WorldWideScience

Sample records for pt particle production

  1. High pt identified particle production in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is a dedicated heavy ion physics detector at the LHC with unique capabilities for studying identified particle production. In this proceeding preliminary results for RAA for pi and K+p (sum), are reported, based on measurements in pp at sqrt(s) = 2.76 TeV and Pb-Pb at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV. The results are compared to theoretical predictions and measurements at RHIC.

  2. Aqueous Phase Glycerol Reforming by PtMo Bimetallic Nano-Particle Catalyst: Product Selectivity and Structural Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stach E. A.; Dietrich, P.J.; Lobo-Lapidus, R.J.; Wu, T.; Sumer, A.; Akatay, M.C.; Fingland, B.R.; Guo, N.; Dumesic, J.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Jellinek, J.; Delgass, W.N.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Miller, J.T.

    2012-03-01

    A carbon supported PtMo aqueous phase reforming catalyst for producing hydrogen from glycerol was characterized by analysis of the reaction products and pathway, TEM, XPS and XAS spectroscopy. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates the catalyst consists of bimetallic nano-particles with a Pt rich core and a Mo rich surface. XAS of adsorbed CO indicates that approximately 25% of the surface atoms are Pt. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that there is unreduced and partially reduced Mo oxide (MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 2}), and Pt-rich PtMo bimetallic nano-particles. The average size measured by transmission electron microscopy of the fresh PtMo nano-particles is about 2 nm, which increases in size to 5 nm after 30 days of glycerol reforming at 31 bar and 503 K. The catalyst structure differs from the most energetically stable structure predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations for metallic Pt and Mo atoms. However, DFT indicates that for nano-particles composed of metallic Pt and Mo oxide, the Mo oxide is at the particle surface. Subsequent reduction would lead to the experimentally observed structure. The aqueous phase reforming reaction products and intermediates are consistent with both C-C and C-OH bond cleavage to generate H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} or the side product CH{sub 4}. While the H{sub 2} selectivity at low conversion is about 75%, cleavage of C-OH bonds leads to liquid products with saturated carbon atoms. At high conversions (to gas), these will produced additional CH{sub 4} reducing the H{sub 2} yield and selectivity.

  3. Production of high-PT cumulative particles in proton-nuclear interactions at 50 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V V; Viktorov, V A; Gapienko, V A; Gapienko, G S; Gres, V N; Korotkov, V A; Mysnik, A I; Prudkoglyad, A F; Sviridov, Yu M; Semak, A A; Terekhov, V I; Uglekov, V Ya; Ukhanov, M N; Chuiko, B V; Baldin, A A; Shimanskiy, S S

    2014-01-01

    The data on production of cumulative particles in the high transverse momenta domain (up to ~ 3.5 GeV/c) in proton-nuclear interactions are presented for the first time. An indication on the local character of particle production in the cumulative domain is obtained. The observed strong dependence of the particle production cross section on the atomic mass of the target does not fit the A - dependence obtained in the pre-cumulative and cumulative domains for low transverse momenta at constant part of the exponent. The experiment was performed at U70 (IHEP) with the extracted 50 GeV/c proton beam.

  4. Particle size distribution control of Pt particles used for particle gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiji, M.; Akiba, H.; Nagao, H.; Hirasawa, I.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is particle size distribution (PSD) control of submicron sized Pt particles used for particle gun. In this report, simple reaction crystallization is conducted by mixing H2PtCl6 and ascorbic acid. Without the additive, obtained Pt particles have broad PSD and reproducibility of experiment is low. With seeding, Pt particles have narrow PSD and reproducibility improved. Additionally, mean particle diameter of 100-700 nm is controlled by changing seeding amount. Obtained particles are successfully characterized as Pt by XRD results. Moreover, XRD spectra indicate that obtained particles are polycrystals. These experimental results suggest that seeding consumed nucleation, as most nuclei attached on the seed surface. This mechanism virtually restricted nucleation to have narrow PSD can be obtained.

  5. Particle dependence of azimuthal anisotropy and nuclear modification of particle production at moderate p(T) in Au+Au collisions at s(NN)**(1/2) = 200-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D P; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gushin, E; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, Thomas W; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Simon, F; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Vasilev, A N; Vasilev, M; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-01-01

    The elliptic flow parameter ($v_2$) and the centrality dependenceof particle yields for kaons ($K_S^0$, $K^+$ and $K^-$) and lambdas ($\\Lambda + \\bar{\\Lambda}$) have been measured at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV by the STAR collaboration. A distinct particle-type dependence is observed within the measured $p_T$ region ($p_T < 6$ GeV/c). At intermediate $p_T$, the $\\Lambda+\\bar{\\Lambda}$ $v_2$ saturates at a higher value than the $K_S^0$ $v_2$ and both deviate from the hydrodynamic type behavior observed in the low $p_T$ region. The kaon yields in central collisions are suppressed with respect to expectations from binary scaling for all measured $p_T$. The yield of $\\Lambda+\\bar{\\Lambda}$ in central collisions is close to expectations from binary scaling for $p_T$ from 1.8--3.5 GeV/c. At $p_T \\sim$ 5.0 GeV/c, the $K_S^0$, $\\Lambda+\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and charged hadron yields are suppressed from binary scaling by a similar factor. We discuss the physics implications of these fea...

  6. Subcooled boiling of nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunhui; WANG Buxuan; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to explore the subcooled boiling characteristics of nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires. Some phenomena are observed for the boiling of water-SiO2 nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires. The experiments show that there exist not any evident differences for boiling of pure water and of nano-particle suspensions at high heat fluxes. However, bubble overlap phenomenon can be easily found for nano-particle suspensions at low heat fluxes, which probably results from the increase of the attracter force between bubbles and of the bubble mass.

  7. Porcelain Product Quality Analysis in PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Hwi Chie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. XYZ is a company engaged in manufacturing porcelain dinner ware such as plates, cups, teapot, bowl, etc Porcelain product is safe for use and product defect will only affect the aesthetic not the functional side. The company always maintain the quality of the products produced as by maintaining a good product, in terms of visuals, will keep customers interested in the product. Good quality products characterized by quality A / B and C, and the product defect characterized by the quality of D, Lost, and BU. Concepts and methods used to analyze is a statistical process control (SPC which includes Pareto diagram, fraction nonconformities, flow charts and fishbone diagrams and management tools (fault tree analysis. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one of the methods, which includes Pareto charts, fraction nonconformities, flow chart, and fishbone diagram and also management tools (fault tree analysis. SPC is useful to find the facts from the problems and factors that affect the quality of the products, while fault tree analysis is useful to analyze each of the production process.

  8. Porcelain Product Quality Analysis in PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Hwi Chie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. XYZ is a company engaged in manufacturing porcelain dinner ware such as plates, cups, teapot, bowl, etc Porcelain product is safe for use and product defect will only affect the aesthetic not the functional side. The company always maintain the quality of the products produced as by maintaining a good product, in terms of visuals, will keep customers interested in the product. Good quality products characterized by quality A / B and C, and the product defect characterized by the quality of D, Lost, and BU. Concepts and methods used to analyze is a statistical process control (SPC which includes Pareto diagram, fraction nonconformities, flow charts and fishbone diagrams and management tools (fault tree analysis. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one of the methods, which includes Pareto charts, fraction nonconformities, flow chart, and fishbone diagram and also management tools (fault tree analysis. SPC is useful to find the facts from the problems and factors that affect the quality of the products, while fault tree analysis is useful to analyze each of the production process.

  9. Effects of Catalyst Preparation on Hydrocarbon Product Distribution in Hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch Product with Low Pt-Loaded Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hanaoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the effective production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel in the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT product, the catalytic performance of Pt-loaded catalysts with low Pt content was investigated using an autoclave at 250 °C, an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and a reaction time of 1 h. A screening study using Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.1 wt. % indicated that zeolite supports were more favorable for jet fuel (carbon numbers 9–15 production than amorphous oxide supports. The small particle size of the supported Pt particles and the high amount of medium acid sites for the supports led to higher performance of the Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts. In the hydrocracking reaction over Pt catalysts using the zeolite support with the high amount of medium acid sites, the yields of the corresponding jet fuel at 0.02 and 0.1 wt. % were almost the same. Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.02 wt. % were prepared using water-in-oil (w/o microemulsions and their particle size was controlled between 1.0 and 2.6 nm. While the yield of the corresponding jet fuel was independent of Pt particle size, smaller Pt particles typically promoted the production of lighter hydrocarbons.

  10. Preparation for Pt-Loaded Zeolite Catalysts Using w/o Microemulsion and Their Hydrocracking Behaviors on Fischer-Tropsch Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hanaoka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pt-loaded β-type zeolite catalysts with constant Pt content (0.11 wt.% and similar pore structure were prepared using a water-in-oil (w/o microemulsion. The effect of Pt particle synthesis conditions using microemulsion (a type of Pt complex-forming agents and the molar ratio of complex-forming agent to Pt4+ on loaded Pt particle size was investigated. The Pt particle size of the Pt catalyst using tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC as a complex-forming agent with the molar TEAC/Pt ratio 10 was the minimum value (3.8 nm, and was much smaller than that (6.7 nm prepared by the impregnation method. The utilization of the complex-forming agent of which hydrophobic groups occupied a small volume and the appropriate complex-forming agent/Pt ratio were favorable for synthesis of small Pt particles. The effect of loaded Pt particle size on the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT product was investigated using the Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts at 250 °C with an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and reaction time of 1 h. The Pt catalyst with a Pt particle size of 4.2 nm prepared using the microemulsion exhibited the maximum corresponding jet fuel yield (30.0%, which was higher than that of the impregnated catalyst.

  11. Cocatalyzing Pt/PtO Phase-Junction Nanodots on Hierarchically Porous TiO2 for Highly Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiao-Ning; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Jin, Jun; Wu, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Fu; Wu, Min; Li, Yu; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van; Su, Bao-Lian

    2017-09-06

    Phase-junctions between a cocatalyst and its semiconductor host are quite effective to enhance the photocatalytic activity and are widely studied, while reports on the phase-juncted cocatalyst are still rare. In this work, we report the deposition of the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots as cocatalyst via NaOH modification of an interconnected meso-macroporous TiO2 network with high surface area and inner-particle mesopores to enhance the performance of photocatalytic H2 production. Our results show that NaOH modification can largely influence Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodot formation and dispersity. Compared to the TiO2 nanoparticles, the hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO2 network containing 0.18 wt % Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst demonstrates a highest photocatalytic H2 rate of 13 mmol g(-1) h(-1) under simulated solar light, and possesses a stable cycling activity without obvious decrease after five cycles. Such high H2 production performance can be attributed to both the phase-juncted Pt/PtO providing more active sites while PtO suppresses the undesirable hydrogen back reaction, and the special hierarchically porous TiO2 network with inner-particle mesopores presenting short diffusion path lengths for photogenerated electrons and enhanced light harvesting efficiency. This work suggests that Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst on hierarchically porous TiO2 nanostructures is a promising strategy for advanced photocatalytic H2 production.

  12. Graphene supported nano particles of Pt-Ni for CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Wei; Yang, Quanhong; Liu, Yuan

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a series of graphene supported Pt, Ni and Pt-Ni nano particles were successfully synthesized by a simple impregnation method. The resultant composites were characterized using SEM, XRD, HRTEM, XPS and TPR techniques and their catalytic performance for the oxidation of carbon monoxide was tested. It was shown that in the prepared metal/graphene composite, metal particles were highly dispersed on the graphene sheets (GS) with an average particle size of 1-3 nm. The results of catalytic performance tests indicate that the activity decreases in the order of Pt-Ni/GS, Pt/GS and Ni/GS. In the sample of Pt-Ni/GS, Pt-Ni alloy was formed, which contributed to the high activity of Pt-Ni/GS for CO oxidation.

