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Sample records for pterogyne nitens leguminosae

  1. Chemical constituents of the flowers of Pterogyne nitens (caesalpinioideae); Constituintes quimicos das flores Pterogyne nitens (caesalpinioideae)

    Regasini, Luis Octavio; Fernandes, Daniara Cristina; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Furlan, Maysa; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Barreiro, Eliezer Jesus [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine Monteiro; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Brandao [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica e Tecnologia

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Pterogyne nitens (Caesalpinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of nine phenolic derivatives, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, taxifolin, astilbin, ourateacatechin, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, chlorogenic and gallic acid, besides two guanidine alkaloids, pterogynine, pterogynidine. This is the first time these compounds have been reported in P. nitens flowers. As this is a monospecific genus, these secondary metabolites may have taxonomical significance. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. (author)

  2. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C.

  3. Volume estimation of Pterogyne nitens in pure plantation in the southwest of Bahia

    Magno Pacheco Fraga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of wood volume is essential to determine the logging productive potential of a forest plantation. However, as this variable isn’t easily measurable it’s necessary the obtainment by estimation. This study aims to select volumetric models and analyze the efficiency of three different methods to estimate the wood volume (form factor, form quotient and adjusted volumetric equation to the species Pterogyne nitens Tul. in pure plantation in Vitoria da Conquista, State of Bahia, Brazil. The sampled trees were logged and rigorously cubed, andeight volumetric models were adjusted. The best models were selected based on the pondered value of the statistical parameters scores and residues distribution. Stoate model presented the best performance to estimate the bole volume and the total wood volume of Pterogyne nitens with bark. Nevertheless, for the bole volume, Koperzky and Gehrhardt model presented similar estimates as Stoate’s, being also indicated to this species. Among the methods used to estimate volume, it is recommended the use of adjusted volumetric models.

  4. Tolerancia a la desecación de semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae

    Marcelo Nahuel Morandini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopis ferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae. The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P. ferox and P. nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN of the National University of Salta (Argentina. The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P

  5. Inducción de callos embriogénicos y formación de proembriones somáticos en Pterogyne nitens Tull "tipa colorada"

    Maritza Vacca Molina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Inducción de callos embriogénicos y formación de proembriones somáticos en Pterogyne nitens Tull "tipa colorada" Título en ingles: Embriogenic calli induction and somatic proembryo  formation in Pterogyne nitens Tull Título corto: Callo embriogénico y  proembriones somáticos en Pterogyne nitens Tull Resumen: Pterogyne nitens es un árbol que crece en bosques húmedos del Norte de la Argentina. Por su calidad maderera la especie se utiliza en forestación, reforestación o enriquecimiento de bosques nativos. Una alternativa a los métodos convencionales de propagación son las técnicas de cultivo de tejidos vegetales mediante el uso de la embriogénesis somática. El objetivo del presente trabajo es inducir la formación de callos embriogénicos y la obtención de proembriones somáticos evaluando la influencia del tipo de explanto, tipo y concentración de reguladores de crecimiento y composición del medio basal. Para la inducción de callos embriogénicos se utilizan explantos  extraídos de hojas cotiledonares, foliolos, tallos y raíces de  plántulas de dos meses de edad. Se emplean tres medios de cultivos MSC, MS50 y MSMOD. Cada medio de cultivo se suplementa con 2,4-D ó ANA en distintas concentraciones. A los 45 días los explantos provenientes de hojas cotiledonares en los medios de MSC con 2,4-D en concentraciones de  67.87, 107.41, 113.12, 135.74 y 180.99 µM, se logra en mayor proporción la formación de masas callosas amarillas. Con 107.41 µM de 2,4-D en el medio MSC se observa la formación de estructuras proembrionarias. Los segmentos radiculares en todos los tratamientos evaluados, no desarrollan callos. Palabras clave: Tipa colorada, micropropagación, embriogénesis, forestales, leguminosa. Abstract: Pterogyne nitens is a tree that grows in wet forests of Northern Argentina. Due to its quality timber especies are used in afforestation, reforestation or enrichment of native forests. An

  6. Tolerancia a la desecación de semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae

    Marcelo Nahuel Morandini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.

  7. Extratos vegetais no controle de patógenos em sementes de Pterogyne nitens Tul

    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available A demanda por sementes florestais para reflorestamento e outras finalidades poderá se constituir em um meio de disseminação de patógenos, que podem comprometer a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de extratos naturais de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia e alamanda (Allamanda blanchetti sobre a micoflora e a fisiologia de sementes de Pterogyne nitens. Os seguintes tratamentos fitossanitários foram avaliados: testemunha (sementes não tratadas; fungicida Captan® (240 g/100 kg, e extratos de melão-de-são-caetano e alamanda nas concentrações de 10, 100, 500 e 1000 ppm. No teste de germinação, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação, a primeira contagem e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Os extratos vegetais de melão-de-são-caetano e alamanda reduziram a incidência de fungos e aumentaram o percentual de germinação das sementes de P. nitens.

  8. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DA SERAPILHEIRA FOLIAR DE FLORESTA NATIVA E PLANTIOS DE Pterogyne nitens E Eucalyptus urophylla NO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA

    Heloísa Cintra Alves Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition process regulates the accumulation of litter and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems, being central to its maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of leaf litter decomposition in three forest ecosystems (semideciduous forest Montana and homogeneous stands of Pterogyne nitens Tul. and Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, located in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. To evaluate the decomposition, newly fallen leaves on the ground of trees and shrubs in each of the studied toppings were collected. The sheets were dried at 65 °C, and thereafter, 10 g portions were weighed and placed in litter bags, which were randomly distributed on the surface of the forest floor in each of the areas studied. Five litter bags at random were collected after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of installation. After collection, the material contained in each litter bag was subjected to drying in an oven at 65 °C and weighed. Based on the obtained masses were estimated the percentage of the remaining mass, the rate of decomposition ( k and half-life time of the litter ( t 1 /2 . For chemical characterization three subsamples were separated from the dried leaf litter, which were ground and analyzed by determination of the total nitrogen, carbon, polyphenols, lignin and cellulose. The decomposition was related to environmental variables (precipitation, temperature and humidity and the microenvironment (temperature and soil moisture.The total accumulated litter varied significantly between the settlements studied, the highest value was observed in the area of Eucalyptus urophylla (12,7 Mg ha -1 , followed by native forest (6,9 Mg ha -1 and Pterogyne nitens (1,1 Mg ha -1 . At the end of the six months of the experiment, Eucalyptus urophylla showed the greatest remaining mass (73,6%, followed by native forest (67,8% and Pterogyne nitens (46,3%. The decomposition constant ( k was higher in litter of Pterogyne nitens (0,0054 g

  9. PRODUÇÃO DE SERAPILHEIRA EM FLORESTA ESTACIONAL SEMIDECIDUAL E EM PLANTIOS DE Pterogyne nitens Tul. e Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake NO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA

    Alcides Pereira Santos Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litter is a major component responsible for maintaining the productive capacity of forests; thus, knowledge on their production and composition can provide information to adjust management techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the monthly litter fall in a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and two pure forest plantations ( Pterogyne nitens and e de Eucalyptus urophylla , located in city of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia state, as well as to analyze the influence of climatic factors in this production. Leaf litter samples were collected during ten months, using 0.25 m 2 square collectors. The materials collected were screened (fractions: leaves, branches, bark and reproductive structures and dried in a dry kiln at 60° C. The monthly average litter productions were 544.6, 522.6 and 179.5 kg ha -1 in areas of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, Eucalyptus urophylla and Pinus nitens , respectively. The leaves represented an increasing proportion of litter in three coverages (65% of the total. The average monthly production of leaves was higher in native forest, followed by Eucalyptus urophylla and Pinus nitens . The contribution of branches was significantly lower in the Pinus nitens and did not vary between Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Eucalyptus urophylla . The production of reproductive materials varied in the order: Eucalyptus urophylla > Seasonal Semideciduous Forest > Pinus nitens . The bark fraction did not vary between Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Pinus nitens , being higher in Eucalyptus urophylla . There was a significant negative correlation between total production and average air temperature in all studied coverage. Only on Pinus nitens were found significant associations with the litter production variables precipitation and wind speed. Eucalyptus urophylla forest and Seasonal Semideciduous Forest have similar aspects regarding leaf litter production, 67% higher than the production of Pinus nitens . The temporal

  10. INFLUÊNCIA DAS CONCENTRAÇÕES DE ÁCIDO SULFÚRICO NA GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. (FABACEAE

    Rosália Nazareth Rosa Trindade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido sulfúrico na desinfestação, oxidação e germinação in vitro de sementes de Pterogyne nitens. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais do IFMG. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 12 sementes, sendo estudado o efeito de cinco concentrações de ácido sulfúrico. A avaliação do número de sementes germinadas, oxidadas e desinfestadas foi feita três vezes por semana, por 20 dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância. As maiores porcentagens de desinfestação 27,08 e 16,67% foi observado nas sementes tratadas com 25 e 100% do ácido. Os tratamentos com 75 e 100% de ácido sulfúrico não se diferenciaram e apresentaram maiores porcentagens de germinação (93,75 e 83,33%, respectivamente e oxidação (89,58 e 83,33 %, respectivamente. A concentração de 100% de ácido sulfúrico apresentou os melhores resultados para a desinfestação e germinação.

  11. Free radical scavenging activity of Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... As part of our ongoing research on antioxidant agents from Brazilian flora, twenty extracts .... The qualitative test was carried out according to the method of .... ethnography of mobility among the Mbya-Guaraní (Northeastern.

  12. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  13. Micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis and nitens using tissue culture techniques

    Furze, M.J.; Creswell, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with nodal explants of E. grandis and E. nitens seedlings and E. grandis coppice shoots showed that a large number of plants can be produced from a single explant using micropropagation. The percentage of micropropagated shoots that formed roots was about 90% for E. grandis and 80% for E. nitens. For both species, about 90% of the rooted shoots survived after hardening off. 9 references.

  14. Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there ...

    Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there interclonal variation in response to experimentally imposed water stress? ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... However, water stress reduced shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity with significant interclonal effects.

  15. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  16. Identification of Mycosphaerella species associated with Eucalyptus nitens leaf defoliation in South Africa

    Hunter, G.C.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is an important plantation tree species in South Africa, where it is grown for paper and pulp production. The growth and performance of E. nitens in South Africa is, however, reduced substantially by Mycosphaerella leaf blotch (MLB) disease. The aim of this study was to determine

  17. A survey of cossid moth attack in Eucalyptus nitens on the ...

    During July 2004, an infestation of an unknown larval insect in ten- year and older Eucalyptus nitens was reported on the Mpumalanga highveld of South Africa. Samples of wood containing larvae were collected from the field and taken to the Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria. The adult ...

  18. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

    Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul. belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens extract that was not loaded (E or loaded (SE into a liquid crystal precursor system (S for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS. These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC.

  19. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D.

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43 o 28'N, and longitude 3 o 48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  20. Simultaneous determination of five active compounds in chimonanthus nitens by double-development HPTLC and scanning densitometry

    Zhou Bin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chimonanthus nitens (family Calycanthaceae, Shanlamei in Chinese, is an unique species in China. The extract of dried leaves of Chimonanthus nitens has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antitussive effects. Terpenes, coumarins, and flavonoids are usually regarded as the main active components. Therefore, simultaneous determination of these compounds is very important to control the quality of Chimonanthus nitens. Results A double-development TLC method was developed for simultaneous analysis of five compounds in Chimonanthus nitens. The chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 plate with chloroform-methanol (9∶1, v/v and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (10∶1, v/v as mobile phase for twice development. Their characteristic TLC profiles were observed under UV light at 365 nm and the bands were then revealed by reaction with 1% vanillin-H2SO4 solution. Quantification of three monoterpenes was achieved by densitometry at 545 nm (β-caryophyllene or 606 nm (cineole and linalool. Two coumarins (scopoletin and scoparone were determined by densitometry at 340 nm with filter wavelength of 370 nm. The investigated compounds had good linearity (R2 >0.99 within test ranges. Conclusions The developed double-development TLC method is helpful to control the quality of Chimonanthus nitens, which is simple and accurate.

  1. Influência do hospedeiro no ciclo e comprovação do ciclo heteroxeno de Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Host influency on life cycle and comprovation of the heteroxenous cycle of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897

    N. M. Serra Freire

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Steers and rabbits were used as experimental hosts for Anocenter nitens during scheduled infections, when ticks were recovered from naturally infected horses. Thus, the influence of the host species on the parasite was evaluated mainly considering parameters related to the engorgement period and pre molting of evolutive stages. It was also observed that almost 5% if the metanymphae and a few more than 1% of metalarvae fall off from the host to molt in the evironment, characterizing cycles in one or more hosts. The heteroxenous cycle is reported for the first time occuring in A. nitens.

  2. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  3. Torrefaction of wood and bark from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens: Focus on volatile evolution vs feasible temperatures

    Arteaga-Pérez, Luis E.; Segura, Cristina; Bustamante-García, Verónica; Gómez Cápiro, Oscar; Jiménez, Romel

    2015-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment leading to the improvement of most of the fuel properties of biomass, namely energy density, HHV (higher heating value), grindability and hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to identify the most feasible temperature to carry out torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus and nitens, based on chemical evidences associated to the release of volatiles during thermal treatment of biomass. With that end: (i) Devolatilization kinetics, (ii) Effects of temperature and residence time and (iii) volatiles composition during torrefaction of both wood and bark were analyzed. In all cases DTG (derivative thermogravimetric curves) exhibited the typical shape of lignocellulosic materials, with three decomposition phases and two reaction zones. Values of activation energies for hemicellulose decomposition, were in agreement with those reported in the literature (121–170 kJ/mol). Carboxylic acids, water and phenolic compounds showed two peaks, which were associated to torrefaction (below 310 °C) and pyrolysis (310–410 °C) respectively. The most feasible temperatures for torrefaction were estimated as a function of these peaks, and it ranged between 295 °C and 310°C for all samples. Main volatile species at the torrefaction peaks were distributed as Water > Acetic Acid > CO_2 > Others, while Levoglucosan formation was marginal, due to the catalytic effect of inorganics. - Highlights: • Identification of torrefaction peaks for E. globulus and E. nitens using dynamic TGA-MS. • Devolatilization kinetics of E. globulus and E. nitens (wood and bark). • Effect of operation parameters on torrefaction of E. globulus and E. nitens. • Most feasible temperatures for torrefaction based on chemical and thermal evidences. • Definition of atomic indicator to estimate degradation degree based on TGA-MS.

  4. Exploration of genetic architecture through sib-ship reconstruction in advanced breeding population of Eucalyptus nitens.

    Jaroslav Klápště

    Full Text Available Accurate inference of relatedness between individuals in breeding population contributes to the precision of genetic parameter estimates, effectiveness of inbreeding management and the amount of genetic progress delivered from breeding programs. Pedigree reconstruction has been proven to be an efficient tool to correct pedigree errors and recover hidden relatedness in open pollinated progeny tests but the method can be limited by the lack of parental genotypes and the high proportion of alien pollen from outside the breeding population. Our study investigates the efficiency of sib-ship reconstruction in an advanced breeding population of Eucalyptus nitens with only partially tracked pedigree. The sib-ship reconstruction allowed the identification of selfs (4% of the sample and the exploration of their potential effect on inbreeding depression in the traits studied. We detected signs of inbreeding depression in diameter at breast height and growth strain while no indications were observed in wood density, wood stiffness and tangential air-dry shrinkage. After the application of a corrected sib-ship relationship matrix, additive genetic variance and heritability were observed to increase where signs of inbreeding depression were initially detected. Conversely, the same genetic parameters for traits that appeared to be free of inbreeding depression decreased in size. It therefore appeared that greater genetic variance may be due, at least in part, to contributions from inbreeding in these studied populations rather than a removal of inbreeding as is traditionally thought.

  5. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian Rosewood) of Leguminosae is ...

    Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian Rosewood) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous or nearly evergreen tree that grows in mixed deciduous forests with teak. Leaves are compound. The creamy white flowers are borne on branched inflorescences. The indehiscent dry pod bears. 1-4 seeds. Inset - a juvenile plant.

  6. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous tree with greyish bark and compound leaves. Flowers are greenish-yellow in head inflorescences. Fruit pods are yellowish-brown, flat and carry 6-10 seeds (Inset shows the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods).

  7. Breeding sites of drosophilids (Diptera in the Brazilian Savanna. I. Fallen fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae and Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae Sítios de criação de drosofilídeos (Diptera no bioma Cerrado. I. Frutos caídos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae e Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae

    Francisco Roque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drosophilids that bred in fruits of three common plant species of the Brazilian Savanna were investigated: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa and Anacardium humile, along with the temporal and spatial distribution of these insects among fruits obtained from six individuals of E. nitens. Fallen fruits were collected in natural environments, placed on moist sand in individual containers and all drosophilids that emerged from these resources during 15 days were collected, counted and identified. From 3,651 fruits collected (3,435 of E. nitens, 179 of A. humile and 37 of H. speciosa 4,541 flies emerged and were classified into 19 species of Drosophilidae. Their distribution was unequal among the three resources, also over time, and among the six individuals of E. nitens. Such fluctuations probably reflect the availability of resources in time and space and probably the action of selective factors such as larval competition.Neste estudo, são investigados os drosofilídeos que se criam em frutos de três espécies de plantas comuns do Cerrado brasileiro: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa e Anacardium humile, juntamente com a distribuição temporal e espacial desses insetos entre os frutos obtidos de seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Frutos recolhidos sobre a serrapilheira, em ambientes naturais, foram mantidos no laboratório e os drosofilídeos que deles emergiram foram contados e identificados. Dos 3.651 frutos coletados (3.435 de E. nitens, 179 de A. humile e 37 de H. speciosa emergiram 4.541 drosofilídeos, classificados em 19 espécies. A distribuição dessas espécies foi desigual entre os três tipos de recursos, ao longo do tempo, e também entre os seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Essas flutuações refletem a disponibilidade dos recursos no tempo e no espaço, e provavelmente a ação de forças seletivas como a competição entre as larvas.

  8. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  9. Dual RNA-sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi challenge reveals pathogen and host factors influencing compatibility

    Febe Elizabeth Meyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction.

  10. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  11. Uji Beberapa Konsentrasi Ekstrak Tepung Akar Tuba (Derris Eliptica Benth.) untuk Mengendalikan Hama Ulat Api Setora Nitens Wlk. (Lepidoptera; Limacodidae) pada Tanamankelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.)

    ', Wahyudianto; Laoh, Jeltje Hennie; Rustam, Rusli

    2014-01-01

    Nettle caterpillar Setora nitens Walker. is one of the major pests of oil palm plant. The use of synthetic chemical pesticides to control pest has many negative impacts such a pest resistance, pest resurgence and environmental pollution. To reduce the negative impacts cause by synthetic chemical pesticides, then application of the alternative pest control using botanical insecticides such as Derris eliptica Benth. Which is environmentally friendly is needed. This research is aims to test the ...

  12. Flavonoids and other bioactive phenolics isolated from Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae)

    Alves, Clayton Q.; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.; Villareal, Cristiane F.; Soares, Milena B.P.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de; Aguiar, Rosane M.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of stem bark and leaves of Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. (Leguminosae). Through usual chromatographic techniques were isolated bergenin as the primary compound of the stem bark of and from the leaves gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid, quercetin, quercetin-3-ο-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(6 - ο-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (tellimoside), quercetin-3-O-(6 - ο-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (helichrysroside), agathisflavone and vitexin were obtained. The isolates were identified by spectroscopic data analysis, and bergenin showed dose-related antinociception when assessed in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. (author)

  13. Potencial acaricida do óleo de andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre fêmeas adultas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens Neumann, 1897 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 Acaricide potencial of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. oil on engorged adult females of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806

    M.P.O. Farias

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial acaricida in vitro do óleo da semente da andiroba (Carapa guianensis sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens (n=210 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=140, coletadas manualmente, respectivamente, de equinos e de cães naturalmente infestados. Para o teste de imersão, empregaram-se cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba, 100%, 50%, 30%, 25% e 10%, em água destilada, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante. No teste com A. nitens, foram usadas três repetições para cada diluição, utilizando-se 10 fêmeas ingurgitadas para cada tratamento. No teste com R. sanguineus, usaram-se duas repetições, e formaram-se, ainda, dois grupos-controle para cada espécie de ixodídeo, um com água destilada e outro com tween 80 mais água destilada. Após os testes, as fêmeas foram mantidas em laboratório sob temperatura ambiente. Observou-se mortalidade das fêmeas ingurgitadas e redução de postura, neste caso, com ovos inférteis, demonstrando eficácia de 100% nas duas espécies em todas as diluições testadas. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram a potencialidade do uso do extrato de andiroba contra A. nitens e R. sanguineus.In vitro acaricide potential of the oil from andiroba seed (Carapa guianensis was evaluated on engorged females of Anocentor nitens (n=210 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=140 manually collected, from horses and dogs naturally infested, respectively. Five dilutions, 100%, 50%, 30%, 25%, and 10% of andiroba seed oil in deionized water, using tween 80 as dispersant, were employed for the engorged females immersion test. For A. nitens test, three repetitions were made with each dilution, using 10 engorged females for each treatment, and two repetitions for R. sanguineus test. Two control groups were used for each tick species, one with deionized water and another one with tween 80 and deionized water. After the tests, the females were kept in the laboratory under room temperature. Engorged female mortality and

  14. Effects of Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. Leaf Extract on Glycolipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Capacity in Diabetic Model Mice

    Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and antioxidant capacity of Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. leaf extract (COE in combination of high-glucose-fat diet-fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic model mice. Various physiological indexes in diabetic model mice were well improved especially by oral administration of high dose of COE; the results were listed as follows. Fast blood glucose (FBG level and serum triglyceride (TC, total cholesterol (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as MDA in liver were significantly reduced; fasting serum insulin (FINS and insulin sensitivity index (ISI were both increased; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC in serum was significantly increased; total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and catalase (CAT in serum and liver were apparently enhanced; liver coefficient (LC, liver transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were decreased. Furthermore, pancreas islets and liver in diabetic model mice showed some extend of improvement in morphology and function after 4 weeks of COE treatment. In consequence, COE was advantageous to regulate glycolipid metabolism and elevate antioxidant capacity in diabetic model mice. Thus, the present study will provide a scientific evidence for the use of COE in the management of diabetes and its related complications.

  15. Las leguminosas en alimentación animal

    Rubio, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    and the fact that most is genetically modified are barriers to its utilization in the EU. In summary, environmental, health and productive considerations result in a growing interest in legume production in the EU.Desde el punto de vista de su uso en nutrición animal, pueden considerarse dos grupos de leguminosas: leguminosas-forraje (p. ej. la alfalfa, usadas en alimentación de rumiantes y leguminosas-grano (p. ej. habas, guisantes y altramuces, usadas esencialmente para aves y cerdos, y en menor medida para rumiantes. Las leguminosas-grano pueden sustituir parcial o totalmente a fuentes de proteínas tradicionales, de origen animal, como carne, huesos o harina de pescado en los piensos para animales, y representan una alternativa para las harinas de soja y otras oleaginosas. Su contenido en proteína es variable pero elevado (25-45 g/100 g materia seca. No obstante, la presencia de metabolitos secundarios (inhibidores de proteasas, saponinas, glucósidos, lectinas, taninos, alcaloides, así como sus altos niveles de fibra (polisacáridos no amiláceos, ha restringido el uso de leguminosas-grano en la alimentación de animales monogástricos (aves y cerdos y, mucho más en la de rumiantes. Sin embargo, en la actualidad se está incrementando el interés por el uso de estas materias primas como alimentos funcionales, sobre todo en nutrición humana, pero también en nutrición animal, entre otras razones, como consecuencia de la prohibición del uso de proteína animal (harinas de carne y hueso, que tuvo lugar en la Unión Europea tras la crisis de la Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina. Para establecer el valor nutritivo de las leguminosas ha de prestarse especial atención a su composición en nutrientes, su contenido en energía y la digestibilidad de los aminoácidos. En rumiantes, es necesario establecer la degradabilidad en el rumen tanto de la proteína como de los aminoácidos individuales y de los carbohidratos, aspectos que determinan la utilización de

  16. Primer registro para el sur del Perú de Rhynchoconger nitens (Jordan & Bollman 1890) (Teleostei: Congridae). ¿Un caso de dispersión larvaria relacionada con El Niño?

    Béarez, Philippe; Treviño, Hugo; Zambrano, Martín

    2002-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez en el sur del Perú (Ilo, Moquegua) un ejemplar de Rhynchoconger nitens, pequeño congrio de la familia Congridae. Para explicar su presencia en 18° de latitud sur, se propone una hipótesis de migración larvaria durante un fenómeno de El Niño A specimen of Rhyncoconger nitens, a small congrid, is recorded for the first time from Ilo (Moquegua, Peru). To explain its presence at 18° of south latitude, a hypothesis of larval migration during an El Niño is proposed...

  17. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness.

    Emily J Telfer

    Full Text Available Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K. The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi

  18. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness.

    Telfer, Emily J; Stovold, Grahame T; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario G; Dungey, Heidi S

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource

  19. RNA-Seq using two populations reveals genes and alleles controlling wood traits and growth in Eucalyptus nitens.

    Saravanan Thavamanikumar

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65% were down-regulated and 1402 (35% were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes and of these 640 SNPs (30% occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth.

  20. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole-tree transpiration and water-use partitioning between Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in a short-rotation plantation in northeastern Tasmania.

    Hunt, Mark A.; Beadle, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-tree water use in 4- and 8-year-old plantations of Eucalyptus nitens Deane and Maiden (ex Maiden) in the presence and absence of Acacia dealbata Link. weeds was estimated by the heat pulse velocity technique during a six-week summer period. Maximum sap velocities were recorded between 5 and 15 mm under the cambium for both eucalypt and acacia trees, and marked radial and axial variations in sap velocity were observed. The latter source of variation was most pronounced in mixed stands where crowns were asymmetrical. Mean daily sap flux ranged from 1.4 to 103.6 l day(-1) for eucalypts and from acacias. Stem diameter explained 98% of the variation in sapwood area for E. nitens and 89% for A. dealbata, and was determined to be a suitable parameter for scaling water use from the tree to stand level. Plot transpiration varied from 1.4 to 2.8 mm day(-1) in mixed 8-year-old plots and was 0.85 mm day(-1) in a mixed 4-year-old plot. The degree of A. dealbata infestation was associated with absolute plot water use and regression models predicted that, in the absence of acacia competition, plot water use for the 8-year-old stand would approach 5-6 mm day(-1) during the growing season.

  2. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  3. A new generic system for the pantropical Caesalpinia group (Leguminosae

    Edeline Gagnon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84% of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005 are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera, and (for most genera the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig., re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon, contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia, and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system.

  4. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  5. Attelabus Nitens (Scop. – an Abundant but Biologically Little Known Species from the Family of Attelabidae (Coleoptera

    Zdeňka Urbanová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the biology of Attelabus nitens (Scop. in the Brno region. In the growing season of 2014, 35 field inspections were made at 10 sites in the intervals of three‑to‑seven days. Leaf rolls were found on Quercus petraea, Q. dalechampii, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. cerris, rarely on Castanea sativa. Hibernating in the shed leaf rolls are larvae of the second instar. These pupate in the rolls during the second half of April and beginning of May. At the turn of April and May, beetles fly onto host woody plants of the 1st age class. They damage about 30 cm2 of leaves in two months. Females create about 30 leaf rolls into which they lay 1 to 5 (on average 1.1 eggs. The species develops through two larval instars, which damage 1.7 to 2.3 cm2 of leaves and come of age towards the end of the growing season. On the primary shoots of oaks (with relatively large leaves, the females rolled below‑average sized leaves. On the secondary shoots (with relatively small leaves, they rolled leaves of average to above‑average size. The female gnaws a deep mine into the main vein (in a third of its length from the adaxial side first. Then she makes a cross cut into the blade from both sides up to the main vein, which is damaged only on the surface. Into thicker sections of veins she bites out (mainly from the abaxial side on average 350 cross cuts. Only then, the female folds the wilted leaf part adaxially along the main vein and after having laid an egg (eggs, she rolls the blade from the end into a transversal cylindrical roll. On the leaves of Quercus spp. with an average area of 14.3 cm2, the females roll on average 11.9 cm2 (83.2 %. During the growing period, 36 % of individuals died in the leaf rolls on primary shoots and 28 % of individuals died in the leaf rolls on secondary shoots.

  6. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    An efficient first total synthesis of a naturally occurring guanidine alkaloid, Nitensidine D isolated from ethanol extract of Pterogyne nitens has been described. Geraniol has been used as the starting material. N-alkylation of phthalimide has been achieved using immobilized ionic liquid and formamidinesulfinic acid acts as ...

  7. First record on the use of leaves of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae and fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea by Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Cerrado Primeiro registro do uso de folhas de Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae e de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea por Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Cerrado brasileiro

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During May, June and July of 2004, the feeding habits of Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were investigated. Each morning food remains (dry oral pellets, seeds, feces and partly eaten foods were collected in two day roosts sites located inside the main building at Embrapa Cerrados. Fruits of Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852 and leaves of Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 were items consumed by P. lineatus. Independent of plant and bat distribution area, the use of Solanum leaves by P. lineatus appears to be common.Durante os meses de maio, junho e julho de 2004, os hábitos alimentares de Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram investigados. Toda manhã os restos alimentares (pelotas de matéria seca, sementes, fezes e itens parcialmente comidos foram coletados em dois abrigos diurnos localizados dentro das dependências da Embrapa Cerrados. Além de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852, folhas de Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 foram consumidas por P. lineatus. Independentemente da área de distribuição, da planta ou do morcego, o uso de folhas de espécies do gênero Solanum por P. lineatus parece ser comum.

  8. Respuesta de cinco leguminosas de cobertura a la fertilización fosfórica

    Robin Gómez Gómez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de cobertura de especies leguminosas son sembradas para el control de malezas, prevención de la erosión del suelo y aporte de nitrógeno al suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de las leguminosas de cobertura Mucuna pruriens cv. cinza, Mucuna pruriens cv. preta, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vigna radiata y Pueraria phaseoloides a la fertilización fosfórica, en dos épocas del año. El experimento se realizó en un invernadero en la Estación Experimental Agrícola Fabio Baudrit Moreno (EEAFBM de la Universidad de Costa Rica, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, en el periodo de noviembre del 2012 a enero del 2013, y se repitió de abril a mayo del 2013. Se aplicaron dosis de 0, 30, 60 y 90 kg P2O5/ha en suelo esterilizado con vapor y posteriormente, utilizado para llenar potes de 2 kg de capacidad. Se evaluó altura de planta, número de hojas verdaderas y peso seco luego de 18-26 días de la siembra, según la especie de leguminosa. Tuvieron un mayor crecimiento C. spectabilis Ruth, V. radiata (L Wilczek y P. phaseoloides (Roxb, cuando fueron fertilizadas con 60 kg P2O5/ha, mientras que, los dos cultivares de M. pruriens no incrementaron su crecimiento con la fertilización fosfórica. El fósforo a la siembra de las leguminosas de semilla pequeña aceleró su crecimiento, lo que indica la importancia de validar el empleo de este fertilizante para la obtención de una rápida cobertura del suelo, lo cual podría disminuir la competencia con las malezas.

  9. Avances en la evaluación de leguminosas anuales distintas del T. subterraneum L.

    Moreno Cruz, V.; Gallardo Martínez, D.

    2011-01-01

    Dado los problemas actuales de persistencia del T. subterraneum en muchas áreas, debidas en general, al estrecho margen de adaptacóin de las variedades disponibles actualmente, se indican en el presente trabajo otras especies de leguminosas anuales que pueden ser una alternativa, en los pastos del S-O, al referido Trifolium subterraneum. Se incluye, entre las evaluaciones realizadas, las especies Medicago polymorpha, Trifolium glomeratum y Ornithopus compressus, todas ellas presentes en los s...

  10. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  11. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  12. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  13. Dihydronaflavonols from the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Ferreira, Malisson; Silva, Milton N. da; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Gisele M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Arruda, Mara Silvia P. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica], e-mail: mspa@ufpa.br; Borges, Rosilvaldo dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Inst. de Ciencias

    2009-07-01

    Derris urucu is an Amazonian plant with insecticide and ichthyotoxic properties. Studies with this species show the presence of flavonoids, mainly rotenoids, as well as stilbenes. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae) afforded three new dihydroflavonols named urucuol A (1), B (2) and C (3), and the dihydroflavonol isotirumalin (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectra and MS data and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity and showed a relatively lower antioxidant ability compared to the commercial antioxidant trans-resveratrol. (author)

  14. COBERTURAS VIVAS DE LEGUMINOSAS EN EL PLÁTANO (Musa sp.) FHIA 03

    I. R. Gutiérrez; G. Pérez; R. Benega; Lourdes Gómez

    2002-01-01

    La necesidad de disminuir el consumo de agrotóxicos en el manejo del cultivo del plátano posibilita la búsqueda de alternativas viables en la esfera agroecológica, razones por las que en la Estación Experimental de la Universidad de Ciego de Avila, entre 1996 y 1998, se desarrolló un experimento para la determinación del efecto de coberturas vivas de leguminosas en una plantación de plátano FHIA-03, que se estableció en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo (Eutric ferralsol), evaluándose los efectos que...

  15. Associações Rhizobium - Leguminosas no Estado de Rondõnia

    Magalhães,Fátima M. M.; Silva,Marlene F. da

    1987-01-01

    Verificou-se a ocorrência de nodulação em mudas e/ou individuos adultos de 54 es-pécies da familia Leguminosae em áreas de floresta intacta e áreas perturbadas,no Estado de Rondônia. Das espécies observadas: Acácia polyphyllaÁ. DC., Amburana acreana(Ducke) A. C. Smith, Babieria pinnata(Pers.) Baill., Bauhinia acreanaHarms., BauhiniulongicuspÍ4 Spr. ex Benth., Cassia fastuosaWilld., Dalbergia inundataBenth., Derris ama zonicaKiiiip, Hymenaea reticulataDucke, Machaerium inundaium(Mart. ex Benth...

  16. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    potential threats, the species is evaluated as Endangered (EN). Crotalaria trifoliolata is a bigger shrub than previously thought (up to c. 2 m high, with stems up to c. 3 cm in diam.). Molecular studies confirm that C. trifoliolata is related to the widespread C. saltiana, as predicted from morphological......Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae: Papilionoidaeae) was, for 120 years, only known from an incomplete holotype from an uncertain Ethiopian locality. In 2013 it was rediscovered in the Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Surveys in 2014 and 2015 suggest that the species is restricted...

  17. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre a fase parasitária do carrapato Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937 (Acari: ixodidae Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the parasitic phase of the tick Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937 (Acari: ixodidae

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade do fungo Beauveria bassiana (isolado 986 foi avaliada no desenvolvimento da fase parasitária do Anocentor nitens, acompanhando o desenvolvimento de larvas não alimentadas até o estágio adulto. Foram utilizados dois tratamentos e um grupo controle com cinco repetições cada. No tratamento 1 (T1, as orelhas dos bovinos foram banhadas com a suspensão fúngica de 10(8 conídios ml-1; no tratamento 2 (T2, as orelhas foram banhadas com água destilada e espalhante adesivo. No grupo controle (C, as orelhas foram banhadas com água destilada. Após 24 horas dos tratamentos, as orelhas de cada animal foram infestadas com 100mg de larvas. Os parâmetros analisados, em cada tratamento, foram: número e peso de fêmeas recuperadas; períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação, eclosão e longevidade; percentual de eclosão; peso da massa de ovos e da quenógina; índices de eficiência reprodutiva e nutricional. Verificou-se que, no T1 e T2, o número de fêmeas recuperadas, após 35 dias, foi significantemente menor (PThis study evaluated the pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Isolate 986 on the development of the parasitic phase of Anocentor nitens by accompanying the development of unfed larvae until the adult stage. Two treated and one control group were used with five repetitions each. In the first treated group (T1, cattle ears were bathed with a fungal suspension of 10(8 conidia ml-1, second treated group (T2, the ears were bathed with distilled water and Tween 80 1% and the control group (C, the ears were bathed with distilled water. One day after treatment, the ears of each animal were infested with 100 mg of larvae. The parameters analyzed in each treatment were: number and weight of females recovered; periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, eclosion and longevity; percentage of eggs hatched; weight of the egg mass and of females after oviposition. We found that in the two treated groups the

  18. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  19. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta, (vinorama Olneya tesota, (palo fierro Cercidium praecox (palo de brea and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils showed results similar to those for the corn raw oil and lower than those of soybean raw oil. This behavior was similar for refinated oils. The rancid odor was detected after 5 days of storage in soybean oil and 40 days in vinorama oil, on the contrary, mezquite, palo verde and palo of brea oils presented this odor after 62 days, and for gatuña’s oil needed 135 days. Our results indicate that legume seed of Sonoran Desert could be a good alternative as source of oil.El proceso de oxidación fue evaluado durante el almacenamiento de los aceites crudos y refinados de las semillas de leguminosas silvestres: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Olneya tesota (palo fierro, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea y Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde. Los aceites de maíz y soja fueron empleados como controles. Se determinó el índice de peróxido (I.P., de Yodo (I.I., de acidez (I.A, y valor de p-Anisidina (p-A durante 122 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Los aceites crudos de leguminosas silvestres mostraron valores de estos índices similares a los del aceite de maíz crudo y menores que los del aceite de soja crudo. Este comportamiento también fue observado para los aceites refinados. El olor a rancio se presentó en el aceite de soja a los 5 días de almacenamiento, en el de vinorama a los 40 días, en el de mezquite, palo verde y palo de brea a los 62 días y en el de gatuña a los 135 días. Los valores

  20. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  1. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva

    2014-01-01

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  2. Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae

    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature.

  3. Las leguminosas grano en la agricultura española y europea

    González-Bernal, María José

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legume cultivation is continuously decreasing in Spain in spite of the long tradition of their cultivation and consumption and their well-known environmental benefits by improving soil fertility. Grain legumes have been replaced in rotations by other crops that have adapted more quickly to technological progress and are more profitable for farmers in the short term. A similar change is taking place in Europe. This generates two major dependencies that can only be alleviated by increasing legume cultivation. On the one hand, Europe faces an increasing dependency on nitrogen fertilizers, using up to 10 million tons yearly, of which about 80% are imported. In addition to this, fertilizer production uses large amounts of energy, being highly dependent on natural gas, of which the EU imports 60% of its requirements. On the other hand, EU countries import 70% of their requirements as vegetable protein. In Spain, we import 4.7 million tons of grain legumes yearly, most of which is soybean (95% of the total. The decline in human consumption does not justify the reduction in cultivation, as we import 85% of the dried beans, 60% of the lentils and 75% of the chickpeas consumed in Spain. This dependency on imports, particularly on soybean, poses a serious threat to the economy as it makes the raw feed industry, and therefore most of the meat industry, vulnerable to fluctuations in the world soybean price.A pesar de la larga tradición de cultivo y consumo de leguminosas en España y de sus conocidos beneficios medioambientales mejorando la fertilidad de los suelos, su cultivo ha disminuido constantemente en los últimos 50 años siendo reemplazadas por otros cultivos que se han adaptado mejor a los avances tecnológicos y resultan más rentables al agricultor. El consumo de legumbres ha descendido en España notablemente desde los 13 kg/persona/año en la década de los 60, hasta los poco más de 3 en la actualidad, pero aun así, importamos hoy

  4. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana associado a gel polimerizado de celulose no controle do carrapato Anocentor nitens em teste de campo Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana associated with cellulose polymerized gel in the control of the tick Anocentor nitens in a field test

    E.J. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados 20 equídeos naturalmente infestados por Anocentor nitens, dos quais seus pavilhões auriculares foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos distintos: gel associado a Beauveria bassiana, apenas gel, apenas B. bassiana e um grupo-controle. Procederam-se à contagem e ao registro do número total de fêmeas adultas (>3mm em cada pavilhão auricular, nos dias 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25 e 28, para cálculo do percentual de controle. Foram coletadas e mantidas em laboratório 20 fêmeas pertencentes a cada tratamento, para cálculo dos períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação e eclosão, e peso médio das posturas. No grupo tratado com o composto gel associado a B. bassiana, observou-se percentual de controle maior que 50%, entre o 4º e o 25º dia, assim como decréscimo progressivo do peso médio da postura das fêmeas coletadas no período entre o 7º e 14º dia. Para os outros tratamentos, o percentual de controle manteve-se abaixo de 20%, e o peso da postura não apresentou diferença significativa. Os percentuais de controle, assim como as reduções no peso médio da postura, sugerem que a utilização do composto gel associado a B. bassiana potencializou a virulência do entomopatógeno.Twenty horses naturally infected by Anocentor nitens were selected and their auricular pinna were submitted to four treatments: gel associated with Beauveria bassiana, gel only, B. bassiana only, and a control group. The count and the register of the total number of grown up tick females (>3mm were performed in each auricular pinna on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 for the calculus of percentage of control. Twenty females from each treatment were collected and maintained in laboratory, to calculate the periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, and hatching and mean weight of oviposition. In the group treated with the gel associated to B. bassiana, it was observed a control percentage higher than 50% from the 4º

  5. Taxonomic value of foliar characters in Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae Valor taxonômico de caracteres foliares em Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae is a neotropical genus, native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and comprises two species, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme and D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., although it has been considered a monotypic genus by some authors. Leaf anatomy was compared to verify the presence of anatomical characters to help delimit species. Foliar primordium, leaflet, petiolule, petiole and pulvinus were collected from cultivated plants (Campinas, SP, Brazil and from natural populations (Picinguaba, Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil - D. pinnata; Antonina, PR, Brazil - D. pentaphylla. Studies on leaflet surface assessment (Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as histology and venation analyses were carried out of dehydrated, fresh and fixed material from two species. Leaflet material was macerated for stomatal counts. Histological sections, obtained by free-hand cut or microtome, were stained with Toluidine Blue, Safranin/Alcian Blue, Ferric Chloride, Acid Phloroglucin. Secretory cavities are present in the lamina, petiolule, petiole, pulvinus and leaf primordium in D. pentaphylla, but not in D. pinnata, and can be considered an important character for species diagnosis. Other leaf characters were uninformative in delimiting Dahlstedtia species. There is cambial activity in the petiolule, petiole and pulvinus. This study, associated with other available data, supports the recognition of two species in Dahlstedtia.Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae é um gênero neotropical, com duas espécies reconhecidas, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme e D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., embora tenha sido considerado monotípico por alguns autores. Seus representantes ocorrem na Floresta Atlântica, nos Estados do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, realizamos um estudo comparativo da anatomia foliar, para verificar a presença de caracteres que possam auxiliar a identificação das espécies. Primórdio foliar, lâmina foliar, peciólulo, pecíolo e pulvino

  6. Gilbertiodendron grandistipulatum (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), a singular species from West Central Africa and new record for Congo (Brazzaville)

    De La Estrella, Manuel; Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gilbertiodendron (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tropical African genus of ca. 30 species, most of which are trees of primary forest. The highest concentration of species and morphological variation is found in the Guineo-Congolian region, particularly in Gabon. One of those species is G. grandistipulatum, which is easily recognized by its stipules (up to 18 cm long) and flowers (adaxial petal up to 12.5 × 14 cm). The taxonomy, habitat and distribution of G. grandistipultaum are ...

  7. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China.

    Tang, Jingchao; Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, -29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest.

  8. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China

    Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, –29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest. PMID:29390007

  9. Historia de la investigación en la simbiosis leguminosa-bacteria: una perspectiva didáctica

    Ramírez-Bahena, Marta Helena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After cereals, legumes constitute the second most important family of crops for human and animal consumption. However, in contrast to the former, legumes are capable of growing in arid soils of low fertility, due to their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil bacteria called rhizobia. These microorganisms form special organs in the roots of legumes called nodules, where atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 is transformed into ammonium that is exported to the plant for growth. Since their discovery in legume nodules until today, knowledge of the bacteria capable of establishing symbiosis with these plants has advanced in many aspects. Especially, advances in molecular techniques for bacterial identification and access to unexplored places have confirmed that the interaction of legumes with rhizobia is older, and that N2-fixing bacteria are more abundant and diverse, than considered previously. Here, we attempt to relate the history of an association whose development is key in the history of mankind as we know it now.Después de los cereales, las leguminosas constituyen la segunda familia en importancia para la alimentación humana y animal. Sin embargo, en contraste con ellos, las leguminosas son capaces de crecer en suelos áridos, de escasa fertilidad, lo que se debe a su capacidad para establecer asociaciones simbióticas con bacterias del suelo llamadas rhizobia. Estos microorganismos forman unos órganos especiales en las raíces de las leguminosas, los nódulos, donde el dinitrógeno (N2 atmosférico se transforma en amonio que se exporta a la planta para su crecimiento. Desde su descubrimiento en los nódulos de las leguminosas hasta nuestros días, el conocimiento de las bacterias capaces de establecer simbiosis con estas plantas ha avanzado en múltiples aspectos. Sobre todo, los avances en las técnicas moleculares de identificación bacteriana y el acceso a lugares inexplorados ha permitido confirmar que la interacción de las

  10. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  11. Efeito da cobertura viva com leguminosas herbáceas perenes na agregação de um argissolo

    A. Perin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na área do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, com o objetivo de avaliar a morfologia e a distribuição de raízes de algumas leguminosas herbáceas perenes; os efeitos da cobertura viva no teor de carbono orgânico, e a agregação de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, medida pela estabilidade dos agregados em água. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de três diferentes espécies de leguminosas herbáceas perenes e um tratamento-controle sem cobertura viva (capinado. As leguminosas utilizadas foram amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical(Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium Atropurpureum. Para a estabilidade de agregados, as profundidades de amostragem foram 0-5 e 5-10 cm, enquanto, para a morfologia e distribuição radicular, as avaliações consistiram das profundidades 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. As coberturas com as leguminosas amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical propiciaram os maiores valores percentuais na classe de agregados > 2,00 mm, em média 38 % superiores aos obtidos na área capinada. Os valores do diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP dos agregados no solo com cobertura de leguminosas foram superiores aos da área capinada para ambas as camadas, o que demonstra o efeito favorável das coberturas vivas na estabilização dos agregados do solo. A cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro proporcionou incremento no teor de carbono orgânico no solo. Quanto aos atributos morfológicos das raízes, verificou-se que o amendoim forrageiro apresentou raio radicular intermediário entre as demais espécies e área e massa radicular maiores, o que auxiliou na interpretação do efeito positivo da cobertura viva com essa espécie na agregação do solo.

  12. Leguminosas arbóreas introduzidas em pastagem Performance of leguminous trees introduced into pastures

    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar, por meio de métodos de análise de variância multivariada, o comportamento de 16 espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, introduzidas em pastagem estabelecida de Brachiaria decumbens, a partir de mudas pequenas e em presença de animais, em quatro épocas do ano, em Seropédica, RJ. Nove variáveis relacionadas ao comprimento e ao número de brotos das mudas, antes e após o pastejo dos animais, foram utilizadas nas avaliações. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de quatro agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos Mimosa tenuiflora nas 3ª e 4ª avaliações. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos, para cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que o maior comprimento e o maior número de brotos na muda, após o pastejo, foram encontrados na M. tenuiflora. Esta leguminosa é indicada para ser introduzida, com maior probabilidade de sucesso, nas pastagens de B. decumbens na região, sem a proteção das mudas e em presença de gado.The objective of this work was to analyse, by means of multivariate variance analysis, the behaviour of 16 leguminous tree species introduced into pastures of Brachiaria decumbens from unprotected young plants and under grazing, in four periods of the year, in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Nine variables, related to length and to number of sprouting, before and after animal grazing, were used for the evaluation. The statistical difference of the means of the principal canonical variable, calculated by the Scott-Knott test, indicated the formation of four groups, and the Mimosa tenuiflora group stood out at the 3rd and 4th evaluations. Difference among treatment means for each variable, calculated by Bonferroni confidence intervals, showed that the greatest sprouting length and the highest number of sprouting, after

  13. Morphology of seeds and seedlings of four species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae

    Fabiana Soledad Ojeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four neotropical species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae have potential value as forage crops or ornamentals and could be cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas, even on floodplains. In order to obtain useful data for their culture and taxonomy, the seed morphology, germination pattern (hypogeal or epigeal and seedling development were studied. The studied species belong to different sections of the genus: V. adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Leptospron; V. candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Sigmoidotropis; V. caracalla (L. Verdc. (Sect. Caracallae and V. luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Sect. Vigna. The seeds were collected during fieldwork conducted in northwestern and northeastern Argentina. The qualitative and quantitative characters of the seeds were registered, after which they were sown. The development of the emerged seedlings was followed, first in a greenhouse and thereafter in open field. We recorded the type of germination, the thigmotropic movements of the hypocotyl and of the stem, seedling architecture and plant longevity. These traits allowed us to differentiate the species and construct an identification key that could be useful for agronomic or floricultural purposes. The data obtained partially support the current taxonomic treatment of the genus.

