Triatominae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, D

    1999-01-01

    Histological studies upon the salivary glands of ten species of triatomine bugs were performed looking for their number and structural organization in different genera. It was possible to evaluate the celular epithelium type of each gland, as well as the merocrine and apocrine secretions of the glands. Secretion run until the hilo and after to salivary pump and hypofaringe. The glandular components, D1, D2 and D3 are always present in the Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Diptelogaster but in Rhodnius there are only the first two pairs of glands. The salivary channels and the hilo are analyzed by histology. The whole pair D3 has a clear valve that regularizes the exit of the secretions to the hilo. According to the genus the valves appear in different locations. They have low and dense epithelium, and their nucleus are rich in chromatin. The secondary channels leaving these valves, are very different, with clear chitinous ringer, low level of chromatin in the nucleus and homogeneous cytoplasm.

  12. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general structure of the salt gland of nauplii cultured at 180 g/L disappeared. Semiquantitative APH-1 mRNA analysis indicated that the gene was expressed in all tested salinities. The expression did not change remarkably between 25 and 40 g/L salinities. As salinity increased, the gene was up regulated at 70 g/L and ...

  13. Evaluation of Ga-67 scintigraphy for salivary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Hiroshi; Toyama, Michio; Eguchi, Tooru; Maeda, Kadzuo

    1993-01-01

    It is often difficult to exactly grasp the malignancy of salivary gland tumor because of inadaptability of percutaneous biopsy. The purpose of this study is to discuss whether Ga-67 scintigraphy on patient with salivary gland tumor can provide useful information for differential diagnosis. We studied retrospectivelly the case records of twenty patients with parotid or submandibular gland tumors admitted to the Nippon Dental University, School of Dentistry at Niigata, between January 1984 and December 1991. The final diagnoses of these twenty patients were pleomorphic adenoma in 11, adenocarcinoma in 3, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 3, Warthin's tumor in 1, oncocytoma in 1, and carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma in 1. The scintigraphic patterns of the twenty patients were classified as negative (-), weakly positive (+), moderate positive (++), strongly positive (+++). Malignant tumors showed increased activity in Ga-67 images except those in three patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas. We concluded that Ga-67 scintigraphy may be useful to distinguish benign salivary gland tumors from adenocarcinoma or carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, but not be useful in detection of adenoid cystic carcinoma. (author)

  14. An Update on Tumors of the Lacrimal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Esmaeli, Bita; Holstein, Sarah Linéa von

    2017-01-01

    are a growing mass at the site of the lacrimal gland, including displacement of the eyeball, decreased motility, diplopia, and ptosis. Pain is the cardinal symptom of an adenoid cystic carcinoma. Radiological findings characteristically include an oval, well-demarcated mass for benign lesions whereas malignant...

  15. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Biology, Institute of Biosciences Av. 24A, no.1515, Bela Vista, .... brain. The alveoli are mainly piriform and the ducts wide and flattened (figure 1D, E and F). ... This paper describes the morphological differences .... glands is species-specific and produces a sexual marking.

  16. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  17. Computerized axil tomographic scanning in tumors of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertotti, C.; Figueiredo, M.A.; Clemente Filho, A.S.; Secaf, F.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography was used for diagnosing primary or recurrent adrenal gland tumors, being positive in all nine cases and later confirmed at surgery. The tumors are adenocarcinoma (6 cases); pheochromocytoma (2); aldostenoma (1) an cyst(u). Comparison of selective arteriography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy and computed tomography has shown the later to be most accurate. (Author) [pt

  18. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  19. Sweat gland carcinoma in a two-month old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.L.M. de; Antoneli, C.B.G.; Novaes, P.E.R.S.; Saba, L.M.; Bianchi, A.

    1982-01-01

    A case is presented of a two-month old child, female, with a sweat gland carcinoma of the left palm. The rarity of this tumor in this age is commented and the national and international literature are reviewed. It is concluded that this is probably the first case in the age group. (M.A.) [pt

  20. Skene's gland duct cysts: The utility of vaginal/transperineal imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : P F Kruger (pkruger@urogynaecology.co.za). Periurethral glands, or Skene's glands, are branched, tubular glands that are adjacent to the distal urethra. Usually Skene's ducts run parallel to the long axis of the urethra for approximately 1 cm ...