  13. SiO{sub 2}-supported Pt particles studied by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Penner, S.; Su, D.S.; Rupprechter, G.; Hayek, K.; Schloegl, R

    2003-08-28

    Regularly grown Pt particles supported by amorphous SiO{sub 2} were heated in hydrogen at 873 K after an oxidising treatment. The morphological and structural changes were studied by electron microscopy. Platinum silicides Pt{sub 3}Si with L1{sub 2} (Cu{sub 3}Au) structure, monoclinic Pt{sub 3}Si and tetragonal Pt{sub 12}Si{sub 5} were identified after the treatment. The mechanisms of coalescence of the particles and the formation of irregular large particles are suggested. A topotactic structural transformation accompanied with the migration of Si from the substrate to the particles are suggested to take place during Pt{sub 3}Si formation.

  14. Surface enrichment of Pt in stable Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles on MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Nie, Lei; Cheng, Yingwen; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposure was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. A dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting\

  15. Universal scaling of pT distribution of particles in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. L.; Yang, C. B.

    2007-04-01

    With the experimental data from the STAR, PHENIX, and BRAHMS programs on the centrality and rapidity dependence of the pT spectrum in Au+Au and d+Au collisions, we show that a scaling distribution exists that is independent of the colliding system, centrality, and rapidity. The parameter for the average transverse momentum increases from peripheral to central d+Au collisions. This increase accounts for the enhancement of particle production in those collisions. A nonextensive entropy is used to derive the scaling function.

  16. Rotational Bands of Some Neutron Deficient Odd-A Pt Isotopes in Particle-Triaxial-Rotor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-Ming; LIU Yu-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are performed for neutron deficient Pt isotopes 177pt and 175,173,171pt in the particle-triaxial-rotor model with variable moment of inertia. The obtained energy spectra agree with experimental data quite well. The calculated results indicate that all these nuclei are in triaxial rotation with 177pt being in prolate and 175,173,171pt in oblate. Several levels are predicted for the 13/2+ band in 169pt.

  17. Proton enhancement at large pT at the CERN large hadron collider without structure in associated-particle distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Rudolph C; Yang, C B

    2006-07-28

    The production of pions and protons in the pT range between 10 and 20 GeV/c for Pb+Pb collisions at CERN LHC is studied in the recombination model. It is shown that the dominant mechanism for hadronization is the recombination of shower partons from neighboring jets when the jet density is high. Protons are more copiously produced than pions in that pT range because the coalescing partons can have lower momentum fractions, but no thermal partons are involved. The proton-to-pion ratio can be as high as 20. When such high pT hadrons are used as trigger particles, there will not be any associated particles that are not in the background.

  18. FePt magnetic particles prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    High-energy ball milling of Fe and Pt elemental powders has been carried out under dry and wet (in presence of solvent and surfactants) conditions. Dry milling leads to the formation of the disordered FCC-FePt alloy whereas by the wet milling procedure the main process is the decrease of Fe and Pt particle size, although some dissolution of Pt into Fe grains cannot be ruled out, and no hint of the formation of the FCC-FePt phase is observed even to milling times up to 20 h, as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates. The as-milled particles were annealed at 600 °C for 2 h under Ar atmosphere. It is noticed that the disordered fcc-FePt phase observed in particles milled under dry conditions transform to ordered fct phase characterized by a hard magnetic behavior with a coercive field up to 10,000 Oe. However, those particles milled in the surfactant/solvent medium exhibit a soft magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 600 Oe. These results indicate that wet high-energy ball milling is not an adequate technique for obtaining single-phase FePt particles. - Highlights: • FePt particles have been obtained by high-energy ball milling. • In the presence of surfactants and solvents, almost no alloying process takes place. • After annealing, the coercive field of the FePt alloy particles increases from 150 Oe to 10,000 Oe.

  19. Forward production with large p/π ratio and without jet structure at any pT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Rudolph C.; Yang, C. B.

    2007-07-01

    Particle production in the forward region of heavy-ion collisions is shown to be due to parton recombination without shower partons. The regeneration of soft partons due to momentum degradation through the nuclear medium is considered. The degree of degradation is determined by fitting the p¯/p ratio. The data at s=62.4 GeV and η=3.2 from the BRAHMS Collaboration on the pT distribution of average charged particles are well reproduced. A large proton-to-pion ratio is predicted. The particles produced at any pT should have no associated particles above background to manifest any jet structure.

  20. QCD factorization for high $p_T$ heavy quarkonium production

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Sterman, George; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, we present the QCD factorization formula for heavy quarkonium production at large $p_T$ with factorized leading-power and next-to-leading power contributions in the $1/p_T$ expansion. We show that the leading order analytical calculations in this QCD factorization approach can reproduce effectively the full next-to-leading order numerical results derived using non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization formalism. We demonstrate that the next-to-leading power contributions are crucial to the description of the channels that are the most relevant for the rate as well as polarization of $J/\\psi$ production at current collider energies.

  1. From particle in a box to PT -symmetric systems via isospectral deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Cherian, Philip; Panigrahi, P K

    2011-01-01

    A family of PT -symmetric complex potentials are obtained which is isospectral to free particle in an infinite complex box in one dimension (1-D). These are generalizations to the cosec2(x) potential, isospectral to particle in a real infinite box. In the complex plane, the infinite box is extended parallel to the real axis having a real width, which is found to be an integral multiple of a constant quantum factor, arising due to boundary conditions necessary for maintaining the PT -symmetry of the superpartner. As the spectra of the particle in a box is still real, it necessarily picks out the unbroken PT -sector of its superpartner, thereby invoking a close relation between PT -symmetry and SUSY for this case.

  2. Re-examination of the Pt Particle Size Effect on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Ultrathin Uniform Pt/C Catalyst Layers without Influence from Nafion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Morimoto, Yu; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2016-09-01

    The platinum 'particle size effect' on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been re-evaluated using commercial Pt/C catalysts (2-10 nm Pt particle) and polycrystalline Pt (poly-Pt) in 0.1 M HClO4 with a rotating disk electrode method. Nafion-free catalyst layers were employed to obtain specific activities (SA) that were not perturbed (suppressed) by sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. By using ultrathin uniform catalyst layers, O2 diffusion limitation was minimized as confirmed from the high SAs of our supported catalysts that were comparable to unsupported sputtered Pt having controlled sizes. The specific activity (SA) steeply increased for the particle sizes in the range -2-10 nm (0.8-1.8 mA/cm2Pt at 0.9 V vs. RHE) and plateaued over -10 nm to 2.7 mA/cm2Pt for bulk poly-Pt. On the basis of the activity trend for the range of particle sizes studied, it appears that the effect of carbon support on activity is negligible. The experimental results and the concomitant profile of SA vs. particle size was found to be in an agreement to a truncated octahedral particle model that assumes active terrace sites.

  3. Systematic study on the discharge product of Pt-based lithium oxygen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Feng; Xing, Yi; Bi, Xuanxuan; Yuan, Yifei; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Li, Li; Chen, Renjie; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-11-01

    Lithium oxygen batteries have attracted much attention due to the high theoretical energy density. However, they suffer a large overpotential during oxygen evolution process and thus catalysts play a vital role in the reaction. Here, we systematically explored the influence of Pt-based nanoparticle catalysts on the discharge product Li2O2. Because of the superior electrical conductivity and the strong binding with oxygen, Pt-based nanoparticles serve as active sites which are favorable for the growth of toroidal Li2O2. We also found that the content and composition of Pt-based nanoparticle catalysts exert a significant influence on the electrochemical performance of lithium oxygen batteries. The discharge products are composed of crystalline Li2O2 and oxygen-rich LiO2 characterized by high-energy X-ray diffraction and Raman. Atomic force microscopy further provides detailed information of the particle size and surface roughness. The loading of Pt catalysts determines the phase and size of Li2O2 on the discharged electrode surface. This study will be beneficial for the optimization of Pt-based catalysts used in non-aqueous lithium oxygen batteries.

  4. Electro-oxidation of methanol at the different carbon materials supported Pt nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu.; Zhang, Guojie; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong [The Laboratory of Electrochemistry, College of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ma, Juan [Institute of Electrochemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Single-wall carbon nano-tubes (SWNTs), multi-wall carbon nano-tubes (MWNTs) and Vulcan XC-72 carbon (XC-72) are used as supporting carbon materials to prepare Pt/XC-72, Pt/SWNTs and Pt/MWNTs catalysts in tetrahydrofuran/water/ethanol mixture solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the type of supporting carbon material affects significantly the morphology and the electronic structure of supported Pt nano-particles (NPs). Electrochemical measurements indicate that the Pt/SWNTs catalyst exhibited the highest current density, the lowest onset oxidation potential and the best stability for methanol electro-oxidation among the three samples, indicating SWNTs are an ideal anode catalyst supporting material for the practical application of direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  5. FePt films on self-assembled SiO2 particle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D.; Brombacher, C.; Liscio, F.; Maret, M.; Parlinska, M.; Meier, S.; Kappenberger, P.; Albrecht, M.

    2008-03-01

    Chemically L10 ordered (001) textured FePt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy can be grown on amorphous planar SiO2 substrate with an underlayer stack of [Pt (3nm )/Cr (50nm)] adopting a [002] orientation when deposited at 350°C. This knowledge of optimum layer stack was transferred to self-assembled SiO2 particle arrays. While 330nm SiO2 particle arrays reveal perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a remanence of almost one and a coercivity of 370mT, on 160nm particles, the FePt caps show a (111) texturing, leading to the random orientation of the easy axis of the magnetization.

  6. Particle production in Ekpyrotic scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S. [Physics Department, McGill University,Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo,Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, Campus de São Mateus, CEP 29932-540,São Mateus, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Brandenberger, Robert [Physics Department, McGill University,Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zürich,CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Graef, L.L. [Physics Department, McGill University,Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-11-09

    We consider Parker particle production in the Ekpyrotic scenario (in particular in the New Ekpyrotic model) and show that the density of particles produced by the end of the phase of Ekpyrotic contraction can be sufficient to lead to a hot state of matter after the bounce. Hence, no separate reheating mechanism is necessary.

  7. Methanol electrooxidation on Pt particles dispersed into PANI/SWNT composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang; Li, Li; Li, Jing-Hong; Xu, Bo-Qing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-04-21

    Conducting polymer composite films comprised of polyaniline (PANI) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) was prepared by electrochemical codeposition during the electropolymerization in an aniline solution with suspending SWNT. The fabricated composite films are assessed with respect to their potential application as support materials in Pt electrocatalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The PANI/SWNT composite film incorporated with SWNT has a higher polymeric degree and lower defect density in PANI structure than PANI film. Furthermore, the incorporation of SWNT also leads to higher electrochemically accessible surface areas (S{sub a}), electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/electrolyte interfaces, which make higher dispersion and utilization for deposited Pt. Therefore, the Pt particles electrodeposited on PANI/SWNT composite polymer film exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability for the electrooxidation of methanol in comparison to Pt supported on PANI film, which reveals that the composite film is more promising for application in electrocatalyst as a support material. (author)

  8. Synthesis of sub-nanosized Pt particles on mesoporous SBA-15 material and its application to the CO oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lai, Nien-Chu; Yang, Chia-Min; Wu, Jia-Huang; Chen, Yan-Chu; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Chen, Ching-Shiun

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we show that the size and shape of Pt nanoparticles in SBA-15 can be controlled through vacuum and air calcination. The vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction process is used to thermally treat a 0.2 wt% Pt4+/SBA-15 sample to obtain small 2D clusters and single atoms that can significantly increase Pt dispersion in SBA-15. Compared with thermal treatments involving air-calcination/H2-reduction, which result in ~4.6 nm rod-like Pt particles, vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction can dramatically reduce the size of the Pt species to approximately 0.5-0.8 nm. The Pt particles undergoing air-calcination/H2-reduction have poor conversion efficiency because the fraction of terrace sites, the major sites for CO oxidation, on the rod-like Pt particles is small. In contrast, a large amount of low-coordinated Pt sites associated with 2D Pt species and single Pt atoms in SBA-15 is effectively generated through the vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction process, which may facilitate CO adsorption and induce strong reactivity toward CO oxidation. We investigated the effect of vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction on the formation of tiny 2D clusters and single atoms by characterizing the particles, elucidating the mechanism of formation, determining the active sites for CO oxidation and measuring the heat of CO adsorption.