  14. Ecological interpretations of the leaf anatomy of amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae

    FM Leme

    Full Text Available We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae, interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

  15. Ecological interpretations of the leaf anatomy of amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae).

    Leme, F M; Scremin-Dias, E

    2014-02-01

    We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae), interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

  16. (Glossoscolecidae y Acanthodrilidae y leguminosas (Arachis pintoi en un suelo de traspatio

    Esperanza Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sureste de la República Mexicana, en el trópico húmedo, se llevó a cabo un estudio en un cultivo de traspatio (huerto familiar con el fin de aumentar la fertilidad del suelo mediante la reproducción e inoculación de individuos de las especies Glossoscolecidae sp y Dichogaster saliens (oligochaeta las cuales tuvieron la mayor tasa de crecimiento diario (3 mg día-1 en sustratos con 1.5 % Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (leguminosa. Cuatro tratamientos con seis repeticiones de 3 x 2 m cada una fueron instalados en el huerto familiar. El contenido de materia orgánica (5.45 ± 1.6%, nitrógeno total (0.27 ± 0.05%, fósforo disponible (40.6 ± 22.5 mg kg-1 y potasio (1.05 ± 0.88 mg kg-1 fueron significativamente superiores (p < 0.05 en aquellas unidades experimentales con lombrices (27 gm-2 en conjunto con Arachis pintoi.

  17. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  18. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae

    Isys Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, H. courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of H. courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1 for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2 for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1 var. altissima, (2 var. longifolia, and (3 all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  20. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  1. Inventario de Leguminosas activas y evaluación de su potencial de nitrificación, en zonas secas del cantón Paltas.

    Orellana Malla, Gloria Esmeralda

    2007-01-01

    Las leguminosas, grupo de plantas muy numeroso, que incluye unas 17000 especies, antes considerado como una única familia y en la actualidad agrupadas en el orden Fabales. Las leguminosas tienen una gran importancia desde el punto de vista económico ya que incluyen muchas especies que se utilizan como alimento, por ejemplo la arveja, el fréjol, el maní; algunas otras que son productoras de aceite, como la soya; otras de interés forrajero como el trébol y la alfalfa o especies ornamentales com...

  2. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.) CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    José David Álvarez-Solís; Ramón Muñoz-Arroyo; Esperanza Huerta-Lwanga; José Nahed-Toral

    2016-01-01

    El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC) en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N) en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1) frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens), 2) frijol arroz (Vig...

  3. El género Ormosia Jacks: (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) en el estado de Guerrero, México

    Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Jiménez-Ramírez, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez la presencia del género Ormosia para el estado de Guerrero, México, con dos especies: Ormosia carinata y O. oaxacana (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, tribe Sophoreae). Se incluyen las descripciones de ambas, datos referentes a los ejemplares, una clave dicotómica para diferenciarlas, y la ilustración de O. carinata. Ormosia carinata era conocida como elemento endémico de los estados de Veracruz y Oaxaca, en las regiones de Los Tuxtlas y de Uxpanapa. Ormosia carinat...

  4. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

    de Navarro, Yolanda; Pérez, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delon...

  5. Evolution in African tropical trees displaying ploidy-habitat association: The genus Afzelia (Leguminosae).

    Donkpegan, Armel S L; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Migliore, Jérémy; Duminil, Jérôme; Dainou, Kasso; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Wieringa, Jan J; Champluvier, Dominique; Hardy, Olivier J

    2017-02-01

    Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia. Both nuclear DNA and morphological vegetative characters separated diploid from tetraploid lineages. Although the two African diploid species were well differentiated genetically and morphologically, the relationships among the tetraploid species were not resolved. In contrast to the nuclear markers, plastid markers revealed that one of the diploid species forms a well-supported clade with the tetraploids, suggesting historical hybridisation, possibly in relation with genome duplication (polyploidization) and habitat shift from dry to rain forests. Molecular dating based on fossil-anchored gene phylogenies indicates that extant Afzelia started diverging c. 14.5 or 20Ma while extant tetraploid species started diverging c. 7.0 or 9.4Ma according to plastid and nuclear DNA, respectively. Additional studies of tropical polyploid plants are needed to assess whether the ploidy-habitat association observed in African Afzelia would reflect a role of polyploidization in niche divergence in the tropics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

    Xiao-Ning Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC, is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP and supernatant (MSS by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05, indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactic acid (Lac. Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  7. Morphological and agronomical characterization and estimates of genetic parameters of sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae accessions

    Veasey E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two accessions of seven Sesbania (Leguminosae species: S. emerus, S. rostrata, S. tetraptera, S. exasperata (annuals, S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. virgata (perennials, used for ruminant fodder, firewood, wood products, soil improvement, and human food, were investigated, with the aim of characterizing both inter- and intraspecific genetic variability, estimating genetic parameters for the characters evaluated and appraising the forage potential of the accessions. These were planted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with 22 treatments and four replications. Seventeen morphological and 17 agronomic characters were evaluated. Genetic parameters coefficient of intraspecific genetic diversity (bi and coefficient of intraspecific genetic variation (CVgi were obtained for the species represented by more than one accession. Highly significant differences were observed among as well as within species for most characters, showing considerable genetic variability. S. exasperata showed intraspecific genetic variability for the largest number of morphological characters. The same was observed for S. sesban for the agronomic characters. Most of the characters gave high bi values, above 0.80, indicating the possibility of selecting superior genotypes. The CVgi values, on the other hand, which indicate the magnitude of the existing genetic variability relative to the character mean, varied according to the species and character evaluated. Differences between annual and perennial species were observed, with higher biomass yields presented by the annuals at the first cut and by the perennials after the second cut, reaching the highest yield at the third cut. The annual species had higher seed production. Accession NO 934 of S. sesban gave the highest biomass yields and regrowth vigor, showing promise as a forage legume plant.

  8. Classification of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae: A Numerical Re-assessment

    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subdivision of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae into taxa of lower rank was subject for major discrepancies between traditional classifications while more recent phylogenetic studies provided no decisive answer to this problem. As a contribution towards resolving this situation, 81 morphological characters were recorded comparatively for 226 species and infra-specific taxa belonging to 75 genera representing 21 of the 32 tribes currently recognized in this subfamily. The data matrix was subjected to cluster analysis using the Sørensen distance measure and Ward’s clustering method of the PC-ord version-5 package of programs for Windows. This combination was selected from among the 56 combinations available in this package because it produced the taxonomically most feasible arrangement of the genera and species. The 75 genera are divided into two main groups A and B, whose recognition requires little more than the re-alignment of a few genera to resemble tribes 1-18 (Sophoreae to Hedysareae and tribes 19-32 (Loteae to Genisteae, respectively, in the currently accepted classification. Only six of the 21 tribes represented by two or more genera seem sufficiently robust as the genera representing each of them hold together in only one of the two major groups A and B. Of the 29 genera represented by more than one species each 17, 7 and 5 are taxonomically coherent, nearly coherent and incoherent, respectively. The currently accepted circumscription and inter-relationships among the disrupted tribes and genera are in need of much detailed investigation.

  9. Classification of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae: A Numerical Re-assessment

    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subdivision of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae into taxa of lower rank was subject for major discrepancies between traditional classifications while more recent phylogenetic studies provided no decisive answer to this problem. As a contribution towards resolving this situation, 81 morphological characters were recorded comparatively for 226 species and infra-specific taxa belonging to 75 genera representing 21 of the 32 tribes currently recognized in this subfamily. The data matrix was subjected to cluster analysis using the Sørensen distance measure and Ward’s clustering method of the PC-ord version-5 package of programs for Windows. This combination was selected from among the 56 combinations available in this package because it produced the taxonomically most feasible arrangement of the genera and species. The 75 genera are divided into two main groups A and B, whose recognition requires little more than the re-alignment of a few genera to resemble tribes 1-18 (Sophoreae to Hedysareae and tribes 19-32 (Loteae to Genisteae, respectively, in the currently accepted classification. Only six of the 21 tribes represented by two or more genera seem sufficiently robust as the genera representing each of them hold together in only one of the two major groups A and B. Of the 29 genera represented by more than one species each 17, 7 and 5 are taxonomically coherent, nearly coherent and incoherent, respectively. The currently accepted circumscription and inter-relationships among the disrupted tribes and genera are in need of much detailed investigation.

  10. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo

    Shagun Kalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL. Methods: EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ sensitive (MRC2 and CQ resistant (RKL9 strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg and preventive (100-750 mg/kg activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg of extract was also evaluated. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2 and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9. CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p100 mg/kg. Significant (P<0.001 curative and repository activities were exhibited by 750 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. Interpretation & conclusions: The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  11. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo.

    Kalia, Shagun; Walter, Neha Sylvia; Bagai, Upma

    2015-12-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL). EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (MRC2) and CQ resistant (RKL9) strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 ) of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 ) was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg) and preventive (100-750 mg/kg) activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg) of extract was also evaluated. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2) and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9). CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI) of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p50 >100 mg/kg. Significant (P50 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  12. Morfologia de nectários em Leguminosae senso lato em áreas de caatinga no Brasil Nectary morphology of Leguminosae senso lato in areas of dry seasonal forest in Brazil

    Yanna Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectários extraflorais (Nefs são glândulas secretoras de néctar encontradas em diversas espécies de Angiospermas, inclusive Leguminosae. Essas estruturas podem se apresentar sob diferentes formas (elevados, embebidos; com ou sem estipe; cores distintas e posições nas plantas (na raque, no pecíolo, sendo essas características relevantes aos estudos de taxonomia e sistemática. Este trabalho analisou a diversidade morfológica dos Nefs em Leguminosae de uma área prioritária para a conservação da caatinga no Estado de Pernambuco. As 35 espécies de Legumionsae estudadas foram coletadas no Município de Mirandiba, no semi-árido Pernambucano, e submetidas às técnicas usuais para análise e descrição morfológica. Entre essas espécies, foram caracterizados Nefs com origem primária (não substitutivos e secundária (substitutivos. Dois diferentes tipos com onze formatos distintos foram encontrados entre elas. Uma grande variedade de localização, coloração, projeção, e dimensão foram registradas aqui. Uma chave de identificação e ilustrações foram elaboradas também. Os dados apresentados aqui ampliam o número de espécies estudadas com Nefs para a família, e também confirmam a importância taxonômica e ecológica dessas estruturas para os legumes da região do semi-árido do Brasil.Extrafloral nectaries (Efns are nectar secreting glands found in many species of Angiosperms, including Leguminosae. These structures have various forms (elevated, embedded; stalk present or not; different colors and positions on the plants (on the rachis, on the petiole, and these characteristics are relevant to taxonomy and morphology studies. This work analyses the morphological diversity of Efns in Leguminosae from a priority conservation area of caatinga in Pernambuco state. The 35 Leguminosae species studied were collected in Mirandiba municipality, a semi-arid region of Pernambuco and submitted to the usual techniques of anatomy and

  13. A study of the morphoanatomical characters of the leaves of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

    Ítalo Antônio Cotta Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to species of Chamaecrista sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, especially regarding anatomical studies. When only vegetative material is available, the identification of such species may be difficult. Additionally, vegetative material of some species of C. sect. Apoucouita may be even harder to identify because they can resemble species of Inga Mill. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. The present study focused on recognizing morphoanatomical characters of leaves that are taxonomically useful for the species of C. sect. Apoucouita by employing standard anatomical techniques. The arrangement of the vascular system in the petiole/rachis, dorsiventral mesophyll, mucilage idioblasts in the epidermis of leaflets and hypostomatic leaves were some of the characters shared by all species studied. Length of the petiole, position and type of extrafloral nectaries, leaflet venation, presence and type of papillae on the epidermis of the leaflet blades and sclereids in the mesophyll were some of the characters useful in the distinction of taxa. The vascular arrangement of the petiole/rachis is a promising character in the distinction of species of C. sect. Apoucouita and Inga. Based on morphoanatomical data, the taxonomic revision of some species and varieties ascribed to C. sect. Apoucouita is suggested.

  14. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos with two new distribution records and lectotypifications for Thailand

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum W. Saisorn, Chantar. & Balslev from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum DC. and D. laxiflorum DC. subsp. lacei (Schindl.) H. Ohashi, are reported as new for Thailand. Lectotypes of D. amoenum Wall. e...

  15. Crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes por plantas espontâneas e por leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde

    C. Favero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais espontâneas, nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, têm sido tratadas como "plantas daninhas", "ervas invasoras", "inços" e outras denominações, do ponto de vista dos prejuízos que podem acarretar às espécies cultivadas. No entanto, as espontâneas podem promover os mesmos efeitos de proteção do solo e ciclagem de nutrientes que espécies cultivadas ou introduzidas para adubação verde. O crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes pela parte aérea de espontâneas e de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes foram medidos em um experimento de campo em Sete Lagoas (MG, na Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. O experimento consistiu de cinco espécies de leguminosas (feijão-de-porco, feijão-bravo do Ceará, mucuna-preta, lab-lab e guandu, submetidas a duas condições de manejo (com e sem capina, e uma testemunha (somente espontâneas. No florescimento das leguminosas, foram obtidos a massa da matéria seca e o teor de nutrientes da parte aérea de cada espécie de leguminosa e das espontâneas presentes nas parcelas. O sistema com apenas as espontâneas produziu menos biomassa e acumulou menos nutrientes que os sistemas com leguminosas. Foram poucas as espontâneas que apresentaram teores de carbono, cálcio e nitrogênio próximos ou superiores aos das leguminosas. No entanto, para potássio, magnésio e fósforo, ocorreu o inverso. A maioria das espontâneas apresentou teores de potássio, magnésio e de fósforo superiores aos das leguminosas, destacando-se: Portulaca oleracea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis e Melanpodium perfoliatum.

  16. Aspectos agronômicos de leguminosas para adubação verde no Cerrado do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e inadequado dos solos acelera sua degradação, sendo necessária a intervenção por meio de práticas conservacionistas para restaurar a capacidade produtiva dos mesmos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento e desenvolvimento de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em solos de Cerrado, Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Turmalina, MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas leguminosas: mucuna-cinza (Mucuna nivea, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, lablabe (Dolichos lablab, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan. O ciclo precoce de C . juncea, C. spectabilis e feijão-de-porco favorece a inserção destes nos sistemas de cultivo. Aos 40 dias, o feijão-de-porco e mucuna-cinza já cobriam o solo, com 67 e 63 %; já o guandu-anão e C. juncea apresentaram os maiores desenvolvimentos, nesse período. Os teores de N, P e K tendem a diminuir nas avaliações realizadas nas diferentes fases vegetativas, o que contribui para melhor escolha da época de manejo das leguminosas. Crotalaria juncea, mucuna-cinza, feijão-de-porco e mucuna-preta foram as leguminosas que se destacaram na produção de matéria seca, o que torna essas espécies promissoras para adubação verde na região. As leguminosas, em sua maioria, apresentam potencial para reciclagem dos macronutrientes e aporte de N aos sistemas de produção.

  17. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  18. Acylated flavonol tri- and tetraglycosides in the flavonoid metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae).

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Lewis, Gwilym P; Veitch, Nigel C

    2011-04-01

    The foliar metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae) contains a complex mixture of flavonoids including acylated derivatives of the 3-O-rhamnosyl(1→2)[rhamnosyl(1→6)]-galactosides of kaempferol and quercetin and their 7-O-rhamnosides, together with an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. Thirteen of the acylated flavonoids, 12 of which had not been reported previously, were characterised by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Eight of these were the four isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) and their 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosides, and three were isomers of quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) - the remaining 4Z isomer was identified by LC-UV-MS analysis of a crude extract. The final two acylated flavonoids characterised by NMR were the 3E and 4E isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E-feruloyl-β-d-galactopyranoside)-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside while the 3Z and 4Z isomers were again detected by LC-UV-MS. Using the observed fragmentation behaviour of the isolated compounds following a variety of MS experiments, a further 18 acylated flavonoids were given tentative structures by LC-MS analysis of a crude extract. Acylated flavonoids were absent from the flowers of C. kentukea, which contained an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin glycosides. Immature fruits contained kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside and its 7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside as the major flavonoids with acylated flavonoids, different from those in the leaves, only present as minor constituents. The presence of acylated flavonoids distinguishes the foliar flavonoid metabolome of C. kentukea from that of a closely related legume, Styphnolobium japonicum, which contains a similar

  19. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    : Sitio 1, P. laevigata; Sitio 2, M. biuncifera y Sitio 3, ambas leguminosas. En cada sitio se recolectó suelo, tanto abajo y fuera del dosel de las leguminosas, además, se realizaron transectos para medir e identificar las plantas arbóreas y arbustivas, se calculó el índice de valor de importancia y la diversidad del matorral. Asimismo, se registró mayor riqueza y diversidad en el Sitio 3 (ICE 29 spp. y H’ 2.7, en comparación con el Sitio 1 (24 spp. y 2.4 y Sitio 2 (26 spp. y 2.1. La materia orgánica y el carbono orgánico del suelo, así como el N total, el P-Olsen y la mineralización de C fueron mayores en el suelo bajo dosel de ambas leguminosas. La abundancia de esporas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares fue favorecida por M. biunficera. La influencia de P. laevigata para crear islas más ricas en recursos fue mayor que en M. biunficera, lo anterior sugiere que cada leguminosa modifica de una forma diferente el microambiente, sin embargo, juntas aumentan la disponibilidad de nichos para el establecimiento de otras especies, lo queayuda a comprender el papel de P. laevigata y M. biuncifera sobre la colonización vegetal en ecosistemas semiáridos

  20. Desempenho de bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes Banana plant performance intercropping with perennial herbaceous legumes

    Adriano Perin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas de cobertura em consórcio com bananeiras pode ser uma estratégia de manejo, possibilitando aumentos de produtividade associados à otimização de processos biológicos e maior estabilidade do sistema produtivo. Neste trabalho, objetivo-se avaliar o efeito da cobertura viva, formada por leguminosas herbáceas perenes sobre a produção de bananeira cultivar Nanicão. Os tratamentos foram: amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb., vegetação espontânea (dominada por Panicum maximum Jacq. e vegetação espontânea + N-fertilizante. Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras entre abril/1999 e julho/2000 e os atributos de produtividade. O peso do cacho e da penca foram positivamente influenciados pelo siratro e cudzu tropical empregados como coberturas vivas, quando comparados aos demais tratamentos. Todas as leguminosas proporcionaram maior crescimento das bananeiras (notadamente a partir do 6º mês, maior número de folhas emitidas e maior proporção de cachos colhidos, em relação aos tratamentos com vegetação espontânea (com e sem N-fertilizante. As leguminosas siratro e cudzu tropical promoveram condições adequadas ao desenvolvimento das bananeiras, acarretando ganhos de produtividade e eliminação da adubação nitrogenada no bananal. O potencial benéfico das leguminosas cudzu tropical e siratro como coberturas vivas capazes de proporcionar aumentos na produtividade de banana, qualifica essas espécies como alternativa promissora para a fertilidade do solo e nutrição das bananeiras.The use of coverage plants in cover cropping with bananas can be a management strategy, increasing in productivity associated with the optimization of biological processes and greater stability of production system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of live coverage by herbaceous perennial legume on

  1. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

    Yolanda de Navarro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delonix regia, Poinciana pulquerrima, Abrus fruticulosus y Mucuna mutisiana. Los ensayos de inhibición con carbohidratos indican que las lectinas de Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia actúan sobre receptores diferentes.

  2. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  3. Fruit consumption and seed ispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae by the lowland tapir in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    M. X. A. Bizerril

    Full Text Available Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  4. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L. CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    José David Álvarez-Solís

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1 frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens, 2 frijol arroz (Vigna umbellata, 3 frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y 4 testigo sin leguminosa. Se midió la producción de biomasa y el contenido de N, en las leguminosas y el maíz. Se hizo un balance parcial de N, que consideró el suministro de N de la biomasa de leguminosas y la extracción de N en la cosecha del maíz. La producción de biomasa seca de las leguminosas en la cosecha fue significativamente (p≤0,05 mayor en asociación con los frijoles arroz y nescafé (1290 y 1139 kg.ha-1 que en frijol común (470 kg.ha-1, con un contenido total de 35,4; 25,7 y 8,9 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El rendimiento de grano de maíz fue 2390,5 kg.ha-1; se identificó que la extracción de N fue mayor en el grano, seguido de rastrojo, raíz, bráctea y olote, con 20,9; 9,4; 7,2; 2,0 y 1,5 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El balance parcial de N mostró valores positivos con los frijoles arroz y nescafé, lo que indica su importancia para compensar la extracción de N del grano o de la mazorca del maíz.

  5. EFECTO DE DOS LEGUMINOSAS Y BANANO MADURO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y REPRODUCCIÓN DE CONEJOS NUEVA ZELANDA

    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: a Determinar la leguminosa tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth y Gliricidia sepium y el nivel de banano maduro (BM (50, 75, 100 y 100, 125, 150 g animal-1 día-1, que permita incrementar los parámetros reproductivos (fase uno y productivos (fase dos, en conejos Nueva Zelanda. b Determinar la Relación beneficio/costo de los tratamientos. Se utilizó 28 y 42 conejos respectivamente. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 x 3 + 1, en un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (DBCA, con cuatro y tres repeticiones. Se utilizó la prueba de Tukey (p≤0.05. El mayor consumo fue para el kudzu (p0.05 el peso de las hembras al parto, el periodo de gestación, peso y tamaño de la camada al nacimiento. Los niveles de BM no influenciaron (p>0.05 sobre la ganancia de peso, índice de conversión alimenticia (ICA, peso final (PF, peso a la canal (PC y rendimiento a la canal (RC. Los tratamientos en base a leguminosas tropicales y niveles de BM superaron al testigo (p<0.01. La mayor rentabilidad en la fase 1 y 2 se obtuvo al combinar kudzu tropical más 100 y 75 g y 125 y 100 g de BM animal-1 día-1 (30.34 y 29.48%.

  6. Estudo anatômico das espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará como "angelim" An anatomic study of Leguminosae species in the State of Pará commercialized as "angelim"

    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da madeira de sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foi analisada quanto aos aspectos anatômicos através de cortes histológicos da madeira, nos sentidos transversal, tangencial e radial. Através deste estudo procurou-se determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com a mesma denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação anatômica das mesmas. Uma chave dicotômica foi elaborada para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. Características de parênquima, raios e poros são muito úteis na separação das espécies estudadas em nível de gênero, porém em nível de espécie a separação é mais difícil. Para o agrupamento de espécies, é necessário que as características anatômicas das espécies sejam conhecidas para associadas a características morfológicas.The wood structure of seven commercialized species of Leguminosae as angelim, in the state of Pará, was analyzed by their anatomical aspects and through histological sections of the wood, in transversal, tangential and radial planes. This study was undertaken to determine basic differences among various species commercialized with the same vernacular denomination, in order to facilitate the process of their anatomical identification. A dichotomous key was elaborated to separate the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. Characteristics of parenchyma, rays and vessels are very useful in the separation of the species studied in the genus level, however in the species level the separation is more difficult. For the species grouping, it is necessary that the anatomical characteristics of the species are known for associates to the morphologic characteristics.

  7. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  8. Evaluación de abonos verdes en el sistema de producción maíz-leguminosas

    Prager M. Martin

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del ensayo, se estudió el comportamiento del peso de nódulos, peso fresco y peso seco de tres leguminosas (Crotalaria, Canavalia y Guandul a utilizar como abonos verdes y su efecto sobre sistemas de producción maíz-leguminosas (maíz-caupí, maíz-soya, maíz-frijol. Las variables consideradas (rendimiento, rendimiento equivalente de maíz, ingreso neto y tasa de retorno marginal mostraron el efecto positivo de esta práctica sobre esta forma de producción obteniéndose mejor respuesta de el sistema maíz-caupí. De los abonos verdes la crotalaria presentó el mejor efecto sobre los sistemas de producción. En la segunda parte del trabajo, se utilizó el sistema de producción de mejor comportamiento introduciendo al factor abono verde algunas modalidades de tratamiento, entre ellas efecto residual, adición de una segunda incorporación de los tres abonos verdes y efecto residual más la adición de abono químico. La consideración de las mismas variables usadas en la primera parte mostro mejores valores por la segunda incorporación de abono verde y la adición de abono químico en su orden, el efecto residual de los abonos permite obtener rendimientos superiores a los alcanzados por el testigo.This research was divided in two parts. The first studies the behavior of three legumes (Crotalaria, Canavalia and Cajanus as green manure, measuring weight nodules, green weight matter and dry weight matter of them, so measured the effect on three production systems: Maize- cowpea, Maize- soybean and Maize-bean. The indicators (yield, equivalent maize yields, net income and marginal return rate showed positive effect of green manure on this production systems too maize-cowpea system showed the best yields; Crotalaria was ,the best green manure. In second experimental stage maize- cowpea system was evaluated, using the same indicators and introducing new treatments related to green manure: its residual effects, addicional

  9. Factores del manejo para estabilizar la producción de biomasa con leguminosas en el trópico

    T. E. Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este material tiene como objetivo abundar acerca de aquellos factores del manejo que conduzcan a estabilizar la producción de biomasa en sistemas ganaderos en el trópico. Es obvio que los sistemas mejorados y bien manejados de pasturas de gramíneas y leguminosas, en cualquiera de sus alternativas, son opciones para lograr la sostenibilidad. Una concepción más amplia y profunda es la relativa a los estudios de pasturas mixtas; éstos, deben tener un enfoque más biológico por lo que, además de considerar el ambiente en el cual se desarrollan y crecen, hay que incluir la forma en que los componentes vegetales se manifiestan en las especies implicadas del agroecosistema. Aquí no podemos olvidar el efecto del animal. Los problemas asociados con la persistencia se reconocen cada vez más como una preocupación real. Los diversos factores que controlan la permanencia de las especies forrajeras se agrupan en aquellos que pueden ser manejados y controlados por el productor, así como en los que éste no puede intervenir. Es por ello que las producciones animales y de otro tipo, derivados de estos sistemas, varían positivamente en el tiempo, en la medida en que se va consolidando la relación suelo /planta /animal. De esta correspondencia no puede quedar excluido el papel interactuante y modificador del hombre con los elementos antes señalados. La producción de biomasa es una actividad multidisciplinaria; de ahí que el éxito de su funcionamiento esté condicionado al conocimiento de las interacciones entre sus componentes, así como entre éstos y el medio ambiente, lo cual permitirá la generación de estrategias de manejo acordes con la ecología que conduzcan a mejorar la productividad y la sostenibilidad del agroecosistema. Por tanto, la producción de biomasa constituye un elemento determinante en el éxito y la eficiencia de los sistemas con leguminosas.

  10. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  11. ANATOMÍA, FÍSICA Y MECÁNICA DE LA MADERA DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinaron las características anatómicas y las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera de Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae. El material de estudio se obtuvo de un sólo árbol colectado en el municipio de Arteaga, Michoacán, México. La descripción anatómica se basó en las recomendaciones de IAWA. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas se efectuaron de acuerdo a la norma D 143-94 de la ASTM. La madera de A. inermis presenta brillo mediano, vetado pronunciado, textura media, hilo entrecruzado, porosidad difusa y pared celular muy gruesa. La densidad básica es muy alta y la contracción media. El ELP, MOR y MOE es alto, extremadamente alto y medio, respectivamente, en flexión estática. En compresión paralela a la fibra su ELP es alto, MOR extremadamente alto. ELP muy alto en compresión perpendicular a la fibra. Dureza Janka muy alta.

  12. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  13. Dieta consumida por bovinos em pastagens cultivadas e consorciadas com leguminosas, estabelecidas com e sem queima da vegetação secundária

    Andrea Krystina Vinente Guimaraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição botânica da dieta em pastagens de capim marandú (B. brizantha e capim quicuio (B. humidicola consorciadas com leguminosas, em dois métodos de preparo de área: com e sem queima. Foram testadas três pastagens para cada experimento: 1. QB - B. humidicola + B. brizantha cv. Marandu. 2. QBAL - B. humidicola + B. brizantha consorciada com A. pintoi cv. Amarilo + L. leucocephala cv. Cunninghan. 3. QBAC - B. humidicola + B. brizantha consorciada com A. pintoi cv. Amarilo + C. Argentea (Cratylia. A composição botânica foi determinada usando a técnica da análise microhistologica de fezes. As coletas de fezes foram realizadas a cada dezoito dias.  O consumo de quicuio e de espécies da capoeira foram superiores na época seca e de braquiarão, na chuvosa. As percentagens de quicuio foram superiores no método com queima, as de braquiarão, no método mulch. As percentagens de braquiarão foram superiores nas pastagens de QB e QBAL e as de leguminosas, nas pastagens consorciadas com leguminosas. Foram encontradas 14 famílias e 23 espécies. O método de preparo de área infuenciou a composição botânica da dieta. As espécies da capoeira tiveram pequena participação na composição botânica da dieta dos animais.

  14. Estudos morfoanatômicos da semente e da plântula de espécies de Anileiras (Indigofera L., Leguminosae Morpho-anatomical studies of seeds and seedlings of wild indigo, "anileira", Indigofera- Leguminosae

    Juliana Villela Paulino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O nome popular "anileira" designa Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. e I. truxillensis Kunth, muito semelhantes quanto à morfologia externa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se caracteres da semente e plântula apresentavam valor diagnóstico para este grupo, já que tais caracteres têm sido muito utilizados na Taxonomia de Leguminosae. A superfície e morfoanatomia de sementes e cotilédones foram estudadas por microscopias eletrônica de varredura e de luz, e as etapas do desenvolvimento das plântulas descritas. Embora as plântulas sejam semelhantes, caracteres de sementes (tamanho, forma, ornamentação da superfície, forma do hilo e tamanho do embrião e cotilédones (forma, organização do parênquima lacunoso na nervura central e distribuição de metabólitos nos tecidos apresentaram valor diagnóstico para as espécies. I. anil distingue-se de I. suffruticosa por suas sementes maiores e cotilédones com borda acuminada. I. truxillensis caracteriza-se por apresentar sementes cilíndricas e cotilédones reniformes contendo gotas de óleo e alcalóides. Nossos dados, a morfologia externa dos frutos (curvos em I. anil e I. suffruticosa, e retos em I. truxillensis e, ainda, a anatomia foliar (células parenquimáticas grandes e fenólicas no floema de I. suffruticosa e sua ausência em I. anil sugerem que I. anil, I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis não devem ser sinonimizadas.The common name "wild indigo" specifies Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. (legitimate name and I. truxillensis Kunth (legitimate name that are very similar due to their external morphology. This work analyzed diagnostic characteristics of seeds and seedlings of these species since such features are widely used in taxonomic approaches within Leguminosae. We studied surface features and morpho-anatomy of seeds and cotyledons with scanning electronic microscopy and light microscopy, and described seedling phases. Although seedlings are similar

  15. Diferenças no padrão da atividade alelopática em espécies da família Leguminosae Differences in allelopathic activity patterns in Leguminosae

    M. Mourão Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As inúmeras espécies de plantas que compõem a floresta amazônica podem representar excelente alternativa para fazer frente ao desafio de desenvolver a agricultura conforme as exigências da sociedade. Neste trabalho, procurou-se determinar e caracterizar o padrão de atividade alelopática em espécies da família Leguminosae, em função de variações de espécies, fonte de extratos e sensibilidade da planta receptora. Bioensaios de germinação de sementes e alongamento da radícula e do hipocótilo foram desenvolvidos em condições controladas. Os resultados indicam que as espécies estudadas não apresentaram padrão semelhante no tocante aos efeitos potenciais alelopáticos, havendo, entretanto, hierarquização no tocante à intensidade dos efeitos globais, sendo o potencial alelopático inibitório mais amplo e efetivo nas espécies Bauhinia guianensis, Bowdichia virgiloides, Parkia pendula e Platimenia reticulata. O potencial alelopático foi efetivo e mais restrito em Bauhinia macrostachya. O fator fração das plantas revelou diferenciação no padrão de atividade: para a maioria das espécies, as folhas foram a principal fonte de aleloquímicos, e para Bauhinia macrostachya e Inga edulis, a raiz. Em termos de padrão de respostas das espécies receptoras, o alongamento da radícula é mais sensível aos efeitos dos extratos, ficando o alongamento do hipocótilo como o de menor sensibilidade. Os efeitos dos extratos foram mais intensos sobre Mimosa pudica. Esses resultados também atribuem à floresta amazônica importância como fonte de compostos químicos de interesse para o homem, o que, em si, justifica sua preservação.Innumerous plant species in the Amazon forest may be an excellent alternative to meet society's demand for natural products. This work aimed to determine and characterize the pattern of allelopathic activity in species of the Leguminosae family, according to species variation, extract source, and receptor

  16. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L. con intercalamiento de leguminosas

    María Judith Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutricionales se encontraron algunos forrajes, como la morera (Morus alba L., que tiene un alto nivel de proteína, entre otras propiedades nutricionales; pero, alternativas nutricionales como ésta requieren fertilización nitrogenada en elevadas cantidades.Con el interés de generar alternativas amigables con el medioambiente y que además logren mantener o incrementar el volumen de producción y el valor nutricional de la morera, surgió la idea de estudiar la intersiembra de este arbusto con leguminosas, como arveja (Pisum sativum L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L y fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., analizando variables nutricionales y parámetros de crecimiento del cultivo de morera. Además, se trabajó con un grupo de fertilización nitrogenada y un grupo de control (sin modificación alguna del cultivo. Al finalizar el estudio se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 para la mayoría de parámetros, exceptuando la variable altura, que no presentó diferencias importantes (p>0.05.

  17. Emergencia y desarrollo inicial de cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos, así como las características morfológicas de las plántulas emergidas en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas: lara ruidosa (Albizia lebbeck, cují (Prosopis juliflora, samán (Samanea saman y carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron: escarificación con lija (EL, remojo en agua (RA e inmersión en agua caliente (IAC, en semillas con distintos tiempos de almacenamiento (TA. Se evaluó el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, el largo de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH, el número de nudos (NN y el grosor del tallo (GT. En lara ruidosa el tiempo del RA y la interacción entre la EL y la IAC presentaron diferencias significativas en el PE. En las semillas de cují, los efectos individuales del TA, el RA y la IAC mostraron diferencias en el PE. La EL influyó en el PE de las semillas de cují sin artejo, y en las de carocaro y samán. Se concluye que la EL en las semillas de lara ruidosa, cují sin artejo, carocaro y samán; así como la utilización de semillas de cují con artejo frescas o almacenadas durante tres meses y tratadas con agua caliente por cinco minutos permitieron incrementar la emergencia. Las plántulas mostraron un desarrollo normal y homogéneo.

  18. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae

    James A Nicholls

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia. Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a subset of 60 loci in a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories in the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  19. MORFOLOGIA DO FRUTO E DA SEMENTE DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Senna Mill. (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINIOIDEAE

    Ely Simone Cajueiro Gurgel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O fruto característico de Leguminosae é o legume, entretanto há uma variabilidade de tipos na família. Este estudo objetivou descrever a morfologia dos frutos e das sementes de Senna obtusifolia (L. H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. occidentalis (L. Link. e S. tapajozensis (Ducke H.S.Irwin & Barneby. Retirou-se, aleatoriamente, uma amostra constituída de 25 frutos e 25 sementes para a descrição. Dos frutos, registrou-se a morfologia geral, a classificação, a coloração, a textura, a consistência e o indumento do pericarpo. Os caracteres morfológicos das sementes analisadas foram: a externos: consistência, cor e textura da testa, forma das sementes, posição e forma do hilo e da micrópila; b internos: testa; endosperma; embrião quanto ao tipo; forma e cor. As espécies estudadas apresentaram frutos do tipo legume ou folículo, de forma linear e largamente linear, pericarpo seco, cartáceo e sublenhoso, glabro a olho nu, em tons castanhos. Semente obovada, suborbicular, elipsoidal com um lado reto ou irregularmente rômbico, testa em tons castanhos ou acinzentados, pleurograma completo, quando presente, hilo punctiforme e orbicular, embrião axial, foliáceo, eixo embrionário reto e oblíquo, plúmula rudimentar. As características do indumento do pericarpo e pleurograma possibilitaram a separação das espécies estudadas. Palavras-chave: Senna obtusifolia, S. occidentalis, S. tapajozensis, Cassieae, Cassiinae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p80-86

  20. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir (Leguminosae.

    Mariluze P Cruz

    Full Text Available The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret (Leguminosae family, popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test; and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test. Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8, with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg, in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg, and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg. EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg, reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg, respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B and anti-inflammation (H, D, E. Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg. Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  1. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.

    Lin, Yanxiang; Wong, William Oki; Shi, Gongle; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-11-16

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to

  2. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  3. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro and Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane, and contents ranged from 8.5 to 23.5 %. The physicochemical studies showed mostly unsaturated oils, as demonstrated by the iodine index, (101-147 units. Indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acids were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Linoleic and oleic acids were found to predominate. All extracted crude oils were of good quality, comparable to those from soybean, com, sunflower and carthamus.

    El desierto de Sonora cuenta con una gran variedad de plantas silvestres principalmente de la familia leguminosae de las cuales se tiene poca información acerca de su potencial como fuente nutricional. Por lo que se estudiaron los aceites de las semillas: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro y Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Los aceites de cada semilla se extrajeron con hexano, obteniéndose de 8.5 a 23.5 %. Estos mostraron un alto grado de insaturación reflejado en los índices de lodo, de 101 a 147. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos y dentro de los valores aceptables. Al cuantificar los ácidos grasos por

  4. Interacción micorriza vesiculo-arbuscular, Rhizobium leguminosa en un oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Satizabal E. Jorge H.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available En los dos primeros trabajos (la y lb, se evaluó la interacción entre cepas seleccionadas de Rhizobium (apropiadas para la leguminosa forrajera tropical Centrosema macrocarpum y especies (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis de micorriza vesiculo arbuscular (MVA, en un suelo esterilizado, fijador de P. Los experimentos se diferenciaron por las fuentes de P utilizadas. Por su mayor producción de materia seca, absorción de minerales, nodulación y infección por MVA, se destacaron las plantas inoculadas con cuales quiera de las cepas de FIlizobiumy Glomus manihotis (Experimento la o Acaulospora longula (Experimento lb. En la tercera investigación (Experimento II, se evalúo en Centrosema la interacción MVA, Rhizobiumo N-químico (niveles equivalentes a 0, 30,55, 105,0 + Rhiz. y 30 + Rhiz. kg N ha-1 y dosis de P (0, 20, 40 y 80 kg ha-1. Es aconsejable aplicar pequeñas dosis (30 kg ha-1 de N al momento de la siembra e inocular con Rhizobium. Plantas inoculadas con MVA presentaron su óptimo crecimiento con 40 kg P ha-1. Dosis de 80 kg P ha-1 favoreció la eficiencia de la bacteria más no la del hongo.In the first two works (la and lb we evaluated the interation between selected stumps of Rhizobium (appropiate for the tropical forage legumes Centrosema macrocarpum and species (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (MVA, in a sterelize soil fixer of P. The two experiments are different because we used different P sources. For the best production of dry matter, absorption of minerals, nodulation and infection for MVA; rebounded the plants with the inoculation with any of the Rhizobium´s stumps and Glomus manihotis (Experiment la of Acaulospora longula (Experiment lb. In the third investigation (Experiment II we evaluated in Centrosema the interaction MVA. Rhizobium and chemical N (levels equivalent to 0,30. 55, 105, O + Rhizobium and 30 + Rhizobium kg N ha

  5. Bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes utilizadas como coberturas vivas Banana plants intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes used as living mulches

    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de bananeiras consorciadas com as leguminosas herbáceas perenes - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. Os tratamentos-controle consistiram em vegetação espontânea com predomínio de Panicum maximum, e vegetação espontânea com adubação nitrogenada das bananeiras. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras. Entre as coberturas avaliadas, a vegetação espontânea e o cudzu tropical apresentaram produções maiores de biomassa; o cudzu tropical proporcionou valores maiores para quantidades de N acumulado e derivado da fixação biológica. As leguminosas amendoim forrageiro, cudzu tropical e siratro proporcionaram desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido nas bananeiras consorciadas. Cudzu tropical e siratro promoveram maiores valores de peso dos cachos e das pencas. O uso das leguminosas avaliadas resulta em aumento da porcentagem de cachos colhidos e redução do tempo de colheita, além de proporcionar maior produtividade, quando comparado ao uso de vegetação espontânea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of banana plants intercropped with the perennial herbaceous legumes forage groundnut (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. The control treatments were spontaneous vegetation (mainly Panicum maximum and spontaneous vegetation plus nitrogen fertilizer application to banana plants. The vegetative growth of banana plants was also evaluated. Among the treatments, spontaneous vegetation and tropical kudzu promoted the highest dry matter productions; tropical kudzu had the highest amounts of accumulated and fixed N. Forage groundnut, tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the fastest vegetative growth for banana plants in this intercropped system. Tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the highest values for bunch weight and

  6. Differences between the composting process of the bovine manure mixture-leguminosae waste with and without stabilizing agent; Diferencias en el proceso de compostaje de estiercol de vacuno-residuo de leguminosa con y sin la aplicacion de un agente estabilizante

    Escobedo Monge, M. A.; Lopez Robles, J.; Gonzalez Carcedo, S.; Johson Troeth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the differences in the compost process of the bovine manure mixture leguminosae waste with and without the application of a stabilizing agent (CaCO3), in two periods of the year. The physical-chemistry, chemical and microbiological parameters, were measured during the different stages of the process. this work has shown that the technique was economical and a solution environmentally acceptable for the treatment of these residuals. We achieved a product with a better C/N ratio, in shorter time and with a better content in organic and nutrition matter. (Author) 42 refs.

  7. Crotalaria incana l. and leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): toxicity indicator species of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil; Crotalaria incana l. y leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): especies indicadoras de toxicidad por hidrocarburos de petroleo en el suelo

    Vazquez Luna, Dinora; Castellan Estrada, Mepivoseth; Rivera Cruz, Maria del C.; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I.; Izquierdo R., Francisco [Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: dinovaz@colpos.mx

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the toxic effects produced by a Gleysol molic soil contaminated with crude oil on seedlings of two species of legumes. A phytotoxic impact index (IIF) was generated, which includes five parameters measured by relative rates of impact (IRIF{sub (x)}) for variables; emergency, height, root length, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Bioassays were conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications under semi-controlled conditions, to assess the sensitivity of Leucaena leucocephala and Crotalaria incana at different concentrations of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Effects were highly significant (P {<=} 0.01) with increasing concentrations of HTP in substrate. The emergence of L. leucocephala was 29 % lower with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} HTP, while C. incana decreased 30 % with 32 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH respect to control. Both species showed a five-day delay in the emergence of seedlings when exposed to high levels of TPH. A significant decrease in the accumulation of dry matter (DM) at concentrations above 20 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH was observed in both species. The respective IIF declined of 50 % with 80 000 and 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH, but L. leucocephala had no significant effect with 10 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. Finally, the EC50 in L. leucocephala, is presented with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH whereas in C. incana this parameter is noted from 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. [Spanish] En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos toxicos que produce un suelo Gleysol molico contaminado con petroleo crudo, sobre plantulas de dos especies de leguminosas. Para ello se genero un indice de impacto fitotoxico (IIF) que integra cinco parametros, medidos a traves de indices relativos de impacto (IRIF{sub (x)}) para las variables emergencia, altura, longitud radicular, biomasa aerea y biomasa radicular. Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo un diseno completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones, en condiciones semicontroladas, para evaluar la sensibilidad de

  8. Sobre las causas ontogénicas de la productividad diferencial de semillas en la especie anficárpica Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae On the causes of the differential seed production in the anficarpic species Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae

    Gabriela Speroni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium polymorphum es una leguminosa de pradera con buena adaptación y persistencia en este tipo de vegetación. Combina diferentes estrategias reproductivas como la reproducción vegetativa por estolones y la reproducción por semillas producidas en dos tipos de frutos y flores, subterráneas y aéreas. Las subterráneas son cleistógamas y las aéreas son casmógamas. Empíricamente se ha detectado mayor formación de semillas en los frutos subterráneos que en los aéreos. En el presente trabajo se realizan estudios embriológicos y de desarrollo de semillas en ambos tipos de flores para dilucidar si existen causas ontogenéticas que determinan la productividad diferencial de semillas en ambos tipos de frutos. No se detectaron causas embriológicas pre-cigóticas que expliquen el menor número de semillas en los frutos de las flores aéreas. Ambos tipos de semillas comparten características ontogenéticas y presentan apropiado desarrollo de los óvulos, sacos embrionarios y establecimiento de vías nutricionales para saco embrionario, embrión y endosperma. En general las floraciones insumen un costo energético importante para las especies vegetales. La floración aérea de T. polymorphum, aunque sometida a una fuerte presión de herbivoría del ganado, incorpora variabilidad genética a sus poblaciones a través de la polinización cruzada y permite la dispersión a distancia.Trifolium polymorphum is recognized as one of the best adapted legume in field conditions. It combines different reproductive strategies such as stoloniferous vegetative reproduction and seed reproduction by two types of fruits produced in underground and aerial flowers. These last ones are chasmogamous and underground flowers are cleistogamous. A higher seed production has empirically been detected in underground flowers rather than in aerial ones. In the present work, embryological studies in aerial and underground flowers were carried out in order to determine

  9. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  10. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES LEGUMINOSAS COMO COBERTURAS ASOCIADAS CON MAÍZ EN EL TRÓPICO SUBHÚMEDO

    Jos\\u00E9 Bernardino Castillo-Caamal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el potencia l de tres leguminosas como coberturas para mejorar el sistema de producción de maíz. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamie ntos: 1 maíz solo; 2 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo corto de semilla blanca 3 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo largo de semilla blanca y 4 maíz y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna sp. en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, durante cuatro ciclos de cultivo (1999-2002 en Yucatán, México. Se midió la biomasa de cultivos, pH, N total, mineralización potencia l anaerobia del nitrógeno, evolución del CO 2, potasio (K, fósforo (P y materia orgánica del suelo, biomasa y frecuencia de arvenses. La cantidad de rastrojo en los tratamie ntos con leguminosas fue: 3436, 3425 y 4018 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer año, respectivamente. El nitrógeno aportado por los rastrojos al maíz fue 25,8; 31,9; 52,8 y 43,4 kg/ha para los tratamie ntos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. El rendimie nto de grano de maíz fue en promedio 841, 843 y 460 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer ciclo, respectivamente; sin diferencias entre tratamie ntos. En el tercer ciclo, el frijol terciopelo disminuyó la biomasa de arvenses de 126 a 58 g MS /m2. Las coberturas ejercieron poca influencia en las variables de suelo y rendimie nto de grano de maíz.

  12. Leguminosas nuevas de Colombia

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se ocupa de tres nuevas especies del género Inga, dos de las cuales presentan caracteres muy notables en el género. La gentileza del doctor E. P. Killip, del Museo Nacional de los Estados Unidos, me permite incluir aquí una nueva especie del genero Machaerium; descrita por el y tipificada en un ejemplar colectado por mi en la región de Urabá.

  13. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5),

  14. (Sw) DC (Leguminosae) pods

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ... Since the discovery of terpenes, more than 150 years ago ... anticancer drug discovery. .... (Agricultural Research Service/USDA) [17].

  15. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia

  16. Regionalización y relaciones biogeográficas de la Península de Yucatán con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Leguminosae The biogeographical regions and relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula based on distribution patterns of the Leguminosae family

    Rodrigo Duno-de Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución geográfica de 224 especies de leguminosas nativas de la Península de Yucatán (México en 48 unidades geográficas operativas (0.5° de latitud y 0.5 ° longitud. Las relaciones biogeográficas regionales se determinaron utilizando información de las leguminosas de 12 áreas de América Central, América del Norte, América del Sur y las Antillas. Se emplearon 3 métodos de análisis: coeficiente de Jaccard, análisis de parsimonia (PAE y un análisis de patrones generales de distribución, como una visualización general de los trazos individuales de Croizat. También se revisaron filogenias de algunos géneros de leguminosas para determinar patrones de evolución geográfica. La mayor riqueza de especies encontrada al sur de la península se asocia con el gradiente climático en sentido norte-sur. Los resultados indican que esta área se puede dividir en 2 áreas biogeográficas (distritos: una franja septentrional y una franja meridional y al menos 5 subdistritos. Los análisis de parsimonia (PAE y los patrones generales de distribución son congruentes con los análisis de similitud. Todos los resultados sugieren que la Península de Yucatán presenta la mayor afinidad con América Central, y le sigue América del Norte, América del Sur y finalmente las Antillas, mientras que el elemento endémico representa el 6.7 %.In order to assess biogeographical relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, it was divided in 48 operational geographic units of 0.5 ° latitude and longitude and the distribution patterns of 224 native species of the family Leguminosae were analyzed. Biogeographic relations were determined comparing our results with legumes information of 12 neighboring areas of Central, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Three methodologies were used to analyze the information: the Jaccard's similarity coefficient, parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE, and a simple comparison of

  17. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  18. Contribuição ao conhecimento morfológico das espécies de leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará, como "angelim" Contribution to the morphologic knowledge of the species of leguminosae in the state of Pará, traded as "angelim"

    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foram analisadas quanto aos aspectos morfológicos dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos. Este estudo visou determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com esta denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação taxonômica das mesmas. Foi elaborada uma chave dicotômica para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. As principais características utilizadas no campo, para separação das espécies estudadas, foram folha, folíolo, casca e tronco, porém, espécies de Andira, Hymenolobium e Vatairea, por apresentarem-se desprovidas de folhas no período fértil, necessitam de dados dos órgãos reprodutivos.The morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures of seven species of Leguminosae traded as "angelim" in the State of Pará were analyzed. This study sought to determine the basic differences between the species traded under the same vernacular name, in order to facilitate their taxonomic identification. A dichotomous key was developed to distinguish the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. The main characteristics used for separation in the field were of leaf, leaflet, bark and trunk. However, flower or fruit characters are needed to identify those species of Andira, Hymenolobium and Vatairea that lose their leaves while flowering.