  9. High PT multi-lepton production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvan, E; Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bodmann, B; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Kataoka, Y; Yamazaki, M; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Luzniak, P; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Riveline, U; Karshon, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rosin, M; Rurua, L; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stoesslein, U; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J; Sauvan, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Multi-electron and multi-muon production at high transverse momentum is measured in $ep$ scattering at HERA. Previous published analyses are extended, combining new HERA II data taken in 2003-2004 with previous HERA I data sample. In addition events with high $P_T$ electrons and muons are investigated here for the first time. Yields of di-lepton and tri-lepton events are measured and a general good agreement is found with the Standard Model prediction, dominated by photon-photon interactions. Events are observed with leptons of high transverse momenta in a domain where the Standard Model prediction is low.

  10. Rapidity and pt dependence of identified-particle elliptic flow at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S. J.; BRAHMS Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    Elliptic flow has been measured by the BRAHMS experiment as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for the Au+Au reaction at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. Identified-particle v2(η, pt) values were obtained with the two BRAHMS spectrometers at pseudorapidities ηap 0, 1 and 3.4. The results show that the differential v2(η, pt) values for a given particle type are essentially constant over the covered pseudorapidity range. It is suggested that the dominant cause of the observed fall-off of the integral v2 values going away from mid-rapidity is a corresponding softening of the particle spectra.

  11. Chemically Synthesised Pt Particles on Surface Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes as an Effective Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; yari; Sajjad; Sadaghat; Sharehjini

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The synthesis, physical characterization and electrochemical analysis of Pt particles prepared using the surface oxidized carbon nanotubes prepared by chemically anchoring Pt onto the surface of the CNTs with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 by refluxing for 10 h to introduce surface functional groups.The particles of Pt are synthesized by reduction with sodium borohydride of H2PtCl6. The electro-oxidation of liquid methanol of this catalyst as a thin layer on glassy carbon electrode is investigated at room te...

  12. Influence of Particle Size on Reaction Selectivity in Cyclohexene Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation over Silica-Supported Monodisperse Pt Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioux, R. M.; Hsu, B. B.; Grass, M. E.; Song, H.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-07-11

    The role of particle size during the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of cyclohexene (10 Torr C{sub 6}H{sub 10}, 200-600 Torr H{sub 2}, and 273-650 K) was studied over a series of monodisperse Pt/SBA-15 catalysts. The conversion of cyclohexene in the presence of excess H{sub 2} (H{sub 2}:C{sub 6}H{sub 10} ratio = 20-60) is characterized by three regimes: hydrogenation of cyclohexene to cyclohexane at low temperature (< 423 K), an intermediate temperature range in which both hydrogenation and dehydrogenation occur; and a high temperature regime in which the dehydrogenation of cyclohexene dominates (> 573 K). The rate of both reactions demonstrated maxima with temperature, regardless of Pt particle size. For the hydrogenation of cyclohexene, a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (apparent negative activation energy) was observed. Hydrogenation is structure insensitive at low temperatures, and apparently structure sensitive in the non-Arrhenius regime; the origin of the particle-size dependent reactivity with temperature is attributed to a change in the coverage of reactive hydrogen. Small particles were more active for dehydrogenation and had lower apparent activation energies than large particles. The selectivity can be controlled by changing the particle size, which is attributed to the structure sensitivity of both reactions in the temperature regime where hydrogenation and dehydrogenation are catalyzed simultaneously.

  13. Theoretical Calculation of Rotational Bands of 179Pt in the Particle-Triaxial-Rotor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Jie; SONG Hui-Chao; LIU Yu-Xin

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed for nucleus 179Pt in the particle-triaxial-rotor model with variable moment of inertia. The obtained energy spectrum agrees with the experimental data quite well. The calculated results indicate that the bands 1/2- and 7/2+ are triaxial deformation bands and originate mainly from the v[521]1/2- and v[633]7/2+ configurations respectively.

  14. Chemonuclear studies for identification for new production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt; Kernchemische Studien zur Entwicklung neuerer Produktionsverfahren fuer die therapierelevanten Radionuklide {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, K.

    2005-12-15

    New production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt were investigated. Cross section data were measured using the stacked-foil technique and compared with theoretical calculations. A production method for the platinum nuclides was developed. The {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd and {sup nat}Ce({sup 3}He, xn){sup 140}Nd reactions were investigated for production of {sup 140}Nd. Cross section data of nuclear reactions leading to the side products {sup 141}Nd, {sup 139}Nd and {sup 139}Ce could also be achieved. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using the code ALICE-IPPE. A comparison of the calculated thick target yields showed that the {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd reaction gives a higher yield. The {sup 192}Os(p, n){sup 192}Ir reaction was examined in the context of the production of {sup 192}Ir. Cross section data were determined and compared with theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE II. The yield of this reaction was compared with the yield of the reactor production of this nuclide. The reactor production seems to be more suitable because of a higher purity and yield. Cross section data were measured for the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt, {sup 192}Os({alpha}, 3n){sup 193m}Pt and {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He, 4n){sup 191}Pt reactions. The activity of {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was determined by X-ray spectroscopy after a chemical separation procedure. The ALICE-IPPE code was found to be inappropriate to reproduce the experimental values. The calculated yields were compared with the yields of other reactions, especially the reactor production of {sup 195m}Pt. The yield of the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt reaction is lower compared to the yield of the reactor production, but offers lower target costs and higher specific activity. A production method for {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was developed. Batch yields of 0.9 MBq

  15. Chemonuclear studies for identification for new production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt; Kernchemische Studien zur Entwicklung neuerer Produktionsverfahren fuer die therapierelevanten Radionuklide {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, K.

    2005-12-15

    New production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt were investigated. Cross section data were measured using the stacked-foil technique and compared with theoretical calculations. A production method for the platinum nuclides was developed. The {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd and {sup nat}Ce({sup 3}He, xn){sup 140}Nd reactions were investigated for production of {sup 140}Nd. Cross section data of nuclear reactions leading to the side products {sup 141}Nd, {sup 139}Nd and {sup 139}Ce could also be achieved. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using the code ALICE-IPPE. A comparison of the calculated thick target yields showed that the {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd reaction gives a higher yield. The {sup 192}Os(p, n){sup 192}Ir reaction was examined in the context of the production of {sup 192}Ir. Cross section data were determined and compared with theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE II. The yield of this reaction was compared with the yield of the reactor production of this nuclide. The reactor production seems to be more suitable because of a higher purity and yield. Cross section data were measured for the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt, {sup 192}Os({alpha}, 3n){sup 193m}Pt and {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He, 4n){sup 191}Pt reactions. The activity of {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was determined by X-ray spectroscopy after a chemical separation procedure. The ALICE-IPPE code was found to be inappropriate to reproduce the experimental values. The calculated yields were compared with the yields of other reactions, especially the reactor production of {sup 195m}Pt. The yield of the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt reaction is lower compared to the yield of the reactor production, but offers lower target costs and higher specific activity. A production method for {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was developed. Batch yields of 0.9 MBq

  16. Carbon Aerogel-Supported Pt Catalysts for the Hydrogenolysis and Isomerization of n-Butane: Influence of the Carbonization Temperature of the Support and Pt Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta B. Dawidziuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels prepared at different carbonization temperatures and with varying mesopore volumes were used as supports for Pt catalysts to study the n-C4H10/H2 reaction. Mean Pt particle size depended on the mesopore volume of the support, showing a linear decrease when the mesopore volume increased. The turnover frequency (TOF for hydrogenolysis was much higher than for isomerization in catalysts supported on carbon aerogels obtained at 900–950 °C. However, both TOF values were similar in catalysts supported on the carbon aerogel obtained at 500 °C. TOF for hydrogenolysis and isomerization were related to the mean Pt particle size in catalysts supported on carbon aerogels obtained at 900–950 °C. In addition, both reactions showed a compensation effect between the activation energy and pre-exponential factor, indicating that they have the same intermediate, i.e., the chemisorbed dehydrogenated alkane.

  17. Reduction of Pt2+ species in model Pt-CeO2 fuel cell catalysts upon reaction with methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Armin; Johánek, Viktor; Lykhach, Yaroslava; Skála, Tomáš; Tsud, Nataliya; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Matolín, Vladimír; Libuda, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    The stability of atomically dispersed Pt2+ species on the surface of nanostructured CeO2 films during the reaction with methanol has been investigated by means of synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and resonant photoemission spectroscopy. The isolated Pt2+ species were prepared at low Pt concentration in Pt-CeO2 film. Additionally, Pt2+ species coexisting with metallic Pt particles were prepared at high Pt concentration. We found that adsorption of methanol yields similar decomposition products regardless of Pt concentration in Pt-CeO2 films. A small number of oxygen vacancies formed during the methanol decomposition can be replenished in the Pt-CeO2 film with low Pt concentration by diffusion of oxygen from the bulk. In the presence of supported Pt particles, a higher number of oxygen vacancies leads to a partial reduction of the Pt2+ species. The isolated Pt2+ species are reduced under rather strongly reducing conditions only, i.e. during annealing under continuous exposure to methanol. Reduction of isolated Pt2+ species results in the formation of ultra-small Pt particles containing around 25 atoms per particle or less. Such ultra-small Pt particles demonstrate excellent stability against sintering during annealing of Pt-CeO2 film with low Pt concentration under reducing conditions.

  18. Structural and magnetic characterization of FePt films deposited onto SiO{sub 2} spherical particle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, Christoph; Makarov, Denys; Schatz, Guenter; Albrecht, Manfred [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Maret, Mireille; Liscio, Fabiola [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie Metallurgiques, ENSEEG, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-07-01

    The growth of FePt films at 450 C on a Pt/Cr buffer layer deposited onto SiO{sub 2} spherical particle arrays and for comparison on flat thermally oxidized Si(001) substrates has been studied. The structural properties of the FePt films, such as the orientation and size of the crystalline grains and the degree of L1{sub 0}-type chemical ordering, were investigated by in-situ RHEED and ex-situ XRD. Magnetic characterization was performed by MFM, polar MOKE and SQUID. Increasing the Cr buffer underlayer thickness favors the formation of the FePt chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. An out-of-plane coercivity of the FePt alloy about 4 kOe was thus obtained for a Cr thickness of 50 nm. While the continuous films on oxidized Si(001) substrates show magnetic domain patterns with domain sizes in the range of 50-100 nm, multi-domain states are observed for the FePt alloy grown on the particle arrays. The influence of the Cr underlayer thickness and Pt buffer layer on the magnetic properties of FePt are discussed for various particle arrays and compared to micromagnetic simulations, providing a description of magnetization reversal.

  19. Synthesis of Cubic-Shaped Pt Particles with (100) Preferential Orientation by a Quick, One-Step and Clean Electrochemical Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Fan, Xiayue; Liu, Xiaorui; Song, Zhishuang; Deng, Yida; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng

    2017-06-07

    A new approach has been developed for in situ preparing cubic-shaped Pt particles with (100) preferential orientation on the surface of the conductive support by using a quick, one-step, and clean electrochemical method with periodic square-wave potential. The whole electrochemical deposition process is very quick (only 6 min is required to produce cubic Pt particles), without the use of particular capping agents. The shape and the surface structure of deposited Pt particles can be controlled by the lower and upper potential limits of the square-wave potential. For a frequency of 5 Hz and an upper potential limit of 1.0 V (vs saturated calomel electrode), as the lower potential limit decreases to the H adsorption potential region, the Pt deposits are changed from nearly spherical particles to cubic-shaped (100)-oriented Pt particles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction reveal that the formed cubic Pt particles are single-crystalline and enclosed by (100) facets. Cubic Pt particles exhibit characteristic H adsorption/desorption peaks corresponding to the (100) preferential orientation. Ge irreversible adsorption indicates that the fraction of wide Pt(100) surface domains is 47.8%. The electrocatalytic activities of different Pt particles are investigated by ammonia electro-oxidation, which is particularly sensitive to the amount of Pt(100) sites, especially larger (100) domains. The specific activity of cubic Pt particles is 3.6 times as high as that of polycrystalline spherical Pt particles, again confirming the (100) preferential orientation of Pt cubes. The formation of cubic-shaped Pt particles is related with the preferential electrochemical deposition and dissolution processes of Pt, which are coupled with the periodic desorption and adsorption processes of O-containing species and H adatoms.