  19. Consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae alimentado com folíolos de Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae em três níveis de maturidade Leaf consumption and biological aspects of Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae fed with Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae leaflets in three maturity stages

    Henrique Trevisan

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae tem como principal hospedeiro a essência arbórea Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae, utilizada em diversos estados brasileiros, principalmente, na arborização urbana. Nos últimos anos, foram registrados surtos anuais deste inseto, principalmente no estado do Rio de Janeiro, com desfolha intensa e conseqüente estresse fisiológico das árvores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em laboratório, o consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de U. acawoios, alimentado com folíolos de C. fairchildiana em três diferentes estádios de maturidade: novos, intermediários e velhos. O consumo de lagartas de U. acawoios foi maior com folíolos novos e a duração das fases de desenvolvimento, a longevidade e o ciclo de vida desse inseto foram afetados pelo tipo de folíolo de C. fairchildiana. A porcentagem de sobrevivência de U. acawoios foi maior para indivíduos alimentados com folíolos de C. fairchildiana de maturidade intermediária.Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae is a tree used in several Brazilian states in the urban arborization and is the main host of Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Annual outbreaks of this defoliator insect was registered in the last years mainly in Rio de Janeiro state where these trees are submitted a physiologic stress after being completely stripped. The aim of this study is to evaluate the leaf consumption and biological aspects of U. acawoios caterpillars fed with C. fairchildiana leaflets in laboratory in three maturity stages: new, middlemen and old. The consumption of U. acawoios caterpillars was larger with new leaflets and the duration of the development stages, the longevity and the life cycle were affected for the type of C. fairchildiana leaflet. The U. acawoios survival percentage were larger for individuals fed with C. fairchildiana middlemen leaflets.

  20. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  1. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das flores de Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

    C.A. Andrade

    Full Text Available A atividade antibacteriana das flores da Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. (Leguminosae foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco. As bactérias testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. O meio de cultura utilizado foi ágar Müeller-Hinton. Foram utilizados discos de papel (6 mm de diâmetro impregnados com 1000, 500, 250 e 125 mg dos extratos: Etanol Bruto, fração Acetato de Etila e fração Diclorometano obtidas a partir do extrato etanólico bruto. Os resultados indicam que as amostras avaliadas exercem ação contra as cepas gram positivo testadas, em graus variáveis sendo que a fração Acetato de Etila apresentou maior atividade. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de fenóis e flavonoides nas flores de A. podalyriifolia.

  2. Modificación del caldo extracto de levadura manitol para la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El caldo extracto de levadura manitol (LM, un medio ampliamente utilizado para el cultivo de rizobios, fue modificado para reducir su costo y utilizarlo en la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas. Los dos ingredientes más costosos, el extracto de levadura y el manitol, fueron reducidos o reemplazados con substratos más económicos. Se pudo reducir la concentración de extracto de levadura a 0,05 g/L sin afectar el crecimiento cuando se agregó 1,1 g/L de ácido glutámico o glutamato de sodio grado alimento. El manitol pudo ser substituido por 12,5 g/L de glicerina grado farmacéutico para las cepas de Bradyrhizobium o por 10 g/L de azúcar grado alimento para las cepas de Rhizobium. No se alteraron las propiedades simbióticas de las cepas cultivados en los medios modificados.

  3. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.

    Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

    2011-05-01

    Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leonardoxa (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) inferred from chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequences.

    Brouat, Carine; Gielly, Ludovic; McKey, Doyle

    2001-01-01

    The African genus LEONARDOXA: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) comprises two Congolean species and a group of four mostly allopatric subspecies principally located in Cameroon and clustered together in the L. africana complex. LEONARDOXA: provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms, as it exhibits various grades of ant-plant interactions from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations. We present in this paper the first molecular phylogenetic study of this genus. We sequenced both the chloroplast DNA trnL intron (677 aligned base pairs [bp]) and trnL-trnF intergene spacer (598 aligned bp). Inferred phylogenetic relationships suggested first that the genus is paraphyletic. The L. africana complex is clearly separated from the two Congolean species, and the integrity of the genus is thus in question. In the L. africana complex, our data showed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and chloroplast characters. This, and the low level of molecular divergence found between subspecies, suggests gene flow and introgressive events in the L. africana complex.

  5. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.

  6. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  7. Avaliação da influência da salinidade na germinação, no desenvolvimento e diversidade de microrganismos endofíticos da leguminosa Mucuna aterrima

    Alan Passos Cruz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de leguminosas é um método visado para a recuperação de fertilidade dos solos, visto que além de fornecerem matéria orgânica também fixam nitrogênio ao solo. Por isso, mostram-se relevantes pesquisas acerca da capacidade das leguminosas para utilização em solos salinos com o intuito de se auxiliar a recuperação destes. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da salinidade na germinação, no desenvolvimento e no isolamento de microrganismos endofíticos da leguminosa mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima. O experimento foi realizado com tratamentos de NaCl, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (5x3 com cinco tratamentos (0,0; 0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,2 mol NaCl/L e três repetições. Foram analisados a porcentagem de germinação, a massa seca da raiz, caule e folhas e efetuada a contagem de bactérias e fungos endofíticos. Como resultado, verificou-se uma redução da porcentagem da taxa de germinação com o aumento da salinidade. Apesar de não ser observada interferência na riqueza de microrganismos, verificou-se maior resistência das bactérias à salinidade. Dessa forma, este estudo indica que a mucuna preta não é indicada para plantio em solos com concentrações salinas maiores que 0,1 mol NaCL/L, pois essa concentração apresenta toxicidade para a planta e não favorece sua germinação.

  8. Efeito do espaçamento e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura no manejo de plantas invasoras em reflorestamento de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino-Rayol

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivos é um dos fatores que mais afetam os reflorestamentos na Amazônia, causando decréscimos na produtividade devido à competição direta pelos fatores de produção. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de espaçamentos (4x2 m, 4x4 m e 4x6 m e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformis no controle da matocompetição em plantio de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá. As coletas das plantas invasoras foram feitas aos 30 e 90 dias após a semeadura das leguminosas de cobertura. Posteriormente foram levadas para herbários para identificação. Foram identificadas 24 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. No que se refere à infestação, diversidade e riqueza de plantas daninhas, os melhores resultados foram encontrados nos tratamentos com C. ensiformis. Esta leguminosa influenciou a composição florística e a estrutura das comunidades de plantas invasoras. O espaçamento 4m x 2m contribuiu para menor diversidade e riqueza dessa plantas. As espécies de ervas daninhas mais frequentes em todos os tratamentos foram Spermacoce capitata e Brachiaria brizantha.

  9. As leguminosas como alimentos funcionais: o caso das dislipidémias e das doenças cardiovasculares Legumes as functional foods: the case of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases

    J.M. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i proteína; ii lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv saponinas; e v fitosteróis. O consumo da soja tem sido relacionado com tais efeitos benéficos, mas dados recentes obtidos na Universidade de Évora demonstraram que leguminosas como a ervilha e o tremoço de folhas estreitas também apresentam elevado potencial funcional na regulação do colesterol sanguíneo. O seu consumo levou a reduções de 30% na colesterolémia de animais experimentais, via redução do colesterol das LDL. A utilização destas leguminosas como alimentos funcionais e/ou como fornecedoras de fitoquímicos com potencial preventivo e terapêutico é promissora e poderá constituir uma maisvalia e uma fonte extra de rendimento para os agricultores que se dediquem ao cultivo destas espécies.The Mediterranean diet is rich in functional foods. Legumes are one of the key-foods of this diet and many authors mention their role in the prevention of dyslipidemias, diabetes and colon cancer. The hypocholesterolemic effect of legumes is related to several nutrients and phytochemicals. Among them: i protein; ii lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated ones; iii dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre; iv saponins; and v phytosterols. Soybean consumption has been related with these benefic effects. However, recent data obtained at the University of Évora have demonstrated that other legumes, such as peas and blue lupin, can also present a high hypocholesterolemic potential. In fact, the consumption of these legumes led to a 30% reduction in

  10. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

    Daniel Real

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L. for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer, or all-year round production included Bituminaria bituminosa (L. C.H. Stirt. var. albomarginata; Cichorium intybus L.; Cullen australasicum (Schltdl. J.W. Grimes; Dorycnium hirsutum (L. Ser.; Kennedia prostrata R. Br.; Lotononis bainesii Baker, Lotus pedunculatus Cav.; L. corniculatus L.; L. cytisoides L.; Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.; Medicago sativa subsp. caerulea (Less. ex Ledeb. Schmalh., and M. sativa subsp. falcata (L. Arcang. These entries maintained production and persisted for the period of the evaluation, with the exception of C. intybus and L. corniculatus that declined in persistence over time. The potential role of these species in extensive grazing systems in Mediterranean climatic zones, their attributes and limitations, and current progress in developing them as useful forage plants was discussed.Existe una escasez de leguminosas y hierbas perennes herbáceas además de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. tolerantes a sequía para ambientes con clima mediterráneo como los que se encuentran en el Sur de Australia, el Mediterráneo y Chile. Por lo tanto, una colección de 174 leguminosas perennes y hierbas correspondientes a 103 especies y 32 géneros fue evaluada por su adaptaci

  11. Morfología de la semilla y anatomía de la cubierta seminal de cinco especies de Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae de Venezuela

    Sirli Leython

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la morfología de las semillas y la anatomía de la cubierta seminal en cinco especies venezolanas del género Calliandra, con la finalidad de establecer similitudes y diferencias entre estos taxa, para su utilización como criterio taxonómico. Se analizaron caracteres morfológicos de valor taxonómico; entre ellos la forma y el tamaño de la semilla, así como anatómicos tales como espesor de las diferentes regiones, la ubicación de la línea lúcida y el tamaño relativo de los espacios intercelulares en la hipodermis. Con los resultados se realizaron análisis de agrupamiento por medio de la función de análisis discriminante. Diez caracteres cuantitativos, y tres caracteres cualitativos, resultaron informativos para la separación de especies.Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae from Venezuela. Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC. Benth. var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth. and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1075-1086. Epub 2008 September 30.

  12. Evaluación de diez leguminosas con dos niveles de tecnología en un suelo ácido

    Muñoz F. Jaime E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante dos semestres en la zona de Santander de Quilichao, con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento agronómico de diez leguminosas en suelos ácidos y sin riego; se empleó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con 10 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. El análisis de varianza y la diferencia mínima significativa (DMS , permitieron comparar dos modalidades de tecnología: el manejo del agricultor y ligeras modificaciones en la fertilización. En los dos ensayos efectuados, no hubo diferencia entre tecnologías, el material de mejor comportamiento en rendimiento fue Caupí TV U 289-46, la menor variabilidad en los rendimientos la presentó el mungo PI 376873; existió mejor comportamiento de los materiales caupí y mungo, respecto a los Phaseolus en suelos ácidos.The present study was carried out during two halfyears at town of Santander de Quilichao (Cauca in order to study agronomic behaviour of ten leguminous in acid soils with and without watering; the experimental design used was the randomized blocks with an arrangement in split plots with 3 replications. The variance analysis and least significant difference aIlowed to compare 2 ways of technology: farmer management and slight modifications in the fertilizations. In two assays done, there were not differences between technologies, the material of best behaviour in yield was TUV 289- 46 cowpea,the smaIIest variability was observed in PI 376873 mungo; a better behaviour was observed in two Cowpea and mungo materials in relation with phaseolus in acid soils.

  13. Crecimiento en longitud foliar y dinámica de población de tallos de cinco asociaciones de gramineas y leguminosa bajo pastoreo

    Rigoberto Castro Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la elongación, crecimiento, senescencia, peso y dinámica de tallos de cinco asociaciones conformadas por dos gramíneas y una leguminosa sembradas en diferentes proporciones. Se evaluaron cinco tratamientos: 4:3:3; 4:6:0; 4:0:6; 4:4:2 y 4:2:4 de trébol blanco-ovillo-ballico perenne, los cuales se distribuyeron en 20 unidades experimentales de 104 m2 , en un diseño en bloques completos al azar. La mayor elongación y crecimiento neto de la hoja de las especies evaluadas fue en verano, con 7.1 y 6.53 cm tallo -1 d -1 , para el pasto ovillo, y 7 y 6.7 cm tallo -1 d -1 , para ballico perenne; en trébol blanco no existió diferencia en el recambio de tejido foliar y del peciolo en verano y primavera ( P>0.05. El mayor peso de tallos de ballico perenne y ovillo se registró en verano (0.38g -1 tallo - 1 y las mayores densidades en la época de invierno (9,961 y 10,423 tallos m-2 , respectivamente. El recambio de tejido de las especies evaluadas presentó marcada estacionalidad, siendo más dinámico en verano que en otoño. La asociación de tres especies permitió una mayor dinámica en comparación con la asociación de dos especies.

  14. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae).

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B; Forest, Félix; Francis, Louise; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques, will expand into

  15. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae.

    C Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis

    Full Text Available The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce.In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae. We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships.This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques

  16. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

    Valdson José da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 frequências de corte com quatro repetições, para avaliação das seguintes variáveis: acúmulo de biomassa, número de ramificações/planta, número de folhas vivas/planta, massa seca das raízes, número e massa seca dos nódulos. A produção acumulada de MS da parte aérea e das raízes foi equivalente para os cortes efetuados a cada 28 dias ou a cada 56 dias, com exceção do Arachis, Clitoria e Desmodium, que apresentaram maior biomassa aérea e de raízes no intervalo de corte de 56 dias. Houve diferenças entre leguminosas quanto à massa seca e ao número de nódulos, todavia, o maior número de nódulos foi observado na frequência de 56 dias. O número de folhas vivas/planta foi maior na frequência de 56 dias, com exceção das leguminosas Arachis e Calopogonium, cujos valores foram próximos quando cortadas nas diferentes frequências. A frequência de corte afetou de forma diferenciada as características morfológicas e produtivas das leguminosas estudadas, o que indica a necessidade de manejo diferenciado para as variedades testadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and productive characteristics of forage legumes under two harvest frequencies (28 and 56 days and 10 cm harvest intensity. The following legume species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela and Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. A randomized

  17. Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeographic implications.

    Wang, Qi; Song, Zhuqiu; Chen, Yunfa; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-04-24

    The pantropical genus Bauhinia, along with the northern temperate Cercis and several tropical genera, bear bilobate, bifoliolate, or sometimes unifoliolate leaves, which constitute the tribe Cercideae as sister to the rest of the family Leguminosae based on molecular phylogenetics. Hence, the fossil record of Cercideae is pivotal to understand the early evolution and biogeographic history of legumes. Three fossil species of Bauhinia were described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China. Bauhinia ningmingensis sp. nov. is characterized by its bifoliolate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal acrodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins. B. cheniae sp. nov. bears moderately or deeply bilobate, pulvinate leaves, with basal actinodromous primary veins and eucamptodromous secondary veins. B. larsenii D.X. Zhang et Y.F. Chen emend. possesses shallowly or moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal actinodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins, as well as elliptic, stipitate, non-winged, and oligo-seeded fruits. Meanwhile, previously reported Bauhinia fossils were reviewed, and those pre-Oligocene foliage across the world are either questionable or have been rejected due to lacking of reliable evidence for their pulvini or/and basal actinodromous or acrodromous venations. Besides Oligocene leaves and fruits presented here, foliage and/or wood of Bauhinia have been documented from the Miocene-Pliocene of Thailand, India, Nepal, Uganda, and Ecuador. Bauhinia has exhibited a certain diversity with bifoliolate- and bilobate-leafed species in a low-latitude locality-Ningming since at least the Oligocene, implying that the tropical zone of South China may represent one of the centres for early diversification of the genus. The reliable macrofossils of Bauhinia and Cercis have made their debut in the Eocene-Oligocene floras from mid-low latitudes and appeared to lack in the coeval floras at high latitudes, implying a

  18. Levantamento fitogeográfico de Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-papilionoideae com potencial produtivo para própolis vermelha no Estado do Pará

    Raquel Leão Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, de distribuição pantropical, compreende cerca de 250 espécies.  Dalbergia spp tem sido amplamente explorada para produção de própolis vermelha, que consiste em uma mistura complexa feita pelas abelhas a partir do material resinoso encontrado no tecido meristemático em várias plantas deste gênero. Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar levantamento da ocorrência da flora apícola produtora de exsudato vermelho que pode ser utilizada pelas abelhas africanizadas para produção da própolis vermelha no estado do Pará. Realizou-se o levantamento em diversos herbários que possuíam espécies de Dalbergia L.f. produtoras de exsudato vermelho no estado do Pará, juntamente com a sua distribuição. Para tanto, foram averiguadas literaturas específicas de morfologia e taxonomia que envolviam espécies de Dalbergia produtoras de exsudato vermelho localizadas no Pará. A coleta de dados foi obtida a partir da plataforma online SpeciesLink; e do acervo do Herbário IAN (Instituto Agronômico do Norte da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental. O mapa de distribuição foi elaborado utilizando o software QGis juntamente com os dados de coleta das espécies. Foram encontrados 204 registros depositados em 21 herbários, sendo que, 175 são pertencentes à espécie Dalbergia monetaria e 29 à Dalbergia ecastaphyllum. Analisando os dados de coleta, notou-se que as espécies foram coletadas em 44 municípios do Estado do Pará, dos quais Belém e Bragança apresentaram maior quantidade de registros. A partir do levantamento realizado notou-se a predominância de Dalbergia monetaria nos registros, mostrando que esta é uma espécie que possui potencial para ser explorada. 

  19. Leguminosas isoladas e consorciadas com milheto em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo no feijão orgânico

    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos têm demonstrado as vantagens da utilização de plantas de cobertura em manter ou melhorar a qualidade do solo e produtividade da cultura. No entanto, os efeitos dessa gestão em feijão comum orgânico em condições de savana, ainda são desconhecidos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de leguminosas, mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC, feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan L. HUTH, feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis, crotalária (Crotalária juncea em monocultura e em consórcio com milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br. de 1810, na produção de grãos no feijoeiro comum em sistema orgânico de produção sob o sistema do manejo do solo convencional e plantio direto. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar BRS Pontal, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Aos 90 dias após a germinação das plantas de feijão foram avaliadas, o número de vagens por planta (NVP, número de grãos por vagem (NGV, número de grãos por planta (NGP , peso de 100 grãos (M100G e produção de grãos. Os resultados mostraram que o número de vagens, número de grãos e produtividade do feijoeiro no sistema orgânico, foram influenciados pelas culturas de cobertura do solo e sistemas manejo do solo, com destaque para mucuna associados com milheto e sistema de plantio direto, que proporcionou o melhor desempenho destes parâmetros. A maior produção de grãos foi observado com a mucuna associados com milho em sistema de plantio direto. A produtividade média de grãos orgânicos foi de 3.8 Mg ha-1. A análise de agrupamento mostrou um efeito marcante de sistemas de manejo do solo sobre os componentes de produção do feijoeiro.

  20. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos de um argissolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com leguminosas consorciada com a seringueira

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição espacial de alguns atributos físicos do solo e verificar suas alterações no desenvolvimento da seringueira consorciada com leguminosas. O experimento foi instalado em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo no Polo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios do Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama (SP. Foram avaliadas: infiltração de água a 0,10 e a 0,20 m de profundidade, macro e micro porosidade e densidade do solo nas camadas 0-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60 m. O desenvolvimento das plantas de seringueira foi avaliado medindo-se o perímetro do caule e o aumento desta medida no período de quatro anos (1996-1999. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de estatística descritiva para verificação de parâmetros de tendência central e dispersão. Foram utilizados métodos geoestatísticos incluindo semivariogramas, krigagem e mapas de isolinhas para a avaliação da variabilidade espacial. Houve dependência espacial de moderada a forte para todos os atributos do solo, com o valor do alcance variando entre 15 e 90 m. A dependência espacial anotada para infiltração de água no solo não teve relação com as avaliações efetuadas nas plantas nem com os outros atributos avaliados. Os altos valores de densidade do solo e de microporosidade na camada de 0,20-0,40 m indicaram a ocorrência de compactação nesta camada. O perímetro do caule de seringueira aumentou linearmente com o tempo, porém a taxa de crescimento do perímetro do caule decresceu ao longo dos anos. A taxa média de crescimento do perímetro do caule variou em função do crescimento menor no inverno quando comparado com o do verão. Na distribuição espacial do espessamento do caule das árvores de seringueira ao longo do tempo houve alta continuidade, avaliada pelos baixos valores do efeito pepita dos semivariogramas e estreita correlação com densidade do solo, onde locais menos densos tiveram os

  1. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  2. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana

  3. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de rizobios aisladas de diferentes leguminosas en la región de Cascajal, Villa Clara Isolation and characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from different legumes in the Cascajal region, Villa Clara

    Pérez Guianeya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 19 cepas de rizobio a partir de los nódulos de las leguminosas Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides y Macroptilium atropurpureum, con el objetivo de obtener inoculantes efectivos para dichos cultivos en suelos ácidos. Para la caracterización de los aislados bacterianos se estudiaron sus características micromorfológicas, tintoriales y culturales, así como algunas respuestas fisiológico-bioquímicas, tales como la excreción de ácido o base al medio de cultivo y el ensayo de la cetolactasa. Se hizo un ensayo de nodulación in vitro con cada una de las leguminosas para determinar la efectividad de los aislados. De acuerdo con las características culturales, la tasa de crecimiento en medio LMA y la producción de ácido o base, los aislados obtenidos pudieran pertenecer a los géneros Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium. La prueba de la cetolactasa permitió conocer que ninguno de los aislados en estudio pertenece al género Agrobacterium. El ensayo con plantas inoculadas mostró que todas las cepas aisladas fueron efectivas en la nodulación, ya que nodularon en las leguminosas probadas. Se concluye que de las cepas aisladas 11 pudieran pertenecer al género Bradyrhizobium, mientras que las ocho restantes comparten características similares con los géneros Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium; todos los aislados fueron efectivos en la nodulación y pueden considerarse cepas promisorias para la obtención de inoculantes para las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.Nineteen rhizobium strains were isolated from the nodules of the legumes Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum, with the objective of obtaining effective inoculants for such crops in acid soils. For the characterization of the bacterial isolates, their micromorphological, staining and cultural characteristics were studied, as well as some

  4. Forage intake and botanical composition of feed for cattle fed Brachiaria/legume mixtures Consumo e composição da forragem ingerida por bovinos alimentados com Brachiaria e uma leguminosa

    Robert Macedo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A key contribution to study the cycling of nutrients in soil/plant/animal systems is the evaluation of the consumption of forage and their nutrients by cattle. The objective of this study was to test techniques to evaluate faecal production, in vitro digestibility, forage consumption and the proportion of legume in the acquired diet. Five Zebu steer calves were confined and fed five diets of different combinations of Brachiaria dictyoneura and Desmodium ovalifolium. All quantities of faeces were collected per animal and these values were found to compare favourably with those derived from using the chromium oxide technique. In vitro digestibility ranged from 7 to 10% higher than the actual in vivo digestibility. Faecal samples from steers fed with diets with 25% or more of grass in the mixture were found to be depleted in δ13C between 1.7 and 2.1‰, but no depletion was observed when the diet was 100% D. ovalifolium. There was a positive linear regression (r² = 0.97*** of the δ13C of the diet with the δ13C of faeces, but if the acquired diet contained a very high proportion of legume, the legume content could be underestimated by as much as 10%. None of the internal indicators, such as lignin or ash content of the diets, were useful to predict feed intake, but the chromium oxide external indicator performed satisfactorily. The 13C analysis of the faeces was an effective predictor of the proportion of the legume in the consumed diet.Uma contribuição fundamental para o estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes no sistema solo/planta/ animal é a avaliação do consumo pelo gado de forragem e dos nutrientes nela contidos. Testaram-se, sob condições controladas, técnicas para avaliar a produção fecal, digestibilidade in vitro, consumo de forragem e a proporção de leguminosa ingerida na dieta. Cinco novilhos de Zebu foram confinados e alimentados com quantidades conhecidas de cinco rações com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria dictyoneura e

  5. Organic matter quality in a soil cultivated with perennial herbaceous legumes Qualidade da matéria orgânica de um solo cultivado com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

    Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Using herbaceous legumes in agricultural systems yields great quantities of plant residues, allowing changes in soil organic matter quality and content over the years. This study was conducted on an Ultisol, at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different perennial herbaceous legumes on soil organic matter quality. A factorial scheme with three replications was used to evaluate the species: forage groundnut cv. BR-14951 (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. After the first cut, each plot was divided into two subplots; plants were cut and left on the soil surface or cut and removed. Soil samples of a closed area covered by spontaneous vegetation (mainly C3 plants or by Panicum maximum were also analysed. Samples were collected from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm, processed for the fractionation of organic matter and the evaluation of structural characteristics of humic acids (HA. Evaluated legumes did not change total organic carbon contents, but promoted HA accumulation in the superficial soil layer. Humic acids may be used as indicators of the management effects on soil organic fractions, because there was significant incorporation of carbon and nitrogen derived from the legume residues, even for the short experimentation time (28 months. Residue management did not modify quantitative aspects of the distribution of the humified organic matter, but promoted, however, a higher condensation degree of humic acids evaluated by the elementary composition, IR and fluorescence spectroscopy.O uso de leguminosas herbáceas em sistemas agrícolas permite o aporte de quantidades expressivas de fitomassa, possibilitando alterações no teor e na qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo ao longo dos anos. Este trabalho avalia a qualidade da matéria orgânica de um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo localizado em Seropédica, RJ, e cultivado com diferentes espécies de leguminosas herb

  6. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  7. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...

  8. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parameters included: Peroxides (P.V., Iodine (I.V., Acid (A.V., p-Anisidine (p-A values. Results showed that mixtures containing wild and maize oil showed 2-4 meq/Kg as initial values of iodine, while after 122 days of storage the value was 4-7 meq/Kg. Mixtures containing soy oil presented 3-6 meq-Kg initially, and 8-15 meq-Kg were detected at the end experiment. No differences were observed in I.V. and A.V. values in maize mixtures. On the contrary, mixtures containing soy oil presented increments in I.V. Also, A.V. presented a slight increment in 1:1 mixtures. p-Anisidine values presented and small increment in maize mixtures (3:1 ratio while this increment was larger in mixtures containing soy oils and Gatuña or Palo fierro oil. These latter oils when were mixed with maize oils presented the lowest increments in all evaluated indexes.The oils of palo fierro and blended gatuña with oil of corn didn’t present changes in their concentration in the palmitic and araquidic acid during the storage. The concentration of the oleic acid in the mezquite oils (3:1, gatuña (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, vinorama (3:1, as well as the linoleic and erucic acids in gatuña in their three mixtures didn’t present changes neither alteration during the storage, for what you are considered the oils of palo fierro, gatuña and vinorama the most stable in the present study.Los aceites de semillas de leguminosas silvestres han mostrado mayor estabilidad que algunos aceites convencionales

  9. Crescimento, nutrição e fixação biológica de nitrogênio em plantios mistos de eucalipto e leguminosas arbóreas Growth, nutrition and biological fixation of nitrogen in mixed-species plantations of eucalypt with leguminous trees

    Selma Regina de Freitas Coelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, a nutrição mineral e a fixação biológica de N2 (FBN em plantios consorciados de Eucalyptus grandis e leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e sete tratamentos por bloco. Nas linhas de plantio, entre as plantas de E. grandis, foram plantadas, intercaladamente, leguminosas arbóreas nativas de matas brasileiras - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - e uma leguminosa exótica, Acacia mangium. Realizou-se, também, o plantio puro de E. grandis. Mimosa scabrella e A. mangium foram as leguminosas com maior crescimento. Eucalyptus grandis consorciado com M. scabrella cresceu menos, no entanto foi o povoamento com maior acumulação de biomassa. As densidades de raízes finas (DRF do E. grandis foram 6 a 20 vezes maiores que as DRF das leguminosas na camada superficial do solo (0-10 cm 24 meses após plantio. A DRF de M. scabrella e de M. caesalpiniaefolia foi maior na camada 30-50 cm e menor na camada 10-30 cm. Os valores de delta15N da M. scabrella indicam que 90% do N acumulado em seus tecidos é oriundo da FBN.The objective of this work was to assess interactions between species on the above and belowground growth, nitrogen uptake and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and native leguminous N2-fixing trees. A complete randomized block design was installed with seven treatments and three blocks. Within the lines of the E. grandis seedlings, native leguminous N2-fixing trees - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - and one exotic leguminous plant, Acacia mangium, were intercropped. E. grandis was also solely planted. Mimosa scabrella and A. mangium were the legume trees that presented the highest growth. Although E. grandis showed a lower

  10. Leguminosas e seus efeitos sobre propriedades físicas do solo e produtividade do mamoeiro 'Tainung 1' Leguminous plants and their effects on soil physical properties and productivity of papaya 'Tainung 1'

    José Eduardo Borges de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no período de junho 1998 a dezembro de 2000 na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, em um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso para avaliar o impacto do manejo de práticas melhoradoras sobre as propriedades físicas desses solos e a produtividade do mamoeiro. Os tratamentos foram: 1- capina em área total; 2- grade nas entrelinhas e herbicida nas linhas de plantio; 3- capina em área total + subsolagem; 4- subsolagem + feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis nas ruas da cultura; 5- Subsolagem + crotalária (Crotalaria juncea nas ruas da cultura; 6- subsolagem + caupi (Vigna uguiculata nas ruas da cultura; 7- subsolagem + calagem + gesso agrícola e feijão-de-porco nas ruas da cultura; 8- subsolagem + vegetação nativa nas ruas da cultura, roçada quando necessária. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi composta por 36 plantas das quais 16 úteis, em espaçamento de 3 x 2 m. A subsolagem foi realizada de forma cruzada antes do plantio nos tratamentos correspondentes. As leguminosas foram plantadas em maio/junho e roçadas em setembro/outubro. O controle do mato nas linhas foi mecânico (T1 e T3 e químico com glifosato na dose de 1% v/v nos demais. Os tratamentos manejados nas entrelinhas da cultura do mamão com leguminosas proporcionaram as maiores alterações nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso. Os tratamentos manejados com leguminosas e vegetação espontânea foram os que mais se evidenciaram em produtividade, expressada pelo peso total de frutos (PTF, em toneladas por hectare, e em número total de frutos por hectare NTF.An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy School of Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, Cruz das Almas, during the period of June 1998 to December 2000, with the objective of evaluating the impact of good management practices on soil physical properties of an alic and

  11. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  12. Renovação de pastagem degradada com calagem, adubação e leguminosa consorciada em Neossolo Quartzarênico = Degraded pasture recovering with liming, fertilization, and associated legume in Quartzipsament

    Edimilson Volpe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação é considerada o maior problema das pastagens cultivadas no Cerrado. Em Neossolo Quartzarênico, foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar diversos tratamentos de renovação de pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, introduzindo Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha; Calagem; Calagem +P; Calagem + ½(PK; Calagem + PK; Calagem + PK + Micronutrientes; Calagem + PK + Micronutrientes + Leguminosa. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Realizaram-se três cortes, em 325 dias, e, ao final, avaliação da produção de raízes e análise química do solo. Todos os tratamentos derenovação diferiram da testemunha e alguns deles diferiram entre si na produção de massa seca da parte aérea, destacando-se o tratamento com leguminosa. A produção de raízes foi significativamente superior em três tratamentos quando comparados à testemunha. Foramverificados aumentos significativos nos teores de nutrientes e pH do solo, com a aplicação de calcário e fertilizantes.The degradation is considered to be the major problem of cultivated pastures in the Cerrado. In Quartzipsament, an experiment wasconducted to evaluate several degraded pasture recovering treatments of Brachiaria decumbens, introducing Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. The treatments were: Witness; Liming; Liming + P; Liming + ½(PK; Liming + PK. Liming + PK + Micronutrients; Liming + PK + Micronutrients + Legume. The experimental design was that ofrandomized blocks with four replications. Three cuts in a 325 days period were done and, in the end, the evaluation of roots production and soil chemical analysis. All renovation systems differed from the witness and some of them differed among themselves in terms ofdry mass of aerial portion, with emphasis to the legume treatment. The roots production was significantly greater in three treatments when compared to the witness. Significant increases in the

  13. Barbechos mejorados con leguminosas: una promisoria alternativa agroecológica para el manejo alelopático de malezas y mejoramiento del cultivo de arroz y maíz en los Llanos de Colombia

    Delgado H. Hernando

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El manejo químico de malezas en arroz asciende hasta un 20% de los costos totales del cultivo, bajando así su rentabilidad. Buscando explorar alternativas de manejo, el presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de tres sistemas de labranza, cuatro barbechos mejorados con leguminosas, el barbecho nativo y tres dosis de herbicidas, sobre la densidad total de malezas resurgentes dentro de los cultivos, algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del arroz y el maíz. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en el Centro de Investigación La Libertad (Villavicencio y en dos fincas en la zona del Ariari, bajo un diseño experimental de parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Mucuna deeringianum (Bort. Smal presentó los más fuertes efectos alelopáticos, con porcentajes promedio de control de malezas –adicionales al efecto de los herbicidas– entre 41 y 62%; seguida de Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don, con porcentajes de control entre 27 y 46%. Por esta razón, dosis de herbicidas reducidas al 70% de las comerciales mostraron adecuados niveles de control. Es así que los rendimientos de arroz secano favorecido y maíz en la zona del Ariari llegaron a ser incluso superiores a los obtenidos con dosis completas de herbicidas, aunque sin mostrar diferencias significativas. Ambas leguminosas aumentaron el rendimiento del arroz secano favorecido hasta en 1.446 kg ha-1, y mejoraron algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo, en tanto que únicamente C. ochroleuca incrementó la producción de maíz en 331 kg ha-1. Los múltiples e integrales beneficios agronómicos obtenidos con el uso de un período de barbecho mejorado muestran su potencial para el manejo alelopático de malezas, y como práctica agroecológica en cultivos de arroz y maíz.

  14. Crescimento de Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento Growth of Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae under different shading levels

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. é uma espécie clímax tolerante a sombra, ao passo que Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. é uma espécie pioneira. O desenvolvimento destas espécies pode refletir a habilidade de adaptação aos diferentes fatores ambientais (luz, água e temperatura no local em que estão crescendo. O suprimento inadequado de um desses fatores pode reduzir o vigor da planta e limitar seu desenvolvimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do nível de sombreamento no crescimento e a concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos em duas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Olericultura do Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA/Rondônia. Durante a formação das mudas, ambas as espécies foram expostas a quatro tratamentos de sombra: 0 % (controle - sol pleno; 30 %; 50 % e 80 %. Cada tratamento foi constituído com três repetições de cada espécie; o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado. Quatro meses após a semeadura, as seguintes análises foram realizadas: número de folhas, altura da planta, comprimento do sistema radicular, massa seca total e concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos. O tratamento sob sol pleno afetou negativamente o crescimento de ambas as espécies. As mudas crescidas sob 50% e 80% apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento. Conforme o aumento do sombreamento houve um decréscimo na razão clorofila a/b e um aumento nas concentrações de clorofila total e carotenóides totais.Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. is a clímax shadow tolerant specie and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., by the other hand, is considered as a pioneer specie. The development of these species may reflect its adaptation ability to different environmental

  15. Superação de dormência de sementes como estratégia para restauração florestal de pastagem tropical Seed dormancy overcoming as a strategy for forest restoration in tropical pasture

    Silvia Rahe Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de tratamentos de superação da dormência de sementes sobre a taxa e o tempo de emergência de espécies arbóreas de Fabaceae, e sobre seu estabelecimento, quando reintroduzidas em pastagem, no Cerrado. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação e em campo (pastagem de Urochloa brizantha, com as espécies Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii e Hymenaea stigonocarpa, submetidas ou não aos seguintes tratamentos de superação de dormência: D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, escarificação mecânica; C. langsdorffii e M. caesalpiniifolia, escarificação química com H2SO4; P. nitens, punção do tegumento; e P. dubium, imersão em água a 80ºC. O estabelecimento em campo foi monitorado por 21 meses. A superação de dormência promoveu, em casa de vegetação, maior emergência de quatro das seis espécies avaliadas, e, no campo, de cinco espécies. Além disso, reduziu o tempo de emergência das espécies e aumentou o recrutamento de M. caesalpiniifolia, P. nitens, D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, aos 127 dias, e de H. stigonocarpa aos 659 dias. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência podem aumentar a eficiência da semeadura direta, em projetos de restauração de áreas degradadas no Cerrado, ao promover maior emergência das sementes e o estabelecimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seed dormancy overcoming treatments on the rate and time of emergence of Fabaceae tree species, and on their recruitment when reintroduced in a tropical pasture, in the Brazilian Cerrado. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse and field (Urochloa brizantha pasture, with the species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea stigonocarpa, subjected or not to the following treatments of dormancy break: D. mollis and

  16. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras Soil litter stock and fertility after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees on degraded signal grass pasture

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.Pastures are the fodder supply of Brazilian livestock, and are exhaustively degraded by nitrogen (N deficiency. Intercropping with legumes, aside from nitrogen fixation, may have

  17. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  18. EFFECT OF LEGUME TREES ON SOIL MACROFAUNA OF A Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU PASTURE EFEITO DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS SOBRE A MACROFAUNA DO SOLO EM PASTAGEM DE Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU

    Avílio Antonio Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four legume tree species in a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture on soil macrofauna density and diversity, in a low natural fertility soil. The tree leguminous species introduced in the pasture were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora, and Enterolobium contortisiliquum. The macrofauna sampling consisted in collecting six soil monoliths with 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm under tree canopies or in a transect in the single Brachiaria pasture. The densities varied from 602 individuals.m-2 under the canopy of E. contortisiliquum to two individuals.m-2 in the single pasture. The largest group richness was found under M. tenuiflora canopy (ten groups, followed by P. guachapele (nine groups, E. contortisiliquum (seven groups and M. artemisiana (six groups. The leguminous species influence was related to N content and to C:N ratio of leaf material. M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora favored the occurrence of Oligochaeta and Coleoptera larvae, while under the P. guachapele and E. contortisiliquum canopies Formicidae activity was more intense.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil macrofauna; sivipastoral systems; soil quality.

    O objetivou deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de quatro espécies leguminosas arbóreas, em uma pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, com dois anos de estabelecimento, sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna de um planossolo de baixa fertilidade natural. As espécies arbóreas introduzidas na pastagem foram: Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. A amostragem da macrofauna consistiu na retirada de seis monolitos de solo com 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm sob a copa das árvores ou em um transecto na pastagem solteira. As densidades variaram de 602

  19. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF TREE LEGUME SPECIES INTRODUCED IN TROPICAL GRASS PASTURES ANÁLISE DO COMPORTAMENTO DE ESPÉCIES LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS INTRODUZIDAS EM PASTAGENS DE GRAMÍNEAS TROPICAIS

    Janaina Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of sixteen tree legume species introduced in tropical grass pastures, without seedling protection and in the presence of animals, in three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A multivariate factor analysis method was used with sixteen variables related to seven experimental units in the municipalities and ten variables related to leguminous species. The first rotative factor (F1, which explained the highest percentage of the observed variance (62.7%, showed that the Fazenda Santo Antônio experimental unit, in the Itatiaia municipality, presented the highest values for Ca+Mg, N, and Mg, and the lowest value for P (soil sample collected at the beginning of experimental period, while the opposite was observed for Sipa I unit, in the Seropédica municipality. The F1 factor also showed that the species Jurema branca (Mimosa artemisiana and Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora presented the highest values for diameter growth rate of stem and crown, and the lowest percentage of pastured seedlings, while Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala showed the inverse behavior. Results indicate that M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora present better potential for introduction in tropical grass pastures without seedling protection and without animal exclusion.

    KEY-WORDS: Tree seedling; factor analysis; communality, mimosa; Leucaena.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o comportamento de dezesseis espécies leguminosas arbóreas introduzidas em pastagens de gramíneas tropicais, sem proteção das mudas e na presença de animais, em três municípios do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, utilizou-se a técnica multivariada da análise de fatores, considerando-se dezesseis variáveis relativas a sete unidades experimentais nos municípios e dez vari

  20. IDENTIFICACIÓN, USOS Y MEDICIÓN DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS FORRAJERAS EN RANCHOS GANADEROS DEL SUR DEL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Jaime Olivares Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar las especies arbóreas leguminosas, usos, densidad, frecuencia, abundancia y medidas dasométricas en ranchos ganaderos del sur del Estado de México; así como evaluar la producción de follaje (kg materia seca árbol-1ha-1 de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium —preferidas por los ganaderos como fuente de forraje y con mayor densidad—; y evaluar  la producción de fruto (kg materia seca  árbol-1ha-1 de Acacia  cochliacantha y P. dulce. La información de usos se obtuvo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a 69 ganaderos, cantidad que representó 83% de la población. Las mediciones de los árboles se realizaron en seis ranchos mediante trabajo de campo. La información se analizó usando estadísticas descriptivas. Se identificaron 12 especies arbóreas (Acacia cochliacantha, Lysiloma divaricata, Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium, las cuales presentaron mayor densidad, frecuencia y abundancia. De 46.6% de las arbóreas, su follaje y fruto es consumido por rumiantes; de 20%, es consumido follaje, fruto y flor. Se proporcionan de cinco a ocho usos en 80% de las especies, además del forrajero, como leña, poste, sombra, cerca viva, medicinal, consumo humano, artesanal y maderable. Las arbóreas con mayor fuste fueron: Caesalpinia coriaria, Pithecellobium dulce, Enterolobium cyclocarpum y Leucaena esculenta, con diámetro basal (DB de 47.11 a 57.2 cm, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP de 49.34 a 50.3 cm y altura (A de 7.4 a 14.5 m,  los cuales son preferidos para sombra. La producción de follaje de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium fue de 44.5, 8.8 y 8.4 kg MS arbol-1, respectivamente. La producción de fruto de Pithecellobium dulce y Acacia cochliacantha fue 63.9 y 21.7 kg MS árbol-1, respectivamente. Las 12 leguminosas

  1. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  2. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  3. Avaliação da solubilidade de cobre e zinco em caldos de leguminosas Evaluation of the solubility of copper and zinc in a salty, watrry vegetatable soup

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os metais cobre e zinco podem se apresentar sob diversas formas químicas na natureza: como sais, estando sob a forma de íons I e II ou como compostos orgânicos, complexados com aminoácidos e proteínas. A forma mais biodisponível ao organismo é a forma de compostos organo quelados. Avaliando os teores dos metais em caldo de leguminosas processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso é possível avaliar a solubilidade destes metais. Duas marcas e dois lotes de amostras de feijão preto, feijão branco, feijão carioquinha, feijão mulatinho, feijão manteiga, ervilha e lentilha foram processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso e determinou-se os teores totais de cobre e zinco em seus caldos. Os caldos foram dissolvidos em HCl 2molL-1 e o teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foi aplicado o teste Dixon e o teste t de student. Os resultados mostraram que a solubilidade média dos metais cobre e zinco nos meios aquoso e salino foram respectivamente 8 e 6%. Acredita-se que os compostos de cobre e zinco nas leguminosas analisadas não são compostos inorgânicos facilmente solúveis em água. Estudos de especiação podem auxiliar na análise da biodisponibilidade destes metais.Copper and zinc can appear in nature under chemical forms, such as salts, being as íons I and II or as organic compounds, synthesized as amino acids and proteins. The most bio-available form to the human body are organic compounds. The solubility of these metals can be determined by evaluating their ratio in a both of legumes thermally processed in an aqueous and a saline mediium. Samples of several varieties of beans, peas, lentils and chickpeas, in two batches containing two different brands of each variety, were thermally processeced in an aqueous and a saline medium and the total ratio of copper and zinc in their respective broths was

  4. Cobertura do solo e estoque de nutrientes de duas leguminosas perenes, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio Soil cover and nutrient accumulation of two perennial legumes as functions of spacing and planting densities

    A. Perin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de leguminosas herbáceas perenes nos sistemas de produção constitui ainda um desafio, principalmente por apresentarem crescimento inicial lento. Para viabilizar sua implantação, este trabalho objetivou determinar as taxas de cobertura do solo, produção de matéria seca, teores e acumulação de N, P e K das leguminosas herbáceas perenes galáxia (Galactia striata e cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio. O experimento, instalado em dezembro/98 na Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, constou do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das espécies galáxia e cudzu tropical, plantadas em dois espaçamentos entre sulcos de plantio (25 e 50 cm e quatro densidades de plantas (5, 10, 15 e 20 plantas m-1. A densidade adequada para a rápida cobertura do solo para cudzu tropical e galáxia foi de 10 plantas m-1, no espaçamento de 25 cm entre os sulcos de plantio. A maior produção de matéria seca e acumulação de N, P e K na parte aérea das plantas foram evidenciadas apenas no primeiro corte, sendo os maiores valores obtidos no espaçamento de 25 cm e na densidade de 10 plantas m-1. O espaçamento de 25 cm com 10 plantas m-1 foi a combinação mais adequada para a plena formação da cobertura viva do solo com cudzu tropical e galáxia.The establishment of herbaceous perennial leguminous in production systems is still a challenge, mainly because of the slow initial growth. Evaluations of the soil cover ratio, dry matter production, contents and accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of the herbaceous perennial Galactia striata and Pueraria phaseoloides, sown in different densities and row spacing, aimed at making their establishments feasible. The experiment was conducted in December/98 at Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, in a completely randomized block design, as a factorial

  5. Sucessão entre cultivos orgânicos de milho e couve consorciados com leguminosas em plantio direto Organic crop succession of maize and collard greens intercropped with legumes in no-tillage system

    EE Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir a aplicação de insumos químicos e minimizar as agressões ao meio ambiente, produzindo alimentos mais saudáveis e ecologicamente corretos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da sucessão entre couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala e milho (Zea may L., em consórcio com leguminosas para fins de adubação verde, sob plantio direto em manejo orgânico. O estudo foi conduzido em Seropédica, Região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, em dois anos. Utilizaram-se, como adubos verdes, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana e crotalária spectabilis (Crotalaria spectabilis em consórcio com couve e em sucessão crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens em consórcio com milho. Como controles utilizaram-se os monocultivos de couve e milho. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, constituindo fatorial 3 (sistema de cultivo x 2 (doses de cama-de-frango, com quatro repetições, em parcelas de 20 m². Na couve, aplicou-se em cobertura cama-de-frango nas doses 0 e 5,4 t ha-1 (2,7 t ha-1 em duas aplicações em 2003 e 0 e 2,7 t ha-1 em 2004. Em monocultivo, a produtividade da couve foi de 37,7 e 18,4 t ha-1; consorciada com mucuna-anã, foi de 40,3 e 38,8 t ha-1 e com crotalária spectabilis, de 42,9 e 24,8 t ha-1, em 2003 e 2004, respectivamente. O milho beneficiou-se do efeito residual da adubação com cama-de-frango, aumentando o número de espigas produzidas de 25.625 para 27.916 ha-1. O cultivo de couve em sucessão ao milho, consorciada com leguminosas anuais, sob adubação orgânica com cama-de-frango, resultou em aumento de produtividade das culturas de couve e milho.New farming practices have been developed to reduce the application of fertilizer and pesticides and minimize the aggression to the environment, producing healthy foods and environmentally correct. We evaluated the performance of the succession of collard greens (Brassica

  6. Avaliação da produtividade de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P e K em leguminosas arbóreas no sistema de aléias, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Evaluation of phytomass productivity and N, P and K accumulation of shrub legumes in alley cropping system in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de fitomassa da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N, P e K nas leguminosas arbóreas em sistemas agroflorestais de aléias, bem como verificar o efeito da adição de fósforo sobre as leguminosas. Foram realizados experimentos de campo com a utilização de leguminosas, com e sem adição de P, por dois anos consecutivos de avaliação, em Campos dos Goytacazes,RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram do sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, estas foram podadas a 1,5 m de altura, restando a haste principal. O material podado foi pesado, descartando-se os ramos com diâmetro superior a 1,5 cm e sendo retiradas as amostras compostas para determinações da fitomassa seca e dos teores de N, P e K. Efetuou-se nova poda 80 dias após a primeira, e pesou-se esse material. No primeiro ano, o guandu mostrou-se superior na produtividade de fitomassa seca e no acúmulo de N, P e K. No segundo ano de avaliação, no experimento com adição de P a leucena e a canafístula assemelharam-se ao guandu na produtividade de fitomassa, enquanto a leucena e o guandu, no acúmulo de N e P, porém a leucena superou o guandu e a canafístula no acúmulo de K na parte aérea. A aplicação de P teve efeito positivo na produtividade de fitomassa seca de algumas espécies.The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot phytomass and shrub legumes N, P and K accumulation in agroforestry system (alley cropping system and study the effect of P fertilization. Two field experiments were carried out - without and with P application - for two years: 2004 and 2005, using shrub legumes in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the

  7. Perennial herbaceous legumes as live soil mulches and their effects on C, N and P of the microbial biomass Leguminosas herbáceas perenes como cobertura viva do solo e seu efeito no C, N e P da biomassa microbiana

    Gustavo Pereira Duda

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of living mulch with legumes is increasing but the impact of this management technique on the soil microbial pool is not well known. In this work, the effect of different live mulches was evaluated in relation to the C, N and P pools of the microbial biomass, in a Typic Alfisol of Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The field experiment was divided in two parts: the first, consisted of treatments set in a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial combination of the following factors: live mulch species (Arachis pintoi and Macroptilium atropurpureum, vegetation management after cutting (leaving residue as a mulch or residue remotion from the plots and four soil depths. The second part had treatments set in a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial combination of the following factors: absence of live mulch, A. pintoi, Pueraria phaseoloides, and M. atropurpureum, P levels (0 and 88 kg ha-1 and vegetation management after cutting. Variation of microbial C was not observed in relation to soil depth. However, the amount of microbial P and N, water soluble C, available C, and mineralizable C decreased with soil depth. Among the tested legumes, Arachis pintoi promoted an increase of microbial C and available C content of the soil, when compared to the other legume species (Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum. Keeping the shoot as a mulch promoted an increase on soil content of microbial C and N, total organic C and N, and organic C fractions, indicating the importance of this practice to improve soil fertility.A adoção de práticas de cobertura do solo com leguminosas tem aumentado. Porém, o impacto desta prática sobre o compartimento microbiano ainda não é bem conhecido. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes leguminosas, sobre o C, N e P da biomassa microbiana, coletaram-se amostras de Argissolo oriundas de um experimento sob condições de campo em Seropédica-RJ. O experimento foi subdividido em dois ensaios. No primeiro, os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação de tr

  8. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  9. Efectos combinados de escarificación y de hidratación parcial en la germinación de semillas frescas de leguminosas Combined effects of scarification and partial hydration on the germination of fresh legume seeds

    Yolanda González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó un diseño de clasificación simple con arreglo factorial y cinco réplicas (25 semillas cada una para conocer la germinación de las semillas frescas de leguminosas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos de hidratación-deshidratación y condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Previamente se estudió el comportamiento germinativo ante tratamientos de escarificación: agua a 80ºC durante 2' (en semillas de Crotalaria sp. y H2SO4 al 96% durante 10' (en semillas de Indigofera sp., Desmanthus virgatus y Centrosema pubescens, que se combinaron con un tratamiento de hidratación parcial en agua a temperatura alterna de 25/30ºC (termoperíodo óptimo de germinación. La hidratación parcial se realizó hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible; en las semillas escarificadas de Indigofera sp., D. virgatus, Crotalaria sp. y C. pubescens este momento se alcanzó a las 15, 16, 16 y 19 horas, respectivamente. La deshidratación se llevó a cabo al aire durante 48 horas, hasta alcanzar aproximadamente el contenido inicial de humedad de las semillas (7-12% en base a la masa fresca. En todas las especies, excepto en D. virgatus, los tratamientos de hidratación parcial incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación, aunque originaron una mayor velocidad de germinación. Se concluye que los tratamientos de hidratación parcial en agua son adecuados para incrementar la germinación de las especies estudiadas, excepto en D. virgatus, bajo condiciones controladas de estrés calórico.A simple classification design with factorial arrangement and five replications (25 seeds each was used in order to know the germination of fresh legume seeds subject to different pregerminative hydration-dehydration treatments and controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The germinative performance before scarification treatments was previously studied: water at 80ºC for 2' (in Crotalaria sp. seeds and H2

  10. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species ofArachis (A. hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in 1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa. In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by seedling specimens. Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69 species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil. We soon discovered that the most significant characters ofArachis lay in their underground structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls. We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features. We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing different clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures to cross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility. When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on character clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized. Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of these sections. The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibility and exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esoteric characteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, became highly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections within sections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology, chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility and adaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the following taxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Section V.HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var.Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2.hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris. The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections. The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that the genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae and Arachis. Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal. They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A. hypogaea. Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A. hypogaeafrom the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the level of civilization required for its creation. Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures, carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  11. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  12. ESTUDIOS CROMOSÓMICOS EN ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE

    Graciela Inés Lavia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el número de cromosomas de 38 accesiones que representan 17 especies de cinco secciones del género Arachis. El primer conteo cromosómico informa de las siguientes ocho especies: Sect. Extranervosae: A.retusa, secc. Heteranthae: A. Giacomettii, secc. Procumbentes: A.vallsii, secc. Arachis: A.decora, A.microsperma, A.palustris, A.rinitensis y A.williamsii. En informes anteriores son confirmadas nueve especies. Todas las especies estudiadas tienen 2n = 2x = 20, con excepción de una adhesión de A.palustris, que tiene 2n = 2x = 18, que representa probablemente un nuevo número básico x = 9 para el género. Cromosomas satélites se analizan para la mayoría de las especies. "A" cromosomas se encuentran sólo en A.microsperma y A.trinitensis (Sect. Arachis

  13. The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex (Leguminosae

    Burgt, van der X.M.; Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Estrella, de la Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex consists of 14 tree species. Eight species are here newly described and one is here reinstated: G. bambolense Burgt; G. breteleri Burgt; G. ebo Burgt & Mackinder; G. ecoukense (Pellegr.) Burgt; G. maximum Burgt & Wieringa; G. minkebense Burgt

  14. Antifatigue Effect of Millettiae speciosae Champ (Leguminosae ...

    1The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, ... plasma which can indicate alterations in energy utilization during exercise performance, were .... morbidity. Changes in the body weight of mice.