  20. Strange Particle Production at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Timmins, Anthony R

    2008-01-01

    We report STAR measurements of mid-rapidity yields for the $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $K^{0}_{S}$, $\\Xi^{-}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$, $\\Omega^{-}$, and $\\bar{\\Omega}^{+}$ particles in Cu+Cu and Au+Au $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV collisions. We show that at a given number of participating nucleons, bulk strangeness production is higher in Cu+Cu collisions compared to Au+Au collisions at the same center of mass energy, counter to predictions from the Canonical formalism. We compare both the Cu+Cu and Au+Au yields to AMPT and EPOS predictions, and find they reproduce key qualitative aspects of the data. Finally, we investigate other scaling parameters and find bulk strangeness production for both the measured data and theoretical predictions, scales better with the number participants that undergo more than one collision.

  1. Ultra low Pt-loading electrode prepared by displacement of electrodeposited Cu particles on a porous carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, M.J. [The State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Z.D.; Li, L. [The State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, S.G.; Ji, M.B.; Wang, Y.Q. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Ultra low Pt-loading and high Pt utilization electrodes were prepared by displacement of electrodeposited Cu on a porous carbon electrode. Copper particles were electrodeposited on a porous carbon electrode (PCE) by four-step deposition (FSD) at first. The size and dispersion of deposited Cu particles were markedly improved with application of the FSD. The Cu deposits were then displaced by platinum as dipping a Cu/PCE in a platinum salt solution. Sequentially, Pt particles supported on the PCE were obtained. The Pt/PCE electrode prepared via the FSD of Cu overcomes the problem of the hydrogen evolution reaction accompanied with direct platinum electrochemical deposition, and has a high Pt dispersion. The single cell consisting of the electrodes Pt/PCE via the FSD of Cu outputs a power of 0.45 W cm{sup -2} with ultra low Pt loadings of 0.196 mg cm{sup -2} MEA (0.098 mg cm{sup -2} per each side of the MEA) at no backpressure of reactant gases. (author)

  2. Particles versus fields in $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetrically deformed integrable systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andreas Fring

    2009-08-01

    We review some recent results on how $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry, that is a simultaneous time-reversal and parity transformation, can be used to construct new integrable models. Some complex valued multi-particle systems, such as deformations of the Calogero–Moser– Sutherland models, are shown to arise naturally from real valued field equations of non-linear integrable systems. Deformations of complex non-linear integrable field equations, some of them even allowing for compacton solutions, are also investigated. The integrabilty of various systems is established by means of the Painlevé test.

  3. Families of particles with different masses in PT-symmetric quantum field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M; Klevansky, S P

    2010-07-16

    An elementary field-theoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the Dyson-Schwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complex-field space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

  4. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ommen, J. Ruud van, E-mail: j.r.vanommen@tudelft.nl; Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min{sup −1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s{sup −1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  5. Synthesis Gas Production from Natural Gas on Supported Pt Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Auto-thermal reforming of methane, combining partial oxidation and reforming of methane with CO2 or steam, was carried out with Pt/Al2O3, Pt/ZrO2 and Pt/CeO2 catalysts, in a temperature range of 300-900 ℃. The auto-thermal reforming occurs in two simultaneous stages, namely, total combustion of methane and reforming of the unconverted methane with steam and CO2, with the O2 conversion of 100% starting from 450 ℃. For combination with CO2 reforming, the Pt/CeO2 catalyst showed the lowest initial activity at 800 ℃, and the highest stability over 40 h on-stream. This catalyst also presented the best performance for the reaction with steam at 800 ℃. The higher resistance to coke formation of the catalyst supported on ceria is due to the metal-support interactions and the higher mobility of oxygen in the oxide lattice.

  6. Electrolysis of ammonia for hydrogen production catalyzed by Pt and Pt-Ir deposited on nickel foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; Jiang; Dandan; Zhu; Xuebo; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Electrolysis of ammonia in alkaline electrolyte solution was applied for the production of hydrogen. Both Pt-loaded Ni foam and Pt-Ir loaded Ni foam electrodes were prepared by electrodeposition and served as anode and cathode in ammonia electrolytic cell, respectively. The electrochemical behaviors of ammonia in KOH solution were individually investigated via cyclic voltammetry on three electrodes, i.e. bare Ni foam electrode, Pt-loaded Ni foam electrode and Pt-Ir loaded Ni foam electrode. The morphology and composition of the prepared Ni foam electrode were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). Effects of the concentration of electrolyte solution and temperature of electrolytic cell on the electrolysis reaction were examined in order to enhance the efficiency of ammonia electrolysis. The competition of ammonia electrolysis and water electrolysis in the same alkaline solution was firstly proposed to explain the changes of cell voltage with the electrolysis proceeding. At varying current densities, different cell voltages could be obtained from galvanostatic curves.The low cell voltage of 0.58 V, which is less than the practical electrolysis voltage of water(1.6 V), can be obtained at a current density of2.5 mA/cm2. Based on some experimental parameters, such as the applied current, the resulting cell voltage and output of hydrogen gas, the power consumption per gram of H2produced can be estimated.

  7. CoPt and FePt magnetic alloys grown on van der Waals WSe{sub 2}(0001) surfaces and on arrays of SiO{sub 2} spherical particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Denys

    2008-06-06

    Modern magnetic recording is based on usage of hard magnetic alloys as a recording media. In order to increase the areal storage density (number of stored bits per square inch), materials with a high value of magnetic anisotropy are required to stabilize the direction of the magnetization and thus satisfy the criteria of thermal stability. The magnetic alloy currently used for hard disk drive production is a granular CoCrPt:SiO2 alloy with a grain size of approximately 7 nm and an anisotropy constant of about 0.4 MJ/m{sup 3}. However, the predicted limit of the highest achievable areal density of this type of granular media is 500-600 Gbit/in{sup 2}. To satisfy the demand of higher densities, new magnetic alloys have to be introduced. The most promising candidates for future ultra-high density magnetic recording applications are chemically L10 ordered FePt and CoPt alloys with anisotropy constants of about 10 MJ/m{sup 3} and 3 MJ/m{sup 3}, respectively. In order to obtain a high value of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the substrate temperature during molecular beam epitaxy or sputtering deposition has to be higher than 500 C. For practical use in industrial applications the ordering temperature of the FePt and CoPt alloys has to be reduced. One of the promising approaches to reduce the ordering temperature is related to the enhancement of the adatom mobility by growing the alloy on the chemically saturated surface. In this regard an attempt to reduce the ordering temperature of the CoPt alloy with equiatomic composition was performed in the scope of present work by growing the CoPt alloy on van der Waals WSe{sub 2}(0001) substrates. Moreover, an increase in data density can be gained using the concept of patterned media, where an information unit (bit) is stored in a single nanostructure. The most attractive way to produce patterned magnetic media for ultra-high density magnetic recording applications is based on self-assembly of the magnetic nanostructures. In this

  8. Porous-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings with dispersed Pt particles prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Porousa-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) containing dispersed Pt particles were prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The influence of the Pt particles on the microstructure of the coatings and the CPED process were studied. The prepared coatings were mainly composed ofα-Al2O3. The average thickness of the coatings was approximately 100μm. Such single-layer TBCs ex-hibited not only excellent high-temperature cyclic oxidation and spallation resistance, but also good thermal insulation properties. Porousa-Al2O3 TBCs inhibit further oxidation of alloy substrates because of their extremely low oxygen diffusion rate, provide good thermal insu-lation because of their porous structure, and exhibit excellent mechanical properties because of the toughening effect of the Pt particles and because of stress relaxation induced by deformation of the porous structure.

  9. Reforming of oxygenates for H2 production: correlating reactivity of ethylene glycol and ethanol on Pt(111) and Ni/Pt(111) with surface d-band center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoplyak, Orest; Barteau, Mark A; Chen, Jingguang G

    2006-02-02

    The dehydrogenation and decarbonylation of ethylene glycol and ethanol were studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on Pt(111) and Ni/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces, as probe reactions for the reforming of oxygenates for the production of H2 for fuel cells. Ethylene glycol reacted via dehydrogenation to form CO and H2, corresponding to the desired reforming reaction, and via total decomposition to produce C(ad), O(ad), and H2. Ethanol reacted by three reaction pathways, dehydrogenation, decarbonylation, and total decomposition, producing CO, H2, CH4, C(ad), and O(ad). Surfaces prepared by deposition of a monolayer of Ni on Pt(111) at 300 K, designated Ni-Pt-Pt(111), displayed increased reforming activity compared to Pt(111), subsurface monolayer Pt-Ni-Pt(111), and thick Ni/Pt(111). Reforming activity was correlated with the d-band center of the surfaces and displayed a linear trend for both ethylene glycol and ethanol, with activity increasing as the surface d-band center moved closer to the Fermi level. This trend was opposite to that previously observed for hydrogenation reactions, where increased activity occurred on subsurface monolayers as the d-band center shifted away from the Fermi level. Extrapolation of the correlation between activity and the surface d-band center of bimetallic systems may provide useful predictions for the selection and rational design of bimetallic catalysts for the reforming of oxygenates.

  10. Ultraforward particle production from color glass condensate and Lund fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Guerrero Rodríguez, Pablo; Nara, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    We present an analysis of data on single inclusive pion production measured by the LHCf Collaboration in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus at ultraforward rapidities, 8.8 ≤y ≤10.8 . We also analyze forward RHIC data for calibration purposes. Our analysis relies on the use of a Monte Carlo event generator that combines a perturbative description of the elementary scattering process at partonic level based on the hybrid formalism of the color glass condensate with an implementation of hadronization in the framework of the Lund string fragmentation model. This procedure allows us to reach values of the momenta of the produced particles as low as detected experimentally, pt˜0.1 GeV . We achieve a good description of single inclusive spectra of charged particles and neutral pions at the RHIC and the LHC, respectively, and nuclear modification factors for proton-lead collisions at the LHC. Our results add evidence to the idea that particle production in the domain of a very small Bjorken x is dominated by the saturation effects encoded in the unintegrated gluon distribution of the target. With forward particle production being of key importance in the development of air showers, we stress that this approach allows for a theoretically controlled extrapolation of our results to the scale of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, thus serving as the starting point for future works on this topic.

  11. Pyrochlore free 0.67PMN-0.33PT ceramics prepared by particle-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Ruiqing; Li, Yan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Gong, Shuwen [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Liu, Yong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Li, Guorong [The State Key Lab of High Performance Ceramics and Superfinemicrostructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xu, Zhijun, E-mail: zhjxu@lcu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China)

    2012-08-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrochlore-free PMN-PT powders were obtained by two-step particle-coating method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-citric acid polymeric complex coatings avoid the formation of pyrochlore phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrochlore-free PMN-PT powders have been successfully prepared at 800 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PMN-PT ceramics sintered at 1150 Degree-Sign C exhibited excellent electrical properties. - Abstract: In present study, pyrochlore-free 0.67Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.33PbTiO{sub 3} (0.67PMN-0.33PT) powders and ceramics have been successfully prepared. Using oxides as raw materials, pyrochlore-free 0.67PMN-0.33PT powders were obtained by two-step particle-coating method. The XRD and EDS results confirmed that the Mg-citric acid polymeric complex coatings effectively prevent the direct contact between PbO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and thus avoid the formation of pyrochlore phase. The obtained pyrochlore-free 0.67PMN-0.33PT powders at 800 Degree-Sign C showed uniform and even grain size. The 0.67PMN-0.33PT ceramics sintered at 1150 Degree-Sign C for 2 h exhibited 99% of relative density and a piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) of 576pC/N, a remnant polarization (P{sub r}) of 28.4 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, a planar electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}) of 0.55 and a mechanical quality factor (Q{sub m}) of 90.