  15. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  16. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  17. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas para adubação verde têm sido introduzidas nos sistemas agrícolas para a recuperação de solos desgastados pelo uso intensivo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de leguminosas herbáceas à aplicação de calcário e fósforo sobre a produção de biomassa e eficiência nutricional para o P, Ca e Mg. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, utilizando-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coletado na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm, em Belém, PA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo de tratamentos em um fatorial 3³, onde foram comparadas três espécies de leguminosas: mucuna preta (Stizolobium atterrimum, mucuna cochinchinensis (Stilozobium cochinchinensis e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes; três níveis de calagem: de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8 t.ha-1 e de fósforo (0, 25 e 45 mg.dm-3, com quatro repetições cada um. Mucuna cochinchinensis e o feijão de porco produziram maiores quantidades de biomassa vegetal do que a mucuna preta, sendo que a primeira espécie acumulou maior quantidade de P e a segunda maior quantidade de Ca. Mucuna cochinchinensis apresentou maior eficiência de utilização de P, Ca e Mg na ausência da calagem. Nos solos intemperizados com baixa concentração de P, Ca e Mg, o feijão-de-porco e a mucuna cochinchinensis poderão ter melhor desempenho do que a mucuna preta, visto que apresentaram maior eficiência de translocação e de utilização desses nutrientes, respectivamente.The legumes used for green manure have been introduced in agricultural systems for recovering degraded soils by intensive use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of herbaceous legumes to liming and P application on dry matter and its nutritional efficiency. The experiment was developed in greenhouse at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University

  18. Produção de lamelas em serra de fita horizontal múltipla para fabricação de piso engenheirado de madeira

    Raquel Marchesan

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a relação da velocidade de avanço de um modelo de serra fita horizontal na qualidade final das lamelas de quatro espécies de madeira utilizadas na produção de pisos engenheirados: jatobá (Hymenaea courbari L., muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens e sucupira (Bowdichia nitida. Foram estudadas as distribuições das espessuras das lamelas com relação à velocidade de avanço, considerando-se o tipo de madeira, a especificação do controle de qualidade e a existência de marcas na superfície. Os resultados mostraram que o amendoim apresentou maior aproveitamento na produção de lamelas, enquanto que o jatobá foi a espécie que sofreu maior perda no processo de produção. A velocidade de avanço que apresentou os menores índices de desclassificação de lamelas foi de 8 m/min, sendo a mais indicada para produção de lamelas.

  19. Inoculum production of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to soils under different forest covers

    Renata Soares dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low natural fertility of Brazilian soils requires the use of inoculants that facilitate the absorption of nutrients by plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi such as obligatory biotrophics of active roots perform this function, but access to this resource is limited by the difficulty in producing inoculants. The objective of this study was to investigate the production of AMF inoculants native of soils under different forest covers in Vitória da Conquista, BA, by means of spore quantification, colonization rate and species identification. For this purpose, soils were collected from sites under Mata Nativa (native forest and plantations of Madeira Nova (Pterogyne nitens and Eucalyptus, placed into separate 500 mL disposable cups with seeds of Brachiaria sp. and cultivated for five months. Spores were quantified and the AMF species identified in the control soil (without brachiaria and in the cups cultivated with brachiaria at each month. From the first month, the colonization rate of brachiaria roots was evaluated. The inoculants produced showed differences in the number of spores and species, in the AMF species identified, and in the root colonization rate as a function of the forest cover. Thus, considering the increase in the number of spores, species and colonization over time, the inoculant produced from the soil under native forest was more promising for utilization.

  20. Las leguminosas (Fabaceæ de Cuba. II. Tribus Crotatarieæ, Æschynomeneæ, Millettieæ y Robinieæ

    Beyra Matos, Á.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of a monographic revision of the legumes of Cuba. It includes the four tribes listed in the title, one of them divided into fíve subtribes, with a total of 16 genera and 78 species. For each species, after the nomenclature. Description, habitat and distribution are recorded, as well as some data about dispersion and phenology, and sometimes ethnobotanical and chemical composition data. When found, karyologic information was also included. The chorological data are completed with 76 maps showing the Cuban distribution of as many taxa. Further on the text, 30 plates representing as many species are included, plus four indices. The first index shows the numerical reference of the 122 recognized taxa. The second one shows the position in the text of the distributional maps. The third one shows the illustrations. The fourth one, which has 322 small entries, shows all scientific names used, both accepted as well as synonyms.

    [es] Parte segunda de una revisión monográfica de las leguminosas de Cuba. Comprende las cuatro tribus que se enuncian en el título, una de ellas a su vez dividida en cinco subtribus, con un total de 16 géneros aceptados y 78 especies reconocidas. Para cada especie y tras la nomenclatura, además de la descripción, el hábitat y la distribución, se consignan diversos datos sobre dispersión y fenología, más algunos etnobotánicas o de composición química ocasionalmente. Cuando pudimos hallarla, incluimos información cariológica. Los datos corológicos se completan con 76 mapas que muestran la distribución cubana de otros tantos táxones nativos de Cuba. Acompañan al texto 30 láminas que representan otras tantas especies, más cuatro índices. En el primero se muestra la referencia numérica de los 122 táxones reconocidos. El segundo muestra la posición en el texto de los mapas distribucionales. El tercero señala las ilustraciones. En el cuarto, que reúne 322 entradillas, figuran todos los

  1. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  2. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the pollination when they collect the pollen. There is a great animal variety which are sustained by flowers. It is suggested that E. speciosa is one important food source for urban fauna in winter, and so it should be utilized more frequently in streets, parks and gardens arborization.

  3. Comparação dos teores de cobre e zinco em leguminosas cruas e após serem processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso Evaluation of total amount of copper and zinc by legumes raw and thermally processed ina an aqueous and saline medium

    E. C. B. Andrade

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre e o zinco participam de diversas reações no organismo, diretamente ou como co-fatores de enzimas, e são considerados essenciais. Avaliar os teores destes, em leguminosas cruas e após processamento térmico, permite um conhecimento do comportamento destes metais em meio salino e aquoso o que auxiliará no conhecimento do aproveitamento destes pelo organismo humano. Amostras de feijões preto, branco, carioquinha, manteiga, mulatinho, ervilha, lentilha e grão-de-bico, duas marcas de cada tipo e em dois lotes, foram analisadas quanto ao teor total de cobre e zinco quando cruas e processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso. A abertura das amostras foi feita por calcinação a 550ºC. As amostras que foram processadas termicamente, passaram por dessecação em estufa a 105ºC antes da calcinação. O teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectrometria de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foram aplicados o teste Dixon e o teste t de Student. Observou-se que, após o processamento térmico em meio salino ou aquoso, a maioria das amostras não teve perda significativa dos teores de cobre e zinco em relação às amostras cruas. Considerando que os teores médios do cobre e zinco nas amostras cruas foram, respectivamente, de 0,75mg% e 3,2mg% ao ser consumido uma porção média de leguminosas, cerca de 50g, a mesma fornece aproximadamente 19% e 10% das necessidades diárias de cobre e zinco, respectivamente, para um homem adulto segundo a R.D.A.Copper and zinc are considered essential oligoelements to human nutrition, taking part in several reactions either directly or as enzymatic co-fators. The amount of these elements in legumes, both raw and thermally processed in an aqueous and saline medium, provides an insight into their behavior, thus allowing an understanding of how these metals are best utilized by the human body. Two different commercial samples of raw and

  4. Chemical composition, “in vitro” digestibility and production of woody forage legumes cultivated in sandy soils Composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" e produção de biomassa de leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas cultivadas em solo arenoso

    Edimilson Volpe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional value and productivity of woody forage legumes Albizia lebbeck, Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala, to be used in supplementation of cattle as a bank protein, five species in Quartzpisament were evaluated. The experiment was conducted from March 2006 to October 2007. The evaluations were carried out in two periods (rainy and dry, with two cuts by period. There was no difference in the accumulation of dry matter, in rainy period. In the dry evaluation, A. lebbeck and C. argentea were higher than the other legumes. The C. cajan was not recovered after the rainy period, which resulted in a low accumulation of dry matter in the dry period. The leaves of Albizia lebbeck showed the highest levels of crude protein in cuts evaluated (210 to 212 g/kg. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter in the leaves of A. lebbeck was significantly higher, with average values of 568g/kg. A. lebbeck, Cratylia argentea and Gliricidea sepium showed the highest content for digestibility of the thin stem. The A. lebbek and C. argentea presented higher accumulation of dry matter (19,3 and 24,3 t DM/ha, respectively and, still, the best values for the qualitative characteristics. Both species are the most promising and adapted to the formation of protein banks in these types of soils.Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo e a produtividade das leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas: Albizia lebbeck (Albízia, Cajanus cajan (Feijão-Guandu, Cratylia argentea (Cratília, Gliricidia sepium (Gliricídia e Leucaena leucocephala (Leucena, a serem utilizadas na suplementação de bovinos como banco de proteína, conduziu-se um experimento em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2006 e outubro de 2007. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois períodos (chuvoso e seco, com dois cortes para cada período. Não houve diferença no acúmulo de matéria seca nos cortes do per

  5. Efeito do fósforo e do potássio sobre o desenvolvimento e a nodulação de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria Effect of phosphorus and potassium on development and nodulation of three cool season annual legumes

    Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de fósforo e potássio na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, comprimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular, escore e eficiência da nodulação de três leguminosas forrageiras anuais de estação fria. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg/dm³ de P2O5 e K (0,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg/dm³ de K2O, correspondendo a 0,0 (controle 1, 2, 3 e 4 vezes a recomendação da análise de solo, em vasos, com 8 kg de solo tipo Planossolo, unidade de mapeamento Pelotas. As leguminosas utilizadas foram: Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro (trevo-persa, Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Woogenellup e Lotus subbiflorus Lag. cv. El Rincón. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5 x 5, com três repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de maio a outubro de 2000, sendo os dados colhidos ao final do período experimental, aproximadamente 170 dias após a semeadura. A maioria das características estudadas não foi influenciada pela aplicação de potássio, e sim pela aplicação de fósforo. Para as variáveis relacionadas com produção (MS parte aérea e raízes, o trevo-persa foi a espécie mais produtiva. Para a nodulação, o trevo-subterrâneo e o Lotus El Rincón apresentaram maior eficiência e quantidade de nódulos.This experiment was established in greenhouse at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, with the objective to evaluate the effects of different doses of phosphorus and potassium on dry matter production of aerial biomass and roots, length of above ground parts and roots and efficiency and score of nodulation of three cool season annual forage legumes. The treatments were five doses of P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg de P2O5/dm³ and K (00,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg de

  6. Organic material decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a mulch system enriched with leguminous trees in the Amazon Decomposição de material orgânico e dinâmica de nutrientes em um sistema de cobertura morta enriquecido com árvores leguminosas na Amazônia

    José Henrique Cattanio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The new techniques proposed for agriculture in the Amazon region include rotational fallow systems enriched with leguminous trees and the replacement of biomass burning by mulching. Decomposition and nutrient release from mulch were studied using fine-mesh litterbags with five different leguminous species and the natural fallow vegetation as control. Samples from each treatment were analyzed for total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, lignin, cellulose content and soluble polyphenol at different sampling times over the course of one year. The decomposition rate constant varied with species and time. Weight loss from the decomposed litter bag material after 96 days was 30.1 % for Acacia angustissima, 32.7 % for Sclerolobium paniculatum, 33.9 % for Iinga edulis and the Fallow vegetation, 45.2 % for Acacia mangium and 63.6 % for Clitoria racemosa. Immobilization of N and P was observed in all studied treatments. Nitrogen mineralization was negatively correlated with phenol, C-to-N ratio, lignin + phenol/N ratio, and phenol/phosphorus ratios and with N content in the litterbag material. After 362 days of field incubation, an average (of all treatments, 3.3 % K, 32.2 % Ca and 22.4 % Mg remained in the mulch. Results confirm that low quality and high amount of organic C as mulch application are limiting for the quantity of energy available for microorganisms and increase the nutrient immobilization for biomass decomposition, which results in competition for nutrients with the crop plants.As novas técnicas propostas para a agricultura na Amazônia incluem sistema de rotação de capoeira enriquecido com árvores leguminosas e transformando a queima da biomassa em cobertura morta sobre o solo. A decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes da cobertura morta foram estudadas usando sacos de liteira com malha fina que continham cinco tratamentos com diferentes espécies de leguminosas em comparação a um tratamento-controle com vegetação natural. As amostras para

  7. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  8. Soil mineral N dynamics beneath mixtures of leaves from legume and fruit trees in Central Amazonian multi-strata agroforests Dinâmica do nitrogênio mineral no solo em misturas de folhas de leguminosas arbóreas e de fruteiras em sistemas agroflorestais multiestratificados na Amazônia Central

    Carol Melanie Schwendener

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term applications of leguminous green mulch could increase mineralizable nitrogen (N beneath cupuaçu trees produced on the infertile acidic Ultisols and Oxisols of the Amazon Basin. However, low quality standing cupuaçu litter could interfere with green mulch N release and soil N mineralization. This study compared mineral N, total N, and microbial biomass N beneath cupuaçu trees grown in two different agroforestry systems, north of Manaus, Brazil, following seven years of different green mulch application rates. To test for net interactions between green mulch and cupuaçu litter, dried gliricidia and inga leaves were mixed with senescent cupuaçu leaves, surface applied to an Oxisol soil, and incubated in a greenhouse for 162 days. Leaf decomposition, N release and soil N mineralization were periodically measured in the mixed species litter treatments and compared to single species applications. The effect of legume biomass and cupuaçu litter on soil mineral N was additive implying that recommendations for green mulch applications to cupuaçu trees can be based on N dynamics of individual green mulch species. Results demonstrated that residue quality, not quantity, was the dominant factor affecting the rate of N release from leaves and soil N mineralization in a controlled environment. In the field, complex N cycling and other factors, including soil fauna, roots, and microclimatic effects, had a stronger influence on available soil N than residue quality.Aplicações a longo prazo de leguminosas como adubo verde podem aumentar o nitrogênio (N mineralizável sob árvores de cupuaçu em solos pouco férteis e ácidos (Ultisols e Oxisols da Bacia Amazônica. Entretanto, a baixa qualidade da liteira de cupuaçu pode influênciara liberação de N do adubo verde e a mineralização deste no solo. Neste estudo foram comparados o N mineral, N total, e o N da biomassa microbiana sob árvores de cupuaçu cultivadas em dois sistemas

  9. Avaliação de defeitos no processo de fabricação de lamelas para pisos de madeira engenheirados com uso de ferramentas de controle de qualidade Evaluation of the production process of lamella for engineered wood floor using quality control instruments

    Jaqueline Coletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos das lamelas são responsáveis em grande parte pelo retrabalho, perdas e diminuição da qualidade do piso acabado. Esses defeitos geram aumento de custos de produção sendo um fator muito importante para o processo de fabricação de pisos de madeira. Este trabalho tem por objetivos classificar e quantificar os defeitos ocorrentes na produção de lamelas, buscar causas, propor soluções e melhorias através da aplicação de ferramentas de qualidade como: “Brainstorming", “ Diagrama de Pareto", “Diagrama de Ishikawa" e 5W2H . Foram amostrados 1598,47 m² de lamelas das seguintes espécies: Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms e timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq com as seguintes dimensões: espessuras (2,5mm e 3,5mm, larguras (76,2mm, 82,5mm e 127mm, comprimentos (450mm a 1.200mm. O defeito mais freqüente encontrado na produção de lamelas foi a marca de serra (31%, seguido de corte da madeira feito pelo fornecedor (23% e falta de instrução de trabalho (15%. As principais causas dos defeitos de marca de serra são devidas aos problemas de manutenção de serras da empresa fornecedora de madeira.Lamella defects are responsible in large part for rework losses and decrease in the quality of the finished floor. These defects increase costs, a very important factor in the process wood floor production. This work aimed to quantify and classify the common defects occurring in the lamella production, find out causes and propose solutions and improvements using the tools “Brainstorming", “Pareto Diagram", “Ishibawa Diagram", and 5W2H. 1598,47 square meters of lamella of the species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, Amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, Cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms and Timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq were sampled with the following dimensions: thickness (2.5mm and 3.5mm, width (76,2mm, 82,5mm and 127mm, lenght

  10. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  11. Fixação biológica e transferência de nitrogênio por leguminosas em pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    Gleicia Miranda Paulino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN e a transferência do N derivado da FBN das espécies leguminosas - gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-guandu anão (Cajanus cajan - para um pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira, pelo método da abundância natural de N. Foram avaliados os seguintes sistemas de cultivos consorciados: mangueira e gravioleira com gliricídia; mangueira e gravioleira com crotalária; mangueira e gravioleira com feijão-guandu; e a testemunha mangueira e gravioleira. Agliricídia apresentou maior potencial de FBN (80%, seguida da crotalária (64,5% e feijão-guandu (45%. Em dois cortes, a crotalária forneceu 149,5 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 96,5kg derivados da FBN. A gliricídia com três podas anuais forneceu 56,4 e 80,3 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 45 e 64 kg derivados da FBN, em dois anos consecutivos. A quantidade de N fornecida foi superior à demandada pela mangueira e gravioleira. Variações na abundância natural de 15N foram detectadas somente na gravioleira. Gliricídia e crotalária destacaram-se na transferência de N, com cerca de 22,5 e 40% do N fixado, respectivamente. A adubação verde com gliricídia possibilita o parcelamento do N, com melhor aproveitamento pelas espécies frutíferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia, Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following intercropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80% , followed by sunnhemp (64.5% and pigeon pea (45%. After two sunnhemp prunes, 149

  12. Two new species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand

    Sirichamon, Yotsawate; Balslev, Henrik; Mathapa, Sawai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Callerya (Endl.); C. chlorantha and C. tennaserimensis are illustrated and described. They are commonly found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi province, South-western Thailand. It was also found that C. chlorantha might be associated...... with limestone habitat. Callerya chlorantha is characterized by its greenish flowers, which is relatively uncommon among species of this genus. Callerya tennaserimensis is characterized by its glabrous leaves and stems and rather small, purplish or maroonish flowers with golden-brown hairs on calyx and abaxial...

  13. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae

    Daiane M. Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM; and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

  14. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfuração simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3-seriados e fibras libriformes separadas. A preseça de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na séire Vulgares Benth.,  que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  15. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. ofLeguminosae is a lofty tree ...

    The native natural strands of this tree are fast disappearing due to over exploitation. This has led to inclusion of this plant in the list of endangered species. Extracts of tender vegetative regions of this plant are used as remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and toothache. The aqueous infusion of the wood is believed to ...

  16. Assessing the biological potential of N2-fixing Leguminosae in ...

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... legume genotypes or host/strain combinations for increased plant growth would help identify superior symbiotic ... are highly leached acidic soils (85% sand) with low ... quently, identifying crop species that are adapted to low.

  17. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Abot, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoy1-3-O-α-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4β-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, β-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  18. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae) from South China and its biogeographic implications.

    Xu, Qingqing; Qiu, Jue; Zhou, Zhekun; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different developmental stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene.

  19. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  20. Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense (Leguminosae) in Brazil

    Pereira, Olinto L.; Bosquetti, Lorrayne B.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense leaves, and the second record of this fungus, previously known only from Africa (Sierra Leone). Bellulicauda dialii é relatado pela primeira vez em folhas de Dialium guianense. Trata-se do segundo registro dessa espécie fúngica, anteriormente conhecida apenas do Continente Africano (Serra Leoa).

  1. Una nueva especie de Adesmia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae para la Argentina

    Emilio A. Ulibarri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Adesmia australis (serie Frigidae, una nueva especie de la provincia de Santa Cruz, que se distingue de su especie más afín, A. frigida, por el número y tamaño de los folíolos, el tamaño de las flores y estípulas isomorfas.

  2. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex distributed in the Río Balsas Depression and Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. The phylogeographic structure was determined analyzing sequences from 4 plastid regions (trnL, trnL-F, psbA-trnH and accD-psaI in all populations. A nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS method was employed to estimate the time of origin of the species complex. Haplotypic (0.64-1 and the nucleotide differences (3.8-11.52 were high in all species. The morphologically indistinct C. oyamae populations are genetically structured and showed 3 haplogroups where gene flow is low; considered them here as cryptic entities. The C. hintonii populations are genetically close-knit, even though they are morphologically distinct. The populations of C. macvaughii exhibit 2 divergent lineages with gene flow (Nm=1.41. Divergence events in 2 lineages between east and west from Rio Balsas Depression can be explained by geologic events. Our results showed that the C. hintonii complex is under diversification and in some cases morphostatic radiation.

  3. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  4. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMGS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Aquidauana

    2012-07-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-{alpha}-linolenoy1-3-O-{alpha}-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1{yields}6)-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4{beta}-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, {beta}-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  5. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumesDegradabilidade ruminal e fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas em silagens de triticale em cultivo singular ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Moysés Calixto Junior

    2011-07-01

    misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. Os tratamentos foram: silagem triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack (ST; silagem de triticale + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense (STE; silagem de triticale + aveia (Avena strigosa Scheb + ervilha forrageira + ervilhaca (Vicia sativa (STAE. Foram utilizados três machos bovinos castrados da raça Holandesa, com peso vivo médio de 300 kg, portadores de cânula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação empregados tiveram a duração de 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h. As frações a, c e a DE da MS da silagem STAE foram maiores (30,33; 0,026 e 45,45% em relação às demais silagens. A fração b da MS da silagem ST foi maior (58,45% em relação às silagens STE (45,36% e STAE (44,37%. Na PB a silagem ST apresentou maior fração a (72,12%. Na fração potencialmente degradável (b da PB não houve diferença entre tratamentos. A taxa de degradação (c da PB foi maior para a silagem STE (0,063% em relação à silagem ST (0,012%, porém esta foi semelhante à STAE (0,045%. A DE da PB foi melhor na silagem STE (77,71%. A silagem ST apresentou fração a e b da FDN maior (8,62 e 81,99% em relação às outras silagens. A taxa de degradação (c da FDN foi maior para STAE (0,027%. A DE da FDN não apresentou diferença entre tratamentos. A silagem ST apresentou os melhores valores dos carboidratos totais (83,97% em relação às silagens STE (79,87% e STAE (76,77%. As silagens STE e STAE apresentaram melhor degradabilidade da matéria seca e sugerem ser potencial fonte de proteína não-degradável no rúmen. A silagem exclusiva de triticale mostrou-se superior com relação à degradabilidade da fração fibrosa, apresentando também maior quantidade de carboidratos totais potencialmente degradáveis.

  6. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic composition of palisadic parenchyma.

  7. Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae nos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, MG, Brasil Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in "Campos Rupestres" of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Valquíria Ferreira Dutra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste do estudo florístico de Caesalpinioideae dos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEI, localizado no sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço. As coletas foram mensais, no período entre setembro/2003 e outubro/2004. Foram encontradas 13 espécies de Caesalpinioideae, reunidas em três gêneros: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista e Senna. O gênero Chamaecrista foi o que mais se destacou em número de espécies. Foram elaboradas chaves para identificação das espécies, além de diagnoses, ilustrações e comentários sobre afinidades, distribuição geográfica e fenologia das mesmas.This work consists of a floristic study of the Caesalpinioideae in "Campos Rupestres" at Itacolomi State Park, southern Espinhaço Range. Collections were carried out monthly from September 2003 to October 2004. Thirteen species of Caesalpinioideae belonging to three genera were found: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista and Senna. The genus Chamaecrista had the highest number of species. Species identification keys are presented, as well as descriptions, illustrations and comments on morphological relationships, geographic distribution and phenology.

  8. Revisão taxonômica de Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae Taxonomic revision of Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae

    Ângela L.B. Sartori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Myrocarpus, gênero exclusivamente sul-americano, são reconhecidas cinco espécies: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoe M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Na delimitação das espécies são discutidos dados de morfologia, hábitats e de distribuição geográfica. A morfologia das pétalas e a ornamentação da região seminífera são caracteres relevantes na identificação das espécies, embora não utilizados até o presente. Este estudo apresenta chave de identificação das espécies, descrições, ilustrações, mapa de distribuição e novos registros de ocorrência.In Myrocarpus, an exclusively South American genus, five species are recognised: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoand M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Morphologic data, habitat information and geographic distribution of each taxon are discussed. Petal morphology and ornamentation of seed chamber are an important character for species identification, though not shown previously. Key to the species, descriptions, illustrations, distribution, and new registers are presented.

  9. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  10. Analysis of differences in field performance of vegetatively and seed ...

    The aim of this study was to establish whether roots of micropropagated Eucalyptus grandis × E. nitens differ in their vertical uprooting resistance and architecture when compared with those of macropropagated E. grandis × E. nitens and seed-propagated E. grandis and E. nitens. Uprooting resistance was significantly lower ...

  11. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 17. The genus Dalbergia

    Adema, F.; Ohashi, H.; Sunarno, B.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic treatment of the genus Dalbergia for the Flora Malesiana (FM) region is presented. The treatment includes a genus description, two keys to the species, an enumeration of the species present in the FM-area with names and synonyms, details of distribution, habitat and ecology and where

  12. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 1. The genus Erythrina L

    Adema, Frits

    1996-01-01

    Erythrina L. is reviewed for the Flora Malesiana region. Six species are recognised. Erythrina merrilliana is reduced to E. insularis and E. microcarpa Koord. & Valeton to E. stricta. A key to the species is presented.

  13. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 16. The genus Mucuna

    Wiriadinata, H.; Ohashi, H.; Adema, F.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Mucuna is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Several characters are discussed in some detail. The subdivision of the genus is discussed. We accept two subgenera: subg. Mucuna and subg. Stizolobium. Several groups of species showing similarity in some characters are discussed. A

  14. New Biogeographic insight into Bauhinia s.l. (Leguminosae): integration from fossil records and molecular analyses.

    Meng, Hong-Hu; Jacques, Frédéric Mb; Su, Tao; Huang, Yong-Jiang; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Ma, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2014-08-10

    Given that most species that have ever existed on earth are extinct, it stands to reason that the evolutionary history can be better understood with fossil taxa. Bauhinia is a typical genus of pantropical intercontinental disjunction among the Asian, African, and American continents. Geographic distribution patterns are better recognized when fossil records and molecular sequences are combined in the analyses. Here, we describe a new macrofossil species of Bauhinia from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan County, Southeast Yunnan, China, and elucidate the biogeographic significance through the analyses of molecules and fossils. Morphometric analysis demonstrates that the leaf shapes of B. acuminata, B. championii, B. chalcophylla, B. purpurea, and B. podopetala closely resemble the leaf shapes of the new finding fossil. Phylogenetic relationships among the Bauhinia species were reconstructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, which inferred that species in Bauhinia species are well-resolved into three main groups. Divergence times were estimated by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method under a relaxed clock, and inferred that the stem diversification time of Bauhinia was ca. 62.7 Ma. The Asian lineage first diverged at ca. 59.8 Ma, followed by divergence of the Africa lineage starting during the late Eocene, whereas that of the neotropical lineage starting during the middle Miocene. Hypotheses relying on vicariance or continental history to explain pantropical disjunct distributions are dismissed because they require mostly Palaeogene and older tectonic events. We suggest that Bauhinia originated in the middle Paleocene in Laurasia, probably in Asia, implying a possible Tethys Seaway origin or an "Out of Tropical Asia", and dispersal of legumes. Its present pantropical disjunction resulted from disruption of the boreotropical flora by climatic cooling after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) seem the most plausible route for migration of Bauhinia from Asia to America; and additional aspects of the Bauhinia species distribution are explained by migration and long distance dispersal (LDD) from Eurasia to the African and American continents.

  15. Glands on the foliar surfaces of tribe Cercideae (Caesapiniodeae, Leguminosae: distribution and taxonomic significance

    JOAQUIM M. DUARTE-ALMEIDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large elongated glands occur on Cercideae leaf surfaces. Leaves of Bauhinia (55 taxa, 53 species, Cercis (1 species, Phanera (1 species, Piliostigma (2 species, Schnella (19 species and Tylosema (1 species were observed to determine location and relative number of glands. They were only observed on the abaxial leaf surface of 42 Bauhinia taxa. The glands were analyzed by light stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. They are large (up to 270 µm long and 115 µm wide and multicellular, containing lipophilic substances, probably volatile oils. Presence or absence and density of the glands in species of Bauhinia may be useful to determine species delimitation or distinction among infraspecific taxa. Higher density of glands is more common in species from "cerrado" (a savanna ecosystem and "caatinga" (a semiarid ecosystem from northeast Brazil areas. Bauhinia species devoid of foliar glands are frequently from humid forests.

  16. Flavonóides glicosilados das folhas e flores de Bauhinia forficata (Leguminosae

    Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Bauhinia forficata kaempferol and four flavonoid glycosides, 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol, 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylquercetin, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylquercetin were obtained. From the flowers only the flavonoid 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol was isolated. The structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  17. SEED, SEEDLINGS AND GERMINATION MORPHOLOGY OF Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

    Maria Elane de Carvalho Guerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of seed and seedling morphology are extremely important to the identification and preservation of plant species. In order to studying seed and seedling morphology and seed germination of copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf seeds, experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Laboratory of Botany of the Federal University of Ceará. In copaíba seeds the characteristics studied were shape, size (length, width, thickness and morphology. The kind of germination, the root systems, hypocotyls, epicotyls and first leaves were the characteristics evaluated in copaiba seedlings. Ruler and pachimeter were used to make the measurements, as well as optical microscope and magnifying glass. The seeds are exalbumin kind, have neuter photoblastism and epigeous germination. Seed coat shows a palisade cell layer with a conspicuous light line. The seedlings have compound first leaves and axial root system.

  18. Leguminosas naturalizadas en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba Naturalized legumes in the Cauto Valley, Cuba

    I Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la dinámica de crecimiento de 24 accesiones del género Brachiaria spp., se desarrolló la presente investigación en la región de Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, en 72 parcelas de 21 m2 cada una y tres réplicas (parcelas para cada tratamiento. Las accesiones fueron agrupadas según los hábitos de crecimiento en: estoloníferas, decumbentes y erectas, y se determinó la tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura del pasto. Las accesiones con mejor crecimiento durante la investigación fueron: de las estoloníferas, B. dictyoneura CIAT-6133; de las de hábito decumbente, B. decumbens CIAT-606; y de las de crecimiento erecto, B. brizantha CIAT-16113, CIAT-26110, CIAT-26318 y CIAT-16322. Algunas accesiones no tuvieron un buen comportamiento, al parecer por las condiciones edafoclimáticas a las que fueron sometidas. Entre ellas se encuentran B. dictyoneura CIAT-16871, B. ruziziensis CIAT-26180 y B. brizantha CIAT-16212, 26124 y 26427.With the objective of prospect and collect the naturalized legumes for livestock production usage in the Cauto Valley, Cuba, two searches were made in representative zones of the region. The first search was conducted in the territory located west of Bayamo city, where there are different soils and rainfall regimes, and the second one on soils affected by salinity. In prospection number 1 the presence of 17 genera was determined and within them a total of 22 species, among which the following prevailed: Galactia spiciformis, Centrosema molle, Desmodium triflorum and Teramnus uncinatum; the existence of an important number of species was also known on vertisol soils with deficient drainage, which edaphic grouping constitutes the most extended in the region, and on the other hand, the associability degree of each legume with other species of the spontaneous vegetation present in the search areas, was characterized. In prospection number 2 four and five genera were found on areas with weak and moderate fertility levels, respectively, and Desmanthus virgatus stood out due to the abundance in the number of individuals. It is concluded that under the conditions these prospections were made, there is a rich potential of naturalized legumes with multiplication and usage possibilities in the region.

  19. Parkia biglobosa (Leguminosae) en Afrique de l'Ouest : biosystematique et amelioration

    Ouedraogo, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to strengthen the scientific and technical basis of biodiversity conservation, and use of Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean, néré ). The approach to this research included the gathering of technical

  20. Lectins of Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii (Leguminosae: characterization and mitogenic effect

    Silvia Quesada

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina species are widely distributed in Costa Rica and known popularly as "poró". In this study, two species were selected, Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii. Seed extracts were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline. The presence of lectins in the extracts was verified by hemagglutinating effect over suspensions of human erythrocytes. A selective hemagglutinating effect on erythrocytes of several mammal species, goat, horse and rabbit red cells was tested; only the latter were agglutinated by E. steyermarkii. The hemagglutinating effect of both lectins was inhibited with the following carbohydrates: D-galactose, N-acetyl galactosamine, D-lactose and D-raffinose. The lectin from E. steyermarkii was also inhibited with L-rhamnose. Both lectins were isolated with gel filtration and affinity chromatography using lactose as ligand. Fractions that proved positive were tested with the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that these lectins have an apparent molecular mass of 50kDa, and are formed by two subunits of approximately 25 kDa. E. poeppigiana had no mitogenic effect, but the extract of E. steyermarkii had a mitogenic effect on human mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood. The stability of the lectins was tested at different temperature and pH ranges (4 to 100 °C and at pH 2 to 12. Both were stable at a pH range from 2 to 10, and at temperatures from 40 to 70 °C.Las diferentes especies de Erythrina se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas en Costa Rica y se las conoce popularmente con el nombre de "poró". En el presente estudio, se seleccionaron dos especies: Erythrina poeppigiana y Erythrina steyermarkii. Se prepararon extractos de las semillas en solución tampón salina de fosfatos y se verificó la presencia de lectinas en ellos mediante la técnica de hemaglutinación, utilizando eritrocitos humanos. Se trató de demostrar un efecto selectivo de la hemaglutinación empleando eritrocitos de varias especies de mamíferos, específicamente de carnero, caballo y conejo. Solo los eritrocitos de conejo fueron aglutinados con la lectina de E. steyermarkii. El efecto hemaglutinante de las dos lectinas fue inhibido con los siguientes carbohidratos: D-galactosa, N-D-acetil galactosamina, D-lactosa y D-rafinosa. La lectina de E. steyermarkii también fue inhibida con L-rhamnosa. Las dos lectinas fueron aisladas por filtración en gel y cromatografìa de afinidad, usando lactosa como ligando. Las fracciones que resultaron positivas se analizaron mediante la técnica de electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida y duodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE. Con la filtración en gel y el SDS-PAGE, se comprobó que las dos lectinas tienen una masa molecular aparente de 50 kDa y que están formadas por dos subunidades de 25 kDa, aproximadamente. Se buscó un efecto mitogénico en las dos lectinas y se encontró que sólo E. steyermarkii lo manifestaba sobre células mononucleares humanas aisladas de sangre periférica. Se determinó la estabilidad de las lectinas en diferentes ámbitos de temperatura (4 a 100 °C y de pH (2 a 12 . Las dos lectinas se mantuvieron estables en un rango de temperatura de 40 a 70 °C y en un pH de 2 a 10.

  1. Morpho-physiological responses of alhagi sparsifolia shap. (leguminosae) seedlings to progressive drought stress

    Zeng, F.; Zhang, B.; Lu, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, B.; An, G.; Gao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Water is a key limiting factor influencing plant growth and development in arid ecosystem. To explore the mechanisms of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia seedlings to tolerate drought stress in extreme desert, an experiment was conducted from July to September in 2010 with four water treatments: 100 percent (W/sub 100/), 80 percent (W80), 60 percent (W60) and 45 percent (W/sub 45/) of water holding capacity (WHC). Plant growth, photosynthesis, nutrient content and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured. The Results showed that plant growth, branch number, biomass allocation, number of leaves and area per leaf as well as leaf area ratio with drought stress treatments (W/sub 80/, W/sub 60/ and W/sub 45/) decreased than W/sub 100/ treatment, while root/shoot ratio and specific leaf area increased gradually throughout the experimental duration. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content, light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and concentration of carbon and nitrogen in plant significantly decreased with increasing drought stress. The WUE at W/sub 100/ and W/sub 80/ treatments increased significantly at the beginning of drought stress treatment and then reduced with stress prolonged. In Conclusion, the desert plant A. sparsifolia can tolerate the progressive drought stress due to the strong plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The critical level of soil WHC to limit the growth and dry mass production of A. sparsifolia seedlings in the southern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert was approximately at 45 percent. (author)

  2. Meiotic behavior of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae-Faboideae species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Coelho Liliana Gressler May

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic behavior in Adesmia DC. is described for the first time. The study encompassed twelve populations of seven Adesmia DC. species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Populations with 2n = 2x = 20 are A. securigerifolia 9615, A. riograndensis 9590 (subnudae, A. latifolia 1568, 1775, 15025, A. bicolor JB-UFSM, A. incana var. incana 9636, 10288, A. punctata var. hilariana 6885, 10812, and A. tristis 10757. A. incana var. incana 9637 is a tetraploid with 2n = 4x = 40. The material was stained with 1% acetic orcein. The meiotic behavior of the populations studied was considered normal. The meiotic index (MI and the estimates of pollen grain viability were above 95%, except for A. latifolia 1568 (MI = 89%. The present data indicate that these plants are meiotically stable and potentially fertile, apparently with no problems for use in programs of selection, crossing and viable seed production.

  3. Mimosoideae (Leguminosae do litoral paraense Mimosoideae (Leguminose on the coast of Pará

    Julio dos Santos de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento taxonômico de Mimosoideae nas restingas do litoral paraense, uma vez que estas são pouco conhecidas sob esse aspecto. Esse estudo abrangeu a análise do material proveniente de coletas e exsicatas dos herbários MG e IAN, além de literatura especializada. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações dos táxons, bem como dados adicionais sobre distribuição geográfica, comentários, período de floração e frutificação e hábitat das mesmas. O fruto foi o caráter de maior destaque na separação dos táxons. Os resultados evidenciaram a presença de sete espécies, três variedades e uma subespécie, distribuídas em seis gêneros. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei, são novos registros para o litoral do Pará. O gênero Inga Mill. foi o mais representativo com cinco espécies. Entada polystachya var. polystachya e principalmente Chloroleucon acacioides apresentaram distribuição mais ampla e a formação floresta de restinga foi o ecossistema que apresentou o maior número de espécie.This study deals with the taxonomic treatment of Mimosoideae on the coastal sandbanks of Pará, since they are poorly known under this aspect. That study includes the analysis of botanical material from new collections and specimens of the MG and IAN herbariums, besides that found in specialized literature. Are given identification key, descriptions, and illustrations of the taxa, as well as data concerning geographical distribution, additional comments, flowering and fructification period, and habitat of the species. The fruit has the quality of great prominence in the separation of taxa. The results pointed out the presence of seven species, three varieties and one subspecies, distributed in six genera. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei are new records for the sand coast of Pará. The genus Inga Mill. was the most representative with five species. Entada polystachya var. polystachya and specially Chloroleucon acacioides presented the widest distribution, and sandbank forest formation was the ecosystem which had the largest number of species.

  4. Efeito da seca e chuva sobre a comunidade microbiana da rizosfera de leguminosas da Caatinga

    Milena Duarte Lançoni

    2014-01-01

    Propriedades que constituem um clima árido são encontradas distribuídas por todo o globo terrestre. A Caatinga, bioma semi-árido brasileiro, se estende por 11% do território nacional e tem particularidades tanto em relação ao clima, volume de chuvas e temperatura, quanto à sua composição flora e faunística. Micro-organismos associados a plantas provêm defesas e resistência a diferentes estresses abióticos ou bióticos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a comunidade rizosférica microbiana...

  5. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 ± 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L -1 rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 μg mL -1 ) and 30 nmol L -1 rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 ± 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  6. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Methods Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. Key Results The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S–26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Conclusions Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species of Arachis, either by triploid bridge or bilateral sexual polyploidization. PMID:21693666

  7. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae): chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis

    Olkoski, Denise; Wittmann, Maria Teresa Schifino

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic) were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26, n = 13). Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid) cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined, ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absen...

  8. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae: chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis.

    Denise Olkoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC. O.Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26,n = 13. Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined,ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absent inpollen-mother cells. In M. bimucronata pollen-mother cells are joined two-by-two before the onset of meiosis, remaining attachedduring all the meiotic division until the formation of pollen grain polyads, composed of two sets of four pollen grains each, that aredispersed in this way, which, according to previous suggestions would be an adaptation to ensure high seed set after a singlepollination event.

  9. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae

    S. Virtuoso

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.

  10. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS DEL DURAMEN DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis químico del duramen de Andira inermis para determinar los principales componentes químicos. Los resultados encontrados fueron: pH de 5.9, 0.71 % de sustancias inorgánicas, 19.1 % de sustancias extraíbles, 34.2 % de lignina y 65.78 % de polisacáridos. En las cenizas se detectó la presencia de calcio, magnesio, azufre y silicio. Las sustancias fueron obtenidas mediante extracción sucesiva con ciclohexano, cloroformo, acetona y metanol en equipo Soxhlet y finalmente con agua caliente bajo reflujo. La solubilidad del duramen fue mayor en acetona (8.6 % y en metanol (5.3 %; el contenido total de sustancias extraíbles fue de 19.1 %.

  11. The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Leguminosae), a vulnerable endemic species from Isla Robinson Crusoe.

    Bernardello, Gabriel; Aguilar, Ramiro; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-02-01

    Sophora fernandeziana is the only legume endemic to Isla Robinson Crusoe (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile); it is uncommon and becoming rare. Although its preservation status is listed as "vulnerable," as with many species, little is known of its reproductive biology. Flowering phenology, floral morphology, nectar features, breeding system, and visitors were analyzed in two populations. Flowering is from late winter to early spring. Flowers last 6 d and have a number of ornithophilous features. A floral nectary begins to secrete highly concentrated nectar 48 h after flowers open. Nectar secretion increases as the flower ages but culminates in active nectar reabsorption as the flower senesces. Nectar production is negatively affected by nectar removal. Self-pollen germinates and tubes grow down the style. However, pollen tubes were only observed to enter the ovaries in open pollinated styles, suggesting the possibility of an ovarian self-incompatibility mechanism. Both sexes of the two hummingbird species that inhabit the island are regular visitors. Low fruit and seed set, low genetic diversity, and a shrinking number of populations all contribute to increased concern about the future of this species-and perhaps the hummingbirds that depend on it.

  12. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

    N R Grosso

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  13. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

    Sotuyo,Solange; Contreras,José Luis; Lewis,Gwilym

    2017-01-01

    A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with E. hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and in...

  14. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

    Solange Sotuyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with E. hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and inflorescences, and its fruit glabrous with red stipitate glands at maturity. A taxonomic key to the Río Balsas Depression species of Erythrostemon is included.

  15. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  16. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  17. Lathyrus linearifolius (Leguminosae-Vicieae confirmed species for the Argentine flora

    Ricardo O. Vanni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lathyrus linearifolius Vogel is confirmed in the Argentine flora. The number of species of the genus recorded for the northeast region is increased to nine. The new citation is described and illustrated indicating its geographic distribution. A key to distinguish the nine species from NE of Argentina is provided

  18. Nectar production dynamics and sugar composition in two Mucuna species (Leguminosae, Faboideae) with different specialized pollinators

    Agostini, Kayna; Sazima, Marlies; Galetto, Leonardo

    2011-11-01

    Nectar is secreted in particular rhythms throughout the lifespan of a flower, which allows determining the nectar production dynamics. This paper compares nectar features in Mucuna japira and Mucuna urens describing: dynamics of nectar production, floral response to nectar removal, resorption, nectar sugar composition, and variation in nectar sugar composition. M. japira inflorescence bears 12-21 yellow flowers, which are in anthesis for 7 days, whereas M. urens inflorescence bears 36-54 greenish flowers, but only 1-3 flowers are in anthesis simultaneously that last one night. Nectar volume and sugar concentration were measured, and the amount of sugar was estimated. Qualitative and quantitative nectar sugar composition was determined. Both species had a constant nectar sugar concentration (ca. 10% for M. japira and ca. 16% for M. urens) and secreted high volumes of nectar (ca. 340 μl per flower for M. japira and 310 μl per flower for M. urens), during 5 days for M. japira and 6 h for M. urens, but after the first removal, i.e., when flower opening mechanism is triggered, nectar production stops immediately. Nectar resorption occurred in both species. Nectar sugar composition showed some similarities between the species. Variation in nectar sugar composition occurred in both species. The Mucuna species are dependent on their pollinators to produce fruits and seeds, and they have different strategies to promote the necessary interaction with birds or bats, especially related to nectar and flower characteristics.

  19. Morphoanatomy of nectaries of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sections Chamaecrista , Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae

    Marinalva dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nectaries are specialized structures that secrete nectar. Several species of Chamaecrista possess nectaries on the petiole, which have been shown to vary widely in morphology and the chemical nature of their secretion. However, a comprehensive investigation of the nectaries of the clade formed by sect. Chamaecrista, Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx has yet to be performed. Our study aimed to confirm whether or not the leaf glands of species of this clade are in fact nectaries, determine the chemical nature of their secretion and expand the morphoanatomical database on leaf nectaries in Chamaecrista with the intention of contributing to the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. Samples from herbarium and field-collected material were subjected to standard methods for light and scanning electron microscopy. Four different forms of nectaries were observed: urceolate, patelliform, verruciform and cupuliform. The nectaries were found to comprise a single-layered epidermis, nectary parenchyma, subnectary parenchyma and vascularization. Polysaccharides, lipids, phenolic compounds and proteins were detected in secretions. Although anatomical similarities were observed among the studied species, their morphology differed. Moreover, the glands are indeed nectaries and are similar to those observed in other species of the genus Chamaecrista. These data hold potential taxonomic usefulness for the studied sections.

  20. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae

    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG, 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+-catechin and the dimer (+-catechin-(4β-8-catechin, glutinol, squalene, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and based on literature data.

  1. Storage sites in seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea (Leguminosae with considerations on nutrients flow

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea behaved as typical endospermic seeds, despite their different morphological classification (exendospermic seeds were described for C. echinata and endospermic seeds for C. ferrea. Then, the aim of this work was to compare, under ultrastructural and histochemical terms, the nature of the storage substances and their accumulation sites, as well as the nutrient flow in seeds of these species. Cotyledons in C. echinata accumulate carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which are mobilized from the outer to the inner parts as revealed by the position of plasmodesmata. Endosperm in C. ferrea accumulates carbohydrates and in C. echinata accumulates substances during the initial embryogenic phases. Such tissue develops a chalazal haustorium that is responsible for the transport of substances into the endosperm itself and from it into the embryo, confirmed by the presence of transference cells.As sementes de Caesalpinia echinata e C. ferrea comportam-se como endospérmicas, apesar de descritas na literatura como exendospérmicas e endospérmicas, respectivamente. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em termos ultra-estrutural e histoquímico, a natureza das substâncias de reserva e seus tecidos acumuladores, bem como o fluxo de nutrientes nas sementes destas espécies. Os cotilédones em C. echinata acumulam carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas, mobilizados da periferia para o centro, como visto pelo posicionamento dos plasmodesmas. O endosperma em C. ferrea acumula carboidratos e lipídios, e em C. echinata, acumula substâncias nos estádios iniciais da embriogênese. Este tecido desenvolve um haustório calazal agressivo, que transporta substâncias para o endosperma propriamente dito e deste para o embrião, fato confirmado pela presença de células de transferência no endosperma.

  2. Evidences of local adaptation in quantitative traits in Prosopis alba (Leguminosae).

    Bessega, C; Pometti, C; Ewens, M; Saidman, B O; Vilardi, J C

    2015-02-01

    Signals of selection on quantitative traits can be detected by the comparison between the genetic differentiation of molecular (neutral) markers and quantitative traits, by multivariate extensions of the same model and by the observation of the additive covariance among relatives. We studied, by three different tests, signals of occurrence of selection in Prosopis alba populations over 15 quantitative traits: three economically important life history traits: height, basal diameter and biomass, 11 leaf morphology traits that may be related with heat-tolerance and physiological responses and spine length that is very important from silvicultural purposes. We analyzed 172 G1-generation trees growing in a common garden belonging to 32 open pollinated families from eight sampling sites in Argentina. The multivariate phenotypes differ significantly among origins, and the highest differentiation corresponded to foliar traits. Molecular genetic markers (SSR) exhibited significant differentiation and allowed us to provide convincing evidence that natural selection is responsible for the patterns of morphological differentiation. The heterogeneous selection over phenotypic traits observed suggested different optima in each population and has important implications for gene resource management. The results suggest that the adaptive significance of traits should be considered together with population provenance in breeding program as a crucial point prior to any selecting program, especially in Prosopis where the first steps are under development.

  3. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  4. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  6. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  7. Pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala (leguminosae-papilionoideae

    Maria Cecília de Chiara Moço

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala was studied in the restinga of Maricá, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. S. apetala var. apetala is a shrub with asynchronic annual blooming, between the months of November and April (hot-rainy season. Each plant can exhibit more than one blooming episode in this period. Their flowers are hermaphrodites, apetalous, heterantherous, odoriferous, and the pollen represents the only reward offered to visitors. It is pollinized by species of Centris and Xylocopa, solitary and polyletic bees, which collect the pollen by means of vibratory movements. Other bees such as Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea and Trigona spinipes are only pollen-thieves. In this variety of Swartzia vibrating is an efficient method to collect pollen from the anthers despite non-poricidal dehiscence.. The flowering phenology and the behavior of visitors influence the rate of outcrossing.A ecologia da polinização de Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala foi estudada na restinga de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. S. apetala var. apetala é um arbusto com floração do tipo anual assincrônica, entre os meses de novembro e abril (estação quente- chuvosa. Cada planta pode apresentar mais de um episódio de floração neste período. As flores são hermafroditas, apétalas, heterândricas, odoríferas e o polem constitui a única recompensa oferecida aos visitantes. É polinizada por espécies de Centris e Xylocopa, abelhas solitárias e poliléticas, que coletam o polem através do método de vibração. Nesta variedade de Swartzia a vibração é um método eficiente de coleta de polem apesar das anteras apresentarem deiscência rimosa. Outras abelhas, como Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea e Trigona spinipes, são pilhadoras de pólen. A fenologia da floração e o comportamento dos visitantes florais influenciam a taxa de fertilização cruzada.

  8. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β 0 e β1•E-1), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R2>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12cm in diameter and 550cm3 of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80g•cm-3), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC•ha-1) at the highest density of 2500 trees•ha-1 (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC•ha-1 are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits. PMID:25992905

  9. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour.

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S-26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species of Arachis, either by triploid bridge or bilateral sexual polyploidization.

  10. Potencialidad de Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae para estudios dendrocronológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montaña Potential of Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamily: Mimosoideae for dendrochronological studies in high-montane subtropical deserts

    MARIANO S. MORALES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la escasez de especies con anillos anuales de crecimiento, la dendrocronología de regiones áridas de montañas tropicales y subtropicales está muy poco desarrollada. En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de la especie arbórea Prosopis ferox,"churqui", para estudios dendrocronológicos analizando las características anatómicas del leño y las relaciones entre registros climáticos y cronologías de ancho de anillos de una colección realizada a 3.500 m, en la quebrada de Humahuaca (23°13' S, 65°20' O, Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Las observaciones microscópicas de cortes histológicos muestran que los anillos están claramente demarcados por una banda parenquimática terminal clara. Comparando la cronología estandarizada de ancho de anillos con los registros instrumentales de La Quiaca (22º06'S, 65º36'O, se observan correlaciones significativas con precipitaciones por encima de la media y temperaturas por debajo de la media durante los meses de verano (diciembre_marzo. Esto se interpreta como una relación positiva con la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo durante el período de crecimiento. Esta cronología representa no solamente el primer registro dendrocronológico desarrollado a partir de P. ferox, sino también la primera cronología de anillos de árboles en la provincia biogeográfica Prepuneña. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales de crecimiento, la fuerte relación con variables climáticas, el amplio rango de distribución de la especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia (20° a 25° S y la longevidad observada en individuos aislados (c. 500 años, hacen de P. ferox una especie muy promisoria para estudios dendroclimatológicos y dendroecológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montañaDue to the scarcity of species with annual tree rings, the use of dendrochronological techniques has received little attention in tropical and subtropical montane dry areas. In this study, we assess the dendrochronological potential of Prosopis ferox, "churqui", through the analysis of its wood anatomy and the relationships between climate and tree growth variations from trees collected at 3,500 m, in the Humahuaca valley (23°13' S, 62°20' W, Jujuy province, Argentina. Microscopic observations show that annual rings are clearly defined by a relatively lighter parenchyma belt formed at the end of the annual band. Comparisons between the standardized ring-width chronology and the instrumental records from La Quiaca (22º 06'S, 65º36'W indicated that above-average rainfall and below-average temperature during summer (i.e., December to March favor tree growth. This can be interpreted as a positive relationship between radial growth and abundant soil water content during the growing season. The chronology shown here represents not only the first dendrocronological record from P. ferox, but also the first tree-ring chronology for the Prepuna biogeographic province. The well-defined annual rings, the strong relationship between growth and climatic variables, the large range of distribution across northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia (20° to 25° S, and the longevity observed in some individuals (c. 500 years, indicate that P. ferox is a very promising species for dendroclimatological and dendroecological studies in subtropical montane ecosystems

  11. Separation of the genera in the subtribe Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae using molecular markers Separação dos gêneros na subtribo Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae utilizando marcadores moleculares

    Laxmikanta Acharya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to verify the segregation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato into three distinct genera namely Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. sensostricto Eighteen representatives of the three taxa were characterized using the molecular markers. 25 RAPD, six ISSR primers and six AFLP primer combinations resulted in the amplification of 612, 115 and 622 bands (loci respectively. Most of the loci are found to be polymorphic, showing high degrees of genetic diversity among the different taxa studied. The dendrogram constructed on the basis of the RAPD, ISSR and AFLP data using SHAN clustering, divided Cassia L. senso lato. into three different clusters as Chamaecrista Moench. Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. senso stricto High bootstrap value revealed that all the clusters were stable and robust. It was observed from the present investigation that these genera have their identity at molecular level, which supports the elevation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato to the level of subtribe Cassiinae and segregation into three distinct genera instead of intrageneric categories.Técnicas de Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR e Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLP foram utilizadas para verificar a segregação do gênero Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes gêneros, Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Dezoito representantes dos três táxons foram caracterizados com o uso de marcadores moleculares: 25 RAPD, seis iniciadores ("primers" ISSR e seis AFLP combinações de iniciadores, resultando na amplificação de 612, 115 e 622 bandas (loci, respectivamente. A maioria dos loci apresentou-se como polimórfico, mostrando um alto grau de diversidade genética entre os táxons estudados. O dendrograma construído com base nos dados de RAPD, ISSR e AFLP e agrupamento com procedimentos SHAN dividiu Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes agrupamentos, chamados de Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Valores altos de bootstrap revelaram que todos os agrupamentos foram estáveis e robustos. Foi observado pela presente investigação que estes gêneros possuem identidade ao nível molecular, o que sustenta a elevação do genero Cassia L. senso lato para o nível de subtribo e a segregação dos três gêneros ao invés de formarem categorias infra-genéricas.

  12. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa da folha de Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae Comparative morphogical and anatomycal analyses of Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae leaves

    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido com o propósito de subsidiar o controle de qualidade das espécies medicinais Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. Essas foram coletadas em jardins e terrenos baldios de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. As amostras do limbo, pecíolo e pulvino foram fixadas em F.A.A. 50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. O seccionamento do material foi feito em micrótomo de rotação (material incluído em historresina ou a mão livre e as lâminas foram montadas de forma permanente ou semipermanente. Foram realizadas análises em microscopia fotônica e eletrônica de varredura. A folha de B. forficata é alongada, com folíolos unidos em torno da metade do limbo, ápices agudos, superfície adaxial lisa e mucro entre os folíolos. Enquanto que, B. variegata possui folha mais larga que longa, com folíolos unidos na porção terminal do limbo e ápices obtusos. Nos pulvinos de B. variegata ocorrem camadas de colênquima, ausentes em B. forficata. O formato e a bainha de fibras dos pecíolos, em secção transversal, são distintos entre as espécies, assim como a distribuição dos estômatos e tricomas no limbo e a forma do bordo em secção transversal. B. variegata possui maior quantidade de idioblastos com drusas e compostos fenólicos. As características morfológicas e anatômicas de B. forficata e B. variegata contribuem para a identificação e diferenciação das espécies, sendo importantes para o controle de qualidade do material destinado à pesquisa e à indústria farmacêutica.This work has been developed with the purpose of helping the quality control of the medicinal species Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn., which were collected in gardens and vacant lots in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The samples of leaf blade, petiole and pulvinus were fixed in FAA 50 and preserved in alcohol 70. The sectioning of the material was made in rotational microtome (with the material included in historesine or manually and the blades were mounted in permanent or semipermanent way. Analyses in photonic and scanning electronic micros betscopy were performed. The leaf of B. forficata is elongated, with the leaflets united around the middle of the leaf blade, acute apices, smooth adaxial surface and mucroween the leaflets. The B. variegata, on the other hand, possesses a broader than long leaf, with the leaflets united in the terminal portion of the blade and obtuse apices. In the pulvinus of B. variegata there are collenchyma layers, which are absent in B. forficata. The shape and the petiole fibers sheath, in cross section, are distinct in both species, as well as the distribution of the stomata and trichomes in the leaf blade and the shape of the border in transversal section. B. variegata possesses a higher quantity of idioblasts with druses and phenolic compounds. The morphologic and anatomic characteristics of B. forficata an B. variegata contribute to the identification and distinction of the species and they are important for the control of the material destined to research and to the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Atividade alelopática de extratos brutos de três espécies de Copaifera (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Allelophatic activity of crude extracts from three species of Copaifera (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioidedae

    A.P.S Souza Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, atenção especial foi dada aos compostos químicos envolvidos na interação entre plantas, especialmente quando se sabe das possibilidades do seu uso em estratégia de manejo de plantas daninhas. A Amazônia, pela sua megabiodiversidade e abundância de espécies vegetais, pode oferecer excelente oportunidade para a descoberta de inovadoras moléculas químicas com potencial de uso na atividade agrícola. Dessa forma, neste trabalho analisou-se, comparativamente, a atividade potencialmente alelopática de três espécies de Copaifera, caracterizando-se as variações na intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos em função da espécie doadora, da fração da planta e da polaridade dos constituintes químicos. Extratos hexânico e etanólico, preparados a 1,0% a partir de folhas, galhos e cascas de Copaifera duckei, C. martii e C. reticulata, foram testados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da raiz das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Observaram-se variações nas intensidades dos efeitos em função das variáveis estudadas. O extrato etanólico de folhas e o de galhos de C. martii e C. reticulata apresentaram alto potencial para inibir a germinação de sementes, sobretudo da espécie malícia. A espécie C. duckei evidenciou baixo potencial alelopático inibitório na germinação das duas espécies receptoras. Cascas, folhas e galhos de C. duckei apresentaram potencial inibitório mais expressivo sobre o desenvolvimento da raiz, com destaque para as folhas. Compostos químicos apolares e polares estão envolvidos na atividade alelopática da espécie C. duckei, com ênfase maior para os compostos apolares. Diferentemente, para C. martii e C. reticulata, compostos polares estão envolvidos, preferencialmente, na atividade inibitória evidenciada por essas espécies, notadamente aqueles localizados nas folhas e cascas. Comparativamente, a tendência observada foi de que a espécie receptora malícia demonstrou maior sensibilidade aos efeitos alelopáticos dos extratos, especialmente no bioensaio de germinação.For the past few years, special attention has been given to chemical composites involved in interaction between plants, especially when the potential of their use in weed management is known. The Amazon region with its enormous biodiversity and abundance of plant species may offer excellent opportunities for the discovery of innovative chemical molecules capable of being used in agriculture. Thus, in this paper, a comparative analysis was made between the potential allelopathic activity of three species of Copaifera, characterizing the variations of the intensity of the allelopathic effects of the donating species, plant fraction and chemical component polarity. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts, prepared at 1.0% from the leaves, branches and barks of Copaifera duckei, C. martii and C. reticulata, were tested on seed germination and development of Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia weed roots. The results showed that the intensity of the effects varied according to the variables studied. The ethanolic extract of C. martii and C. reticulata leaves and barks showed high potential to inhibit seed germination, especially of M. pudica species. The species C. duckei showed low allelopathic inhibitory potential in the germination of two receptor species. Barks, branches and especially leaves of C. duckei presented more expressive inhibitory potential for root development. Polar, and especially non-polar chemical composites, are involved in the allelopathic activity of C. duckei. Differently for C. martii and C. reticulata, the polar composites are preferentially involved in the inhibitory activity evidenced by these species, especially those located on the leaves and barks. Comparatively, it was observed that the weed species receptor tended to show more sensitivity to the allelopathic effects of the extracts, especially in the germination bioassay.

  14. Padronização do teste de tetrazólio em sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae Tetrazolium test in Parkia velutina Benoist seeds (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae

    Angela Maria da Silva Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar métodos de pré-condicionamento e concentrações da solução de tetrazólio na avaliação da qualidade de sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist. Os tratamentos pré-condicionantes das sementes foram avaliados com três métodos de escarificação: desponte na região oposta ao hilo, punção na região mediana e lixa nos dois lados da semente com posterior embebição em 200 ml de água para cada 25 sementes e permanência em câmara a 30 ºC por 16 horas. As concentrações da solução de tetrazólio testadas foram: 1,0%, 0,5% e 0,1% por duas horas na temperatura de 40 ºC. O tratamento de pré-condicionamento mais eficiente foi a combinação do desponte e lixamento nos dois lados da semente. A concentração de tetrazólio a 0,5% pode ser utilizada para avaliar a viabilidade das sementes de P. velutina como complemento ao teste de germinação. O teste de tetrazólio se mostrou eficiente na caracterização de lesões ocasionadas por insetos e danos mecânicos em sementes de P. velutina.This manuscript aimed to determine methods of daily pre-conditioning and concentrations of the tetrazolium solution for evaluating the quality of Parkia velutina Benoist seeds. The daily pre-condicionanting seed treatments were evaluated using three scarification methods: coating cutting on the opposite side of the hilum region, puncture in the medium region and scarification with sandpaper on both sides of the seed, followed by soaking each of the 25 seeds in 200 ml of wate and permanence in chamber 30 ºC for 16 hours. The concentrations of the tetrazolium solution tested were 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.1% for two hours at 40 ºC. The more efficient daily pre-conditioning treatlment was a combination of the coating cutting and the scarification n both sides of the seed. The 0.5% tetrazolium concentration can be used to evaluate the viability of P. velutina seeds as complement to the germination test. The tetrazolium test showed its efficiency in the characterization of injuries caused by insects and mechanical damages in P. velutina seeds.

  15. Mortalidade de abelhas visitantes de flores de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mortality of bees visiting Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae flowers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a mortalidade de abelhas (213 fêmeas e 60 machos pertencentes a 20 espécies ao visitarem as inflorescências de Caesalpinia peltophoroides. A presença presumida de um composto tóxico no néctar mostrou grande variação espacial e temporal. Árvores individuais produziram ou não mortalidade de abelhas em diferentes períodos de floração e árvores vizinhas mostraram efeitos distintos em cada floração. A toxicidade sobre as abelhas foi igualmente variável. A maior parte das abelhas morria logo após visitarem as flores; algumas mostravam sinais de narcose, morrendo em seguida; poucas, após um período de narcose, deixaram este estado e voaram. Utilizando o índice de desgaste alar foram observadas abelhas jovens (29%, velhas (26% e de idade intermediária (45% (n = 227 entre as abelhas mortas. Se a presença do presumido composto tóxico afeta ou não o fitness da planta requer inicialmente a identificação de qual(is fator(es elicia(m seu aparecimento. Uma vez que C. peltophoroides é amplamente utilizada em projetos paisagísticos urbanos, é necess��rio estimar o potencial efeito negativo sobre as comunidades de abelhas que vivem em áreas urbanas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Até que este efeito seja conhecido, recomenda-se aos profissionais do planejamento urbano a não utilização paisagística da sibipiruna em nossas cidades.It is reported the mortality of bees (213 females and 60 males belonging to 20 species when visiting the inflorescences of Caesalpinia peltophoroides. The presumed presence of a toxic compound in the nectar showed considerable spatial and temporal variation. Sibipiruna trees may or may not kill bees during different flowering periods and neighboring trees showed distinct effects on bee mortality. The toxicity effect on bees was quite variable. Most of the bees died immediately after visiting some flowers; a few showed signals of narcosis, but after some time they came out of this state and flew away. Using a wing-wear index, 'young' (29%, 'old' (26% and intermediate aged bees (45% (n = 227 were observed among the dead insects. Determining whether the presence of a toxic nectar affects plant fitness requires the identification of this chemical and the knowledge of what factor or factors elicit its production. As C. peltophoroides is widely used in urban landscape projects, it is necessary to estimate the potencial negative effect on bee communities living in urban areas of Bazil. We recommend that urban planners avoid the use of sibipiruna trees for landscape purposes until the real mortality effect on bees is clarified.

  16. Números cromossômicos em espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae Chromosome numbers in species of Acosmium Schott and Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae

    Rodrigo Schütz Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a análise citotaxonômica de espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel, através da determinação de seus números cromossômicos. Foram estudadas as três espécies aceitas de Acosmium e cinco espécies de Leptolobium (representando 50% do gênero, a partir de sementes oriundas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. As contagens mitóticas apresentadas para todas as espécies de Acosmium e para quatro espécies de Leptolobium são inéditas. Acosmium cardenasii apresentou uniformemente 2n = 18, enquanto que em A. diffusissimum foram encontradas no mesmo meristema 2n = 18, 24 e 32 e em A. lentiscifolium 2n = 18 e 32. Para Leptolobium, o número cromossômico das espécies estudadas foi de 2n = 18, confirmando uma contagem mitótica anterior para L. dasycarpum. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram homogeneidade no número cromossômico de Acosmium e Leptolobium, confirmando x = 9 como o número cromossômico básico em ambos os gêneros. Portanto, o número cromossômico não é um caráter taxonômico utilizável na distinção entre Acosmium e Leptolobium.A cytotaxonomic analysis of species of Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel was carried out, by determining their chromosome numbers. The three species of Acosmium and five species of Leptolobium (representing 50% of the genus were studied from seeds obtained from different regions of Brazil. Chromosome counts were new for all Acosmium species and for four Leptolobium species. For Acosmium cardenasii, 2n = 18 was constantly observed, while occurring at the same meristem were found 2n = 18, 24 e 32 in A. diffusissimum and 2n = 18 e 32 in A. lentiscifolium. For Leptolobium, all studied species had 2n = 18, confirming a previous count for L. dasycarpum. The results showed that chromosome numbers of Acosmium and Leptolobium species are homogeneous, confirming the basic number x = 9 for both genera. Therefore, chromosome numbers do not provide a useful taxonomic character distinguishing Acosmium from Leptolobium.

  17. Temperatura, luz e substrato para germinação de sementes de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae Temperature, light and substrate for germination of seeds of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Programas de preservação de Caesalpinia echinata, espécie considerada em risco de extinção, incluem a conservação ex situ, que poderia ser ainda mais intensificada pelo armazenamento, no longo prazo, de suas sementes. Embora já se tenha desenvolvido tecnologia suficiente para preservar a germinabilidade dessas sementes por até dois anos, ainda são insuficientes as informações acerca das condições adequadas para a germinação, mormente as referentes a temperatura, luz e substrato. Este trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos de temperaturas constantes de 10 a 45 °C em presença ou ausência de luz e o tipo (papel, areia e vermiculita e umidade do substrato sobre a germinação das sementes de pau-brasil. Concluiu-se que a semeadura deve ser realizada em rolo de papel, umedecido na relação 1:2,5 a 1:3,0 (substrato:água, em massa, e na temperatura de 25 °C, sem necessidade de luz.Preservation of the Brazilian endangered tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. include the ex situ conservation that could be enhanced by the long term storage of its seeds. In despite of having enough technology to preserve brazilwood seed viability for at least two years, there is scarce information on the optimal conditions for germination, mainly concerning temperature, light and substrate. This research aimed to study the effects of the constant temperatures (10 to 45°C, the presence or absence of light and the moisture content of three substrates (paper, sand and vermiculite on the germination of C. echinata seeds. The results suggested that these seeds should be sowed on paper roll moistened at the ratio 1:2.5 or 1:3.0 (substrate:water, w/w at 25°C, no need for light.

  18. Efeito de Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de duas leguminosas nativas de cerrado Effect of Brachiaria decumbens on herbivory and development of two cerrado native leguminosae species

    A.C.V. Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o impacto da presença da gramínea exótica (Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de espécies nativas (Hymenaea stigonocarpa e Dipteryx alata de Cerrado. Para avaliar o impacto da presença da gramínea, 10 blocos em pastagem (antiga área de Cerrado na Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS foram demarcados em janeiro de 2009. As gramíneas foram mantidas intactas em metade dos blocos e, na outra metade, foram removidas. Em cada tratamento, foram avaliados a herbivoria, a altura e o diâmetro na altura do solo (DAS de 25 plântulas de cada espécie ao longo do ano. O conteúdo de carbono, nitrogênio e água das folhas também foi quantificado. Plântulas de Hymenaea stigonocarpa nos tratamentos com gramínea tiveram maior taxa de crescimento em diâmetro que as plântulas no tratamento sem gramíneas. As plântulas de Dipteryx alata que estavam no tratamento sem gramíneas tiveram maiores taxas de crescimento em altura que as do tratamento com gramíneas. Houve diferença na taxa de herbivoria de D.alata entre os tratamentos. As plântulas das duas espécies que estavam no tratamento com gramínea mostraram maiores concentrações de carbono e menores de água. O conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar foi maior no tratamento com gramíneas que no sem gramíneas em D.alata; já o nitrogênio em H. stigonocarpa não variou entre os tratamentos. Esses resultados mostram que cada espécie nativa possui distintas respostas fisiológicas e suscetibilidade à herbivoria em ambientes sob competição de recursos com a gramínea exótica, B. decumbens.This study evaluated the impact of the presence of the exotic grass (Brachiaria decumbens on the herbivory and development of seedlings of native species (Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Dipteryx alata of the Cerrado. Thus, 10 pasture plots (former Cerrado at the Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS were demarcated in January 2009. The grasses were kept intact in half of the plots and were removed in the other half. In each treatment, the herbivory, as well as height and diameter at ground level (DGL of 25seedlings of each species were evaluated during one year. Carbon, nitrogen and water content of the leaves in each treatment were also quantified. Seedlings of Hymenaea stigonocarpa in plots without grasses had higher diameter growth rates than seedlings in plots with grasses. Dipteryx alata seedlings grown in plots without grasses had a higher height growth rate than seedlings grown in plots with grasses. There was a difference in the herbivory rate of D. alata between treatments. Seedlings of plots with grasses for the two species showed a higher concentration of carbon and lower amount of water. The leaf nitrogen content was higher in plots with grasses than without grasses in D. alata, while nitrogen in H. stigonocarpa did not vary between treatments. These results showed that each native species had distinct physiological responses and susceptibility to herbivory in environments under resource competition with the exotic grass B. decumbens.

  19. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  20. Substâncias químicas com atividades alelopáticas presentes nas folhas de Parkia pendula (Leguminosae Chemical compounds with allelopathic activities in Parkia pendula (Leguminosae leaves

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas por Parkia pendula. Os efeitos alelopáticos foram avaliados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. O processo de isolamento das substâncias envolveu a extração com solvente em ordem crescente de polaridade, e a elucidação estrutural foi realizada via Ressonância Magnética Nuclear, espectro de COSY e de HETCOR. Os bioensaios foram desenvolvidos em condições controladas de 25 ºC de temperatura e fotoperíodo de 12 (germinação e 24 horas (desenvolvimento da radícula. Foram isolados e identificados nas folhas da P. pendula os seguintes aleloquímicos: ácido 3,4,5-trimetoxibenzóico (S1, ácido 3,4-dimetoxibenzóico (S2 e o Blumenol A (S3. Comparativamente, S1 e S2 apresentaram maior atividade alelopática. Os efeitos promovidos sobre o desenvolvimento da radícula foram de maior magnitude do que aqueles verificados sobre a germinação das sementes. As substâncias isoladas mostraram baixo potencial inibitório da germinação das sementes, especialmente as sementes de mata-pasto. Os efeitos alelopáticos inibitórios estiveram positivamente associados à concentração das substâncias, embora em alguns casos esses efeitos não tenham correspondido às diferenças estatísticas.The objective of this paper was to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of chemical compounds produced by Parkia pendula. The allelopathic effects were evaluated on seed germination and radicle elongation of the weeds Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia. The isolation process of the compounds involved the use of solvent in an increasing polarity order for extraction and the structural elucidation was carried out by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, COPSY's and HETCOR's spectrum. The bioassays were carried out under controlled conditions of 25 ºC of temperature and 12-hour photoperiod for seed germination and 24-hour photoperiod for radicle elongation. The following allelochemicals were isolated and identified in P. pendula's leaves: 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (S1, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid (S2 and Blumenol A (S3. Comparatively, S1 and S2 showed greater allelopathic activity. The effects on radicle elongation were greater than those observed on seed germination. The isolated substances showed low inhibition potential on seed germination, especially on S. obtusifolia seeds. The allopathic inhibition effects were positively related to the concentration of the substances, although in some cases, these effects have not corresponded to the statistical differences.

  1. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

  2. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta C-13 in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E-grandis x camaldulensis and E-grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes

    Le Roux, D

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available - cial clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. implying that less water-use-efficient trees were more productive (Bond and Stock 1990). Similarly, growing season WUE and delta13C were positively correlated in western larch and Eucalyptus globulus... regimes DEBBIE LE ROUX,1,2 WILLIAM D. STOCK,3 WILLIAM J. BOND3 and DAVID MAPHANGA4 1 Division of Forest Science and Technology, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa 2 Present address: Department of Botany, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA 3 Department...

  3. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  4. Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a previously incompletely known Ethiopian endemic rediscovered after 120 years

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile

    2014-01-01

    . rhynchocarpa Polhill, C. saltiana Andrews, C. thomasii Harms) in having the inside of the pod densely packed with long, white hairs. C. trifoliolata was observed at the edge of and in glades inside dry Juniperus-Olea forest, in which the canopy is dominated by J. procera Endl. and the undergrowth by Barbeya...... oleoides Schweinf. and other species characteristic of dry Afromontane forest and bushland. The species is found only in a limited area near the eastern Ethiopian escarpment at Sheik Hussein. It is documented with images and maps, its potential distribution is modelled and a conservation assessment...

  5. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha -1 , respectively. The gliricídia residues showed the highest decomposition rates, in the two year seasons.

  6. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  7. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae) and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small “A chromosomes” characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter. PMID:21637581

  8. Genomic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005) (Leguminosae): multiple origin of Arachis species with x = 9

    Celeste, Silvestri María; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán Ariel; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Lavia, Graciela Inés

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994), Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005). Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of Arachis porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial. In the present work, we carried out a karyotypic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx to evaluate its genomic structure and analyse the origin of all x = 9 Arachis species. Arachis porphyrocalyx showed a karyotype formula of 14m+4st, one pair of A chromosomes, satellited chromosomes type 8, one pair of 45S rDNA sites in the SAT chromosomes, one pair of 5S rDNA sites and pericentromeric C-DAPI+ bands in all chromosomes. Karyotype structure indicates that Arachis porphyrocalyx does not share the same genome type with the other three x = 9 species and neither with the remaining Erectoides species. Taking into account the geographic distribution, morphological and cytogenetic features, the origin of species with x = 9 of the genus Arachis cannot be unique; instead, they originated at least twice in the evolutionary history of the genus. PMID:28919947

  9. Resposta morfogênica de embriões zigóticos de Erythrina velutina Willd: (Leguminosae cultivados in vitro

    Priscila Tavares Fonseca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos é uma técnica promissora para se avançar no estudo do desenvolvimento embrionário e da quebra da dormência de sementes. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito dos reguladores vegetais 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA no potencial morfogenético, in vitro, de embriões zigóticos de mulungu. Embriões zigóticos maduros, oriundos de sementes foram utilizados inteiros, ou seccionados em plúmula, região intermediária e radícula, sendo posteriormente inoculados em meio de cultura WPM, suplementado com combinações de BAP (0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 8,0; 12,0 e 16,0 µM e ANA (0,0; 1,0 e 2,0 µM, acrescido de 87,64 mM de sacarose e solidificado com 0,7% de ágar. Após 30 dias, avaliaram-se a percentagem de regeneração dos embriões e ápice plumular, o número de brotos, o número de folhas, o comprimento da parte aérea dos brotos, o número de raízes e a percentagem de formação de calos oriundos da região intermediária e da radícula. É possível a regeneração in vitro de mulungu, a partir dos explantes plúmula e embriões zigóticos inteiros, cultivados em meio de cultura WPM, suplementado com 4,0 µM de BAP. Regiões intermediárias e da radícula promoveram a formação de calos compactos (96,06%, na combinação de 10,63 µM BAP e 2,0 µM de ANA.

  10. Intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau triggered rapid diversification of Phyllolobium (Leguminosae) in the Late Cenozoic

    Ming-Li Zhang; Yun Kang; Yang Zhong; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Phyllolobium, a recently established genus from subgenus Pogonophace of Astragalus, contains about 20 species and four sections, mostly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The uplift of the QTP undoubtedly affected organismic evolution in the region, but further molecular dating in a phylogenetic context is required to test whether diversification is linked...

  11. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  12. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae in Italy: first cases of naturalization

    Pasta, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily. A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful monitoring of the ongoing invasion process, as A. cyclops has already shown a very invasive behaviour elsewhere within Mediterranean-type biomes due to its ability to withstand high environmental stresses. As migrating birds are suspected to have played an important role in facilitating the arrival of A. cyclops, further propagules are likely to reach the islands in the future. We recommend that new plantations of A. cyclops should be forbidden, but that extant naturalized populations should be managed instead of eradicating them. In fact, the effect of Acacia plantations warrants investigation at different scales in order to assess their impact on local plant-diversity and ecological succession processes.

    Se muestran los dos primeros casos de naturalización de Acacia cyclops para el territorio italiano. Se observó que las plántulas de este arbol crecen en forma silvestre hace unos 15 años en Linosa (islas Pelagias, estrecho de Sicilia. Una década después, ya no puede ser considerada una xenófita casual ya que se observó una regeneración muy intensa en algunos proyectos de reforestación en Lampedusa, la isla más grande del mismo archipiélago. Publicaciones anteriores sugieren la necesidad de un monitoreo cuidadoso del proceso de invasión en curso, ya que A. cyclops ha expresado un comportamiento altamente invasivo en otros biomas de tipo mediterráneo, debido a su alta tolerancia al estrés ambiental. Dado que se sospecha que las aves migratorias han jugado un papel importante en la llegada de A. cyclops, es probable que en el futuro otros propágulos lleguen a las islas Pelagias. Se recomienda la prohibición de nuevas plantas, aunque también el manejo de poblaciones artificiales ya presentes en vez de su erradicación. El efecto de la forestación con A. cyclops, de hecho, merece ser investigado a diferentes escalas, a fin de aclarar su impacto tanto en la diversidad florística local como en los procesos de sucesión ecológica.

  13. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu P. laevigata, Site 2 (González M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3 had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2. Soil organic matter (SOM, soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, phosphorus-Olsen (P and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems

  14. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

    Farshid Mahmodi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3 verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4% and (15.5–19.9, respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers.

  15. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  16. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  17. Secretory structures on the leaf rachis of Caesalpinieae and Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): implications for the evolution of nectary glands.

    Pascal, L M; Motte-Florac, E F; McKey, D B

    2000-03-01

    Cup- or sometimes slit-shaped nectary glands on the rachis are a widespread trait in the legume subfamily Mimosoideae, especially in derived tribes. Their spotty occurrence in genera that appear to be basal has led to uncertainty about when in the mimosoid radiation this character evolved. Until now, specialized rachis glands were unknown in caesalpinioids thought to be related to ancestral mimosoids. We report here the occurrence of rachis glands in seven of the ten species of the Paleotropical genus Erythrophleum, a member of the Dimorphandra group of caesalpinioids thought to include the sister group(s) of mimosoids. The histological structure and location of Erythrophleum glands suggest homology with those of mimosoids; these glands are simpler structurally than rachis glands of any known mimosoid. The Erythrophleum glands differ from those of most mimosoids in the following respects: (1) they are smaller than glands of mimosoids; (2) the secretory surface is sunken in a pit capped by a small round pore rather than exposed on a broad concave or flat surface; (3) a smaller number of cells are involved in production and secretion of nectar; (4) vascular supply to the nectary is less extensive; and (5) mechanical support tissue (sclerenchyma) is less extensive and less organized. Rachis glands appear to be absent in the nine other genera included in the Dimorphandra group. We also report the occurrence of other secretory structures (patches of glandular trichomes) on the rachis of some Caesalpinieae and Mimoseae that lack specialized nectary glands and suggest that these patches of trichomes are primitive homologues of more organized glands. We discuss the significance of these glands and of the patches of trichomes for understanding relationships among primitive mimosoids and related caesalpinioids, and for understanding the origin of ant-guard defenses typical of many mimosoids.

  18. Molecular biogeography of tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan disjunction pattern with an African origin of core genistoides

    Ming-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Huang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Ping Yan; Yu-H Wu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and EastAsia-North America disjunction,with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F...

  19. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    to limestone habitats in the Kubayo National Forest, where it forms almost monospecific stands of up to one thousand individuals in glades and at forest margins. Predictive distribution models suggest uncertain suitability of the present habitats under future climatic conditions. Based on this and other...

  20. Genetic and ecological outcomes of Inga vera subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) tree plantations in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Twyford, Alex D; Neaves, Linda E; Pennington, R Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = -0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing.

  1. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  2. Fenologia e visitantes florais de Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Raimunda Alice Coimbra Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p51 Erythrina crista-galli é uma espécie característica do bioma Pampa, também usada com fins ornamentais em arborização urbana. E. crista-galli  floresce mais intensamente de novembro a dezembro. A antese inicia entre 7h-11h, e as flores têm duração de cinco dias. Um total de 1.275 visitas florais foi registrado em 57h de observações. Abelhas da família Apidae (Trigona spinipes e Apis mellifera foram os visitantes fl orais mais freqüentes (88,23%, seguidos de moscas (Muscidae – 5,50%, formigas (Formicidae – 2,35%, vespas (Vespidae –  1,56% e besouros (Chrysomelidae – 1,56%. As flores também foram visitadas por beija-flores da família Trochilidae (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0,79%. A abelha T. spinipes foi observada em todos os horários e apresentou comportamento de possível polinizadora, juntamente com A. mellifera e o beija-fl or C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli é autocompatível, apresentando produção de frutos e sementes após a polinização manual e sob condições naturais.

  3. Phenology and floral visitors of Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina crista-galli is a characteristic species of the Pampa biome also used as an ornament in urban arborization. Erythrina crista-galli flourishes more intensively from November to Decem¬ber. Anthesis starts around 7:00 am to 11:00 am, and flowers last five days. A total of 1,275 floral visits were registered over 57h of observations. Apidae bees (Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera were the most frequent visitors (88.23%, followed by Muscidae flies (5.50%, Formicidae ants (2.35%, Vespidae wasps (1.56%, and Chrysomelidae beetles (1.56%. Trochilidae hummingbirds (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0.79% also visited the flowers. Trigona spinipes was observed at throughout the daytime and behaved as a probable pollinator, along with A. mellifera and C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli is autocompatible, producing fruits and seeds after manual pollination and under natural conditions.

  4. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 75, No 4 (2013)

    Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis: is there interclonal variation in response to experimentally imposed water stress? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ME Oscar Mokotedi ...

  5. Germinación, dispersión y establecimiento de plántulas de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae en México

    Sara L. Camargo-Ricalde

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. es un recurso natural importante para México debido a sus diversos usos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se había estudiado la germinación, la dispersión y el establecimiento de plántulas de esta especie. Se recolectaron frutos y semillas de esta planta en el estado de Chiapas, México (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Las pruebas de germinación se hicieron después de cuatro años de almacenamiento; se sembraron en total 1 935 semillas en cajas de Petri con papel filtro Wathman humedecido. Se determinaron las temperaturas óptimas usando un gradiente de 5-40°C, con luz continua, para semillas escarificadas mecánicamente y no escarificadas. Se realizaron tres pruebas de fotoperíodo: a luz continua, b oscuridad constante y c luz 12hr/oscuridad 12 hr. Se aplicaron tres tratamientos pregerminativos: a escarificación mecánica, b ácido sulfúrico concentrado, c fuego directo y d ningún tratamiento. Para cada variable y pretratamiento se hicieron tres repeticiones, cada una con 15 semillas. Se aplicaron las pruebas estadísticas correspondientes: desviación estandar (S, análisis de varianza de una vía (ANOVA y comparación de medias (Prueba de Scheffé (pMimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. is an important natural resource in Mexico, due to its diverse uses. However, seed germination, dissemination and seedling establishment of this species had not been studied up to date. Fruits and seeds were collected in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Germination experiments were carried out after four years of seed storage; 1 935 seeds were sown in Petri dishes containing moistened Wathman filter paper. Optimum temperatures were determined in a gradient 5-40 0C, with continuous light for mechanically scarified and non scarified seeds. Three photoperiod experiments were made: a continuous light, b constant darkness and c 12 hr light/12 hr darkness. Three germinate pretreatments were applied: a mechanical scarification, b sulfuric acid scarification, c fire scarification and d control. Three replicates of 15 seeds each were made for each variable and pretreatment. Standard deviations (S were determined, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and media comparison (Scheffé’s test were applied (p<0.05. Analysis of fruit and seed dissemination and seedling establishment was made qualitatively on the basis of field and laboratory observations; radius of dissemination of the fruits from the mother plant was measured; development of laboratory grown seedlings was followed during three months. Seeds germinated at 10-30°C; however, the highest percentages of germination were obtained at 20°C (84.44% and 25°C (95.55%; seeds are indistinctly photoblastic and percentages of germination, after the three germinate pretreatments, were: control (24.44-35.55%, mechanical scarification (84.44-88.88%, sulfuric acid scarification (73.33-91.11% and fire scarification (0%. Fruits and seeds are disseminated by the wind in a radius of 5-8 m from the mother plant; rain carries them from slopes to lower plains and human activities contribute to their dissemination. Growth of seedlings is fast; they develop a paripinnate protophyll and ten biparipinnate pronomophylls; the first nomophyll develops during the weeks 12 to 14. It is concluded that optimum temperatures for seed germination of M. tenuiflora are 20 °C and 25 °C; seeds are indistinctly photoblastic; percentage and rate of germination are highly increased by coat scarification. This species has certain advantages for its establishment in open areas, given by the abundant production of seeds, their small size, the rate of germination and the fast growth, as well as by its seedling characters: the tap root system, the hypocotyl-epicotyl axis woody at the base and, the compound leaves with linear-oblong leaflets having changes in orientation in response to light. Our results confirm the invasive and typically secondary character of this species.

  6. Malformações, abortos e mortalidade embrionária em ovinos causada pela ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae

    José Rômulo Soares dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a teratogenicidade de Mimosa tenuiflora, 15 ovelhas, distribuídas em dois grupos, foram introduzidos em área invadida pela planta. O Grupo 1, com seis ovelhas prenhes, foi introduzido na área experimental 20 dias após o acasalamento. O Grupo 2, formado por nove ovelhas não prenhes e um carneiro, foi introduzido na área experimental no início do experimento. O experimento começou no mês de outubro de 2009, período de estiagem, quando M. tenuiflora estava sementando. Nesse período as plantas foram rebaixadas a 40 cm de altura e os galhos com folhas e sementes foram disponibilizados para os ovinos na mesma área onde M. tenuiflora foi rebaixada. M. tenuiflora começou a rebrotar ainda na estação seca antes do período de chuvas. No período de rebrota, as ovelhas ficavam livres para pastar M. tenuiflora e recebiam concentrado em quantidade equivalente a 1% do peso vivo. Após as primeiras chuvas, em meados de janeiro do ano seguinte, quando o estrato herbáceo apareceu, essas ovelhas foram confinadas em baias, onde M. tenuiflora foi fornecida até o fim do experimento. A cada 15 dias eram realizados exames ultrassonográficos para acompanhamento da gestação. No Grupo 1, três ovelhas abortaram, cada uma um feto sem malformações. Outra ovelha pariu dois cordeiros, um com hiperflexão na articulação inter-falangeana proximal no membro torácico direito e outro sem malformações. Outra ovelha pariu um cordeiro com hiperflexão dos dois membros pélvicos na região da articulação tarso-metatársica. No grupo formado pelas ovelhas que foram acasaladas na área experimental, uma ovelha abortou um feto sem malformações e cinco pariram cordeiros normais. Três das ovelhas desse grupo não emprenharam durante todo o período experimental, mostrando retornos repetidos ao cio, sugerindo perda embrionária. Trinta e duas ovelhas e um carneiro, que permaneceram numa área vizinha a área experimental e foram utilizados como controle, pariram cordeiros normais. Conclui-se que M. tenuiflora, além de causar malformações causa, também, mortalidade embrionária e abortos em ovelhas.

  7. Latencia en semillas de Stylosanthes hamata (Leguminosae y su relación con la morfología de la cubierta seminal

    Rosana Castillo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La semilla de Stylosanthes hamata (L. Taub. se caracteriza por presentar un alto grado de latencia asociada a una restricción a la absorción de humedad (semilla dura. En esta investigación, se estudió la dureza de semillas distales y basales de siete líneas diploides y cinco líneas tetraploides, cultivadas bajo condiciones tropicales. Las pruebas pruebas de germinación (HR: 55-65%, temperatura constante: 27-30º C, fotoperíodo: 12/12 hr llevadas a cabo en semillas desprovistas de vaina indicaron que el grado de dureza seminal estuvo en casi todos los casos por encima del 85%, independientemente del nivel de ploidia y de la posición de la semilla en el fruto. Así mismo, se realizó una caracterización morfo-anatómica de la cubierta seminal a través del uso del microscopio óptico y de barrido. Esta caracterización fue complementada con un estudio histoquímico para determinar la ubicación de compuestos hidrofóbicos en la cubierta seminal. Los resultados de estas pruebas señalaron que la dureza seminal estuvo relacionada con la presencia de un micropilo y un hilo totalmente cerrados, una epidermis compuesta por macroesclereidas en empalizada con una línea lúcida en las paredes más externas de estas células y a una alta concentración de compuestos hidrofóbicos en todos los tejidos que conforman la cubierta seminal.The seed of Stylosanthes hamata is characterized by it's a high level of dormancy, which is imposed by seed-coat impermeability to water entry (harseededness or hard-seed condition. The level of hardseededness between upper and lower articulations of seven diploid and five tetraploid accessions was studied under tropical conditions. Germination tests on naked seeds (relative humidity: 55-65%, constant temperature: 27-30º C, photoperiod: 12/12 hr showed that hard-seed percentage was, in most cases, over 85% independent of ploidy level and seed position within the fruit. Histochemical analysis indicated that hardseededness in this species was associated with a completely sealed microphile and hilum. This feature was also associated to: a an epidermis consisting of a palisade-like layer of macrosclereids, b a like-line at the outermost region of these cells and c a high concentration of hydrophobic compounds located all across the seed-coat.

  8. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. :leguminosae)

    Pandya, G A; Banerjee, S; Modi, V V [Baroda Univ. (India). Faculty of Science

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author).

  9. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:leguminosae)

    Pandya, G.A.; Banerjee, S.; Modi, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author)

  10. Evaluación agronómica y valor nutricional de 84 accesiones de la leguminosa Tadehagi triquetrum en suelos ácidos

    Cerón Fernández, Claudia Lorena

    2010-01-01

    En la búsqueda de nuevas opciones forrajeras para alimentación animal en el trópico, se evaluó una colección de Tadehagi triquetrum con 84 accesiones suministradas por la Unidad de Recursos Genéticos del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical – CIAT, en suelos ácidos del norte del Cauca. La evaluación se realizó en la subestación Experimental CIAT Quilichao, ubicada en el Municipio de Santander de Quilichao, Departamento del Cauca a 3º 06´ de latitud norte y 76º 31´de longitud oeste, a ...

  11. Descomposición de hojarasca en la leguminosa Adenocarpus decorticans: pérdida de peso y dinámica de los nutrientes

    Moro Cuadrillero, María José; Domingo Poveda, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la pérdida de peso y la liberación de N, P, K, Mg y Ca de la hojarasca de Adenocarpus decorticans Boiss. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería). Tras 828 días de incubación en el campo, la pérdida de peso inicial fue del 70%. La tasa de descomposición estimada a partir de la aplicación del modelo exponencial simple es de -0.82 el primer año, -0.62 el segundo año y -0.53 para el conjunto del periodo. La liberación de nutrientes sigue la secuencia K>Mg>Ca> P>N....

  12. EVALUACIÓN COMPARATIVA DE LOS ATRIBUTOS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTINUTRICIONALES DE LEGUMINOSAS SUBUTILIZADAS, Canavalia gladiata (JACQ. DC, Erythrina indica LAM. Y Abrus precatorius L

    Pious Soris Tresina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron muestras de semillas de of Canavalia gladiata, Erythrina indica y Abrus precatorius (roja y negra, semilla de cascara colorada y semilla de cascara blanca de las regiones de Tamil Nadu y se analizó su composición química con la visión de evaluar su potencial nutricional. La composición proximal reveló que todas las muestras investigadas de semillas contenían altos niveles de proteína cruda y grasa. Los perfiles de minerales fueron también analizados en todas las muestras. Todas las muestras parecieron tener buenas fuentes de potasio, magnesio, sodio, calcio, fosforo, hierro, zinc, cobre, el contenido de manganeso fue deficiente cuando se comparó con los requerimentos diarios en la dieta (NRC/NAS, 1980, 1989. Los contenidos de vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascórbico fueron relativamente altos en todas las muestras investigadas. Los perfiles de aminoácidos esenciales del total de proteína de la semilla se compararon favorablemente con los patrones de requerimientos de la FAO/WHO (1991. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos revelaron que todas las muestras de semilla fueron ricas en ácidos grasos insaturados (55.60-72.04 y muy altos niveles de ácido linoleico (24.16-34.14%. El IVPD de las muestras estuvo en un rango de 63.31-71.36%. Se analizaron los factores antinutricionales como fenoles totales, taninos, L-DOPA, ácido fítico, hidrogeno ciánico, inhibidor de tripsina, oligosacáridos y fitohematoaglutinación.