  12. Design, production and testing of PMN-PT electrostrictive transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutte, J; Dubus, B; Debus, J C; Granger, C; Jones, D

    2002-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate ceramics (PMN) are promising materials for application in the field of high power transducers. The advantage of PMN materials are the large strains generated under moderate electric field and the low hysteresis. The electrostrictive effect is non-linear, the corresponding physical constants depend on temperature and frequency and a DC electrical bias is required. These difficulties must be considered at the design stage. A finite element model has been developed and validated in the ATILA code for non-linear static and time-domain analyses. These numerical modelings are used to design and test two Langevin-type electrostrictive transducers. The first transducer is made of PMN-PT-La (90-10-1%) ceramics (TRS Ceramics), the second one of ESCI ceramics (Morgan Matroc). For given static mechanical prestresses, resonance frequencies and effective coupling coefficients are measured at different DC electric fields and temperatures.

  13. Synthesis of Pure and Pt-Doped ZnO Particles Through Aerosol Route Using Nitrate and PDDA-Pt(IV) Complex Solution%利用浮质方法将硝酸盐和PDDA-Pt(IV)复合溶液合成纯净及Pt掺杂的ZnO颗粒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.M.Djinovic; L.T.; Maneieb; G.A.; Bogdanovic; P.J.; Vulie; G.; del; Rosario; T.J.; Sabo; O.B.; Milosevie

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pure and Pt-doped ZnO nanophase particles were synthesized using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Particles were obtained through decomposition of zincnitrate and new developed Pt(IV) complex with 1,3-propylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate ligand (pdda) belonging to the tetradentate class.

  14. Effect of Different Support Morphologies and Pt Particle Sizes in Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sevjidsuren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a low temperature fuel cell is strongly correlated with parameters like the platinum particle size, platinum dispersion on the carbon support, and electronic and protonic conductivity in the catalyst layer as well as its porosity. These parameters can be controlled by a rational choice of the appropriate catalyst synthesis and carbon support. Only recently, particular attention has been given to the support morphology, as it plays an important role for the formation of the electrode structure. Due to their significantly different structure, mesoporous carbon microbeads (MCMBs and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were used as supports and compared. Pt nanoparticles were decorated on these supports using the polyol method. Their size was varied by different heating times during the synthesis, and XRD, TEM, SEM, CV, and single cell tests used in their detailed characterization. A membrane-electrode assembly prepared with the MCMB did not show any activity in the fuel cell test, although the catalyst's electrochemical activity was almost similar to the MWCNT. This is assumed to be due to the very dense electrode structure formed by this support material, which does not allow for sufficient mass transport.

  15. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; A Beesham; R V Deshpande

    2000-05-01

    The effect of particle production on the evolution of the spatially flat Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production gives rise to a supplementary negative creation pressure in addition to the thermodynamic pressure. The dynamical behaviour of both exponential as well as power law solutions have been discussed.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Metallodielectric SiO2@Pt@SiO2 Core-Shell-Shell Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexey; Lehmann, Hauke; Finsel, Maik; Klinke, Christian; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-26

    Metallodielectric nanostructured core-shell-shell particles are particularly desirable for enabling novel types of optical components, including narrow-band absorbers, narrow-band photodetectors, and thermal emitters, as well as new types of sensors and catalysts. Here, we present a facile approach for the preparation of submicron SiO2@Pt@SiO2 core-shell-shell particles. As shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the first steps of this approach allow for the deposition of closed and almost perfectly smooth platinum shells onto silica cores via a seeded growth mechanism. By choosing appropriate conditions, the shell thickness could be adjusted precisely, ranging from ∼3 to ∼32 nm. As determined by X-ray diffraction, the crystalline domain sizes of the polycrystalline metal shells were ∼4 nm, regardless of the shell thickness. The platinum content of the particles was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for thin shells consistent with a dense metal layer of the TEM-measured thickness. In addition, we show that the roughness of the platinum shell strongly depends on the storage time of the gold seeds used to initiate reductive platinum deposition. Further, using polyvinylpyrrolidone as adhesion layer, it was possible to coat the metallic shells with very homogeneous and smooth insulating silica shells of well-controlled thicknesses between ∼2 and ∼43 nm. After depositing the particles onto silicon substrates equipped with interdigitated electrode structures, the metallic character of the SiO2@Pt particles and the insulating character of the SiO2 shells of the SiO2@Pt@SiO2 particles were successfully demonstrated by charge transport measurements at variable temperatures.

  17. Sonochemical/hydration-dehydration synthesis of Pt-TiO2 NPs/decorated carbon nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzak, Firas H; Hussein, Falah H; Alkaim, Ayad F; Ivanova, Irina; Emeline, Alexei V; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2016-11-02

    Modified Pt-TiO2 NPs/decorated carbon nanotubes were synthesized utilizing sonochemical/hydration-dehydration techniques. Pt was loaded on TiO2 by a photodeposition method keeping in mind the end goal to achieve electron-hole pair separation and promote the surface reaction. The morphological and basic properties of Pt-TiO2/fCNTs were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns of Pt-TiO2/fCNTs were obtained utilizing TEM-based energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis. It was found that the TiO2 nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the fCNTs, and the Pt particles were decorated on the surface of TiO2/fCNTs. The photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of the Pt(0.5%)-TiO2/fCNTs(0.5%) nanoparticle composites was investigated using a sacrificial agent methanol solution. Pt-loaded TiO2 demonstrated a hydrogen evolution rate around 20 times that of TiO2/fCNTs(0.5%) (fSWCNTs, fMWCNTs). When compared with platinized TiO2 in methanol, which was utilized as a control material, Pt-TiO2/fCNTs demonstrated an almost 2-fold increment in hydrogen generation.

  18. Some Aspects of Inflationary Particle Production

    OpenAIRE

    Garbrecht, Björn

    2005-01-01

    Particle production by a varying mass term and by the background metric are considered. We derive a definition of particle number in kinetic theory for both, fermionic and scalar case, which we generalize to the situation of a flavour-mixing mass matrix. This allows us to endow the process of preheating with C and CP violation, leading to the coherent baryogenesis scenario. We present models where this mechanism is operative in the context of hybrid inflation and the grand unified theories P...

  19. Low Pt heavy flavour production at CMS and ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefaniuk, Nazar; Geiser, Achim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The beauty and charm quark masses provide perturbative scales which can be exploited for QCD measurements even in the very low P{sub t} range. The techniques which allow us to go to the minimal threshold in P{sub t} are explained. The main goal of the analysis is to measure the inclusive heavy flavour cross sections. The study of charm meson production helps to understand the low P{sub t} behaviour of the charm cross section. The extension to low P{sub t} beauty production is also reported.

  20. Biohydrogen production from CO-rich syngas via a locally isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris PT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Fatemeh; Najafpour, Ghasem; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Tohidfar, Masoud; Younesi, Habiboallah

    2014-05-01

    Biohydrogen production through water–gas shift (WGS) reaction by a biocatalyst was conducted in batch fermentation. The isolated photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris PT was able to utilize carbon monoxide and simultaneously produce hydrogen. Light exposure was provided as an indispensable requirement for the first stage of bacterial growth, but throughout the hydrogen production stage, the energy requirement was met through the WGS reaction. At ambient pressure and temperature, the effect of various sodium acetate concentrations in presence of CO-rich syngas on cell growth, carbon monoxide consumption, and biohydrogen production was also investigated. Maximal efficiency of hydrogen production in response to carbon monoxide consumption was recorded at 86 % and the highest concentration of hydrogen at 33.5 mmol/l was achieved with sodium acetate concentration of 1.5 g/l. The obtained results proved that the local isolate; R. palustris PT, was able to utilize CO-rich syngas and generate biohydrogen via WGS reaction.

  1. Particle production from symmetry breaking after inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Morales, Ester Ruiz

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the process of symmetry breaking after inflation typically occurs very fast, within a single oscillation of the symmetry-breaking field, due to the spinodal growth of its long-wave modes, otherwise known as `tachyonic preheating'. In this letter we show how this sudden transition from the false to the true vacuum can induce a significant production of particles, bosons and fermions, coupled to the symmetry-breaking field. We find that this new mechanism of particle production in the early Universe may have interesting consequences for the origin of dark matter and the generation of the observed baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis.

  2. Non-Hermitian $\\cal PT$-symmetric quantum mechanics of relativistic particles with the restriction of mass

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, V N

    2013-01-01

    The modified Dirac equations for the massive particles with the replacement of the physical mass $m$ with the help of the relation $m\\rightarrow m_1+ \\gamma_5 m_2$ are investigated. It is shown that for a fermion theory with a $\\gamma_5$-mass term, the limiting of the mass specter by the value $ m_{max}= {m_1}^2/2m_2$ takes place. In this case the different regions of the unbroken $\\cal PT$ symmetry may be expressed by means of the restriction of the physical mass $m\\leq m_{max}$. It should be noted that in the approach which was developed by C.Bender et al. for the $\\cal PT$-symmetric version of the massive Thirring model with $\\gamma_5$-mass term, the region of the unbroken $\\cal PT$-symmetry was found in the form $m_1\\geq m_2$ \\cite{ft12}. However on the basis of the mass limitation $m\\leq m_{max}$ we obtain that the domain $m_1\\geq m_2$ consists of two different parametric sectors: i) $0\\leq m_2 \\leq m_1/\\sqrt{2}$ -this values of mass parameters $m_1,m_2$ correspond to the traditional particles for which ...

  3. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Ankonina, G. [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Photovoltaic Laboratory, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel)

    2015-10-07

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  4. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Weindling, S.; Ankonina, G.; Salzman, J.; Kaplan, W. D.; Eisenstein, G.

    2015-10-01

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  5. IMPLEMENTASI TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE DI DEPARTEMEN NON JAHIT PT. KERTA RAJASA RAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Stok

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectivity improvement of production facility in factory is not only on facility manitenance but also on human resources. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM gives an optimal solution to effectivity improvement. A case study of TPM implementation have done in non sewing department of PT Kerta Rajasa Raya. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Peningkatan efektivitas dari fasilitas produksi di suatu perusahaan bukan hanya terbatas pada perawatan fasilitas kerja saja tetapi juga sumber daya manusia. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM memberikan suatu solusi optimal terhadap peningkatan efektivitas dengan melibatkan semua sumber daya manusia yang bertanggung jawab terhadap fasilitas produksi. Suatu studi kasus terhadap pengimplementasian TPM dilakukan di departemen non jahit PT. Kerta Rajasa Raya. Kata kunci : TPM, MTTF, Autonomous Maintenance.

  6. Main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonam Mahajan; Ashok Kumar; Rajendran Raja

    2012-11-01

    The main injector particle production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and antiproton with beam momenta of 5–90 GeV/c to measure particle production cross-sections of various nuclei including liquid hydrogen, MINOS target and thin targets of beryllium, carbon, bismuth and uranium. The physics motivation to perform such cross-section measurements is described here. Recent results on the analysis of NuMI target and forward neutron cross-sections are presented here. Preliminary cross-section measurements for 58 GeV/c proton on liquid hydrogen target are also presented. A new method is described to correct for low multiplicity inefficiencies in the trigger using KNO scaling.

  7. Cosmological particle production and generalized thermodynamic equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Zimdahl, W

    1998-01-01

    With the help of a conformal, timelike Killing-vector we define generalized equilibrium states for cosmological fluids with particle production. For massless particles the generalized equilibrium conditions require the production rate to vanish and the well known ``global'' equilibrium of standard relativistic thermodynamics is recovered as a limiting case. The equivalence between the creation rate for particles with nonzero mass and an effective viscous fluid pressure follows as a consequence of the generalized equilibrium properties. The implications of this equivalence for the cosmological dynamics are discussed, including the possibility of a power-law inflationary behaviour. For a simple gas a microscopic derivation for such kind of equilibrium is given on the basis of relativistic kinetic theory.

  8. Particle production in antiproton induced nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The quantum molecular dynamics model has been improved to investigate the reaction dynamics induced by antiprotons. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca, $^{112}$Sn, $^{181}$Ta, $^{197}$Au and $^{238}$U from a low to high incident momentum. The rapidity and momentum distributions of $\\pi^{+}$ and protons from the LEAR measurements can be well reproduced. The impacts of system size and incident momentum on particle emissions are investigated from the inclusive spectra, transverse momentum and rapidity distributions. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the particle production. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions when the incident moment...

  9. Hadronic production of high p$_{T}$ leptons and hadrons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures the production of direct real photons with large transverse momentum in pion-nucleon collisions at the SPS (H8 beam) using the NA3 spectrometer with an upgraded e-$\\gamma$ calorimeter. The experiment proceeds in steps of increasing complexity: \\item a) measurement of the direct $\\gamma$ cross-section in $\\pi^{\\pm}$C $\\rightarrow \\gamma +$ X and search for the annihilation process $q\\bar{q} \\rightarrow \\gamma$g by measuring the charge asymmetry at 200 GeV/c; \\item b) determination of the gluon structure function of the pion and the nucleon; \\item c) use of the $\\pi^{-}-\\pi^{+}$ difference on carbon, if found experimentally, to extract the gluon fragmentation from the $\\gamma$ hadron correlations. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ For comparison, the quark fragmentation functions can, in principle, be extracted from processes where the Compton scattering qg $\\rightarrow$ q$\\gamma$ dominates and compared with data from D.I.S. as a test of the method. \\\\ \\\\ The existing standard NA3 spectrometer is we...

  10. Effect of Particle Morphology on the Ripening of Supported Pt Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    To improve the understanding of sintering in diesel and lean-burn engine exhaust after-treatment catalysts, we examined oxygen-induced sintering in a model catalyst consisting of Pt nanoparticles supported on a planar, amorphous Al2O3 substrate. After aging at increasing temperatures, a transmiss...

  11. Effect of Particle Morphology on the Ripening of Supported Pt Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    To improve the understanding of sintering in diesel and lean-burn engine exhaust after-treatment catalysts, we examined oxygen-induced sintering in a model catalyst consisting of Pt nanoparticles supported on a planar, amorphous Al2O3 substrate. After aging at increasing temperatures...

  12. PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS PROSES BUDIDAYA KARET ALAM DENGAN PENDEKATAN GREEN PRODUCTIVITY: STUDI KASUS DI PT. XYZ (The Increase of Natural Rubber Plantations Productivity with Green Productivity Approach: a Case Study at PT. XYZ)

    OpenAIRE

    Marimin Marimin; Muhammad Arif Darmawan; Machfud Machfud; Muhammad Panji Islam Fajar Putra

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the second largest natural rubber producer in the world with 28% of the total world production in 2010. In line with the growth of the world’s automotive industry, the needs of natural rubber as a complementary synthetic rubber products will also increase. The main objective of this research was to find the best alternative strategy to increase the productivity of the natural rubber plantations through the green productivity (GP) approach. The case study was conducted at PT. XYZ,...

  13. Azimuthal anisotropies at very high $p_{T}$ from two- and multi-particle correlations in PbPb collision at 5.02 TeV with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Studies of azimuthal anisotropies for very high $p_{T}$ particles in relativistic heavy ion collisions provide crucial information on the path length dependence of the parton energy loss mechanism in the quark-gluon plasma. Final high-precision data on the elliptic ($v_{2}$) and triangular ($v_{3}$) anisotropy harmonics of charged particles, obtained with the scalar product method, are presented up to $p_{T}$ $\\sim$ 100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, using data recorded during the LHC run 2 with the CMS detector. In particular, the $v_{3}$ harmonic is explored to a very high $p_{T}$ regime for the first time, allowing for an improved understanding of the effect of initial-state fluctuations on the parton energy loss. The $v_{2}$ values reaching up $p_{T}$ $\\sim$ 100 GeV/c are also determined using 4-, 6- and 8-particle cumulants, shedding new light on the origin of the observed high-$p_{T}$ azimuthal anisotropies. These new results are compared to theoretical calculations and provide ...

  14. Effect of the structure of Pt-Ru/C particles on CO{sub ad} monolayer vibrational properties and electrooxidation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, Frederic; Chatenet, Marian [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5631, CNRS/INPG/UJF, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bonnefont, Antoine [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Physique du Corps Solide, Institut de chimie, UMR 7177, CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Guetaz, Laure [Grenoble Electron Microscopy at Minatec, LITEN/DTH/LCPEM, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Doisneau-Cottignies, Beatrice [Science et Ingenierie Materiaux Procedes, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Roussel, Herve [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Minatec, 3 parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Stimming, Ulrich [Physik Department E19, Technische Universitaet, Muenchen, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we combined FTIR spectroscopy and CO{sub ad} stripping voltammetry to investigate CO{sub ad} adsorption and electrooxidation on Pt-Ru/C nanoparticles. The Pt:Ru elemental composition and the metal loading were determined by ICP-AES. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the Pt-Ru/C indicated formation of a Pt-Ru (fcc) alloy. HREM images revealed an increase in the fraction of agglomerated Pt-Ru/C particles with increasing the metal loading and showed that agglomerated Pt-Ru/C nanoparticles present structural defects such as twins or grain boundaries. In addition, isolated Pt-Ru/C nanoparticles have similar mean particle size (ca. 2.5 nm) and particle size distributions whatever the metal loading. Therefore, we could determine precisely the effect of particle agglomeration on the CO{sub ad} vibrational properties and electrooxidation kinetics. FTIR measurements revealed a main CO{sub ad} stretching band at ca. {sub anti} {sub {nu}}{sub CO{sub L}}=2030 cm{sup -1}, which we ascribed to a-top CO{sub ad} on Pt domains electronically modified by the presence of Ru. As the metal loading increased, the position of this band was blue shifted by ca. 5 cm{sup -1} and a shoulder around 2005 cm{sup -1} developed, which was ascribed to a-top CO{sub ad} on Ru domains. The reason for this was suggested to be the increasing size of Ru domains on agglomerated Pt-Ru/C particles, which lifts dipole-dipole coupling and allows two vibrational features to be observed (CO{sub ad}/Ru, CO{sub ad}/Pt). This is evidence that FTIR spectroscopy can be used to probe small chemical fluctuations of the Pt-Ru/C surface. Finally, we comment on the CO{sub ad} electrooxidation kinetics. We observed that CO{sub ad} was converted more easily into CO{sub 2} as the metal loading, i.e. the fraction of agglomerated Pt-Ru/C nanoparticles, increased. (author)

  15. Particle production and complex path analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses particle production in Schwarzchild-like spacetimes and in an uniform electric field. Both problems are approached using the method of complex path analysis. Particle production in Schwarzchild-like spacetimes with a horizon is obtained here by a new and simple semi-classical method based on the method of complex paths. Hawking radiation is obtained in the (t,r) co-ordinate system of the standard Schwarzchild metric {\\it without} requiring the Kruskal extension. The co-ordinate singularity present at the horizon manifests itself as a singularity in the expression for the semi-classical propagator for a scalar field. We give a prescription whereby this singularity is regularised with Hawking's result being recovered. In the case of the electric field, standard quantum field theoretic methods can be used to obtain particle production in a purely time-dependent gauge. In a purely space-dependent gauge, however, the tunnelling interpretation has to be resorted to. We attempt, in this paper, t...

  16. Anomalous Light Scattering by Topological ${\\mathcal{PT}}$-symmetric Particle Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, C W; Mok, T C; Zhang, Z Q; Fung, Kin Hung

    2016-01-01

    Robust topological edge modes may evolve into complex-frequency modes when a physical system becomes non-Hermitian. We show that, while having negligible forward optical extinction cross section, a conjugate pair of such complex topological edge modes in a non-Hermitian $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric system can give rise to an anomalous sideway scattering when they are simultaneously excited by a plane wave. We propose a realization of such scattering state in a linear array of subwavelength resonators coated with gain media. The prediction is based on an analytical two-band model and verified by rigorous numerical simulation using multiple-multipole scattering theory. The result suggests an extreme situation where leakage of classical information is unnoticeable to the transmitter and the receiver when such a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric unit is inserted into the communication channel.

  17. La2Zr2O7 TBCs toughened by Pt particles prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shun-jie; Wang, Peng; He, Ye-dong; Zhang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    La2Zr2O7 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with dispersed Pt particles were prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) with ceramic balls added to the cathode region. Compared with the conventional CPED, when ceramic balls are used in the cathode region, the plasma discharge ignition current density decreases approximately 62-fold and the stable plasma discharges occur at the whole cathode surface. Such TBCs with a thickness of 100 μm exhibit a crack-free surface and are composed of pyrochlore-structured La2Zr2O7. Cyclic oxidation, scratching, and thermal insulation capability tests show that such TBCs not only exhibit high resistance to oxidation and spallation but also provide good thermal insulation. These beneficial effects are attributed to the excellent properties of TBCs, such as good thermal insulation because of low thermal conductivity, high-temperature oxidation resistance because of low-oxygen diffusion rate, and good mechanical properties because of the toughening effect of Pt particles.

  18. Self-similarity of negative particle production from the Beam Energy Scan Program at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Tokarev, M V

    2015-01-01

    We present the spectra of negative charged particle production in Au+Au collisions from STAR for the first phase of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Program measured over a wide range of collision energy sqrt s{NN}=7.7-200 GeV, and transverse momentum of produced particle in different centralities at |eta|<0.5. The spectra demonstrate strong dependence on collision energy which enhances with pT. An indication of self-similarity of negative charged particle production in Au+Au collisions is found. The constituent energy loss as a function of energy and centrality of collisions and transverse momentum of inclusive particle was estimated in the $z$-scaling approach. The energy dependence of the model parameters - the fractal and fragmentation dimensions and "specific heat", was studied.

  19. Leading Particle Production in Light Flavour Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boeriu, O; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Dallison, S; Davis, R; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; Lillich, J; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, I; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trefzger, T M; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    2000-01-01

    The energy distribution and type of the particle with the highest momentum in quark jets are determined for each of the five quark flavours making only minimal model assumptions. The analysis is based on a large statistics sample of hadronic Z0 decays collected with the OPAL detector at the LEP e+e- collider. These results provide a basis for future studies of light flavour production at other centre-of-mass energies. We use our results to study the hadronisation mechanism in light flavour jets and compare the data to the QCD models JETSET and HERWIG. Within the JETSET model we also directly determine the suppression of strange quarks to be gamma_s=0.422+-0.049 (stat.)+-0.059 (syst.) by comparing the production of charged and neutral kaons in strange and non-strange light quark events. Finally we study the features of baryon production.

  20. V0 particle production studies at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Knecht, M

    2009-01-01

    Although QCD is firmly established as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the fragmentation process from partons into hadrons is still poorly understood. Phenomenological models tuned to Tevatron data show significant differences when extrapolated to LHC energies. The hadronization process can be probed at the LHC by studying V0 production, i.e. the production of KS mesons and Lambda hyperons. The LHCb experiment, with a rapidity range complementary to that of the other LHC detectors, offers a particularly interesting environment, covering the forward region where the existing models are very tunable but lack predictive power. The first 100 millions minimum bias events at LHCb will already provide a high-statistics and high-purity V0 sample. Measurements will include differential cross sections and production ratios for different strange particles as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum. The analysis can naturally be extended to cover heavier hyperons as well, and eventually lead, w...