  13. Leguminosa no controle integrado de plantas daninhas para aumentar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra' Legume plants in the integrated weeds control to improve orange 'Pera' yield

    JOSÉ EDUARDO B. DE CARVALHO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra', em dois ecossistemas, considerando dois diferentes manejos de solo para o controle integrado de plantas daninhas. O experimento foi instalado nos municípios de Rio Real e Conceição do Almeida, Bahia, no período de 1994 a 1999, em área total de 6000 m², em cada local. O manejo utilizado pelo produtor constou de três capinas manuais nas linhas de plantio e três gradagens nas entrelinhas, enquanto o manejo proposto utilizou como cobertura vegetal o feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes L., nas entrelinhas do pomar, associado a uma subsolagem. O controle químico das plantas daninhas nas linhas do pomar foi realizado duas vezes ao ano com glifosate. O manejo proposto apresentou melhores resultados em relação ao manejo do produtor nos dois municípios para todos os parâmetros analisados: peso do fruto, número de frutos por planta e produtividade. Em Conceição do Almeida, o sistema proposto foi 56,8% mais produtivo que o do produtor e, em Rio Real, 64,9%.Aimed to evaluate the productivity of sweet orange "Pera" grown considering two different ecosystems and under two soil management systems to control weeds. This work was carried out at the cities of Rio Real and Conceição de Almeida, Bahia State, during the period from 1994 to 1999. The soil management used by the farmer comprised three hoeings within planting lines and three harrowings between the planting lines. The new soil management proposed used a green cover of pig beans (Canavalia ensiformes, L. between the planting lines along with subsoiling, associated with a chemical control of the weeds by Gliphosate, on the planting lines, twice a year. The soil management proposed yielded better results than the farmer soil management at both ecosystems for fruit weight of fruit, number, and plant productivity. At Conceição do Almeida and Rio Real the proposed soil management was 56,8% and 64,9%, respectively, superior than the farmer system.

  14. Anti-Anxiety Effect of (-)-Syringaresnol-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside from Albizzia julibrissin Durazz (Leguminosae).

    Liu, Jie; Lv, Yue-Wei; Shi, Jin-Li; Ma, Xiao-Jie; Chen, Yi; Zheng, Zhi-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Guo, Jian-You

    2017-08-11

    Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, a Chinese Medicine, is commonly used for its anti-anxiety effects. (-)-syringaresnol-4- O -β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (SAG) is the main ingredient of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect and potential mechanisms on the HPA axis and monoaminergic systems of SAG on acute restraint-stressed rats. The anxiolytic effect of SAG was examined through an open field test and an elevated plus maze test. The concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma was examined by an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kit while neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We show that repeated treatment with SAG (3.6 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the number and time spent on the central entries in the open-field test when compared to the vehicle/stressed group. In the elevated plus maze test, 3.6 mg/kg SAG could increase the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In addition, the concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma and neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT, DA and their metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC, and HVA) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were decreased after SAG treatment, as compared to the repeated acute restraint-stressed rats. These results suggest that SAG is a potential anti-anxiety drug candidate.

  15. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  16. Cytotoxic activity of erypogein d from erythrina poeppigiana (leguminosae) against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) cells

    Herlina, T.; Gaffar, S.; Widowati, W.

    2018-05-01

    Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and continues to divide rapidly in the body. Current anticancer treatment usually causes many side effects. Natural products are then explored to be new alternatives for cancer treatment. Flavonoids have been known to possess medicinal properties, including anticancer. This study was performed to observe the cytotoxic activity of isoflavanone compound, erypogein D from Erythrina poeppigiana, toward cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) cells. The cytotoxic activity of erypogein D was tested using MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3- carboxyme-thoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay. The percentage of cell mortality was calculated and the IC50 was analyzed using probit analysis. The result showed that cytotoxic activity of the erypogein D against HeLa, SKOV-3, and MCF-7 cells had an IC50 value 225, 70.74, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Based on IC50 value can be concluded that erypogein D is the most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cell. However the cytotoxic activity of erypogein D toward MCF7 is moderate.

  17. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  18. EVALUACIÓN FENOLÓGICA Y DIGESTIBILIDAD in vivo DE LA LEGUMINOSA FORRAJERA (Arachis pintoi EN DIFERENTES EDADES DE CORTE

    Víctor Godoy Espinoza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de ésta investigación fue evaluar la fenología, producción, composición química nutricional y digestibilidad in vivo de A. pintoi y de establecer modelos matemáticos para determinar el valor nutricional y producción en base a la composición química de la planta. Las evaluaciones fenológicas se realizaron en la hacienda ESPE y la digestibilidad in vivo en la Facultad de Ciencias Pecuarias de la ESPOCH. En la primera fase se utilizaron parcelas experimentales de 10x15 m con cuatro repeticiones, mientras que en la segunda fase la unidad experimental fue un ovino (n=4. En ambos ensayos se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con un modelo lineal aditivo utilizando un nivel de significancia del 5%. Se realizó un análisis de correlación y regresión lineal entre variables fenológicas, composición química, digestibilidad y energía. Todos los análisis fueron realizados con el paquete SPSS 10. Las mayores producciones de forraje verde y materia seca (MS por hectárea se obtuvieron con cortes a los 75 días con 47,730 y 12,480 kg ha-1, respectivamente. En cuanto a la composición química de la proteína bruta y digestibilidad in vivo de la MS, el forraje cortado a 30 días obtuvo los mayores valores con 24.50 y 66.42%, respectivamente. El máximo valor de energía neta de lactancia (ENL se logró en el corte de 30 días, alcanzando 1.51 para luego disminuir a 1.24 Mcal ENL kg-1 a los 75 días.

  19. Influência da remoção de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de leguminosas Effect of cotyledon removal on cotyledonal axillary shooting in seedlings of leguminosae

    Odaci Fernandes de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos inteiramente casualizados foram conduzidos em condições de viveiro com o objetivo de verificar a importância da permanência de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. e Delonix regia L. Os tratamentos foram: remoção de ambos os cotilédones nos primeiro, segundo e terceiro dias da emergência, remoção de um só cotilédone no primeiro dia da emergência e não remoção de cotilédones. A recuperação do desenvolvimento em plântulas de P. vulgaris, avaliada através da ocorrência de ramificações, independe do número de cotilédones removidos no período de um a três dias da emergência, mas é menos eficiente que em V. unguiculata. A remoção de ambos os cotilédones em plântulas de V. unguiculata, no dia da emergência, afetou a recuperação do desenvolvimento dessas plântulas em comparação com os outros tratamentos. Em plântulas de L leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica e D. regia, a remoção de ambos os cotilédones, no período de um a três dias da emergência, sugere o aumento de mortalidade nessas plântulas. A remoção de um único cotilédone não afetou significativamente o percentual de sobrevivência das plântulas nem limitou o surgimento de brotações à axila cotiledonar correspondente ao cotilédone removido.Completely randomized experiments under greenhouse conditions were carried to study the role of cotyledons on the cotyledonal axillary shooting of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. and Delonix regia L. The seedlings underwent the following treatments: removal of both cotyledons on the first to the third day after emergence, removal of only one cotyledon on the first day of emergence, and no cotyledon removal. Growth recovery in P. vulgaris seedlings, as evaluated through shooting occurrence, is independent of the number of cotyledons removed on the first to the third day after emergence, but it was mostly less effective than that in V. unguiculata. Growth recovery in V. unguiculata seedlings was less effective when both cotyledons were removed on the first day of emergence as compared to the other treatments. In L. leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica, and D. regia seedlings, the removal of both cotyledons, on the first to the third day after emergence, suggests an increase in the mortality of seedlings. The removal of only one cotyledon did not significantly affect the percentage of seedling survival nor limit shooting to the corresponding axil of the removed cotyledon.

  20. Genetic diversity of the Japanese wood pigeon, Columba janthina, endemic to islands of East Asia, estimated by newly developed microsatellite markers.

    Ando, Haruko; Kaneko, Shingo; Suzuki, Hajime; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Takano, Hajime; Ogawa, Hiroko; Isagi, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    The Japanese wood pigeon Columba janthina is endemic to islands of East Asia and is listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). One subspecies, C. janthina nitens, in particular, is at the greatest risk of extinction due to its small population size. To reduce the extinction risk of C. janthina, it is important to understand the species' present genetic status and to develop an appropriate conservation plan based on genetic data. We developed seven new microsatellite markers for two subspecies of C. janthina: C. janthina janthina and C. janthina nitens. We also confirmed the cross-use of one microsatellite marker developed for Columba livia var. domestica. Seven loci were polymorphic in C. janthina janthina, while two loci were polymorphic in C. janthina nitens. Using the markers, we performed preliminary analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure within each subspecies. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.64 in C. janthina janthina and from 0.00 to 0.08 in C. janthina nitens. Each subspecies and each population within C. janthina janthina had different allele frequencies. C. janthina nitens exhibited far lower genetic diversity than C. janthina janthina. Furthermore, C. janthina nitens appears to have experienced strong genetic drift from a common ancestral population, inferred by STRUCTURE analysis. The markers described here may be useful for investigating genetic diversity and genetic structure of C. janthina populations, and could be used to estimate appropriate evolutionary significant unit and to guide development of a captive breeding program based on genetic information.

  1. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  2. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards;Fixacao biologica e transferencia de nitrogenio por leguminosas em pomar organico de mangueira e gravioleira

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra, E-mail: gleiciamiranda@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: deborah@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of {sup 15}N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  4. Disponibilidade e valor nutritivo de forragem de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia DC. e exóticas (Lotus L. Availability and nutritive value of the wild leguminous (Adesmia DC. and exotics (Lotus L.

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Adesmia DC. possui 17 espécies nativas no Brasil, distribuídas nos Estados do Sul, cuja importância está vinculada a sua adaptação ao solo e clima regionais, além de ser de crescimento hibernal (temperadas. Este trabalho teve o objetivo comparar o padrão de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS e valor nutritivo de forragem de A. latifolia, A. punctata e A. tristis, tendo como padrão Lotus corniculatus (cornichão e L. uliginosus. O ensaio foi realizado em casa de vegetação durante 210 dias (4000 graus-dia. A disponibilidade de forragem (DF foi similar entre A. latifolia (276 g MS/m² e cornichão (275 g MS/m² e entre A. tristis (201g MS/m² e L. uliginosus (192 g MS/m², sendo que A. punctata apresentou a menor DF (155 g MS/m². A. latifolia caracterizou-se pela maior precocidade na DF, devido ao crescimento mais rápido em relação às demais espécies, sugerindo seu potencial para utilização durante a estação fria. Em relação às análises de qualidade, o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas de A. latifolia foi de até 21,6% e a DIVMO atingiu 72,3%. Os maiores conteúdos de PB e DIVMO foram encontrados nas folhas de cornichão, 30,3 e 75,8%, respectivamente. A. tristis apresentou DIVMO muito baixa nos caules (34,9 a 44,7%, o que poderia limitar seu consumo por bovinos. Concluiu-se que, entre as espécies de Adesmia estudadas, A. latifolia detém o maior potencial forrageiro, sugerindo a continuidade de estudos com a espécie.The genus Adesmia DC. has 17 species native to Brazil, distributed in the Southern states, whose importance is linked to its adaptation to the soils and climatic conditions of the region, besides being an active winter-growing species (temperate. This work aimed to compare the patterns of dry matter (DM accumulation and nutritive value of A. latifolia, A. punctata and A. tristis, using Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and L. uliginosus (big trefoil, as checks. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse for 210 days (4000 degrees-day. The forage availability (FA was similar for A. latifolia (276 g DM/m² and birdsfoot trefoil (275 g DM/m², as well as for A. tristis (201 g DM/m² and big trefoil (192 g DM/m², while A. punctata showed the smallest FD (155 g DM/m². A. latifolia was characterized by an early FA, due to its fast growth when compared to other species, pointing to its potential utilization during the cold season. In relation to the quality analysis, the crude protein (CP in A. latifolia leaves was up to 21.6% and the organic matter in vitro digestibility (OMIVD was up to 72.3%. The highest CP and OMIVD was found in the birdsfoot trefoil leaves, 30.3 and 75.8%, respectively. A. tristis presented a very low OMIVD in the stems, from 34.9 to 44.7%, which could limit its intake by cattle. It is concluded that, among the Adesmia species studied, A. latifolia holds the greatest forage potential and deserves further study.

  5. Aplicación de modelos en los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la meseta central : Simulación de rotaciones y modelado de la arquitectura de la planta en leguminosas

    Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo profundiza en el estudio de los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la Meseta Central. Sobre la base de la alternativa tradicional ce^eal^arbecho, se han estudiado durante tres años de cultivo 1995/96, 1996/97 y 1997/98 seis rotaciones diferentes: monocultivo de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.), cebada/barbecho, cebada/habas (Viciafaba L.), cebada/guisantes {Pisum sativum L.), cebada/habas/barbecho y cebada/guisantes/barbecho. Entre las rotaciones, se ha comparado la biomasa, el rendimien...

  6. Estudio de la tecnología de extrusión para la valorización de subproductos vegetales y nuevas aplicaciones en leguminosas como ingredientes de productos para alimentación humana

    Blanco Espeso, Belén

    2017-01-01

    La tecnología de extrusión se ha aplicado en la última década sobre diferentes tipos de subproductos con el fin de determinar la posibilidad de obtener ciertas mejoras nutricionales y/o tecnológicas sobre ellos al igual que en las harinas. La información disponible en relación al procesado mediante extrusión de subproductos de origen vegetal es limitada. Son varios los factores que afectan a la calidad del producto final tales como el tipo de extrusor que se utiliza, la configuración del t...

  7. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  8. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  9. Produção de forragem em pastagens consorciadas com diferentes leguminosas sob pastejo rotacionado = Forage production in pasture-based systems mixed with different legumes under rotational grazing

    Edilene Steinwandter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar dois sistemas forrageiros, constituídos por capim-elefante, azevém, trevo branco ou amendoim forrageiro e espécies de crescimento espontâneo, quanto às taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS. Para avaliação utilizaram-se quatro piquetes, com 0,25 ha cada um, com capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m. No período hibernal, entre as linhas do capim-elefante, fez-se o estabelecimento do azevém; em dois piquetes foi semeado o trevo branco e nos demais se preservou o amendoim forrageiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. Para a determinação das taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS, avaliaram-se as massas de forragem de pré e pós-pastejo. Foram avaliadas a composição botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a lotação. Na média, as taxas de acúmulo e dedesaparecimento da MS e a lotação foram de 47,29 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,24% e 3,01 UA ha-1 e de 53,16 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,45% e 3,48 UA ha-1 para os sistemas constituídos por trevo branco e por amendoim forrageiro, respectivamente. Considerando-se a taxa de acúmulo deMS, a MS desaparecida e a lotação, os resultados demonstram melhores resultados para o sistema forrageiro constituído pelo amendoim forrageiro.The objective of this research was to evaluate two pasture-based systems, with elephantgrass, ryegrass, white clover or forage peanut and spontaneous growth species about the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass. The elephantgrass was established in rows with a distance of 4 m between rows. In the cool season, ryegrass was planted between rows of elephantgrass; white clover wassowed,in two paddocks, and in the other two the forage peanut was preserved. The experimental design was completely randomized. In order to stipulate the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass, the pre- and post-graze forage mass were evaluated.The botanical and structural composition, as well as the stocking rate were analyzed. The average rate of accumulation and disappearance of forage mass and the stocking rate were of47.29 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.24% and 3.10 UA ha-1 and of 53.16 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.45% and 3.48 UA ha-1 to the systems formed by white clover and forage peanut, respectively. Considering the accumulation rate of the pasture dry matter, the disappearance of foragemass and the stocking rate, the forage system associated with forage peanut showed a better performance.

  10. Characterization of condensed tannins from native legumes of the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid Caracterização dos taninos condensados em leguminosas nativas do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro

    Patrícia Mendes Guimarães-Beelen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible influence of tannins on the nutritional value of the forages from Caatinga vegetation, there are few studies that evaluated their tannin concentration. This study was conducted to characterize condensed tannins present in the legumes species Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá and Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, at three stages of their phenological cycle. The concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT were determined using the butanol-HCL method; astringency was by the radial diffusion method, and the monomeric composition of purified tannins by a high-performance liquid chromatograph with delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin as standards. Concentration and astringency of purified condensed tannins, as well as their monomeric composition varied between species, and in some cases among phenological cycles. The values observed were always above the limits considered beneficial for ruminal digestion (i.e. 5%. Jurema Preta presented the highest values (30.98% TT and 22% astringency at full growth stage, and Mororó the lowest (10.38% TT and 14% astringency during fructification. Jurema Preta presented a mean relationship prodelfinidin (PD: procyanidin (PC of 97:3, which did not vary during the phenological cycle, showing the high astringent capacity of these tannins. Sabiá presented a relationship of 90:20 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 40:50 at fructification. In Mororó the PD:PC relationship was more equilibrated, around 40:50 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 35:60 During fructification. Propelargonidin was not detected or was present at low concentration in the three species.Apesar da possível influência do tanino sobre o valor nutritivo das forrageiras da Caatinga, poucos são os estudos que avaliam a concentração de taninos nestas plantas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os taninos condensados presentes nas espécies Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá e Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, em três fases do ciclo fenológico. As concentrações de tanino solúvel (TS, tanino ligado ao resíduo (TL e tanino total (TT foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCl; a adstringência foi avaliada pelo método de difusão radial e a composição de monômeros dos taninos purificados através do sistema de cromatografia líquida de alta resolução, utilizando delfinidina, cianidina e pelargonidina como padrões. A concentração e adstringência dos taninos condensados purificados, assim como sua composição monomérica, variou entre as espécies e, em alguns casos, entre os ciclos fenológicos. Os valores foram superiores aos considerados benéficos a digestão ruminal (5%. Jurema Preta apresentou os maiores valores (30,98% TT e 22% de adstringência na vegetação plena e Mororó os menores valores observados (10,38 TT e 14% de adstringência na frutificação. A Jurema Preta apresentou uma relação prodelfinidina (PD:procianidina (PC média de 97:3 que se mostrou pouco variável, indicando uma alta capacidade adstringente dos taninos desta espécie em todas as fases do ciclo fenológico. O Sábia apresentou uma relação de 90:20 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração, diminuindo para 40:50 na fase de frutificação. A relação PD:PC do Mororó foi mais equilibrada, oscilando em torno de 40:50 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração e reduzindo para 35:60 durante a frutificação. A propelargonidina esteve ausente ou em pequena concentração nas espécies estudadas.

  11. Sistema em fluxo para determinação espectrofotométrica de uréia em plasma de sangue animal empregando leguminosa como fonte natural da enzima urease

    Luca Gilmara C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric flow injection analysis (FIA procedure employing natural urease enzyme source for the determination of urea in animal blood plasma was developed. Among leguminous plants used in the Brazilian agriculture, the Cajanus cajan specie was selected as urease source considering its efficiency and availability. A minicolumn was filled with leguminous fragments and coupled to the FIA manifold, where urea was on-line converted to ammonium ions and subsequently it was quantified by spectrophotometry. The system was employed to determine urea in animal plasma samples without any prior treatment. Accuracy was assessed by comparison results with those obtained employing the official procedure and no significant difference at 90 % confidence level was observed. Other profitable features such as an analytical throughput of 30 determinations per hour, a reagent consumption of 19.2 mg sodium salicylate, 0.5 mg sodium hipochloride and a relative standard deviation of 1.4 % (n= 12 were also obtained.

  12. Germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plânturas de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya (DC. G.P.Lewis & M.P.Lima (Leguminosae em diferentes anbientes de luz

    Marisa Gesteira Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da atividade madeireira e a elevada taxa de desmatamento na Amazônia têm intensificado a necessidade de estudos sobre as técnicas mais adequadas para a produção de mudas que possam ser usadas em atividades de reflorestamento e de plantio em florestas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar: a se a taxa de germinação de sementes de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya difere entre sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão da floresta; e b qual o efeito do grau de sombreamento no viveiro sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas dessa espécie. Seis repetições de 10 sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão foram colocadas em germinador. A taxa de germinação não diferiu entre os dois métodos de obtenção de sementes, sendo recomendada a coleta de frutos no chão. No viveiro, quatro repetições de 25 sementes foram colocadas para germinar a pleno sol e em 30, 50 e 70% de sombra. Em cada tratamento de luz, 40 plântulas foram sorteadas, e sua "performance" foi avaliada quatro meses após a semeadura. Tanto a germinação das sementes quanto o crescimento em diâmetro e acúmulo de biomassa das plântulas foram superiores em 30 e 50% de sombreamento, em comparação com pleno sol. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento de plântulas de P. psilostachya é favorecido em condições relativamente altas de iluminação, embora algum sombreamento seja necessário, e que a produção de mudas dessa espécie é de fácil execução, ao menos nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento das plântulas.The expansion of logging and deforestation in the Amazon forest increases the need for studies on techniques to grow seedlings that can be used in reforestation and enrichment planting programs. We addressed the following questions: a does the seed germination of Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya differ between seeds collected directly on the crown and the ones collected on the forest floor? b what is the effect of the shading level on the seed germination and the initial development of seedlings of this species? Six replicates of 10 seeds were germinated in a growth chamber. The germination rate did not differ between the seed collection methods and the collection of fruits in the forest floor is recommended. In the nursery, four replicates of 25 seeds were germinated under full sun and 30%, 50% and 70% shade. In each light treatment, the performance of 40 seedlings randomly selected was assessed four months after sowing. Seed germination, seedling growth and biomass accumulation were higher under 30% and 50% shade than under full sun. The results suggest that the growth of P. psilostachya seedlings is favored under high light levels, although some shade is required, and that it is relatively easy to produce seedlings of this species, at least on the initial developmental stage.

  13. Aspectos químicos e bioquímicos de leguminosas enlatadas em diferentes estádios de maturação Chemical and biochemical aspects of legumes canned at different maturation stages

    M.F.P. BARCELOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição química e aspectos bioquímicos dos grãos de soja cultivar IAC PL-1 e de guandu cultivar IAC Fava Larga, crus e pós-enlatamento em diferentes estádios de maturação avaliando os efeitos do processamento sobre os grãos dos dois cultivares. A composição química dos grãos crus , principalmente no último estádio verde, e na maturação de colheita foi de modo geral semelhante. O enlatamento conservou 95% e 98% do total das proteínas dos grãos de soja e guandu, respectivamente. Nos enlatados de soja obteve-se a inativação da atividade de lectinas. Os processamentos térmicos utilizados para os enlatamentos, 121ºC por 6 a 7 minutos para a soja e 5 a 6 minutos para o guandu foram suficientes para eliminar 83% da atividade dos inibidores de tripsina da soja e do guandu. A digestibilidade da proteína do guandu enlatado (62% foi inferior em relação à soja enlatada (78%. Com exceção do ácido glutâmico, prolina, lisina e histidina, os demais aminoácidos do grão de soja enlatado colhido no 64º DAF tiveram seus conteúdos iguais aos enlatados do 85º DAF pós-armazenados e pós-macerados. Os teores de aminoácidos dos grãos de guandu enlatados no 62º DAF, com exceção do ácido glutâmico e fenilalanina, foram iguais àqueles presentes na última colheita (92º DAF. A metionina disponível no grão de soja não se modificou com a evolução da maturação, porém a do guandu se elevou no 92º DAF e o processo de enlatamento reduziu a metionina disponível da soja apenas no 55º e 64º DAF e do guandu no 57º e 92º DAF. Rafinose e estaquiose nos grãos de soja estão mais elevadas no estádio verde, e nos grãos de guandu, apenas a estaquiose está mais elevada no estádio verde. O processo de enlatamento provocou um pequeno decréscimo nestes dois açúcares da soja e guandu nos dois últimos estádios de maturação estudados.This work intended to study the chemical composition and biochemical aspects of soybean grains, cultivar IAC PL-1 and pigeon pea cultivar IAC Fava Larga, both raw and post-canning at different maturation stages, evaluating the effects of the processing caused on the grain. The chemical composition of the raw grains, mainly in the last green stage and in the harvest maturation it was in general similar. The canning of soybean conserved by 95% and pigeon pea by 98% the whole protein content of grains. In soybean canned products, inactivation of the activity of lectins was obtained. The heat processings utilized for the cannings, 121ºC for 6 to 7 minutes for soybean and 5 to 6 minutes for pigeon pea, were enough to remove 83% the activity of soybean and pigeon pea trypsine inhibitors. The in vitro digestibility of the canned pigeon pea protein was lower (62% relative to canned soybean (78%. With exception of glutamic acid, proline, lysine and histidine, the other amino acids of the canned soybean grain harvested on the 64th DAF had their contents equal to those canned on the 85th DAF post stored and post-soaking. The amino acid of the pigeon pea grains canned on the 62nd DAF, with exception of glutamic acid and phenilalanine, were equal to those amino acids present at the last harvest (92nd DAF. The available methionine in soybean grain did’t change with the evolution of the maturation, but that of pigeon pea rose at the 92nd DAF and the canning process decreased the available methionine of the soybean at 55th and 64th and pigeon pea at 57th and 92nd DAF. Both raffinose and stachyose in soybean grains are higher in green stages and in pigeon pea grains only stachyose is higher in green stage. The canning process caused a small reduction in these two sugars of soybean and pigeon pea in the last two studied maturation stages.

  14. Obtención de carbón activado a partir de la cubierta seminal de leguminosa haba (Vicia-Faba) y su uso en el proceso de recuperación de oro desde soluciones cianuradas

    Miranda Zea, Norberto Sixto

    2008-01-01

    La minería aurífera en el Perú, carece de tecnologías adecuadas para recuperar oro eficientemente, teniéndose pérdidas significativas en los relaves como oro sedimentado o submicroscópico. Los procesos en nuevos proyectos de recuperación de oro, desarrollan la aplicación de la tecnología del carbón activado que adsorbe oro de soluciones lixiviadas en cianuro que permite trabajar minerales de baja ley consiguiendo ventajas en costos de operación y mejor productividad. El carbón activado para r...

  15. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  16. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Romero Palacios, N.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  17. Variação intraspecífica do lenho de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae de populações ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica Intraspecific variation in wood anatomy of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae -Mimosoidae in two Atlantic rain forest remnants

    Maria Luiza R. da Costa Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho compara populações distintas de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas árvores de diâmetro semelhante retas e sem defeitos aparentes. Os resultados obtidos comprovam estatisticamente a ocorrência de variação intraspecífica na estrutura anatômica da madeira. Os caracteres qualitativos mantiveram-se constantes, enquanto os quantitativos variaram, sendo os significativos, de acordo com o teste t de Student, a freqüencia, comprimento e diâmetro dos elementos vasos, o comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras, a freqüência e largura dos raios. A análise dos componentes principais, utilizando características anatômicas quantitativas ordenou as duas populações separadamente. O eixo I responde por 33% da variância total principalmente pela relação positiva do diâmetro do elemento de vaso, enquanto o eixo II responde por 20% da variância total, principalmente pelo comprimento das fibras.This study compares distinct populations of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima occurring in two remnants of Atlantic rain forest in Rio de Janeiro state. Trees with similar diameters and with no apparent defects were selected. The results confirm intraspecific variation in wood anatomy. Qualitative features do not change, while according to the Student t test quantitative features showed significant differences in vessel-element frequency, width, and length, fiber length and wall thickness, and ray frequency and width. Principal component analysis showed two separate populations. Factor 1 explains 33% of the total variance, mainly due to the positive relationship of vessel-element tangential diameter; factor 2 explains 20% of the total variance, mainly due to fiber length.

  18. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae arbóreas e lianas na estação de pesquisa, treinamento e educação ambiental (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira Trees and lianes of the papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the research, training and environmental education station (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira

    Izabella Martins da Costa Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste em um levantamento florístico das árvores e lianas pertencentes à Papilionoideae da Mata do Paraíso, importante fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, no Município de Viçosa, Zona da Mata mineira. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada por meio de visitas à área de estudo, no período de julho/2004 a agosto/2005. Foram reconhecidos 12 táxons infra-específicos pertencentes a oito gêneros, sendo Machaerium Pers. (4 spp. e Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. os mais representativos. São apresentados chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e comentários sobre os táxons analisados. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., espécie vulnerável, e Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endêmica da região, foram encontradas na EPTEA.This work is a floristic survey of trees and lianas of the Papilionoideae in the Mata do Paraíso, an important fragment of Submontane Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira. The fieldwork was carried out through visits to the studied area, from July/2004 to August/2005. Twelve taxa represented by eight genera were recorded. Machaerium Pers. (4spp. and Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. were the most representatives. Identification keys, descriptions and illustrations are presented for the analyzed taxa. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., vulnerable species and, Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endemic for the region were found at EPTEA.

  19. NOVEDADES PARA LOS GÉNEROS ANNULOHYPOXYLON E HYPOXYLON (ASCOMYCOTA, XYLARIACEAE EN LA REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA

    Adriana I. Hladki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se proponen dos nuevas variedades: Annulohypoxylon moriforme var. macrosporum e Hypoxylon investiens var. magnisporum; se citan por primera vez para la Argentina los siguientes taxones: Annulohypoxylon nitens, Hypoxylon crocopeplum, H. subrutilum e H. rubiginosum var. microsporum. Se presenta una clave dicotómica de las especies hipoxiloides halladas hasta ahora en la Argentina.

  20. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults

    Juan, Laura W.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martín; Masuh, Hector M.

    2011-01-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida...

  1. Productivity and cost of whole-tree harvesting without debarking in a ...

    The study examined the impact of retaining bark on logs on the productivity and costs of a whole-tree to roadside harvesting system in a short-rotation Eucalyptus nitens plantation in Australia being harvested for pulp logs. Trees were felled and bunched with a feller-buncher in spring, then left infield for four weeks to ...

  2. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  3. When Smokey says "No": Fire-less methods for growing plants adapted to cultural fire regimes

    Daniela Shebitz; Justine E. James

    2010-01-01

    Two culturally-significant plants (sweetgrass [Anthoxanthum nitens] and beargrass [Xerophyllum tenax]) are used as case studies for investigating methods of restoring plant populations that are adapted to indigenous burning practices without using fire. Reports from tribal members that the plants of interest were declining in traditional gathering areas provided the...

  4. Browse Title Index

    Items 351 - 400 of 444 ... ... (Leguminosae) and their probable significance in pollination, Details ... on some major vegetable crops in some ecological zones of Ghana, Abstract ... in smallholder peri-urban dairy farms in the Accra plains, Abstract.

  5. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  6. Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci from Korean ...

    Leguminosae) and its cytotaxonomic signifi- cance. Cathaya 2, 139–150. Estoup A., Garnery L., Solignac M. and Cornuet J. M. 1995. Microsatellite variation in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) popula- tions: hierarchical genetic structure and test of ...

  7. Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum (=Botryosphaeria eucalyptorum Y N. parvum: PATÓGENOS EN PLANTACIONES DE EUCALIPTO EN MÉXICO

    Jesús G. De la Mora-Castañeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el oriente de Michoacán, la muerte regresiva en plantaciones comerciales de eucalipto se presentó en árboles con daños por heladas y sequías en el 2013. En Eucalyptus nitens se aisló al patógeno Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum encontrando a su teleomorfo Botryosphaeria eucalypto - rum en los cancros, mientras que N. parvum se aisló de E. nitens y E. globulus. Ambas especies de Neofusicoccum se identificaron por morfología y se caracterizaron molecularmente mediante PCR- ITS. Las secuencias de N. eucalyptorum (números de acceso: KC479184 y KC4799188 y N. parvum (KC479185, KC479186 y KC479187 se depositaron en el Banco de Genes del NCBI. En campo, los eucaliptos enfermos presentaron muerte regresiva, cancros fusiformes en fuste que inducen hincha - mientos, flujo de resina y brotes epicórmicos. Los hongos inoculados in vitro en varetas de E. nitens y E. globulus causaron lesiones necróticas y abundantes picnidios inmaduros a 10 días después de la inocu - lación (ddi. En los árboles de E. nitens de tres años de edad se formó un cancro de apariencia hundida con forma fusiforme, de color café oscuro y de 13 a 21.9 cm a los 48 ddi. Este trabajo es el primer reporte de N. eucalyptorum y N. parvum en México causando enfermedad en plantaciones de eucalipto.

  8. Ticks on domestic animals in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil Carrapatos em animais domésticos em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to discuss some aspects of ticks associated with domestic animals in the State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, based on a literature review and present new data obtained from recent tick collections carried out in this northeastern Brazilian state. From August 2007 to June 2008, 1,405 ticks were collected and five species were identified: Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Dermacentornitens Neumann, 1897, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806. Dogs from urban areas were found exclusively infested by R. sanguineus, whereas dogs from rural areas were found infested by A. cajennense, A. ovale, R. (B. microplus, and R. sanguineus. The only tick species found on cattle and goats was R. (B. microplus. Horses were found infested by D. nitens and at a lesser extent by A. cajennense and R. (B. microplus. The only tick species found on donkeys was D. nitens. This study confirms the presence of A. cajennense inPernambuco and describes for the first time the presence of A. ovale in this state. The medical and veterinary relevance and control of ticks associated with domestic animals in Pernambuco are also briefly discussed.O objetivo desse artigo é discutir alguns aspectos relacionados aos carrapatos que parasitam animais domésticos no Estado de Pernambuco com base numa revisão da literatura e apresentar novos dados obtidos a partir de recentes coletas de carrapatos realizadas nesse estado do nordeste brasileiro. De agosto de 2007 a junho de 2008, 1.405 carrapatos foram coletados e cinco espécies foram identificadas: Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Cães de áreas urbanas foram encontrados infestados exclusivamente por R. sanguineus ao passo que cães de

  9. Predação de sementes de leguminosas por bruquídeos (Insecta: Coleoptera na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil Legume seed damage by bruchids (Insecta: Coleoptera in Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, Brazil

    Cecília Lomônaco

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a predação de sementes em Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth. var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae e Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae para investigar a taxa de predação e a existência de defesas contra a ação de predadores. Foi constatada a preferência por sementes de maior tamanho pelo bruquídeo de Bauhinia pulchella, o que pode significar uma adaptação das plantas em ter sementes pequenas que escapem da predação. Em Mimosa somnians, a imprevisibilidade do número de sementes viáveis produzidas poderia consistir num mecanismo de defesa, por impedir a otimização da quantidade de ovos deixados pelo predador em cada fruto. O formato extremamente achatado das sementes de Mimosa acutistipula parece limitar a ação de predadores. A alta resistência da casca dos frutos de Phaseolus linearis e o aspecto compacto e duro de suas sementes podem ser considerados defesas mecânicas. Existe relação entre o tamanho de sementes e o tamanho de predadores para as espécies estudadas.Seed damage in Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae and Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae, was studied to investigate defense against predators. The preference for larger seeds of Bauhinia pulchella by bruchids is a selection pressure for the plant to product smaller seeds, as a survival mechanism to scape predation. The impredictability of the number of viable seeds per pod in Mimosa somnians could represent a defense mechanism because it does not permit the optimization of the number of eggs laid in each fruit. The flattened seeds of Mimosa acutistipula limit the attack sucess of predator beetles. The high resistance of the pod skin and the hard compact seeds in Phaseolus linearis may be considered mechanical defenses. There is a con-elation between seed size and predator size in the species studied.

  10. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Vargas, M S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  11. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. I. Variables morfoestructurales Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. I. Morphostructural variables

    María G Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un ensayo en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoestructural de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca en condiciones de vivero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Las variables estudiadas fueron: altura de la planta; diámetro del tallo y de las ramas; número de hojas, ramas, raíces y nódulos totales; y longitud de la rama y de la raíz. Al final de la evaluación (18 semanas no se observaron diferencias significativas entre L. leucocephala y E. fusca en la altura de la planta (45,2 y 51,0 cm, el diámetro del tallo (0,65 y 0,78 cm, el número de hojas (43 y 45 y de ramas (17 y 18 y la longitud de la raíz (32,1 y 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck sólo se destacó en el número de raíces (61 y de nódulos totales promedio (6. Los resultados permiten concluir que con la utilización de un sustrato alcalino en vivero, L. leucocephala y E. fusca exhibieron un comportamiento morfoestructural aéreo similar y superior que el de A. lebbeck; mientras que la albizia mostró mejores resultados en la morfoestructura radical.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the morphostructural performance of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca under nursery conditions. A completely randomized design was used for repeated measurements in time and ten replications per species. The studied variables were: plant height; stem and branch diameter; number of leaves, branches, roots and total nodules; and branch and root length. At the end of the evaluation (18 weeks no significant differences were observed between L. leucocephala and E. fusca in plant height (45,2 and 51,0 cm, stem diameter (0,65 and 0,78 cm, number of leaves (43 and 45 and branches (17 and 18 and root length (32,1 and 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck only stood out for the number of roots (61 and average total nodules (6. The results allow concluding that with the utilization of an alkaline substratum in nursery, L. leucocephala and E. fusca showed a similar aerial morphostructural performance and higher than that of A. lebbeck; while albizia showed better results in root morphostructure.

  12. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil Espécies leguminosas e forrageiras, solteiras ou consorciadas com milho, na sucessão soja-milho no centro-oeste do Brasil

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.A viabilidade do plantio direto no Cerrado brasileiro depende da produção adequada de palha das culturas, que pode ser aumentada pela consorciação de milho (Zea mays L. com uma espécie forrageira. O trabalho foi implantado em março de 2005 com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de resíduos das espécies e de grãos de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e de milho safrinha em sucessão. Foram avaliados tratamentos de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis cv. comum, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp], e também o sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, a B. ruziziensis e o milho safrinha solteiro. Em outubro de 2005, as espécies foram dessecadas com glyphosate e a soja semeada. Após a colheita de soja em março de 2006, o milho safrinha foi cultivado em área total. O rendimento de grãos e palha de milho não foi influenciado pela espécie em consórcio. A massa seca da parte aérea foi maior quando o milho foi consorciado com Tanzânia (10,7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10,1 Mg ha-1 e Ruziziensis (9,8 Mg ha-1 do que com o milho solteiro (4,0 Mg ha-1. Nos tratamentos consorciados, houve aumento na porcentagem de solo coberto com os resíduos vegetais. O rendimento de grãos de soja e milho safrinha em sucessão foram maiores na ruziziensis solteira e no milho safrinha consorciado com ruziziensis. O cultivo de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria spp. ou com Panicum spp. aumenta a produção de resíduos culturais, preserva os nutrientes no solo sem reduzir a produtividade do milho e viabiliza o plantio direto no Centro-Oeste do Brasil.

  13. Nitrogenous compounds, phenolic compounds and morphological aspects of leaves: comparison of deciduous and semideciduous arboreal legumes Compostos nitrogenados, fenólicos e aspecto morfológico em folhas: comparação entre leguminosas arbóreas semidecíduas e decíduas

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, perennial species contain higher concentrations of certain secondary compounds, such as phenolics, lower levels of nitrogenous compounds, and greater specific leaf mass (SLM than deciduous species. The aim of this study was to verify whether the comparative data reported in the literature regarding deciduous and evergreen species, also applies to four selected species of a semideciduous tropical forest (a remnant of the Atlantic Forest. The four species chosen for this study, each with apparently different leaf life spans, were two semideciduous (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., and Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, and two deciduous (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in plastic pots containing soil taken from their natural habitat. Mature leaves were harvested for determination of the SLM and contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, nitrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll, and nitrogen. Data registered are in agreement with those of the literature. Leaves with the longest life span had the highest content of phenolics and the lowest levels of tannins, nitrate, protein, amino acids, chlorophyll and nitrogen, as well as presenting the greatest SLM.Em geral as espécies perenifólias possuem maior concentração de alguns compostos secundários, como por exemplo fenóis, menor concentração de compostos nitrogenados e maior massa foliar específica (MFE, quando comparadas a espécies decíduas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as observações encontradas na literatura, comparando espécies perenifólias e decíduas aplicam-se também a quatro espécies de uma mata semidecídua, remanescente da Mata Atlântica. Das quatro espécies usadas neste estudo, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes, duas eram semidecíduas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme e duas decíduas (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos, contendo solo da mata. O cultivo foi feito em casa de vegetação. Folhas maduras foram coletadas para análise de fenóis totais, taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofila total, nitrogênio total e MFE. Os resultados obtidos corroboram os da literatura, já que as espécies com folhas mais longevas apresentaram concentrações maiores de fenóis totais, menores de taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas solúveis totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofilas totais, nitrogênio total e maior MFE.

  14. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. II. Patrón de crecimiento y distribución de la biomasa Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. II. Growth and biomass distribution pattern

    María G Medina¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de comparar el patrón de crecimiento y la distribución de biomasa de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca durante 18 semanas en vivero. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura (TCA y de la distribución de la MS (TCMS, así como el porcentaje de materia seca (MS y el peso seco por planta de las fracciones (hojas, tallo, raíz. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Erythrina presentó la mayor TCA y TCMS promedio (3,7 mm/día y 94,8 mg/día, seguida por leucaena (3,1 y 81,3 y, por último, albizia (1,2 mm/día y 53,1 mg/día, respectivamente. Independientemente de la especie, el mayor porcentaje de MS promedio se observó en las raíces (31,9, seguido por el tallo (28,0 y las hojas (25,4. Se observó una mayor distribución de MS por planta en las hojas (3,9 g y la raíz (3,1 g, comparados con el tallo (2,9 g. Se concluye que, para estas condiciones de aviveramiento, E. fusca presentó los mejores resultados; mientras que A. lebbeck necesitaría más tiempo para alcanzar las características deseables para su trasplante a campo.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to compare the growth and biomass distribution pattern of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca for 18 weeks in nursery. The studied variables were: growth rate related to height (GRH and DM distribution (GRDM, as well as dry matter percentage (DM and dry weight per plant of the fractions (leaves, stem, root. A completely randomized design for measurements repeated in time and ten replications per species were used. E. fusca showed the highest average GRH and GRDM (3,7 mm/day and 94,8 mg/day, followed by L. leucocephala (3,1 and 81,3 and, lastly, A. lebbeck (1,2 mm/day and 53,1 mg/day, respectively. In dependently from the species, the highest percentage of average DM was observed in the roots (31,9, followed by the stem (28,0 and leaves (25, 4. A higher DM distribution per plant was observed in the leaves (3,9 g and root (3,1 g as compared to the stem (2,9 g. It is concluded that, for these nursery conditions, E. fusca showed the best results; while A. lebbeck would need more time to reach the desirable characteristics for its transplant to the field.

  15. Isolation and characterization of two plant growth-promoting bacteria from the rhizoplane of a legume (Lupinus albescens in sandy soil Isolamento e caracterização de duas bactérias promotoras de crescimento vegetal do rizoplano de uma leguminosa (Lupinus albescens de solo arenoso

    Adriana Giongo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial strains that amplified part of the nifH gene, RP1p and RP2p, belonging to the genus Enterobacter and Serratia, were isolated from the rhizoplane of Lupinus albescens. These bacteria are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, facultative anaerobic, and fast-growing; the colonies reach diameters of 3-4 mm within 24 h of incubation at 28 ºC. The bacteria were also able to grow at temperatures as high as 40 ºC, in the presence of high (2-3 % w/v NaCl concentrations and pH 4 -10. Strain RP1p was able to utilize 10 of 14 C sources, while RP2p utilized nine. The isolates produced siderophores and indolic compounds, but none of them was able to solubilize phosphate. Inoculation of L. albescens with RP1p and RP2p strains resulted in a significant increase in plant dry matter, indicating the plant-growth-promoting abilities of these bacteria.Duas linhagens bacterianas que apresentaram amplificação de parte do gene nifH, RP1p e RP2p, pertencentes aos gêneros Enterobacter e Serratia, foram isoladas do rizoplano de Lupinus albescens. Essas bactérias são Gram-negativas, com formato de bastonete, móveis, anaeróbias facultativas e apresentam multiplicação rápida, com colônias alcançando diâmetros de 3-4 mm em 24 h de incubação a 28 ºC. RP1p e RP2p também foram capazes de multiplicação em temperaturas elevadas, como 40 ºC, na presença de alta concentração de NaCl (2-3 % v/v e em valores de pH que variaram de 4 a 10. A linhagem RP1p foi capaz de utilizar 10 das 14 fontes de carbono avaliadas, enquanto a linhagem RP2p utilizou nove. Os isolados produziram sideróforos e compostos indólicos, mas foram incapazes de solubilizar fosfatos. A inoculação de L. albescens com as linhagens RP1p e RP2p resultou em aumento significativo do peso das plantas secas, o que demonstra que essas bactérias apresentam propriedades que favorecem o crescimento vegetal.

  16. Yield and botanical composition of a mixed grass-legume pasture in response to maintenance fertilization Produção e composição botânica de uma pastagem consorciada de gramínea e leguminosa em resposta à adubação de manutenção

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on a low-productive Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture, mixed with Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (forage peanut, established 13 years ago in a Red-Yellow Latosol in Acre State, western Brazilian Amazon. The purpose was to evaluate the response of this pasture to different fertilizer combinations, aiming at identifying the nutritional factors responsible for the fall of pasture carrying capacity and for the reduced vigor of forage peanut. It was used a randomized complete block design, with three replications and 12 combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, lime, sulfur, and micronutrients (100 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K2O; 300 kg/ha of dolomitic lime; 30 kg/ha of sulfur and FTE BR-10. Fertilizers were broadcast in 5 × 5-m plots, and the experimental area was isolated from grazing for 35 days. Pasture response to fertilizations showed that nitrogen was the main limiting nutrient to forage production. The other nutrients, applied singly or in a combined way, without nitrogen source, did not change dry matter accumulation rate. Overall, fertilizations with nitrogen provided dry matter accumulation rate of 115 kg/ha/day in comparison to only 32 kg/ha/day when nitrogen was not applied. There was no response from forage peanut to fertilization, so, there are other factors responsible for its reduced vigor of regrowth.Este estudo foi realizado em uma pastagem pouco produtiva de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, consorciada com Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (amendoim-forrageiro, estabelecida há 13 anos em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo no estado do Acre, Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta desta pastagem a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes, visando identificar os fatores nutricionais responsáveis pela queda da capacidade de suporte da pastagem e pelo reduzido vigor do amendoim-forrageiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições, com 12 combinações de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, calcário, enxofre e micronutrientes (100 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O; 300 kg/ha de calcário dolomítico; 30 kg/ha de enxofre e FTE BR-10. Os fertilizantes foram aplicados em cobertura, em parcelas de 5 × 5 m, e a área experimental foi isolada do pastejo durante 35 dias. A resposta do pasto à adubação indicou que o nitrogênio foi o principal nutriente limitante à produção de forragem. Os demais nutrientes, aplicados isoladamente ou de forma combinada, sem uma fonte de nitrogênio, não alteraram a taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. Em média, as adubações com nitrogênio proporcionaram taxa de acúmulo de massa seca de 115 kg/ha/dia, em comparação à de apenas 32 kg/ha/dia quando não foi aplicado nitrogênio. Não houve resposta do amendoim-forrageiro à adubação, logo há outros fatores responsáveis pelo seu reduzido vigor de rebrota.

  17. Feijão-vagem semeado sobre cobertura viva perene de gramínea e leguminosa e em solo mobilizado, com adubação orgânica Snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of grass and legume and in tilled soil with organic amendment

    Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico do feijão-vagem, cv. Alessa, cultivado sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum Flüggé e de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory, e em solo convencionalmente preparado, como controle. Diferentes doses de cama de aviário (0, 7, 14 e 28 t ha-1 foram fornecidas, parceladamente, em um Planossolo, em Seropédica, RJ, de agosto a outubro de 2002. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se modelo quadrático para análise dos resultados. A produtividade de vagens foi semelhante nos três sistemas de cultivo sem efeito competitivo das espécies de cobertura viva, sobre as quais foi realizada a semeadura direta da cultura, com enxada. A produtividade máxima estimada pelo modelo de regressão foi 20,3 t ha-1 de vagens. Esse valor foi obtido com a dose de 26 t ha-1 de cama de aviário, aplicada de forma parcelada. A semeadura direta de feijão-vagem sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais e de amendoim forrageiro é viável, com resultados preliminares positivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé and of peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory and in a conventional tillage soil as a control. Different parcels and doses of poultry bed manure (0, 7, 14 and 28 t ha-1 were used in a Planosol soil from August to October of 2002. The statistical design was a split plot, in completely randomized blocks, with four replications, using a quadratic model to analyze the results. Snap bean yield was similar for the tillage system treatments without competition effect from the living mulch, in which direct seeding of the main crop was performed with a hoe. The greatest snap bean yield estimated by regression model was 20.3 t ha-1, corresponding to the dose of 26 t ha-1 of manure applied in parcels. The direct seeding of snap bean on living perennial mulch of bahia grass and perennial peanut is agronomicaly viable, with positive preliminary results on snap bean yield.

  18. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-03

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties.

  19. Resistance of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens to nitenpyram: Cross-resistance patterns, mechanism, stability, and realized heritability.