  1. Efficient photothermal catalytic hydrogen production over nonplasmonic Pt metal supported on TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui; Luo, Bing; Jing, Dengwei

    2016-10-01

    Most of the traditional photocatalytic hydrogen productions were conducted under room temperature. In this work, we selected nonplasmonic Pt metal anchored on TiO2 nanoparticles with photothermal activity to explore more efficient hydrogen production technology over the whole solar spectrum. Photothermal experiments were carried out in a carefully designed top irradiated photocatalytic reactor that can withstand high temperature and relatively higher pressure. Four typical organic materials, i.e., methyl alcohol (MeOH), trielthanolamne (TEOA), formic acid (HCOOH) and glucose, were investigated. Formic acid, a typical hydrogen carrier, was found to show the best activity. In addition, the effects of different basic parameters such as sacrificial agent concentration and the temperature on the activity of hydrogen generation were systematically investigated for understanding the qualitative and quantitative effects of the photothermal catalytic reaction process. The hydrogen yields at 90 °C of the photothermal catalytic reaction with Pt/TiO2 are around 8.1 and 4.2 times higher than those of reactions carried out under photo or thermal conditions alone. We can see that the photothermal hydrogen yield is not the simple sum of the photo and thermal effects. This result indicated that the Pt/TiO2 nanoparticles can efficiently couple photo and thermal energy to more effectively drive hydrogen production. As a result, the excellent ability makes it superior to other conventional semiconductor photocatalysts and thermal catalysts. Future works could concentrate on exploring photothermal catalysis as well as the potential synergism between photo and thermal effects to find more efficient hydrogen production technology using the whole solar spectrum.

  2. Increasing the Collision Rate of Particle Impact Electroanalysis with Magnetically Guided Pt-Decorated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald A; Yoo, Jason J; Castañeda, Alma D; Gu, Brett; Dasari, Radhika; Crooks, Richard M; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-07-28

    An integrated microfluidic/magnetophoretic methodology was developed for improving signal response time and detection limits for the chronoamperometric observation of discrete nanoparticle/electrode interactions by electrocatalytic amplification. The strategy relied on Pt-decorated iron oxide nanoparticles which exhibit both superparamagnetism and electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine. A wet chemical synthetic approach succeeded in the controlled growth of Pt on the surface of FeO/Fe3O4 core/shell nanocubes, resulting in highly uniform Pt-decorated iron oxide hybrid nanoparticles with good dispersibility in water. The unique mechanism of hybrid nanoparticle formation was investigated by electron microscopy and spectroscopic analysis of isolated nanoparticle intermediates and final products. Discrete hybrid nanoparticle collision events were detected in the presence of hydrazine, an electrochemical indicator probe, using a gold microband electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. In contrast with related systems, the experimental nanoparticle/electrode collision rate correlates more closely with simple theoretical approximations, primarily due to the accuracy of the nanoparticle tracking analysis method used to quantify nanoparticle concentrations and diffusion coefficients. Further modification of the microfluidic device was made by applying a tightly focused magnetic field to the detection volume to attract the magnetic nanoprobes to the microband working electrode, thereby resulting in a 6-fold increase to the relative frequency of chronoamperometric signals corresponding to discrete nanoparticle impact events.

  3. Structure and Stability of Pt-Y Alloy Particles for Oxygen Reduction Studied by Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-yttrium alloy nanoparticles show both a high activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction. The catalysts were prepared by magnetron sputter aggregation and mass filtration providing a model catalyst system with a narrow size distribution. The structure and stability...... of nanostructured Pt-Y alloy catalysts were studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques. Using elemental X-ray mapping and high-resolution electron microscopy, the specific compositional structure and distribution of the individual nanoparticles was unraveled and the stability assessed. Studying...... the catalyst after reaction and after aging tests shows the development of a core-shell type structure after being exposed to reaction conditions....

  4. Structure and Stability of Pt-Y Alloy Particles for Oxygen Reduction Studied by Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-yttrium alloy nanoparticles show both a high activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction. The catalysts were prepared by magnetron sputter aggregation and mass filtration providing a model catalyst system with a narrow size distribution. The structure and stability...... of nanostructured Pt-Y alloy catalysts were studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques. Using elemental X-ray mapping and high-resolution electron microscopy, the specific compositional structure and distribution of the individual nanoparticles was unraveled and the stability assessed. Studying...... the catalyst after reaction and after aging tests shows the development of a core-shell type structure after being exposed to reaction conditions....

  5. Atomic-Scale Modeling of Particle Size Effects for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction of Pt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, Georgios; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Rossmeisl, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    in both the specific and mass activities for particle sizes in the range between 2 and 30 nm. The mass activity is calculated to be maximized for particles of a diameter between 2 and 4 nm. Our study demonstrates how an atomic-scale description of the surface microstructure is a key component...

  6. Cosmological Particle Production Without Bogolubov Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A J; Parikh, M K; Hamilton, Alex J.; Kabat, Daniel; Parikh, Maulik K.

    2003-01-01

    We present an efficient new technique for calculating the amount of particle production in a cosmological background. The expectation value of the number operator for a given momentum mode can be extracted from the Feynman propagator. We demonstrate the computational economy of the technique by applying it to various cosmologies. We also show that the appropriate Feynman propagator, with boundary conditions that encode the initial state, can be constructed by the method of images. Our technique uses a first-quantized approach so, unlike conventional Bogolubov transformations, it may be amenable to a string-theoretic generalization.

  7. Particle Pair Production in Cosmological General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Firmin J

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmological General Relativity of Carmeli, a 5-dimensional theory of time, space and velocity, predicts the existence of an acceleration $a_0 = c / \\tau$ due to the expansion of the universe, where $c$ is the speed of light in vacuum, $\\tau = 1/h$ is the Hubble-Carmeli time constant, where $h$ is the Hubble constant at zero distance and no gravity. The Carmeli force on a particle of mass $m$ is $F_c = m a_0$, a fifth force in nature. The fields resulting from the solution of the Einstein field equations in 5-D CGR and the Carmeli force are used to hypothesize the production of a particle and its antiparticle. The mass of each particle is found to be $m=\\tau c^3 / 4 G$, where $G$ is Newton's constant. The vacuum mass density derived from the physics is $\\rho_{vac} = -3/8 \\pi G \\tau^2$. The cosmological constant is then given by $\\Lambda = 3 / \\tau^2$. We derive an expression for $\\tau$ given by $\\tau = \\sqrt{(45 \\zeta (1 - g) c^3 \\hbar^3) / (4\\pi^3 G \\mu \\alpha^2 k^3 \\beta^3 T^3)}$, where $\\zeta$ is the b...

  8. Cosmological Particle Production at Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund; Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a strongly-coupled quantum field theory in a cosmological spacetime using the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically we consider a confining gauge theory in an expanding FRW universe and track the evolution of the stress-energy tensor during a period of expansion, varying the initial temperature as well as the rate and amplitude of the expansion. At strong coupling, particle production is inseparable from entropy production. As a result, we find significant qualitative differences from the weak coupling results: at strong coupling the system rapidly loses memory of its initial state as the amplitude is increased. Furthermore, in the regime where the Hubble parameter is parametrically smaller than the initial temperature, the dynamics is well modelled as a plasma evolving hydrodynamically towards equilibrium.

  9. Resonant Slepton Production Yields CMS $eejj$ and $ejj$ Missing $p_T$ Excesses

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B C; Mondal, S; Mitra, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent CMS searches for di-leptoquark production report local excesses of 2.4$\\sigma$ in a $eejj$ channel and 2.6$\\sigma$ in a $ejj$ missing $p_T$ channel. Here, we simultaneously explain both excesses with resonant slepton production in ${\\mathcal R}-$parity violating supersymmetry (SUSY). We consider resonant slepton production, which decays to a lepton and a chargino/neutralino, followed by three-body decays of the neutralino/chargino via an $\\mathcal{R}-$parity violating coupling. There are regions of parameter space which are also compatible at the 95% confidence level (CL) with a 2.8$\\sigma$ $eejj$ excess in a recent CMS $W_R$ search, while being compatible with other direct search constraints. Phase-II of the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\

  10. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Ethanol on Rh-Pt Catalysts: Influence of CeO2, ZrO2, and La2O3 as Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CeO2-, ZrO2-, and La2O3-supported Rh-Pt catalysts were tested to assess their ability to catalyze the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE for H2 production. SRE activity tests were performed using EtOH:H2O:N2 (molar ratio 1:3:51 at a gaseous space velocity of 70,600 h−1 between 400 and 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. The SRE stability of the catalysts was tested at 700 °C for 27 h time on stream under the same conditions. RhPt/CeO2, which showed the best performance in the stability test, also produced the highest H2 yield above 600 °C, followed by RhPt/La2O3 and RhPt/ZrO2. The fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by TEM, XPS, and TGA. The higher H2 selectivity of RhPt/CeO2 was ascribed to the formation of small (~5 nm and stable particles probably consistent of Rh-Pt alloys with a Pt surface enrichment. Both metals were oxidized and acted as an almost constant active phase during the stability test owing to strong metal-support interactions, as well as the superior oxygen mobility of the support. The TGA results confirmed the absence of carbonaceous residues in all the aged catalysts.

  11. Evaluating The Performance of Inventory Management The Production Division of PT. Tiga Serangkai Surakarta as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Maryati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the process of production and to analyze the performance of inventory system on production division of PT. Tiga Serangkai. The data has been gathered from direct observation of the process production and warehouse and the interview with the production employee, the employee of warehouse division, supervisor of purchasing and finance manager. This research demonstrates that inventory system performance of PT. Tiga Serangkai Surakarta can be optimized through the determination of inventory policy, applying a model minimum and maximum inventory that considers the safety stock in accordance with service level plan, implementing model Reorder Point (ROP which can be used as guidelines in charging supply back, and applying the model economic ordering quantity. In doing so, they can save the cost of inventory.   Keywords: inventory management, economic order quantity (EOQ, PT. Tiga Serangkai

  12. Particle production in a gravitational wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Preston; Singleton, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility that massless particles, such as photons, are produced by a gravitational wave. That such a process should occur is implied by tree-level, Feynman diagrams such as two gravitons turning into two photons {\\it i.e.} $g + g \\rightarrow \\gamma + \\gamma$. Here we calculate the rate at which a gravitational wave creates a massless, scalar field. This is done by placing the scalar field in the background of a plane gravitational wave and calculating the 4-current of the scalar field. Even in the vacuum limit of the scalar field it has a non-zero vacuum expectation value (similar to what occurs in the Higgs mechanism) and a non-zero current. We associate this with the production of scalar field quanta by the gravitational field. This effect has potential consequences for the attenuation of gravitational waves since the massless particles are being produced at the expense of the gravitational field. This is related to the (time-dependent) Schwinger effect but with the electric field replaced b...

  13. Particle Production at RHIC and LHC Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Shalaby, A G

    2012-01-01

    The production of different particle species is recently measured in $Pb-Pb$ collisions by the ALICE experiment at $\\sqrt{s}=7 $TeV. This motivates the use of various bosons and baryons measured at lower center-of-mass energies in comparing their ratios to the hadron resonance (HRG) gas model and PYTHIA event generator. It is found that the particle-to-antiparticle ratios are perfectly reproduce by means of HRG and PYTHIA at RHIC and LHC energies. The kaon-to-pion and proton-to-pion ratios are entirely overestimated by the HRG model. The PYTHIA event generator obviously underestimates the kaon-to-pion ratio and simultaneously reproduces the proton-to-pion ratio, almost perfectly, especially at LHC energy. While matter-to-antimatter and non-strange abundances are partly in line with predictions from the HRG model, it is found in the ALICE experiment that the measured baryon ratios are suppressed by a factor of $\\sim1.5$. The strange abundances are overestimated in the HRG model.