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Raza, Abu Bakar Muhammad; Abbas, Naeem; Aqueel, Muhammad Anjum; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a major generalist predator employed in integrated pest management (IPM) plans for pest control on many crops. Nitenpyram, a neonicotinoid insecticide has widely been used against the sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. Therefore, a field green lacewing strain was exposed to nitenpyram for five generations to investigate resistance evolution, cross-resistance pattern, stability, realized heritability, and mechanisms of resistance. Before starting the selection with nitenpyram, a field collected strain showed 22.08-, 23.09-, 484.69- and 602.90-fold resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin, spinosad and acetamiprid, respectively compared with the Susceptible strain. After continuous selection for five generations (G1-G5) with nitenpyram in the laboratory, the Field strain (Niten-SEL) developed a resistance ratio of 423.95 at G6. The Niten-SEL strain at G6 showed no cross-resistance to buprofezin and acetamiprid and negative cross-resistance to spinosad compared with the Field strain (G1). For resistance stability, the Niten-SEL strain was left unexposed to any insecticide for four generations (G6-G9) and bioassay results at G10 showed that resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin and spinosad was stable, while resistance to acetamiprid was unstable. The realized heritability values were 0.97, 0.16, 0.03, and -0.16 to nitenpyram, buprofezin, acetamiprid and spinosad, respectively, after five generations of selection. Moreover, the enzyme inhibitors (PBO or DEF) significantly decreased the nitenpyram resistance in the resistant strain, suggesting that resistance was due to microsomal oxidases and esterases. These results are very helpful for integration of green lacewings in IPM programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência da Piroplasmose equina e sua associação com infestação por carrapatos no Estado de São Paulo

    Claudia E. Kerber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for B. caballi or T. equi as a function of the independent variables (presence or abundance of each one of the tick species found on the farms. A higher overall prevalence of B. caballi (54.1% than of T. equi (21.6% was found by the two tests. The ticks Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 were present on horses on 38 (95%, 20 (50%, and 4 (10% farms, respectively. Infestations by D. nitens were statistically associated with B. caballi-positive horses on the farms by either the CFT or cELISA. Infestations by A. cajennense were statistically associated with T. equi-positive horses on the farms by either CFT or cELISA.Amostras de soro sanguineo foram coletadas de 582 equinos de 40 haras no estado de São Paulo, onde as infestações por carrapatos foram avaliadas nos animais. Os soros foram testados por reação de fixação do complemento (RFC e ELISA competitivo por inibição (cELISA com antígenos de Babesia caballi e Theileria equi. Análises de regressão logística foram realizadas para construir modelos multivariados que pudessem explicar as variáveis dependentes (equinos positivos para B. caballi ou T. equi em função de variáveis independentes (presença e abundância de cada uma das espécies de carrapatos encontradas nos equinos dos haras. Em geral, os dois testes sorológicos indicaram uma prevalência maior para B. caballi (54,1% do que para T. equi (21,6%. Os carrapatos Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897

  1. Environmental Statement on the Tactical Fighter Weapons Center (TFWC) Range Complex, Nellis Air Force Base

    1977-03-10

    Regulus calendula cineaceus Ruby-crowned Kinglet 197. Anthus spinoietta rubescens Water Pipit 198. Bombycilla cedrorum Cedar Waxwing 199. Phainopela nitens...supersonic routes over Nevada, and I’m not entirely familiar with the terminology used for these routes, but I know they have oil burner routes, et...that B-52 was on an oil burner route, but I don’t know, but he has to file a clearance also. MR. GILLIGAM: The only thing I am concerned about is if

  2. Incorporación de Vicia sativa L. y fertilización fosfatada en un pastizal del nordeste argentino

    Porta, M.; Hack, C.M.; Castelán, M.E.; Golluscio, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    En el nordeste argentino, los pastizales megatérmicos constituyen un importante recurso forrajero para la ganadería. Sus principales limitantes son el déficit forrajero invernal y la baja calidad nutritiva. En amplias regiones se agrega, además, el bajo contenido de P en el suelo y, consecuentemente, en el forraje. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el potencial de la incorporación de una leguminosa y la fertilización fosfatada para aumentar la biomasa de leguminosas y el contenido ...

  3. Fertilización de pastos en zonas semiáridas de secano del S-W- español

    Olea Márquez de Prado, L.; Jiménez Mozo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de aportaciones de P, K, Mg + Ca, Mo + Mn y Cu + Co sobre pastizales artificiales de leguminosas + gramíneas y pastos naturales en varias zonas de Extremadura. En pastizales artificiales la fertilización previa al establecimiento con 75-95 u. de P2O5 /Ha, duplica la producción. En pastos naturales la fertilización anual con 46 u. de P2 O5, duplica la producción y el porcentaje de leguminosas. Los mayores incrementos se consiguen con aportaciones anuales de 40 u. de...

  4. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil

    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994 em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato.

  5. Ixodid ticks and tick-borne infections in the republic of Cuba – literature review and rationale for risk assessment

    Khasnatinov M.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Cuba is a popular destination for Russian tourists and about 30-50 thousands of Russian citizens visit Cuba annually. However, the recreational activity is often associated with the risk of Ixodid ticks bites and infection with tick-borne pathogens. According to published literature, the fauna of the hard tick in Cuba is represented by nine species including Ixodes capromydis, Amblyomma albopictum, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. quadricavum, A. torrei, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus. Five of these species, i.e. A. cajennense, A. dissimile, D. nitens, R. sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus, were reported as human parasites. Ticks are spread over the most part of the island territory. Several tick-borne pathogens should be considered as a potential threat for the bitten humans in Cuba, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia sp., Anaplasma sp., Ehrlichia sp., Coxiella sp., thogotovirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Implications for the epidemiology of tick-borne infections in the Russian Federation are discussed.

  6. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (NO - Leguminosae) is cultivated in many parts of India. It has been found to possess significant medicinal value. Its leaves are used both internally and externally to reduce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. Its seeds are carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic and diuretic, and ...

  7. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  8. Land Based Environmental Monitoring at Johnston Island - Disposal of Herbicide Orange

    1978-09-01

    Allizan fistuloswon p Welsh onion Allium sp. P Chives Aloe sp. P * Aloe Cordyline fruticosa p Cordyline Sansevicria tirifaciata r Bowstring Hecmp Vow...Beanf M7 52 TABLE 15. (Continued) Island s Family Sand Species John- Sand Man- Common Name Akau Hikina ston Orig. made Leguminosae (cont.) Piswn sativum p

  9. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    Mr Casper Nyamukanza

    Goats are important browsers in the Eastern Cape Province, which keeps ... Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae = Leguminosae) trees are abundant and able to ... savanna and consists of subtropical thicket vegetation dominated by deciduous woody shrubs shorter than ..... National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

  10. Prenylated isoflavonoids from plants as selective estrogen receptor modulators (phytoSERMs)

    Simons, R.; Gruppen, H.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Vincken, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites, which comprise amongst others the subclasses of isoflavones, isoflavans, pterocarpans and coumestans. Isoflavonoids are abundant in Leguminosae, and many of them can bind to the human estrogen receptor (hER) with affinities similar to or lower than

  11. Assessment of Vegetation Structural Diversity and Similarity Index of ...

    Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, relative density, diversity and similarity indices. The result showed that the forest reserve has one hundred and ninety species of plants belonging to sixty three families. The dominant plant families recorded in the forest are Leguminosae (12.63%), Rubiaceae (8.42%), ...

  12. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  13. Fulltext PDF

    (Colville's glory) of Leguminosae is a medium size deciduous tree with a thin coppery bark and slender feathery canopy. Leaves are twice compound bearing many leaflets. Flowers are fiery orange-red and produced on long drooping inflorescence. Stamens are longer than the corolla and are exserted. Fruit is a cylindrical ...

  14. Éthiopie : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    Sujet: GRAIN LEGUMES, LEGUMINOSAE, NITROGEN FIXATION, SOIL IMPROVEMENT, SOIL CONSERVATION, HUMAN NUTRITION, FOOD SECURITY, Gender. Région: Ethiopia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Agriculture et sécurité alimentaire. Financement total : CA$ 964,648.00. Étude de l'influence ...

  15. ethiopia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    Sujet: GRAIN LEGUMES, LEGUMINOSAE, NITROGEN FIXATION, SOIL IMPROVEMENT, SOIL CONSERVATION, HUMAN NUTRITION, FOOD SECURITY. Région: Ethiopia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Agriculture et sécurité alimentaire. Financement total : CA$ 964,648.00. Étude de l'influence des ...

  16. : tous les projets | Page 284 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    Sujet: GRAIN LEGUMES, LEGUMINOSAE, NITROGEN FIXATION, SOIL IMPROVEMENT, SOIL CONSERVATION, HUMAN NUTRITION, FOOD SECURITY. Région: Ethiopia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Agriculture et sécurité alimentaire. Financement total : CA$ 964,648.00. Accroissement de la sécurité ...

  17. A note on the tonka bean and William Forsyth junior’s ‘A botanical nomenclator’

    Mabberley, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 70 new combinations made in Forsyth’s ‘A botanical nomenclator’ (1794) include ten names in current use, but hitherto attributed to later authors, notable being that of the economically significant Dipteryx odorata (tonka bean), Leguminosae. Of Forsyth’s 26 nomina nova, Psychotria caerulea

  18. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  19. Is the response of aphids to alarm pheromone stable?

    Thieme, T.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2015), s. 741-746 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : (E)-β-farnesene * dropping response * habituation * Leguminosae * pea aphid Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Tamarindus indica L. (English: the tamarind tree; Hindi: Imli) of Leguminosae is a medium-to large size tree with dense and characteristic canopy. Leaves are compound. Flowers are many on long inflorescence stalk, white and pink in colour. Fruits are long and constricted between seeds and are fleshy and indehiscent ...

  1. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (English: Sissoo; Hindi: Shisham or Sisam ...

    Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (English: Sissoo; Hindi: Shisham or Sisam) of Leguminosae is a tall deciduous tree with a light crown and compound leaves. Flowers are pale yellow in branched inflorescence. Fruit pods are borne on long stalks. The tree yields good quality timber and is often planted on roadsides and as shade ...

  2. Hepatoprotective action of Pterocarpus marsupium against ...

    Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminosae) is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine as „Rasayana. for management of various metabolic disorders including hepatotoxicity. Treatment of diabetic rats with methanol extracts of P. marsupium at 100 and 300 mg per kg-bwt per day for 21 days dose-dependently decreased ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    Items 1 - 50 of 506 ... PL Mwang'ingo, Z Teklehaimanot, JB Hall, LLL Lulandala. Vol 206 (2006), Age determination of miombo species Brachystegia spiciformis (Leguminosae – Caesalpinoideae) in Zimbabwe using growth rings, Abstract. IM Grundy. Vol 73, No 2 (2011), Air layering and its potential in propagating Uapaca ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    Items 51 - 100 of 165 ... Vol 7, No 2 (2004), Evidence of male attractants for fruit flies in the leaf extract of Schinus molle, Abstract PDF. NK Gikonyo, SA Lux. Vol 7, No 2 (2004), Flavanols and terpenes/sterols with antimycobacterial activity from the stem bark of Pterocarpuse erinaceus Poir (Leguminosae), Abstract PDF.

  5. The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses

    Geurts, R.; Mitani, S.; Bisseling, T.; Franken, C.; Hartog, M.V.; Lang, C.

    2011-01-01

    Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the

  6. Study of the environment-friendly cultivation techniques optimizing the energy balance

    1993-01-01

    This study aims at discovering how to handle wheat so has to have the best energetic result. This analysis consists of three main parts. It first deals with the research of the nitrogen fertilization optimum level, then with the effect of a leguminosae on wheat nitrogen fertilization. It finally includes a synthesis of these results in growth notations. (TEC). 10 graphs., 17 tabs

  7. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 12 (2015)

    Effects of temperature, light, desiccation and cold storage on germination of Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae) seeds · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. X Pu, YF Huang, CL Pan, L Yao, XR Ai, ZJ Deng, 1015-1019 ...

  8. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  9. The symbiosis between Rhizobium leguminosarum and Pisum sativum : regulation of the nitrogenase activity

    Appels, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Rhizobium can form a symbiosis with plants of the family Leguminosae. Both bacteria and plant show considerable biochemical and morphological changes in order to develop and carry out the symbiosis. The Rhizobia

  10. Towards a new classification system for legumes: Progress report from the 6th International Legume Conference

    Pontes Coelho Borges, L.M.; Bruneau, A.; Cardoso, D.; Crisp, M.; Delgado-Salinas, A.; Doyle, J.J.; Egan, A.; Herendeen, P.S.; Hughes, C.; Kenicer, G.; Klitgaard, B.; Koenen, E.; Lavin, M.; Lewis, G.; Luckow, M.; Mackinder, B.; Malecot, V.; Miller, J.T.; Pennington, R.T.; Queiroz, de L.P.; Schrire, B.; Simon, M.F.; Steele, K.; Torke, B.; Wieringa, J.J.; Wojciechowski, M.F.; Boatwright, S.; Estrella, de la M.; Mansano, V.D.; Prado, D.E.; Stirton, C.; Wink, M.

    2013-01-01

    Legume systematists have been making great progress in understanding evolutionary relationships within the Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the third largest family of flowering plants. As the phylogenetic picture has become clearer, so too has the need for a revised classification of the family. The

  11. Homoptera: Aphididae

    and parasitoids per plant, ladybird beetles per plot, and finally grain yield per plot were recorded. Based on the results of the ANOVA, plant ... is a food, fodder and feed crop belonging to the family Leguminosae (= Fabaceae) ... use of predators, parasitoids and pathogens for pest control, either by introduction from other ...

  12. Identification of novel anticancer terpenoids from Prosopis juliflora ...

    Purpose: To identify a novel source of terpenoid anticancer compounds from P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. (Leguminosae) pods as a medicinal substitute for cancer medicines. Methods: The pods were collected, dried and pulverized. The ethanol extract was prepared by maceration. Various phyto-constituents were detected in the ...

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Pyraclotrobin Terhadap Efisiensi Penyerapan Nitrogen Dan Kualitas Hasil Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine Max L. Merr.)

    Mansur, Mansur; Ashari, Sumeru; Kuswanto, Kuswanto

    2015-01-01

    Kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) adalah tanaman kacang-kacangan (Leguminosae) yang menjadi komoditas tanaman pangan penting karena tingginya kandungan protein. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian pyraclostrobin terhadap efisiensi penyerapan nitrogen, pertumbuhan tanaman dan hasil tanaman kedelai. Bahan penelitian yang digunakan adalah benih kedelai varietas wilis, pyraclostrobin dan pupuk urea 46% N. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan tersarang yang terdiri da...

  14. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NN,

    1985-01-01

    AMSHOFF, Ms. Dr. Gerda Jane Hillegonda (5 January 1913 — 10 February 1985) Ms. Amshoff studied biology at the State University of Utrecht. Her Ph.D. thesis was on the Leguminosae of Surinam. In later years she was attached to the Agricultural College of Wageningen and worked as a staffmember of WAG,

  15. Caracterización químico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botánicas empleando análisis descriptivo y multivariado

    D. E. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo (AD, de componentes principales (ACP y correlaciones lineales (CL, se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los géneros Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra; y otras no leguminosas: Chlorophora, Morus, Guazuma, Cordia, Trichantera, Tithonia, Moringa, Azadirachta, Bulnesia, Capparis, Hibiscus y Wedelia. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y de la proteína bruta (DPB. Las especies evaluadas presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación animal (PB: 23.46 ±4.43%; FDN: 39.33 ±2.55%; cenizas: 9.78 ±4.35%; DMS: 64.98 ±14.42%; DPB: 69.15 ±15.89%. Sin embargo, las especies leguminosas, comparadas con las no leguminosas, exhibieron numéricamente mayor concentración de taninos condensados (4.06 ±4.01 vs 0.49 ±0.31%, taninos que precipitan proteínas (1.95 ±1.37 vs 0.28 ±0.23% y digestibilidad de la proteína con pepsina (72.51 ±14.64 vs 66.90 ±16.92%. Aunque el porcentaje de inhibición de la tripsina fuese similar entre los dos grupos (50.84 ±6.81 vs 50.92 ±8.94, la actividad de estos inhibidores (3.29 ±2.76 vs 1.55 ±0.39 tripsina inhibida/ gMS y la cantidad de unidades inhibidas (625.10 ±524.01 vs 323.33 ±135.31 unidades/ gMS fueron superior en los forrajes leguminosos. Mediante el AD, ACP y las CL sepudo comprobar que las especies leguminosas exhibieron diferencias acentuadas en el patrón fitoquímico de la biomasa, comparadas con el resto. Los taninos precipitantes de las leguminosas afectaron la digestibilidad de las fracciones nutritivas, mientras que los fenoles y los esteroles presentes en las no leguminosas exhibieron mayor potencial antinutricional en ese tipo de especies.

  16. Effect of the species and the regrowth age on the fatty acid profile of tropical legumes and shrubs

    José Edwin Mojica-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available © 2017 Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria 465Corpoica Cienc Tecnol Agropecuaria, Mosquera (Colombia, 18(3:ISSNe 2500-5308 ISSN 0122-8706septiembre - diciembre / 2017septiembre - diciembre / 2017Efecto de la especie y la edad de rebrote en el perfil de ácidos grasos de leguminosas y arbustivas tropicalesAlimentación y nutrición animal463-477ResumoAvaliou-se o efeito de três idades de rebrotação (4, 8 e 12 semanas sobre a produção de forragem, qualidade nutricional e perfil de ácidos graxos em leguminosas herbáceas: Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides,Canavalia brasiliensis, Centrosema molle, Centrosema macrocarpum, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Lablab purpureus,leguminosas arbustivas: Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Desmodium velutinum, Cajanus cajan,Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae e uma arbustiva não leguminosa: Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae. Utilizou-se um desenho de parcelas divididas com blocos aleatoriamente em que a parcela principal foi a espécie forrageira e a subparcela foi a idade de rebrotação. Os principais ácidos graxos presentes nas espécies foram o ácido palmítico (C16:0, ácido linolênico (C18:3 e o linoleico (C18:2. No entanto, nas leguminosas herbáceas e arbustivas, o conteúdo de ácidos graxos foi diferente e diminuiu com a idade do rebrotação nos dois grupos. A relação C18:2/C18:3 foi maior nas leguminosas herbáceas do que nas arbustivas, o que poderia resultar em uma maior concentração de ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC na gordura do leite. A leguminosa Cajanus cajan apresentou o maior (p<0,05 conteúdo de ácido linolénico (C18:3 e de precursores de ALCnas três idades de rebrotação avaliadas, o que sugere que seu uso na alimentação de bovinos em sistemas de dupla aptidão resultaria em concentrações mais altas de ALC c9 t11 na gordura do leite em comparação com outras espécies.

  17. Identificación y Caracterización de Cepas Nativas de Rhizobium en la Provincia de Santa Elena.

    Javier Soto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas agrícolas de subsistencia, el nitrógeno es un macronutriente esencial para el buen desarrollo de las plantas; es utilizado en forma de nitrato o amonio. Las bacterias del género Rhizobium poseen la capacidad de fijar el nitrógeno, mediante una relación de simbiosis con leguminosas e influyen en la producción de sustancias promotoras de crecimiento en las plantas no leguminosas. En la península de Santa Elena no existen evidencias del uso y aplicación de biofertilizantes de origen microbiano nativo, por lo que el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar y seleccionar cepas del género Rhizobium procedentes de los nódulos de leguminosas de dos zonas de la provincia de Santa Elena. Los experimentos Aislamiento, identificación y caracterización bioquímica de cepas de Rhizobium encontradas en diferentes zonas de la península de Santa Elena comprende: a Estudio de la morfología nodular de leguminosas; b Presencia de la enzima Leghemoglobina en los nódulos, c Aislamiento de microorganismos de los nódulos de leguminosas, d Respuesta de la enzima catalasa ante el peróxido de hidrógeno, e Crecimiento en diferentes fuentes de carbono , f Crecimiento en tres porcentajes cloruro de sodio; y e Producción de 3-ketolactasa en agar LLA para descartar contaminantes frecuentes como Agrobacterium.

  18. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Two Novel Regio-specific Flavonoid Prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata*

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2014-01-01

    Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3′-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3′-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity. PMID:25361766

  19. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two novel regio-specific flavonoid prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata.

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2014-12-26

    Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry

  20. [Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Chiapas, Mexico].

    Cruz Aldán, Epigmenio; Lira Torres, Iván; Güiris Andrade, Dario Marcelino; Osorio Sarabia, David; Quintero M, Ma Teresa

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie's sedimentation and Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis.

  1. Specific characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales in the use of textiles and laundry.

    Shimonaka, Atsushi; Koga, Jinichiro; Baba, Yuko; Nishimura, Tomoko; Murashima, Koichiro; Kubota, Hidetoshi; Kono, Toshiaki

    2006-04-01

    We examined the characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases (glycoside hydrolases family 45; GH45) from Mucorales belonging to Zygomycota in the use of textiles and laundry. The defibrillation activities on lyocell fabric of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales, such as RCE1 and RCE2 from Rhizopus oryzae, MCE1 and MCE2 from Mucor circinelloides, and PCE1 from Phycomyces nitens, were much higher than those of the other family 45 endoglucanases. By contrast, family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales were less resistant to anionic surfactant and oxidizing agent, main components in detergents, than the other family 45 endoglucanases. RCE1 consists of two distinct modules, a catalytic module and a carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1), and these common specific characteristics were considered to due to the catalytic module, but not to the CBM1.

  2. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  3. Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae from northeastern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Ângelo Parise Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MZSP: Brazil, Santa Catarina State, [São Bento do Sul municipality, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W], [railroad station] Rio Vermelho, II.1952 is described and illustrated based on three males. The long cercus (2.9-3.2 mm places this species in the longistyla-group together with N. kiautai, N. longistyla and N. nitens but it differs from them mainly by the shape of cercus, with carinated part occupying 0.33 of cercus total length, and also by dorsal, ventro-medial and ventro-lateral tubercles developed. An unusual process on tergal portion of prothorax is reported for the first time in Navicordulia. The rate of description of new species of South American 'Corduliidae' is discussed. A map with records of Atlantic Forest Navicordulia species and a list of Brazilian corduliids by state are also presented.

  4. Zvyšky bratislavských lužných lesov – významné refúgium podunajskej malakofauny Remnants of alluvial woodland in a urbanised area – important refuge for Middle-Danubian land gastropods (Bratislava City, Slovakia

    Juraj Čačaný

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings a review of a long-term malacological survey of fragmented urban alluvial woodland, an important refuge of Middle-Danubian terrestrial molluscan fauna. In the area of Bratislava agglomeration we surveyed two softwood and 26 hardwood alluvial forests. Altogether, 52 mollusc species have been recorded during the last 20 years (representing 79% of the total terrestrial mollusc fauna living in the Slovak section of the Danube floodplain. The most frequent species (more than 75% sites were Aegopinella nitens, Helix pomatia, Monachoides incarnatus (every three species at 27 sites, i.e. 96%, Cochlodina laminata (26 sites, 93%, Petasina unidentata (25 sites, Urticicola umbrosus (24 sites, Alinda biplicata (23 sites, and Clausilia pumila (21 sites. The main ecological groups were forest species in general (45%, mainly eurytopic and slightly hygrophilous, hygrophilous species in general (26%, hygrophilous and riparian, euryecious species (16%, semi-steppe (8% and open-country species (5%.

  5. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Inibidores de proteases encontrados em sementes de Caesalpinia echinata (paubrasil: isolamento e caracterização do inibidor de tripsina

    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata, o pau-brasil, é uma árvore pertencente à família das Leguminosas, sub-família Caesalpinoidae. Como já foram encontrados inibidores de proteases em sementes de outras Leguminosas, o objetivo do trabalho é purificar e caracterizar o inibidor de tripsina extraído das sementes de C. echinata. Após extração salina e precipitação por acetona, os inibidores foram purificados por cromatografia de troca iônica e filtração em gel, apresentando massas moleculares de 19,5 e 10 kDa e constante de inibição da ordem de nM.

  7. Effect of fertilization and soil treatment on the soybean nodulation

    Abdel aziz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. ) is one of the most important leguminosae crops all over the world. It is considered one of the most important protein sources for human and animals. During the last 20 years, soybean was introduced to Egypt, however the nodulation of soybean under field conditions remains a problem because the egyptian soils were void of soybean rhizobia. Since soybean is a leguminosae crop, symbiosis with root - nodule R hizobium might play a significant role in the management of its production . Nevertheless, soybean suffers from poor nodulation in egypt, hence nitrogenase fertilization for legume is a logical practice. Soybean can utilize both soil -N or applied N and symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen under normal field condition. The fixation of atmospheric N by the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis is an integrated process in which the host plant ( macrosymbiont) supplies the bacterium (microsymbiont) with energy and the bacterium supplies the plant with reduced N. figs.,172 refs

  8. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal barks used in Peruvian Amazon.

    Kloucek, P; Svobodova, B; Polesny, Z; Langrova, I; Smrcek, S; Kokoska, L

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six barks traditionally used in Callería District (Ucayali Department, Peru) for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. Ethanol extracts of stem barks of Abuta grandifolia (Menispermaceae), Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Naucleopsis glabra (Moraceae), Pterocarpus rohrii (Leguminosae), and root bark of Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae) were tested against nine bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution method. All plants possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, the extract of Naucleopsis glabra exhibited the strongest activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 62.5 to 125 microg/ml), while the broadest spectrum of action was shown by the extract of Maytenus macrocarpa, which inhibited all the strains tested with MICs ranging from 125 to 250 microg/ml.

  9. Parásitos del tapir centroamericano Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae en Chiapas, México

    Epigmenio Cruz Aldán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron 19 muestras de excretas del tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii en la Reserva "La Sepultura" (marzo a julio de 1999, así como un muestreo directo a un tapir macho de la Reserva "Montes Azules" (Chiapas, México. Se analizaron con cinco técnicas (flotación, MacMaster, micrometría, sedimentación de Ritchie y cuantitativa de Ferreira. Además se recolectaron muestras en piel de animales capturados en en las dos reservas y en una pareja de zoológico proveniente de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. Se hallaron nematodos y protozoarios: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp., y un ancilostomaideo aun por identificar. Además se informa la presencia de Eimeria sp., y Balantidium coli. Los ácaros hallados fueron; Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens e Ixodes bicornis.Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in Chiapas, Mexico. We analyzed 19 samples of Baird´s tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie’s sedimentation and Ferreira´s quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 445

  10. Comparative toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to different species of soil invertebrates.

    de Lima E Silva, Cláudia; Brennan, Nicola; Brouwer, Jitske M; Commandeur, Daniël; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2017-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under increasing scrutiny for their impact on non-target organisms, especially pollinators. The current scientific literature is mainly focused on the impact of these insecticides on pollinators and some aquatic insects, leaving a knowledge gap concerning soil invertebrates. This study aimed at filling this gap, by determining the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to five species of soil invertebrates: earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), Collembola (Folsomia candida), oribatid mites (Oppia nitens) and isopods (Porcellio scaber). Tests focused on survival and reproduction or growth, after 3-5 weeks exposure in natural LUFA 2.2 standard soil. Imidacloprid was more toxic than thiacloprid for all species tested. F. candida and E. andrei were the most sensitive species, with LC 50 s of 0.20-0.62 and 0.77 mg/kg dry soil for imidacloprid and 2.7-3.9 and 7.1 mg/kg dry soil for thiacloprid. EC 50 s for effects on the reproduction of F. candida and E. andrei were 0.097-0.30 and 0.39 mg/kg dry soil for imidacloprid and 1.7-2.4 and 0.44 mg/kg dry soil for thiacloprid. The least sensitive species were O. nitens and P. scaber. Enchytraeids were a factor of 5-40 less sensitive than the taxonomically related earthworm, depending on the endpoint considered. Although not all the species showed high sensitivity to the neonicotinoids tested, these results raise awareness about the effects these insecticides can have on non-target soil invertebrates.

  11. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Species composition of grasshoppers (Orthoptera) in open plots and farmlands in calabar metropolis, southern Nigeria.

    Oku, E E; Arong, G A; Bassey, D A

    2011-04-15

    The grasshoppers are strategic in the welfare of man and may constitute a major threat when its population is not checked. A study on the distribution of grasshoppers in open plots and farmlands was carried out within Calabar Metropolis between August to November, 2010. A total of 295 grasshoppers belonging to 11 species grouped under 3 families (Tettigoniidae, Acrididae and Pyrgomorphidae) were collected from 8 study locations. Grasshoppers were collected weekly from all study sites using sweep nets between 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. The collection was done using sweep nets between 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. when grasshoppers baked themselves under the sun. The percentage abundance of these species were Spathosterrium pygmaeum (16.27%), Tettigonia viridissima (11.86%), Catantops spissus (11.19%) Acridaturita sp. (10.17%), Gastrimargus acrididae (9.83%), Schistocerca nitens (9.49%), Tylopsis sp. (7.46%), Zonocerus variegatus (6.78%), Omocestus viridulus (6.10%), Scudderia mexicana (5.76%) and Zonocerus elegans (5.08%). Tettigonia viridissima and Acridaturita sp. were largely distributed as it occurred in 7 of 8 study sites while Scudderia mexicana was the least distributed, as it was reported in 3 sites only. The dominant grasshopper species in open plot was Spathosterrium pygmaeum (19%) in relative abundance and the least was Zonocerus variegatus (0.64%). Zonocerus variegatus was the dominant species in farmland (14%) in relative abundance and the least was Schistocerca nitens (4%). Chi-square test showed a high significant difference between the distribution of grasshoppers in open plots and farmlands (p grasshopper species composition were attributed to lizard predation and management practices such as grass cutting, fertilizer and pesticide applications. It was therefore concluded that species abundance and population of grasshoppers could be enhanced by minimizing human activities that interfere with land use.

  13. Evolutionary history and novel biotic interactions determine plant responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Rachel Wooliver

    Full Text Available A major frontier in global change research is predicting how multiple agents of global change will alter plant productivity, a critical component of the carbon cycle. Recent research has shown that plant responses to climate change are phylogenetically conserved such that species within some lineages are more productive than those within other lineages in changing environments. However, it remains unclear how phylogenetic patterns in plant responses to changing abiotic conditions may be altered by another agent of global change, the introduction of non-native species. Using a system of 28 native Tasmanian Eucalyptus species belonging to two subgenera, Symphyomyrtus and Eucalyptus, we hypothesized that productivity responses to abiotic agents of global change (elevated CO2 and increased soil N are unique to lineages, but that novel interactions with a non-native species mediate these responses. We tested this hypothesis by examining productivity of 1 native species monocultures and 2 mixtures of native species with an introduced hardwood plantation species, Eucalyptus nitens, to experimentally manipulated soil N and atmospheric CO2. Consistent with past research, we found that N limits productivity overall, especially in elevated CO2 conditions. However, monocultures of species within the Symphyomyrtus subgenus showed the strongest response to N (gained 127% more total biomass in elevated CO2 conditions, whereas those within the Eucalyptus subgenus did not respond to N. Root:shoot ratio (an indicator of resource use was on average greater in species pairs containing Symphyomyrtus species, suggesting that functional traits important for resource uptake are phylogenetically conserved and explaining the phylogenetic pattern in plant response to changing environmental conditions. Yet, native species mixtures with E. nitens exhibited responses to CO2 and N that differed from those of monocultures, supporting our hypothesis and highlighting that both

  14. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  15. Evaluación del potencial tecnológico de galactomananos del endospermo de semillas de Prosopis sp. para el uso en la industria de alimentos Evaluation of the technological potential of galactomanan from the endosperm of Prosopis sp. to be used in food industry

    M. Oliva; C. Alfaro; I. Palape

    2010-01-01

    Las especies de leguminosas presentan galactomanano en mayor o menor cantidad en el endospermo de las semillas sus principales fuentes comerciales son la goma guar, caroba y tara, las que se emplean particularmente en la industria de alimentos, bebidas y farmacia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial tecnológico del galactomanano del endospermo de semillas de algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) para el uso en la industria de alimentos. Para esto se trabajó con galactomananos obtenidos a ...

  16. Antracnosis de la faba ("Colletotrichum lindemuthianum" (Sacc. & Magn.) Scribner)

    Landeras, Elena; Menéndez, Fermín; Braña, Máximo

    2010-01-01

    1 h. (2 p.) il. col. Este hongo produce graves daños a la judía común ("Phaseolus vulgaris"), y especialmente a la variedad "faba granja", pero también puede atacar a otras especies de "Phaseolus" y a otros cultivos de leguminosas de menor importancia. UNIÓN EUROPEA, Fondo Europeo de Orientación y Garantía Agrícola

  17. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  18. Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon

    Caraballo Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

  19. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  20. Población de nematodos en forrajes tropicales en dos rangos de altura en el cantón de San Carlos, Alajuela

    WingChing-Jones, Rodolfo; Salazar Figueroa, Luís

    2011-01-01

    Se caracterizó la población de nematodos fitoparásitos presente en los pastos Sorgo negro (Sorghum almus), Camerún (Pennisetum purpureum var Camerun), King grass (Pennisetum purpureum var King grass), Tanzania (Panicum maximum var Tanzania), Brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha), Toledo (Brachiaria brizantha var Toledo), Estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis), Mombaza (Panicum maximum var Mombaza), Ratana (Ischaemum ciliare) y la leguminosa maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi) en la localidad de San C...

  1. Antimicrobial potential of Dialium guineense (Wild.) stem bark on some clinical isolates in Nigeria

    Olajubu, FA; Akpan, I; Ojo, DA; Oluwalana, SA

    2012-01-01

    Context: The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but also more expensive antibiotics. In most developing countries of the world these antibiotics are not readily affordable, thus making compliance difficult. This calls for research into alternative sources of antimicrobials. Dialium guineense is a shrub of the family Leguminosae. Its stem bark is used for the treatment of cough, toothache, and bronchitis...

  2. Legumes’ contributions to genetic research, a historical perspective from Mendelism up to massive sequencing

    Pérez de la Vega, Marcelino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that Mendel chose peas as the study material for his experiments that are the cornerstone of genetics. Nonetheless, it is less known that he also experimented with other legumes although with reduced success, or that Darwin also experimented with legumes. During the first decade of the twentieth century, peas were the favorite material used to verify Mendel’s results. Although genetics after that time primarily developed using other eukaryotic organisms or microorganisms, legumes pertain to the core material that allowed Vavilov to develop his Law of Homologous Series in Variation. They have also been used as a model to study plant-microbe symbiotic relationships that enable the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, making them one of the biological models of the genomic age. Over the last five years, several genome sequences of cultivated legume species have been published, with many more to be made public in the upcoming years. Consequently, the amount of theoretical knowledge accumulating in this area and its application in plant breeding are increasing exponentially.Es conocido que Mendel escogió los guisantes como material para realizar los experimentos que son la piedra fundacional de la Genética. Pero es menos conocido que Mendel también experimentó con otras leguminosas con menos éxito, o que Darwin experimentó con leguminosas. Durante la primera década del siglo XX, los guisantes fueron el material predilecto para comprobar los resultados obtenidos por Mendel. Después, la Genética se desarrolló utilizando prioritariamente otros organismos eucariotas o microorganismos. Aun así, las leguminosas forman parte de los materiales en los que Vavilov se basó para desarrollar su Ley de las Series Homólogas en la Variación. Las leguminosas son el modelo para el estudio de las relaciones simbióticas planta-microorganismo que posibilitan la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico. Esto las ha convertido en uno de los

  3. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Larval parasitism of Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in north-eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina

    Gerardo Liljesthröm

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m² que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.In host-parasitoid interactions, parasitoid efficiency may be increased by different quantity and quality of plant signals. Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham is a pest on soybean, with larvae feeding endophitically on various herbaceous leguminosae. In this study we analyzed larval parasitism of C. aporema on Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L and Glycine max Merrill in the north-east of the Buenos Aires province. Larval density was higher on L. albus (109,2 larvae/m², than on the other

  4. The rise and fall of Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum − what went wrong and some implications for legume breeding, evaluation and management

    Richard M. Jones

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro fue una de las primeras leguminosas forrajeras tropicales liberadas para uso comercial en Australia en la década de 1960.  Inicialmente se mostró muy promisorio tanto a nivel de estación experimental como en siembras comerciales.  Mientras al comienzo las investigaciones mostraron que pastoreo intensivo tuvo efecto negativo en la productividad de la leguminosa, 15 años después habían incrementado las dudas sobre su persistencia en condiciones de pastoreo aún con cargas animales ligeras a moderadas.  Como consecuencia, el uso comercial de Siratro ha venido declinando en forma marcada, aunque en áreas muy reducidas todavía se encuentran algunas siembras del cv. Aztec.  En este documento se analizan algunas de las razones de este descenso en el uso de Siratro y sus implicaciones en las investigaciones sobre mejoramiento de pasturas mediante la introducción de leguminosas.  En general, la investigación inicial en pasturas tropicales, tal como es el caso de Siratro, no tuvo en cuenta que las plantas originales de leguminosas herbáceas tienen un ciclo de vida reducido y que para garantizar la persistencia de una población es necesario que se desarrollen nuevas plantas mediante reproducción vegetativa o a partir de semillas.  En numerosos estudios realizados durante un lapso de 20 años se demostró que, aunque Siratro forma nuevas plántulas de reemplazo, en la mayoría de los casos éstas no son suficientes para mantener una adecuada densidad por un período prolongado de tiempo.  Para ilustrar esto se presentan datos de estudios sobre densidad de estolones, longevidad de plantas, bancos de semilla en el suelo y sobrevivencia de plántulas en diferentes condiciones de pastoreo y clima.  La principal limitante fue que los bancos de semillas en el suelo fueron generalmente inadecuados para asegurar la persistencia de la población, especialmente en años secos, cuando las plantas no

  5. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Gerardo LILJESTHRÖM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m2 que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.

  6. Adubação verde e alterações nas características químicas de um Cambissolo na região de Ji-Paraná-RO Green manure and changes on chemical characteristics of a soil in the Ji-Paraná-RO region

    Elaine Almeida Delarmelinda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde promove benefícios nas características químicas, físicas e biológicas do solo. O trabalho avaliou o efeito da incorporação de diferentes adubos verdes nas características químicas de um Cambissolo háplico eutrófico. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram das seguintes leguminosas: Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, C. spectabilis, Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma, Mucuna pruriens, Pueraria phaseoloides e a testemunha (sem leguminosa. As avaliações foram realizadas 60 dias após o corte e incorporação. A utilização de leguminosas como adubação verde proporcionou aumento nos teores de matéria orgânica, soma de bases e percentagem de saturação por bases, destacando-se a Pueraria phaseoloides, C. juncea e C. spectabilis.The green manure promotes benefits on the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil. The experiment evaluated the effect of incorporation of differents green manure on the chemistry characteristics of a soil. Experimental design used was a randomized block, with eight treatments and three replications. Treatments were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma axillare, Mucuna pruriens and Pueraria phaseoloides and the treatment control (without leguminous. Evaluations of soil samplings were performed in 60 days after handling were performed. The results showed significant effects of the leguminous crop Pueraria phaseoloides, C. juncea and C. spectabilis on the fertility of the soil, with significant increments of organic matter, exchangeable bases and in the base saturation.

  7. POBLACIÓN DE NEMATODOS EN FORRAJES TROPICALES EN DOS RANGOS DE ALTURA EN EL CANTÓN DE SAN CARLOS, ALAJUELA

    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la población de nematodos fitoparásitos presente en los pastos Sorgo negro (Sorghum almus, Camerún (Pennisetum purpureum var Camerun, King grass (Pennisetum purpureum var King grass, Tanzania (Panicum maximum var Tanzania, Brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha, Toledo (Brachiaria brizantha var Toledo, Estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis, Mombaza (Panicum maximum var Mombaza, Ratana (Ischaemum ciliare y la leguminosa maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi en la localidad de San Carlos, Alajuela, de junio a noviembre del 2003. Se tomaron 5 muestras compuestas de suelo y de las raíces contenidas en el volumen de suelo para los forrajes evaluados, excepto para el pasto King grass, el Ratana y el Maní forrajero, en donde el número de muestras compuestas fue de 10 para cada material. Los nematodos Pratylenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp., Criconemella sp., se identificaron en 8 de los pastos y en la leguminosa evaluada. El género Psilenchus sp., solo se presentó en el pasto Tanzania, mientras que el género Xiphinema sp., en los forrajes Tanzania, Brizantha, Ratana y en el maní forrajero. El género Paratylenchus sp., se contabilizó con los forrajes Tanzania, Brizantha y Ratana. En el pasto Toledo, Camerún y en el maní forrajero se observó Hemicycliophora sp. En cambio, Meloidogyne sp., se encontró en los pastos Brizantha y Ratana. Los nematodos no fitoparásitos se identificaron en los 9 pastos y la leguminosa evaluada.

  8. Efecto de la altura de poda en Leucaena leucocephala y su influencia en el rebrote y rendimiento de Panicum maximum

    H. M. Bacab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las prácticas importantes de manejo en los sistemas de Leucaena leucocephala asociada con pastos tropicales, como Panicum maximum, es la poda; en la actualidad se continúan los estudios para determinar los efectos de esta práctica en el componente arbóreo y herbáceo. Por todo ello, en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres alturas de poda en Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham y su influencia en la pastura asociada (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El estudio se realizó en la época poco lluviosa del año (marzo a mayo de 2010, se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Al inicio del experimento se asignaron los tratamientos (alturas de poda de 20, 40 y 60 cm sobre el nivel del suelo para Leucaena leucocephala. En el caso de Panicum maximum, se realizó una poda a 5 cm sobre el nivel del suelo en todas las parcelas experimentales. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la poda de la leguminosa a 40 y 60 cm permitió obtener brotes de mayor talla, sin afectar a la gramínea asociada. De igual manera, al incrementar la altura de poda, la leguminosa presentó mayor rendimiento y proporción de forraje comestible; sin embargo, se afectó negativamente a la pastura asociada. Ante ello, considerándose el aspecto animal, se recomienda no reducir la altura de poda de Leucaena leucocephala a menos de 40 cm, ya que se reduce significativamente el rendimiento y la proporción de forraje comestible de esta leguminosa, el cual es de mayor calidad para la alimentación animal.

  9. Composición genérica del banco de semilla del suelo en un sistema silvopastoril multiasociado (Nota técnica

    F Reyes

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey» se desarrolló una investigación, con el objetivo de determinar la composición, por géneros, del banco de semilla de un suelo Ferralítico Rojo en explotación ganadera; el cual estaba insertado en un sistema silvopastoril multiasociado con más de diez años de explotación. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones, y los tratamientos fueron las profundidades de muestreo de 0-5 y 5-10 cm. Se trabajó en un lote de 4 ha sobre el que se trazaron tres franjas, divididas en parcelas de 8 x 10 m. Las muestras de suelo se extrajeron de un área de 1 m². Se identificaron ocho géneros de gramíneas y leguminosas; los más frecuentes fueron: Panicum (78,7 %, Leucaena (9,27 %, Neonotonia (6,03 % y Teramnus (2,35 %. Hubo diferencias significativas a favor de la profundidad de 0-5 cm, en la cual se encontró la mayor proporción de semillas. Neonotonia y Leucaena presentaron el mayor porcentaje de semillas duras, aunque todas las leguminosas mostraron una alta viabilidad. Se concluye que existió una alta reserva de semilla de guinea en el suelo del sistema multiasociado, así como diversidad de géneros de leguminosas. Además, se encontró un alto porcentaje de semilla en el estrato superior del suelo (0-5 cm, lo que puede constituir una ventaja en los procesos de renovación de los pastizales con estas plantas.

  10. Establishment of experimental catchments to quantify water use by different vegetation types / Estabelecimento de microbacias experimentais para quantificar uso de água por diferentes tipos de vegetação

    Almeida Auro Campi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper describes the procedure developed to select representative experimental catchments to quantify water use and water use efficiency of different vegetation types. We combined freely available information such as LANDSAT satellite images, digital elevation model, Google Earth images, streamflow and rainfall historical data, and soils and vegetation data to select the experimental catchments. Once these catchments were indentified, sub-catchments with different vegetation were delineated, which were used to define the distribution and installation of the instrumentation. Forty eight catchments and respective sub-catchments of Tasmania in Australia were analyzed and only two catchments were identified as ideal for the purposes of quantifying and comparing the historic and current water use by Eucalyptus plantation, native forest and pasture. We choose one catchment and created four experimental and instrumented sub-catchments with the following predominant land use: Eucalyptus nitens, native forest and pasture. ResumoO presente artigo descreve o procedimento desenvolvido para selecionar microbacias representativas para quantificar o uso de água e a eficiência do uso de água de diferentes tipos de vegetação. Foram combinadas informações disponíveis sem custo tais como: imagens de satélite LANDSAT, modelo digital do terreno, imagens de Google Earth, escoamento superficial e dados históricos de precipitação pluviométrica, tipos de solos e cobertura vegetal para a seleção de microbacias experimentais. Uma vez identificadas as microbacias, sub-microbacias com diferente tipos de vegetação foram delineadas, as quais foram usadas para definir a distribuição e instalação de instrumentação. Foram analisadas quarenta e oito microbacias e respectivas sub-microbacias na Tasmânia na Austrália e somente duas microbacias foram identificadas como ideais para o propósito de quantificar e comparar o histórico e atual uso de

  11. Parâmetros fitossociológicos de um cerrado no Parque Nacional Da Serra Do Cipó, MG Phytosociological parameters of a cerrado in "Serra Do Cipó" national park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e os fatores determinantes da ocorrência da vegetação de cerrado há muito têm despertado o interesse de pesquisadores. Muitos cerrados protegidos em unidades de conservação ainda não foram investigados florística e estruturalmente. Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19º22'01''S e 43º37'10''W. Foram instaladas 12 parcelas de 150 m² e foram amostrados todos os indíviduos lenhosos com circunferência do caule à altura do solo maior ou igual a 10 cm. Foram relacionadas 44 espécies de 37 gêneros e 30 famílias. Entre estas, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae e Guttiferae, com três espécies cada, foram as mais ricas. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis e Piptocarpha rotundifolia.The diversity of species and the factors determining the occurrence of cerrado vegetation have long called the attention of researchers. Many protected cerrados in Conservation Units have not been floristically and structurally studied. This work conducted a floristic and phytosociological survey of the Parque Nacional da "Serra do Cipó" ("Serra do Cipó" National Park (19º22'01''S and 43º37'10''W. Twelve quadrats of 150 m² were established and all individuals with a stem circumference at ground level larger than or equal to 10 cm were sampled. A total of 44 species of 37 genera and 30 families were found. The richest families were Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae and Guttiferae, with three species each. The most important species (VI were Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis and Piptocarpha rotundifolia.

  12. Furanoflavones and other chemical constituents of Lonchocarpus obtusus

    Cavalcante, Maria Gilvania B.; Silva, Rochanne M.; Bandeira, Paulo N.; Santos, Helcio S. dos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R. [Coordenacao de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil); Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Two new furano flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-2{sup -}isopropenyl-3-methoxyflurane-(2{sup ,}3{sup :}7,8)-flavone and 5-hydroxy-2{sup -}(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-3-methoxyflurane-(2{sup ,}3{sup :}7,8)-flavone, along with thirteen other known compounds, were isolated from the root barks of Lonchocarpus obtusus (Leguminosae). The structures of all compounds were determined by spectrometric methods such as 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and HREISMS beside comparison with spectral data for similar compounds. (author)

  13. Efectos de rizosfera, microorganismos y fertilización en la biorremediación y fitorremediación de suelos con petróleos crudo nuevo e intemperizado

    Maldonado-Chávez, E; Rivera-Cruz, MC; Izquierdo-Reyes, F; Palma-López, DJ

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el potencial de un consorcio microbiano constituido por bacterias (Pseudomonas sp y Serratia marcescens y hongos (Aspergillus sp y Trichoderma sp) y de fertilizante inorgánico incorporados al suelo en la biorremediación, y el potencial del pasto egipto (Brachiaria mutica) y de la leguminosa guaje (Leucaena leucocephala) en la fitorremediación de un suelo contaminado con petróleos nuevo (PN) recién incorporado al suelo y el intemperizado (PI) procedente de derrames crónicos de petról...

  14. Plantas do gênero Bauhinia: composição química e potencial farmacológico

    Silva Karina Luize da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Bauhinia (Leguminosae are widely distributed in most tropical countries and have been frequently used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, especially diabetes. In recent years, the interest in these plants has increased considerably in all world. This review shows the main chemical and pharmacological aspects of these plants. The studies carried out with the extracts and purified compounds from these plants support most of their reported therapeutic properties. It also gives an account of some compounds including terpenes, steroids and flavonoids that were isolated from the genus Bauhinia.

  15. Description of the last nymphal instar of Talipes appendiculatus (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Membracinae, and notes on the biology of the immatures and adults

    Frederico Lencioni-Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The last instar nymph of Talipes appendiculatus (Fonseca is described and illustrated, and biological data are given on the immatures and adults. The 5th instar nymph has the body covered with tuberculate chalazae; head and thorax without scoli; abdomen with terga III-VIII with single dorsal scoli, all different in size, III and VIII small, V the largest about 2x longer than wide. Descriptions of the adults (male and female are also provided, with the addition of some new characters. The species (adults, immatures of various stages has been collected on branches of Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidea, and is frequently attended by bees and wasps.

  16. Potencial del tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) como futura fuente proteínica y avances de su desarrollo agroindustrial

    Suca, G. R.; suca, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    El principal fortaleza de las leguminosas es la de sostener la producción global de proteínas, mitigando la falta de fuentes de proteínas de origen animal. Entre las legumbres, el tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) es una de las fuentes más importantes de proteínas, especialmente en los países andinos. Además, las plantas de tarwi permiten la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico y puede ser usado como cultivo rotativo en una agricultura ambientalmente sostenible. Sus semillas contienen más proteína...

  17. Cultivo agroecológico de berinjeleira sob doses de adubação orgânica em coberturas vivas perenes.

    Santos, Carlos Antonio B dos; Rocha, Marcus Vinícius C; Espindola , José Antonio A; Guerra, José Guilherme M; Almeida, Dejair L de; Ribeiro , Raul de LD

    2013-01-01

    O desempenho agronômico da berinjeleira foi avaliado em cultivo agroecológico, comparando-se espécies de gramínea e leguminosa perenes para cobertura viva do solo. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Seropédica-RJ, no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Foram avaliadas as coberturas vivas do solo com amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi), grama batatais (Paspalum notatum) e preparo convencional do solo (controle). Nas subparcelas, foram emp...

  18. Presencia de sistemas de secreción de patógenos en bacterias endosimbióticas aisladas de Lupinus de la península Ibérica

    Pastor, Víctor; Iglesias, Ana Isabel; Duran Wendt, David Ricardo; Rey Navarro, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Los rizobios son bacterias endosimbióticas capaces de fijar nitrógeno en estructuras especializadas de leguminosas. Esta simbiosis es altamente específica y depende, entre otros factores, de la capacidad de los rizobios de secretar proteínas efectoras a las células vegetales. Se han descrito diferentes sistemas de secreción en patógenos animales y vegetales y posteriormente también se han encontrado en algunos rizobios. En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de varios sistemas de secreción id...

  19. Aspectos básicos de la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico por parte de bacterias. Estudio en el laboratorio de educación secundaria

    José Pedro López Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico por parte de microorganismos tiene notable importancia ambiental e industrial relacionada con el incremento de la fertilidad y productividad en los suelos, soporte de las plantas y las redes tróficas derivadas. En el presente artículo se especifica un sencillo protocolo de laboratorio, junto con la base teórica que lo sustenta, con el objetivo de observar los microorganismos responsables de la fijación en los nódulos de leguminosas.

  20. Morpho-physiological analysis of adaptive responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to drought stress /

    Polania Perdomo, José A.,

    2016-01-01

    Bibliografia El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa alimenticia más importante en los trópicos. Es cultivada por pequeños agricultores y por lo general expuesta a condiciones desfavorables con mínimo uso de insumos. La sequía y la baja fertilidad del suelo, especialmente deficiencias de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P), son principales limitaciones para el rendimiento del frijol en los sistemas de pequeños productores. El frijol puede derivar parte de su requerimiento de N de ...

  1. Isolamento e caracterização da lectina camptosemina extraída das sementes de Camptosema ellipticum

    Fernanda Aparecida Heleno Batista

    2007-01-01

    Lectinas são (glico)proteínas de origem não imune capazes de causar aglutinação celular e/ou precipitação de glicoconjugados. O termo lectina de legume refere-se às lectinas de plantas que são encontradas exclusivamente em exemplares da família Leguminosae. Uma característica notável das lectinas de legumes é que todas as proteínas compartilham estrutura terciária constituída pelo motivo jelly-roll, que é basicamente composto por folhas-β, mas apresentam grande variabilida...

  2. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO NA DIGESTIBILIDADE, SOLUBILIDADE E ÍNDICE DE ATIVIDADE DE UREASE EM TREMOÇO (LUPINUS ALBUS E LUPINUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre as diversas leguminosas estudadas, o tremoço é uma fonte de proteína vegetal de grande potencial para uso na alimentação humana. As espécies dessa leguminosa são originárias do Mediterrâneo e da America do Sul e as mais cultivadas são o Lupinus albus (tremoço branco e o Lupinus angustifolius (tremoço azul. Entretanto, existem fatores antinutricionais presentes nessa leguminosa que precisam ser inativados. Essas substâncias interferem negativamente na digestibilidade proteica e um grande conteúdo delas pode implicar em menor biodisponibilidade da proteína. Este trabalho baseia-se na premissa de que o tratamento térmico adequado dado aos grãos de tremoço promove a inativação dos fatores antinutricionais presentes nessa leguminosa, melhorando, assim, sua digestibilidade. Foram aplicados dois tratamentos térmicos de 100oC por 60 minutos e 150oC por 30 minutos nos grãos do tremoço. Os tratamentos térmicos foram efi cazes para inativação da atividade de urease. A solubilidade não apresentou diferença signifi cativa após tratamento térmico, passando de 79% a 75%. A média da digestibilidade verdadeira encontrada para o Lupinus albus foi de 90,89%, enquanto o Lupinus angustifolius foi de 89,3%. Ao comparar as duas digestibilidades, observou-se que a digestibilidade in vivo se mostrou signifi cativamente maior (p<0,05 que a digestibilidade in vitro após aplicação de tratamento térmico par o Lupinus albus. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento térmico foi efi ciente para inibir a atividade da enzima uréase e que o binômio tempo-temperatura utilizado não foi excessivo a ponto de diminuir a solubilidade.

  3. Present state and problems of mutation breeding

    Balint, A. (Agrartudomanyi Egyetem, Goedoelloe (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The major achievements and problems of mutation breeding are discussed according to recent international references. Examples for the production of microorganism resistant tobacco, maize, cabbage, disease resistant sugar cane and some freeze resistant plants are listed. Special opportunities offered by mutation to increase photosynthesis and to improve yields are discussed. The significance of the new techniques to produce induced mutants by means of tissue cultures, to fix N/sub 2/ for leguminosae and to affect the activities of N/sub 2/ fixing microorganisms is emphasized.

  4. The present state and problems of mutation breeding

    Balint, Andor

    1983-01-01

    The major achievements and problems of mutation breeding are discussed according to recent international references. Examples for the production of microorganism resistant tobacco, maize, cabbage, disease resistant sugar cane and some freeze resistant plants are listed. Special opportunities offered by mutation to increase photosynthesis and to improve yields are discussed. The significance of the new techniques to produce induced mutants by means of tissue cultures, to fix N 2 for leguminosae and to affect the activities of N 2 fixing microorganisms is emphasized. (V.N.)

  5. Efectos del consumo de panes integrales elaborados con harina de Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. y harina de trigo en ratas con sídrome metabólico

    Montero Quiroga, Keyla Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El género Amaranthus se caracteriza por su alto contenido de nutrientes comparables a los alimentos de origen animal. Sin embargo, la especie Amaranthus dubius, la cual está diseminada en Venezuela, se considera un arvense de cultivos de subsistencia, como el maíz, sorgo y leguminosas; esto impulso la investigación sobre la posible aplicación del amaranto venezolano para la alimentación humana. El estudio se inició con la evaluación de la composición proximal, el contenid...

  6. Propiedades estructurales y funcionales de preparados proteicos de amaranto modificados y soja-amaranto

    Ventureira, Jorge Luis

    2010-01-01

    La soja es un miembro importante de la familia de las leguminosas y desempeña un papel primordial en la nutrición saludable. En Oriente, desde hace más de 5000 años, se emplea con éxito en la alimentación humana como poroto entero, harina tostada, poroto germinado y fermentado, leche, queso y salsa de soja, etc. Fue identificada como uno de los cinco granos sagrados conjuntamente con el arroz, el trigo, la cebada y el mijo, considerados esenciales para la supervivencia de su civiliz...

  7. Cultivo in vitro de anteras y fragmentos de hoja de styloasanthes spp

    Jaramillo Villegas, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Al género Stylosanthes pertenecen plantas leguminosas forrajeras de amplia distribución geográfica y gran potencial de utilización en suelos ácidos e infértiles (oxisoles y ultisoles), como los de los Llanos Colombo-Venezolanos y los del Cerrado de Brasil. Mediante la selección y mejoramiento genético de las especies forrajeras, puede lograrse una mejor adaptación al clima, suelo y tolerancia a plagas, lo que trae como consecuencia un aumento en la productividad de tan extensas llanuras....

  8. CaracterizaÃÃo estrutural das formas silvestre e recombinante de uma lectina de sementes de Vatairea macrocarpa Benth e anÃlise das suas bases moleculares de ligaÃÃo ao antÃgeno Tn

    Bruno Lopes de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    As lectinas consitem em uma classe diversificada de proteÃnas, capazes de reconhecer estruturas glicÃdicas de forma reversÃvel e com alta especificidade, no entanto sem alterar suas estruturas quÃmicas, participando de vÃrios processos celulares importantes. Dentre as diferentes famÃlias de lectinas, as isoladas a partir de leguminosas sÃo as mais extensivamente estudadas, havendo sido relatada a influÃncias dessas molÃculas sobre diversos processos patolÃgicos, incluindo a carcinogÃnese. Not...

  9. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth.

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho trata da primeira descrição detalhada do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth. São fornecidas medições de 30 características anatômicas e fotomicrografias da estrutura lenhosa. A anatomia da madeira indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae, série Lepidotae Benth. e gênero Mimosa L.

  10. ANATOMIA DO XILEMA SECUNDÁRIO DE Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth

  11. Florística em um hectare de cerrado stricto sensu na ARIE - cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

    Weiser, Veridiana de Lara; Godoy, Silvana Aparecida Pires de

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizado um levantamento florístico em um ha de cerrado stricto sensu, na parte norte da ARIE - Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo. Foram coletados 428 espécimes em fase reprodutiva, em vinte e cinco excursões de coleta, durante o período de novembro de 1996 a abril de 1998. A listagem florística obtida apresenta 141 espécies, distribuídas em 109 gêneros e 49 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Malpighiaceae e Myrtaceae. A ...

  12. Solubilização de fosfato por fungos do solo e eficiência de sua inoculação em caupi e milho

    Gomezjurado, Marco Esteban Gudiño

    2014-01-01

    O processo da fixação biológica de nitrogênio em leguminosas é realizado por bactérias nodulíferas possuidoras da enzima nitrogenase, que catalisa a redução do nitrogênio molecular a amônio, que é assimilado pelas plantas. Apesar da alta diversidade do Reino Fungi, relatos sobre a solubilização de fosfatos por fungos têm se restringido aos gêneros Aspergillus e Penicillium. Isto se deve às técnicas usualmente utilizadas para isolamento que favorecem fungos com rápida c...

  13. Determination of trace elements of some Egyptian crops by instrumental neutron activation, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis

    Awadallah, R.M.; Sherif, M.K.; Amrallah, A.H.; Grass, F.

    1986-01-01

    INAA was used for the determination of Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, V and Zn, ICP-AES for the determination of Al, Ag, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Sc, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, and flameless AAS for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in egg plant, potatoes, green pepper (Leguminosae), vegetable marrow (Cucurbitaceae), pears, apple (Rosaceae), castor oil plant (Euphorbiaceae), lettuce (compositae), dill, parsley, coriander (Umbelliferae), and in some soil samples collected from Aswan province. (author)

  14. Influência de sistemas de culturas, mucuna preta e adubação mineral sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milho

    Nunes, Helber Veras; Silva, Ivandro de França da; Bruno, Riselane de Lucena Alcântara; Barros, Daniella Inácio; Pereira, Walter Esfrain

    2006-01-01

    O cultivo do milho em consórcio e a utilização de leguminosas como forma de adubação é prática bastante utilizada pelo agricultor nordestino. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milho, cv. BR-106, produzidas em sistemas de culturas isolados e consorciados (milho, milho + feijão guandu e milho + fava), na ausência e presença de adubo químico e mucuna preta. O ensaio foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Universida...

  15. Chemical constituents from bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum: cholesterol occurrence; Constituintes quimicos das cascas do caule de Cenostigma macrophyllum: ocorrencia de colesterol

    Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Silva, Carmem Cicera Maria da; Caland Neto, Laurentino Batista; Lopes, Jose Arimateia Dantas; Cito, Antonia Maria das Gracas Lopes; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae-Caesapinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of valoneic acid dilactone, ellagic acid, lupeol, alkyl ferulate, four free sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol), a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The mixtures of 3-beta-hydroxysterols and fatty acids were analysed by GC/MS. (author)

  16. Constituintes químicos das cascas do caule de Cenostigma macrophyllum: ocorrência de colesterol Chemical constituents from bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum: cholesterol occurrence

    Hilris Rocha e Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae-Caesapinioideae resulted in the isolation and identification of valoneic acid dilactone, ellagic acid, lupeol, alkyl ferulate, four free sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The mixtures of 3-beta-hydroxysterols and fatty acids were analysed by GC/MS.

  17. Cultivo in Vitro de Anteras y Fragmentos de Hoja de Styloasanthes spp

    Jaramillo Villegas Sonia

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Al género Stylosanthes pertenecen plantas leguminosas forrajeras de amplia distribución geográfica y gran potencial de utilización en suelos ácidos e infértiles (oxisoles y ultisoles, como los de los Llanos Colombo-Venezolanos y los del Cerrado de Brasil. Mediante la selección y mejoramiento genético de las especies forrajeras, puede lograrse una mejor adaptación al clima, suelo y tolerancia a plagas, lo que trae como consecuencia un aumento en la productividad de tan extensas llanuras.

  18. Análisis comparativo de bradyrhizobia aislados de Lupinus angustifolius y Lupinus mariae-josephi.

    Lopez, Pablo; Duran Wendt, David Ricardo; Rey Navarro, Luis; Ruiz Argüeso, Tomas-Andres

    2010-01-01

    Los altramuces (Lupinus sp.) son leguminosas con alto contenido proteico y alto valor en alimentación animal. Todas las especies de Lupinus que crecen en la Península Ibérica, incluida L. angustifolius, requieren suelos ácidos, excepto L- mariae-josephi, una especie recientemente descrita, que excepcíonalmente crece en suelos alcalinos. Se han analizado las relaciones filogenéticas entre bacterias endosimbióticas (rizobios) de L. mariae-josephi y de L. angustifolius y su posición evoluti...

  19. Avaliação e melhoramento genético de trevo vermelho (Trifolium pratense L.) em duas regiões fisiográficas do Rio Grande do Sul

    Daniel Portella Montardo

    2002-01-01

    O trevo vermelho (Trifolium pratense L.) é uma leguminosa forrageira muito importante no Rio Grande do Sul, constituindo uma boa alternativa dentre as espécies forrageiras de inverno. Entretanto, como não existem cultivares desenvolvidas para as condições ambientais do Estado, a produção e, principalmente, a persistência dessas pastagens são comprometidas. Por isso o Departamento de Plantas Forrageiras e Agrometeorologia da UFRGS conduz um programa de melhoramento genético da espécie, buscand...

  20. Composición química de “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa), ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza) y ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis). Formulación de una mezcla base para productos alimenticios

    Sandra Elizabeth Pagador Flores; Misael Ydilbrando Villacorta González; María Elena León Marroú

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo formular una mezcla base a partir de cultivos nativos, la cual una vez estandarizada, se constituye en materia prima de alto valor nutricional para su utilización en la elaboración de productos alimenticios como: purés, papillas y productos de panificación, entre otros. Se seleccionaron tres cultivos andinos: un tubérculo, “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa); una raíz, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza) y una leguminosa, ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis). Se realizaron ...

  1. 2-Hydroxy-1,6,7,8-tetramethoxy-3-methylanthraquinone

    Shu-Juan Yu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H18O7, also known as chrysoobtusin, was isolated from Cassia tora L. (Leguminosae. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 4.27 (4°. The structure is stabilized by intra- and intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, and by weak π–π stacking interactions along the b axis, with a centroid–centroid distance between related benzene rings of 3.800 (4 Å.

  2. Incidencia del medio y de las condiciones de cultivo en el potencial como nutriceútico de tres especies del genero Pleurotus

    Chegwin Angarita, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo biotecnológico empleando fermentaciones en estado líquido de hongos del género Pleurotus, usando salvado de trigo y harinas de cereales y leguminosas como fuentes de carbono no convencionales, en busca de evaluar el efecto del cambio de algunas condiciones del proceso sobre la composición tanto de los micelios como de los caldos agotados y por ende del potencial como nutriceútico del mismo, para posteriormente evaluar la aplicabilidad de dicho producto en la obtención de fructifica...

  3. Desenvolvimento de mudas de catingueira em diferentes substratos e níveis de luminosidade

    Antunes,Cimille Gabrielle Cardoso; Souza,Cíntia Luiza Mascarenhas de; Gomes,Hugo Leonardo Rodrigues; Souza,Jonaicon Vieira de; Barroso,Natália dos Santos; Castro,Renato Delmondez de; Pelacani,Claudinéia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Poincianella pyramidalis Tul. (catingueira) é uma leguminosa endêmica do semiárido nordestino que se enquadra bem no contexto de espécies florestais brasileiras que ainda carecem de estudos quanto às condições ideais para seu desenvolvimento e estabelecimento em campo. Dessa forma, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas da referida espécie submetidas a diferentes substratos e níveis de luminosidade. Plântulas de catingueira foram cultivadas em três condições de lu...

  4. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    Kökten, Kağan; Koçak, Alpaslan; Bağci, Eyüp; Akçura, Mevlüt; Çelik, Sait

    2010-01-01

    The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae) were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stear...

  5. Chemical constituents from bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum: cholesterol occurrence

    Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Silva, Carmem Cicera Maria da; Caland Neto, Laurentino Batista; Lopes, Jose Arimateia Dantas; Cito, Antonia Maria das Gracas Lopes; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae-Caesapinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of valoneic acid dilactone, ellagic acid, lupeol, alkyl ferulate, four free sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol), a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The mixtures of 3-beta-hydroxysterols and fatty acids were analysed by GC/MS. (author)

  6. Eficiencia simbiótica de rizobios nativos de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, inoculados en Centrosema molle

    C. J Bécquer

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero, con el objetivo de determinar la eficiencia simbiótica de 39 cepas nativas de bradyrizobios procedentes de Sancti Spíritus. Los aislamientos se hicieron a partir de nódulos radicales de Centrosema molle, Centrosema virginianum y Centrosema plumieri, los cuales son macrosimbiontes provenientes de las zonas centro y sur de Sancti Spíritus. Las cepas obtenidas se inocularon en C. molle, leguminosa forrajera promisoria para la alimentación del ganado en el territorio. Los métodos de inoculación fueron estándares, acorde con lo recomendado en la literatura internacional. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con 41 tratamientos y tres réplicas. Se realizó análisis de varianza (ANOVA y se evaluó el peso seco de la parte aérea de la planta, el peso seco radical, el índice de nodulación y el rendimiento de nitrógeno. Se concluye que existió una alta eficiencia simbiótica de las cepas nativas de la zona centro, al ser inoculadas en una leguminosa perteneciente a la misma zona; mientras que las de la zona sur fueron ineficientes en dicha leguminosa. Por otra parte, JK3 (C. virginianum, HG1 (C. plumieri ambas de la zona centro, SP20 (C. molle, zona sur y JJ2 (C. virginianum, zona centro presentaron altos índices de eficiencia en la leguminosa evaluada, lo que las convierte en las más promisorias. Los altos índices de nodulación de JH4, JJ2, JJ7, JK6, JK1 y JK5 (C. virginianum no implicaron una alta eficiencia simbiótica. Se recomienda una fase de selección en condiciones de campo, con diferentes macrosimbiontes y en condiciones edafoclimáticas estresantes.

  7. El tarwi o chocho: una de las principales fuentes de proteína vegetal de las comunidades indígenas de los Andes Centrales

    Planchuelo, Ana M.; Fuentes, Esteban P.

    2005-01-01

    El lupino andino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) conocido también como tarwi o chocho, es una especie de leguminosa nativa de los Andes Centrales. Su domesticación se remonta a los principios de la cultura Nazca y desde ese entonces hasta la actualidad el cultivo está ampliamente difundido en las laderas montañosas y en los altos valles de Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. La importancia del lupino para las comunidades andinas prehispánicas quedo documentada en pinturas de cerámicas y en tributos encontrado...

  8. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  9. Review of literature on perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) as potential cover crop in the tropics

    Kartika, J.G.; Reyes, Manuel R.; Susila, Anas D.

    2007-01-01

    The use of living mulch as a substitute for plastic mulch is increasing in the tropics as researchers have gradually shifted their attention to organic farming systems. Arachis pintoi is a perennial plant and a member of the leguminosae family. A. pintoi has good potential for use as a living mulch in association with vegetables, trees, or grass (as a pasture) because of its ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and to grow in heavy shade. This work, based on fact sheets, journals and t...

  10. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    Chapman, E.Emily V.; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D.

    2013-01-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  11. Optimization of Pheromone Traps for Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael John; Allison, Jeremy Dean; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2017-08-01

    The Coryphodema tristis (Drury) is an important pest of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) plantations in South Africa. The gregarious larvae of this pest cause damage by feeding on the tree sapwood, and adults emerge in spring each year. The aim of this study was to optimize pheromone traps for operational use in management programs. This was achieved by investigating different pheromone blend combinations and trap types for efficacy under field conditions. Our results confirm that the cross vane bucket funnel trap baited with a 95:2.5:2.5 volumetric blend of Z9-14:OAc, Z9-14:OH, and 14Ac was superior to similarly baited standard bucket funnel and delta traps. We also estimated the release rate and ratios of the pheromone compounds loaded into an artificial permeation dispenser through solid-phase microextraction sampling. Results showed that the released blend of pheromone compounds mirrored the dispensed ratios relatively accurately and that release rates are affected by temperature. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Malakofauna pohoria Bachureň (východné Slovensko Malacofauna of the Bachureň Mts. (Eastern Slovakia

    Jozef Šteffek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bachureň Mts. are the least known orographic unit of Slovakia from the malacological point of view, therefore it was important to fill this gap in the faunistic research of malacofauna in Slovakia. In order to achieve the maximum mollusc diversity of the Bachureň Mts., various habitat types were the subject of interest. Field work was conducted in the years 2009–2011 at 78 sites. Altogether 108 mollusc species were recorded. In total, nearly 20 000 specimens were collected and identified. Half of all recorded species were representatives of woodland species s. l. From zoogeographical point of view, species with cosmopolitan, Euro-Siberian and Central European distribution made up the highest proportion. Carpathian species were numerous as well. Across the whole mountain, West Carpathian species (Petasina unidentata, Plicuteria lubomirskii and Trochulus villosulus encountered the species with centre in eastern part of the Carpathians (Perforatella dibothrion, Pseudalinda stabilis, Oxychilus orientalis and Vestia gulo. On the basis of spatial distribution of sensitive species indicating undisturbance of habitats, the most valuable biotopes showed to be springs, wetlands and riparian vegetation along the upper parts of the streams with Acicula parcelineata, Bulgarica cana, Macrogastra latestriata, Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, V. substriata, and Cochlicopa nitens. Valuable biotopes were dolomite rocks with the occurrence of relict steppe with Pupilla triplicata and well-preserved scree woodlands with V. substriata and B. cana as well.

  13. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.

  15. The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Viséan; Gourara, Algeria

    J. Bockwinkel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven ammonoid species are described from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Gourara, Algeria. The following taxa are newly described: Rhnetites n. gen., Rhnetites rhnetensis n. sp., Rhnetites ouladallalensis n. sp., Parahammatocyclus mutaris n. sp., Bollandoceras nitens n. sp., Bollandoceras subangulare n. sp., Bollandoceras politum n. sp., Bollandoceras aridum n. sp., Bollandoceras zuhara n. sp., Bollandoceras mirrih n. sp., Benimehlalites n. gen., Benimehlalites benimehlalensis n. sp., Benimehlalites belkassemensis n. sp., Benimehlalites brinkmanni n. sp., Pachybollandoceras n. gen., Pachybollandoceras intraevolutum n. sp., Pachybollandoceras repens n. sp., Bollanditinae n. subfam., Gourarites n. gen., Gourarites hagaraswad n. sp., Gourarites hagarkarim n. sp., Gourarites mustari n. sp., Gourarites zuhal n. sp., Semibollandites n. gen., Semibollandites kamil n. sp., Semibollandites pauculus n. sp., Semibollandites qawiy n. sp., Timimounia n. gen., Timimounia timimounensis n. sp., Timimounia lunula n. sp., Daaitidae n. fam., Daaites n. gen., Daaites daaensis n. sp., Dimorphoceras lanceolobatum n. sp., Nomismoceras salim n. sp., and Nomismoceras waltoni n. sp. The species occur in three successive horizons and can be attributed to the Bollandites-Bollandoceras Genus Zone (Early and Middle Viséan. They represent the most diverse ammonoid fauna known from this time interval. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900013

  16. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  17. Recursos vegetais usados por Acromyrmex striatus (Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em restinga da Praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Vegetable resources used by Acromyrmex striatus (Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in sand dunes at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Benedito C. Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Acromyrmex striatus entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material vegetal trazido para o ninho. Estas formigas usam partes de 50 espécies de plantas dispostas em 22 famílias, sendo as principais, representantes de Compositae, Gramineae e Leguminosae. Nesta última família, Stylosanthes viscosa foi a espécie mais utilizada nos dois anos de amostragem. Acromyrmex striatus corta matéria vegetal fresca, bem como se utiliza de material vegetal já caído, podendo, então se comportar como cortadeira ou como uma espécie oportunista.A total of 400 nests of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, in order to determine the vegetable substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use some parts of 50 plant species in 22 botanical families, being Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae the principal ones. In this last family, Stylosanthes viscosa Swartz was the most herbivored species in the two years samplings. Acromyrmex striatus cut fresh vegetables, as well as use decayed materials, being then a true leaf-cutter ant or a opportunistic ant.

  18. Efecto de la inoculación de bacterias nativas en dos híbridos de maíz (zea mays l., provincia de Santa Elena

    Javier Soto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la mayoría de los sistemas de producción agrícola están sobrecargados con residuos de insumos químicos que aceleran el desgaste del suelo y contaminan las fuentes de agua subterránea. Siendo una alternativa el empleo de biofermentos provenientes de bacterias nativas de la rizosfera, muy conocidas por la producción de sustancias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (PGPR y de resistencia a ciertos patógenos. En el presente trabajo se seleccionaron y emplearon tres cepas bacterianas (FPMG2, FPMG4 y VAIRV asociadas a nódulos de leguminosas de la península de Santa Elena de la colección CIAP-UPSE (Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, con potencial uso para la elaboración de biofertilizantes en plantas no leguminosas y de importancia alimenticia como el maíz (Zea mays L.; evaluando la influencia de los híbridos AGRI 104 y 201 en la germinación (a nivel de laboratorio y campo, cultivo y rendimiento en dos fincas agrícolas en la provincia de Santa Elena-Ecuador.

  19. Flora da Serra de Itabirito, Minas Gerais: primeira contribuição

    Mitzi Brandão

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuado o levantamento das espécies ocorrentes na Serra de Itabirito, Município de Itabirito, Minas Gerais, em áreas de cerrado e campo-rupestre. Nesta primeira etapa foram coletadas e identificadas 366 espécies, pertencentes a 209 gêneros, agrupadas em 78 famílias. Compositae é a família mais representativa, com cerca de 57 espécies e 22 gêneros, vindo a seguir Leguminosae com 37 espécies e 14 gêneros e Gramineae com 14 espécies e 13 gêneros.This study is a survey of species occuring in the "cerrado" and "campo-rupreste" of Itabirito Hills, County of Itabirito, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this first stage we collected and identified 366 species, belonging to 209 genera, grouped into 78 families. Compositae was the most representative family having 57 species and 22 genera, followed by Leguminosae with 37 species and 14 genera, and Gramineae with 14 species and 13 genera.

  20. Plantas invasoras da cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 222 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 35 famílias botânias, representando 118 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae e Solanaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas no PAMG (Herbário da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - (MG..A survey in the cultivation area of bean in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, resulted in the determination of 222 weeds species, of 118 genera belonging to 35 families presenting a greater number of species areas: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Solanaceae, with 33, 30, 25, 21, 12, 10. 10, 10, 9. 8 species respectively.

  1. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E MINERAL DE DIFERENTES CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO COMUM CRUS E COZIDOS

    Maira Oliveira SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma leguminosa rica em nutrientes, que ocupa a posição de segunda classe de leguminosa mais importante do mundo, perdendo apenas para a soja sendo, o feijão, utilizado por muito tempo no Brasil como o alimento básico para a população. Pensando nisso, a pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a composição centesimal de grãos de feijões cru e cozido comuns e biofortificados e os teores de minerais (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn das cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. carioca biofortificado (Pontal e comum (comercial. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a cultivar Pontal apresentou maior teor de nutrientes quando comparada à comercial. Os teores de minerais não se diferenciaram entre as cultivares e seus tratamentos, sendo a disponibilidade de minerais mais afetada em feijões crus do que em cozidos, provavelmente, devido à presença de fatores antinutricionais em maiores teores.

  3. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth Anatomy of the secondary xylem of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth., fornecidos dados quantitativos, determinações estereológicas e fotomicrografias de sua estrutura anatômica. Foram encontrados raios muito finos, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes não septadas, pontoações ornamentadas e poros agrupados em cachos, com arranjo tendente a diagonal. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para a família Leguminosae e gênero Mimosa, em análise filogenética, taxonômica e ecológica.The wood anatomy of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth. is described. Photomicrographs as well as quantitative and stereological data of its minute structure were furnished. Very fine rays, paratracheal parenchyma, libriform and not septated fibres, vestured pits and pores in clusters, tending to a diagonal pattern, were found. The wood anatomy was checked with literature of the Leguminosae family and genus Mimosa, considering its phylogenetical, taxonomical and ecological aspects.

  4. Oportunidades de innovar desde la biotecnología clásica. Un Estudio de Caso

    Dora Corvalán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se expone el estudio de una PyME de capital nacional, nacida como Spin off a mediados de la década del 80, que produce inoculantes para leguminosas, insumo microbiológico de la producción de soja. Esta empresa controla procesos biotecnológicos enrolados dentro de la biotecnología clásica. Se tomó como unidad de análisis a la empresa y su proceso de aprendizaje en la tarea de captar, adaptar y transferir tecnología, considerando central su vinculación con organismos de ciencia y tecnología públicos. Está alineada a dos realidades: la dinámica de su cadena productiva que la ha puesto ante exigencias tecnológicas internacionales, y una realidad interna compleja e incierta. Nos ha interesado particularmente analizar su formación de capacidades dinámicas, así como su estrategia para ser líder del mercado local y tener gran participación en el mercado regional, manteniéndose en paridad con los productores de inoculantes para leguminosas a nivel internacional.

  5. Caracterización bromatológica de seis especies forrajeras en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba

    Danis M. Verdecia Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron seis experimentos simultáneos para determinar la composición bromatológica de leguminosas forrajeras en las condiciones edafoclimáticas del Valle del Cauto, Cuba. Se empleó un diseño en bloques al azar con seis réplicas y los tratamientos fueron las edades de rebrote de 60, 120 y 180 días para los árboles y arbustos ( Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Eritrina varie - gata y de 30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 días para las leguminosas rastreras ( Neonotonia wightii y Te - ramnus labialis , en los periodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso. Se determinaron MS, PB, Ca, P, Mg, Si, FND, FAD, LAD, celulosa, hemicelulosa, contenido celular, ceniza, MO, DIVMS, DV, DISMS, DMO, DFND, DFAD y DPB. Se realizaron análisis de conglomerados para agrupar las especies con características simila - res. Durante el periodo lluvioso se encontraron seis grupos y en el poco lluvioso siete grupos; con los mejores resultados, de forma integral, para la Neonotonia wightii, Teramnus labialis, Gliricidia sepium y Tithonia diversifolia , en el periodo lluvioso; y en el poco lluvioso, para Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Erythri - na variegata a edades tempranas. Se concluye que la edad presentó un marcado efecto en la composición bromatológica al disminuir la calidad en la medida que la madurez avanza.

  6. Influence of fertilization, season, and forage species in presence of arbuscular mycorrhizae in a degraded Andisoil of Colombia

    Otero Joel Tupac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la influencia de la fertilización, época, y especies forrajeras en la producción de micorrizas arbusculares  se realizó un experimento  con una graminea C4, (Brachiaria dictyoneura, dos leguminosas forrajeras C3  (Arachis pintoi y Centrosema macrocarpum  y la vegetación nativa; cultivadas en dos sistemas de siembra (monocultivo y asociación, dos niveles de fertilización (alto y bajo y cuatro edades de cosecha. Se uso un diseño de parcelas sub-sub divididas, en el cual la parcela principal fue la especie, los niveles de  fertilización como subparcelas y la edad de rebrote como la sub-sub parcela. El número de esporas de hongos micorrizicos en el suelo y el porcentaje de infección en las raices se incrementó con la edad y varió con la especie y la época del muestreo (seca o húmeda. Se encontraron diferencias en la capacidad para formar simbiosis micorrízica entre las especies de gramíneas y leguminosas bajo condiciones de campo.

  7. Occurrence of Dinarmus basalis in Callosobruchus analis in stored soybean in São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de Dinarmus basalis (Rondani em Callosobruchus analis (F. em soja armazenada em São Paulo, Brasil

    Valmir Antonio Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus analis (F. is considered an important pest in several countries in Africa, Asia and Oceania. It has been observed infesting seeds belonging to 15 Leguminosae genera, including peanut, bean, chickpea, pea, cowpea, and soybean. One of its main natural enemies is the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, whose control efficiency has already been demonstrated in several studies. This paper records the occurrence of C. analis and its parasitoid, D. basalis, in stored soybean of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Callosobruchus analis (F. é uma praga de expressão econômica em diversos países da África, Ásia e Oceania. Já foi observado infestando sementes de espécies de leguminosas pertencentes a 15 gêneros, incluindo-se culturas como amendoim, grão-de-bico, feijão, ervilha, caupi e soja. Um de seus inimigos naturais mais importantes é o parasitóide Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, cuja eficiência de controle já foi demonstrada em vários estudos. Neste trabalho registra-se a ocorrência de C. analis e de seu parasitóide, D. basalis, em grãos armazenados de soja no estado de São Paulo.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  9. Activity cycle of the pollen wasp, Trimeria howardi (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Southeastern Brasil

    Maria Rita Mech

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the wasps, the Masarinae are a peculiar subfamily. It is the only group of wasps that provisions brood cells with pollen and nectar. The studied species Trimeria howardi Bertoni, 1911, was until recently abundant in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. This paper deals with plant species visited by T. howardi, in relation to the species’ annual cycle of activity, based on periods of nest foundation, flight activity, and development stages of immatures present in the cells. During the study period (five years T. howardi visited four species of plants in two botanical families: Bidens pilosa L.(Asteraceae; Xanthium spinosum L. (Asteraceae; Stylosanthes guianensis (Aulb. Sw. (Leguminosae, and Zornia diphylla (L. Pers. (Leguminosae. Based on the number of visited families, T. howardi can be considered a narrow polylectic species. In general, the species annual activity cycle consists of three phases: Active phase: January to July; Inactive phase: August - September; Active phase: October to December. The annual cycle is bivoltine or multivoltine and the diapause is facultative, because it occurs in a single generation during the year.

  10. Pré-seleção de estirpes de Rhizobium sp. para amendoim Preliminary selection of peanut Rhizobium sp. strains

    Antonio Roberto Giardini

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com solução nutritiva isenta de N, com o objetivo de selecionar estirpes de Rhizobium eficientes fixadoras de N2, quando associadas com amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivar Tatu. Foram testadas 35 estirpes de Rhizobium sp., isoladas de quinze diferentes espécies de leguminosas tropicais, e incluído um tratamento de inoculação com solo previamente cultivado com amendoim. Das 35 estirpes testadas, doze formaram nódulos e, entre essas, sete foram eficientes fixadoras de nitrogênio. Das doze estirpes que nodularam, sete foram isoladas de leguminosas da tribo Hedysareae (à qual pertence o género Arachis e, destas, apenas quatro foram eficientes fixadoras de nitrogênio. O peso e o número de nódulos não se mostraram como critérios adequados para avaliação da eficiência.An experiment was carried out in Leonard jars, in the greenhouse, with nitrogen-free nutrient solution to test the efficiency of 35 strains of rhizobia isolated from 15 species of tropical legumes. Twelve of the tested strains were capable of nodule formation in peanut. Seven of those strains were isolated from the trible Hedysareae, which includes the genus Arachis. Only four of the rhizobia strains with inducing nodulation were effective. Dry weight and number of nodules were not good criteria for evaluating effectiveness.

  11. Stomatal conductance of semi-natural Mediterranean grasslands: Implications for the development of ozone critical levels

    Alonso, R.; Bermejo, V.; Sanz, J.; Valls, B.; Elvira, S.; Gimeno, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Intra-genus and intra-specific variation and the influence of nitrogen enrichment on net assimilation and stomatal conductance of some annual Trifolium species of Mediterranean dehesa grasslands were assessed under experimental conditions. Also gas exchange rates were compared between some Leguminosae and Poaceae species growing in the field in a dehesa ecosystem in central Spain. The results showed that the previously reported different O 3 sensitivity of some Trifolium species growing in pots does not seem to be related to different maximum g s values. In addition, no clear differences on gas exchange rates could be attributed to Leguminosae and Poaceae families growing in the field, with intra-genus variation being more important than differences found between families. Further studies are needed to increase the database for developing a flux-based approach for setting O 3 critical levels for semi-natural Mediterranean species. - The stomatal conductance model incorporated within the EMEP DO 3 SE deposition module needs to be re-parameterised for Mediterranean semi-natural vegetation

  12. Produtividade do cafeeiro Mundo Novo enxertado e submetido à adubação verde antes e após recepa da lavoura Productivity of grafted coffee during intercropping with five leguminous species in the western region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a produção e o crescimento do cafeeiro Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica L. enxertado sobre o Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner submetido à adubação verde com as seguintes espécies leguminosas: crotalária espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth., crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.], mucuna anã (Stizolobium deeringeanum Bort. e soja IAC 9 [Glycine max (L. Merril] e um tratamento testemunha sem plantas leguminosas. As leguminosas foram semeadas a 50 cm da projeção da copa dos cafeeiros e incorporadas no florescimento. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Pólo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios da Alta Paulista, em Adamantina, no período de 1989 a 1995. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os adubos verdes crotalária espectábilis, crotalária júncea, mucuna anã e soja, durante o período experimental, e a crotalária espectábilis após a recepa, não diminuíram a produção do cafeeiro. O guandu, embora tenha aumentado o teor de matéria orgânica do solo, foi a única leguminosa que diminuiu a produção e o diâmetro do caule dos cafeeiros. O guandu e a crotalária júncea, respectivamente, produziram as maiores quantidades de fitomassa seca. A produção do café se correlacionou inversamente com a fitomassa seca das leguminosas e positivamente com altura e diâmetro do caule do cafeeiro.Yield of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica of grafted onto robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner Apoatã IAC 2258 was evaluated during six years of intercropping with five leguminous species: sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Crotalaria spectabilis Roth., dwarf velvet bean (Stizolobium deeringeanum Bort., soybean Glycine max (L. Merryl] and pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] in the Western region of São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1989 to 1995. Leguminous species were sown 50 cm

  13. Purificação parcial de inibidores de tripsina de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea e Swartzia polyphylla e o efeito dos extratos protéicos sobre fungos fitopatogênicos

    Adriana Bariani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de leguminosas apresentam alta concentração de inibidores de tripsina; estas proteínas estão envolvidas no metabolismo celular e também em mecanismos de defesa vegetal. A fim de confirmar ou não, a possível ação fungicida destas proteínas a partir de extratos de sementes de leguminosas arbóreas, o objetivo deste estudo foi detectar inibidores de tripsina em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea (CfTI e Swartzia polyphylla (SpTI e testar os extratos contra os fungos fitopatogênicos Colletotrichum guaranicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Fusarium oxysporum e Sclerotium rolfsii, avaliando o crescimento micelial e a esporulação. Para tanto, amostras do material biológico vegetal, sementes finamente pulverizadas, foram submetidas à extração em NaCl 150 mM. Os extratos protéicos foram parcialmente purificados em coluna Sephadex G-100, submetidos à detecção dos inibidores e SDS-PAGE (12,5% e, utilizados nos bioensaios contra os fungos. O perfil eletroforético revelou uma única banda em CfTI e oito bandas em SpTI. Os extratos de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla exibiram efeito na diminuição da esporulação dos fungos testados, mas S. rolfsii foi inibido apenas por C. ferrea. Quanto ao crescimento micelial, os dois extratos tiveram efeito sobre F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii, ao passo que C. guaranicola foi inibido apenas por S. polyphylla, e C. cassiicola por C. ferrea. Concluiu-se que sementes de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla apresentam inibidores de tripsina. Além disso, os resultados sugerem que estas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas são promissoras no que concerne à prospecção de fungicidas naturais, uma vez que os extratos diminuíram o crescimento micelial e a esporulação de C. guaranicola, C. cassiicola, F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii.

  14. Qualidade da matéria orgânica de solos sob cultivo de café consórciado com adubos verdes

    Marino Salgarello Coelho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O aporte de resíduos orgânicos, associado ao processo de humificação, promove melhoria dos atributos do solo e garante ao agricultor a manutenção do sistema produtivo. As leguminosas visam, além do fornecimento de nutrientes para o café, melhorar a qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo com a formação das substâncias húmicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto do uso de leguminosas, como adubo verde, na qualidade das substâncias húmicas em solos sob café em duas condições edafoclimáticas na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. Foram cultivados amendoim forrageiro, calopogônio, estilosantes, mucuna e espécies espontâneas durante quatro anos, em duas propriedades de agricultores familiares. Após quatro anos, realizaram-se a coleta de solo, extração e purificação das SH para obtenção dos ácidos fúlvicos (AFs e húmicos (AHs. Foram realizadas análise elementar (CHNO, UV-visível, infravermelho e termogravimetria do material purificado. Os resultados evidenciaram que os AHs possuem maior peso molecular, hidrofobicidade, condensação, e compostos aromáticos com maior teor de C, conferindo maior estabilidade estrutural em relação aos AFs. O ambiente voltado para a face sul, com menor incidência de luz, menor temperatura e maior umidade, possui substâncias húmicas estruturalmente mais estáveis e resistentes à degradação do que as extraídas de solo voltado para o noroeste. O tratamento com calopogônio apresentou baixo teor de C e elevado teor de O na composição dos AFs, caracterizando compostos de menor estabilidade estrutural em relação aos AFs, sob os tratamentos com estilosantes, mucuna e espontâneas. Nos AHs, o uso das leguminosas apresentaram resultados semelhantes.

  15. Produção de biomassa e teor de macronutrientes do milheto, feijão-de-porco e guandu-anão em cultivo solteiro e consorciado Biomass production and macronutrients quantity of millet, jack bean, guandu single and in intercropping

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a produção de biomassa e o teor de macronutrientes do milheto (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. Stapf, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. em cultivo solteiro e nos consórcios da gramínea com as leguminosas, visando a produção de palha no sistema plantio direto. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brasil. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Apenas o guandu-anão solteiro apresentou menor produção de fitomassa fresca e seca, sendo que os demais tratamentos não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. De forma geral, as leguminosas apresentaram maiores teores de N e Ca e o milheto maiores teores de S. Apenas o feijão-de-porco solteiro apresentou menor teor de P. Os maiores teores de K foram apresentados pelo milheto solteiro e consorciado com as leguminosas e pelo feijão-de-porco em consórcio com milheto. Os menores teores de Mg foram verificados para o guandu-anão.The object of this work was to evaluate the biomass production and the macronutrients quantity of millet (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. Stapf, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC., guandu (Cajanus cajan, (L. Millsp. dwarf cultivar, and the millet with leguminous consortiums to straw production in no-tillage system. The experiment was carried in experimental area at Agriculture Department of the Federal University of Lavras (Lavras, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments and four replications. For biomass production, only the guandu presented smaller fresh and dry biomass yield than the other treatments. In general, the leguminous presented the greatest N and Ca quantities and millet the greatest quantities of S. Only jack bean presented minor P quantity. For K the greatest quantities

  16. PRODUCTIVIDAD DE PASTURAS Y PRODUCCIÓN DE LECHE BOVINA BAJO PASTOREO DE GRAMÍNEA Y GRAMÍNEA + LOTUSULIGINOSUS EN MOSQUERA, CUNDINAMARCA

    RE Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available en el presente estudio se determinó y evaluó la producción de biomasa aérea (g Ms/m2, composición botánica, calidad nutricional, y producción y calidad de leche en dos tipos de pasturas para clima frío. el ensayo se realizó en el centro agropecuario Marengo de la Universidad nacional en Mosquera, Cundinamarca, donde se evaluaron dos pasturas, una de mezcla de kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum y festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea la segunda, una mezcla de festuca alta y la leguminosa trébol pata de pájaro (Lotus uligino-sus con un área de 1 ha cada una. se empleó un diseño al azar con la vaca como unidad experimental y la pastura como tratamiento. se usaron 5 vacas Holstein (Pv 580 kg entre 2 y 4 partos de segundo tercio de lactancia para cada tratamiento durante un periodo experi-mental de 14 días, 7 de acostumbramiento y 7 de mediciones. en cada pastura se determinó la producción de biomasa aérea (g Ms/m2, composición botánica (%, calidad nutricional (PC, Fdn, Fda, divMs, y se evaluó la producción (lt/día y calidad de leche (porcentaje de grasa, proteína, caseína, sólidos. aunque no se realizó comparación estadística para la producción de biomasa, la mayor producción fue observada en la pastura asociada; también en cuanto a la calidad nutricional la principal diferencia se observó en el contenido de pro-teína, siendo mayor en la pastura asociada. se observaron mayores valores en producción de leche, caseína y proteína en la pastura de gramínea más leguminosa (P 0,05. se puede concluir que las pasturas asociadas de gramínea más leguminosa mejoran los valores de producción y proteína en la leche.

  17. Estímulo no crescimento e na hidrólise de ATP em raízes de alface tratadas com humatos de vermicomposto: II - Efeito da fonte de vermicomposto Improving lettuce seedling root growth and ATP hydrolysis with humates from vermicompost: II - Effect of vermicompost source

    Maria Rita Cardoso Rodda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores mais limitantes para a produção de vermicomposto é a disponibilidade de esterco. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da substituição parcial do esterco por bagaço de cana e por resíduos de leguminosa (Gliricidia sepium na vermicompostagem sobre a qualidade do vermicomposto e sobre a bioatividade dos humatos, avaliadas por meio da análise do crescimento radicular e da atividade das bombas de H+ isoladas de raízes de alface. A substituição do esterco por bagaço de cana e por resíduos de leguminosas não acarretou prejuízo às características químicas dos vermicompostos. No entanto, os humatos isolados dos diferentes vermicompostos apresentaram características químicas distintas, tais como: acidez e propriedades óticas distintas. Os humatos produzidos a partir de esterco de bovino e da mistura esterco bovino + bagaço proporcionaram maiores estímulos no crescimento radicular das plantas de alface, sendo os mais indicados para uso na forma solúvel. A inclusão de resíduos de leguminosas no processo de vermicompostagem produziu humatos sem efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das raízes de alface.Cattle manure availability is one of the most limiting factors for vermicompost production. The effects of the partial substitution of manure with sugarcane bagasse or residues of Gliricidia sepium on the quality of vermicomposts and the bioactivity of their humates were evaluated by analyzing the root growth and H+-ATPase activity of lettuce seedling roots. The substitutions of manure by sugar cane bagasse and legume cover crops residues did not affect the chemical properties of humates. Humates isolated from the different vermicomposts, however, presented different chemical characteristics, such as acidity and distinct optical properties. Humates isolated from manure and manure + bagasse enhanced growth; these are more adequate for use in soluble form. Humates isolated from vermicompost with legume substitution were

  18. Nitrogen-15 labeling of Crotalaria juncea green manure Marcação do adubo verde Crotalaria juncea com 15N

    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies dealing with the utilization of 15N labeled plant material do not present details about the labeling technique. This is especially relevant for legume species since biological nitrogen fixation difficults plant enrichment. A technique was developed for labeling leguminous plant tissue with 15N to obtain labeled material for nitrogen dynamics studies. Sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. was grown on a Paleudalf, under field conditions. An amount of 58.32 g of urea with 70.57 ± 0.04 atom % 15N was sprayed three times on plants grown on eight 6-m²-plots. The labelled material presented 2.412 atom % 15N in a total dry matter equivalent to 9 Mg ha-1 This degree of enrichment enables the use of the green manure in pot or field experiments requiring 15N-labeled material.A grande maioria dos estudos com a utilização de material vegetal marcado com o isótopo 15N não apresentam detalhes tão importantes sobre como foram obtidos esses materiais. Em se tratando de marcação de leguminosas as dificuldades em se obter material marcado com 15N são ainda maiores pelo fato de serem plantas fixadoras de nitrogênio. Isso posto foi estabelecida uma técnica de marcação de leguminosas com nitrogênio (15N, com o objetivo de obter material vegetal marcado isotopicamente para estudos de dinâmica do nitrogênio. Cultivou-se a leguminosa crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L., em Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico, em campo. Ao se aplicarem via foliar 58,32 gramas de uréia em oito canteiros experimentais, (uréia com 70,57 ± 0,04% de átomos de 15N parceladas em três vezes, obteve-se material vegetal marcado seco que continha 2,412 % em átomos de 15N em uma massa seca equivalente a 9 Mg ha-1. Essa marcação permite o uso dessa massa vegetal em estudos de dinâmica de nitrogênio.

  19. Mapeamento da flora apícola arbórea das regiões pólos do estado do Piauí

    Divane de Lima Aleixo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da flora apícola de uma determinada região constitui uma ferramenta essencial para que o apicultor otimize a sua produção. O presente estudo desenvolvido no Estado do Piauí teve como objetivo identificar e catalogar as espécies apícolas arbóreas existentes nas regiões consideradas polo do Estado (Regiões Norte, Serra da Capivara, Picos e Simplício Mendes, bem como observar o período de florescimento e sua aptidão a néctar e/ou pólen pelas abelhas.  O levantamento apibotânico foi realizado entre os meses de agosto de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Foram feita coleta do material vegetal mensalmente, de acordo com o período de floração, e para verificar a presença de abelhas. O material vegetal foi herborizado conforme as técnicas usuais em botânica, e encaminhado para o Laboratório de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande – Campus de Pombal para serem identificadas. Foram catalogadas 38 espécies de plantas arbóreas, sendo que destas, 11 espécies apresentaram floração na estação da seca, sete plantas com floração na estação da