  14. Strange particle production from SIS to LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Oeschler; J Cleymans; K Redlich

    2003-05-01

    A review of meson emission in heavy-ion collisions at incident energies from SIS up to collider energies is presented. A statistical model assuming chemical equilibrium and local strangeness conservation (i.e. strangeness conservation per collision) explains most of the observed features, e.g. the different centrality dependences of pions and kaons. Furthermore, the independence of the + to - ratio on the number of participating nucleons observed between SIS and relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) is consistent with this model. The observed maximum in the +/+ excitation function is also seen in the ratio of strange to non-strange particle production. The appearance of this maximum around 30 A$\\cdot$GeV is due to the energy dependence of the chemical freeze-out parameters and .

  15. Hydrogen evolution from aqueous-phase photocatalytic reforming of ethylene glycol over Pt/TiO2 catalysts: Role of Pt and product distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuying; Gu, Quan; Niu, Yu; Wang, Renzhang; Tong, Yuecong; Zhu, Shuying; Zhang, Hualei; Zhang, Zizhong; Wang, Xuxu

    2017-01-01

    Pt nanoparticles were loaded on anatase TiO2 by the photodeposition method to investigate their photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution in an aqueous solution containing a certain amount of ethylene glycol (EG) as the sacrificial agent. The surface properties and chemical states of the Pt/TiO2 sample were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrochemical resistance. The aqueous-phase photocatalytic EG reforming using Pt/TiO2 and anatase TiO2 generated not only H2 and CO2, but also CO, CH4, C2H6, and C2H4. Moreover, the amount of formate and acetate complexes in the solution increased gradually. The EG adsorption and gas-phase intermediates during photocatalytic reaction processes were investigated by the in situ FTIR spectrum. Finally, the photocatalytic EG reforming reaction mechanism was elucidated. This helped to better understand the role of a sacrificial agent in a photocatalytic hydrogen production.

  16. Mercaptosilane-assisted synthesis of sub-nanosized Pt particles within hierarchically porous ZSM-5/SBA-15 materials and their enhanced hydrogenation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daowei; Zheng, Anmin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Hui; Dai, Xiaoping; Yang, Ying; Wang, Hai; Qin, Yuchen; Xu, Shutao; Duan, Aijun

    2015-06-01

    A novel catalyst that consists of sub-nanosized Pt particles within hierarchically porous ZSM-5/SBA-15 materials was synthesized. This catalyst exhibited high stability and a hierarchically porous structure of a micro-mesoporous composite and possessed a high density of active sites by confinement of sub-nanosized Pt particles within small-pore zeolites, showing high catalytic properties for the hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene and cyclooctadiene at room temperature.A novel catalyst that consists of sub-nanosized Pt particles within hierarchically porous ZSM-5/SBA-15 materials was synthesized. This catalyst exhibited high stability and a hierarchically porous structure of a micro-mesoporous composite and possessed a high density of active sites by confinement of sub-nanosized Pt particles within small-pore zeolites, showing high catalytic properties for the hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene and cyclooctadiene at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization, reaction data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02749g

  17. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ommen, J.R.; Kooijman, D.; De Niet, M.; Talebi, M.; Goulas, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO2) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an activ

  18. Measurement of charged particle production from 450 GeV/c protons on beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosini, G; Bernier, K; Biino, C; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Borer, K; Brooijmans, G; Catanesi, M G; Collazuol, G; Daniels, D C; Dittus, F B; Elsener, K; Godley, A; Grant, A; Grégoire, G; Guglielmi, A M; Kabana, S; Kabana, R; Klingenberg, R; Lehmann, G; Lindén, T; Linssen, Lucie; Marchionni, A; Mishra, S R; Moffitt, L; Moser, U; Palladino, Vittorio; Pietropaolo, F; Pretzl, Klaus P; Pullia, Antonio; Radicioni, E; Ragazzi, S; Stachel, J; Sergiampietri, F; Soler, F J P; Stoffel, F; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Terranova, F; Tovey, Stuart N; Tsesmelis, E; Weber, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results on charged particle yields and production ratios as measured by the NA56/SPY experiment for 450 GeV/c proton interactions on beryllium targets. The data cover a secondary momentum range from 7 GeV/c to 135 GeV/c and $p_T$ values up to 600~MeV/c. An experimental accuracy on the measured yields in the range from $5 \\%$ to $10 \\%$, depending on the beam momentum, and around $3 \\%$ for the particle production ratios has been achieved. These measurements are relevant for a precise evaluation of fluxes and composition of neutrino beams at accelerators. Results on the target thickness and shape dependence are also reported. Inclusive invariant cross sections in the forward direction have been derived. %An experimental accuracy of about 3\\% has been achieved on the measurements %of the $K/\\pi$ production ratios. These results will greatly reduce %the uncertainty on the estimation of the $\

  19. Independent control of metal cluster and ceramic particle characteristics during one-step synthesis of Pt/TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, H.; Madler, L.; Strobel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid quenching during flame spray synthesis of Pt/TiO2 (0-10 Wt% Pt) is demonstrated as a versatile method for independent control of support (TiO2) and noble metal (Pt)cluster characteristics. Titania grain size, morphology, crystal phase structure, and crystal size were analyzed by nitrogen...

  20. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt Particles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene RGO/PEDOT Composite towards Ethanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Raphael F. Foronda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts in fuel cells are normally platinum based because platinum exhibits high electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in acidic medium. However, bulk Pt is expensive and rare in nature. To reduce the consumption of Pt, a support material or matrix is needed to disperse Pt on its surface as micro- or nanoparticles with potential application as anode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs. In this study, a composite material consisting of platinum particles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (RGO/PEDOT support was electrochemically prepared for ethanol oxidation in sulfuric acid electrolyte. PEDOT, a conductive polymer, was potentiodynamically polymerized from the corresponding monomer, 0.10 M EDOT in 0.10 M HClO4 electrolyte. The PEDOT-modified electrode was used as a substrate for exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO which was prepared by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite from carbon rod of spent batteries and subsequently reduced to form RGO. The Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite gave the highest electrocatalytic activity with an anodic current density of 2688.7 mA·cm−2 at E = 0.70 V (versus Ag/AgCl towards ethanol oxidation compared to bare Pt electrode and other composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the surface morphology of the hybrid composites while energy dispersive X-ray (EDX confirmed the presence of all the elements for the Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite.

  1. A Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting SF6 decomposition products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tie, Jing; Zhang, Jinbin

    2013-10-30

    The detection of partial discharge and analysis of SF6 gas components in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) is important for the diagnosis and operating state assessment of power equipment. The use of a Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposition products is proposed in this paper. The electrochemical pulse deposition method is employed to prepare the sensor array. The sensor's response to the main characteristic gaseous decomposition products of SF6 is evaluated. The gas sensing characteristic curves of the Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube sensor and intrinsic TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor are compared. The mechanism of the sensitive response is discussed. Test results showed that the Pt-doped nanoparticles not only change the gas sensing selectivity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor with respect to the main characteristic SF6 decomposition products, but also reduce the operating temperature of the sensor.

  2. {sup 4}He-induced L X-ray production cross sections in Pt and Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouziane, S. [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111 Alger (Algeria)], E-mail: sounucl@yahoo.fr; Amokrane, A. [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111 Alger (Algeria); Ecole Nationale Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingeniorat, Rouiba, Alger (Algeria); Toumert, I. [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger (Algeria); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2009-05-15

    L shell X-ray production cross sections for {sup 4}He on Pt and Bi are measured at 2.0, 2.3 and 3.0 MeV. Good agreement is found with the available data of Balsamo et al. [A. Balsamo, N. De Cesare, F. Murolo, E. Perillo, G. Spadaccini, M. Vigilante, J. Phys. B: Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 (1999) 5699]. The results are compared with those of theoretical calculations using the ECPSSR model [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717]. The difference already observed at low incident ion energy between ECPSSR calculations and measured data for the L{sub {beta}} and L{sub {gamma}} lines clearly appears in this work.

  3. Comparing Pt/SrTiO3 to Rh/SrTiO3 for hydrogen photocatalytic production from ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Wahab, A. K.

    2013-08-13

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production from ethanol as an example of biofuel is studied over 0.5 wt% Rh/SrTiO3 and 0.5 wt% Pt/SrTiO3 perovskite materials. The rate of hydrogen production, rH2, over Pt/SrTiO3 is found to be far higher than that observed over Rh/SrTiO3 (4 × 10−6 mol of H2 g catal. −1 min−1 (1.1 × 10−6 mol of H2 m catal. −2 min−1) compared to 0.7 × 10−6 mol of H2 g catal. −1 min−1 (5.5 × 10−8 mol of H2 m catal. −2 min−1), respectively, under UV excitation with a flux equivalent to that from the sun light (ca. 1 mW cm−2). Analyses of the XPS Rh3d and XPS Pt4f indicate that Rh is mainly present in its ionic form (Rh3+) while Pt is mainly present in its metallic form (Pt0). A fraction of the non-metallic state of Rh in the catalyst persisted even after argon ion sputtering. The tendency of Rh to be oxidized compared to Pt might be the reason behind the lower activity of the former compared to the later. On the contrary, a larger amount of methane are formed on the Rh containing catalyst compared to that observed on the Pt containing catalyst due to the capacity of Rh to break the carbon–carbon bond of the organic compound.

  4. PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS PROSES BUDIDAYA KARET ALAM DENGAN PENDEKATAN GREEN PRODUCTIVITY: STUDI KASUS DI PT. XYZ (The Increase of Natural Rubber Plantations Productivity with Green Productivity Approach: a Case Study at PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimin Marimin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the second largest natural rubber producer in the world with 28% of the total world production in 2010. In line with the growth of the world’s automotive industry, the needs of natural rubber as a complementary synthetic rubber products will also increase. The main objective of this research was to find the best alternative strategy to increase the productivity of the natural rubber plantations through the green productivity (GP approach. The case study was conducted at PT. XYZ, a private company which runs the plantation and processing of natural rubber businesses. The material flow analysis was performed to identify the seven green wastes. The best alternative strategy was determined by using the  analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP model developed into several improvement scenarios. The measurement of  the alternative strategy performance was rated as the future Green Productivity Index (GPI and compared with the value of current GPI, which had been calculated in the PT. XYZ, as the case study. The results of this research was  able to provide the best productivity improvement strategy, the level of company’s productivity which has been achieved, and the productivity levels of the implementation of the strategy chosen. Keywords: aHP, green productivity,  green wastes, natural rubber, green productivity index, latex   ABSTRAK Indonesia merupakan negara kedua penghasil karet alam terbesar di dunia dengan produksi sebesar 28% dari total produksi dunia di tahun 2010. Sejalan dengan bertumbuhnya industri otomotif dunia, kebutuhan karet alam sebagai produk komplementer karet sintetik akan turut mengalami peningkatan. Tujuan utama penelitian ini adalah untuk merumuskan alternatif strategi terbaik pada peningkatan produktivitas proses budidaya karet alam melalui pendekatan konsep Green Productivity (GP. Studi kasus dilakukan di PT. XYZ, perusahaan swasta yang bergerak dibidang usaha perkebunan dan pengolahan karet alam. analisis

  5. Deep oxidation of methane on particles derived from YSZ-supported Pd-Pt-(O) coatings synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwat, D.; Endrino, J.L.; Boreave, A.; Karoum,R.; Pierson, J.F.; Weber, S.; Anders, A.; Vernoux, Ph.

    2008-12-12

    Methane conversion tests were performed on Pd, PdOy, Pd0.6Pt0.4Oy and Pd0.4Pt0.6Oy thin films deposited on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. Pt containing films exhibited poor activity and high reducibility. As-deposited Pd and PdOy films showed good activity and transformed, during the cycling process, to particles dispersed on the YSZ substrates. The higher reaction rate of initially PdOy films was explained by a better dispersion of the catalyst. A drop of the reaction rate was observed when the temperature exceeded 735oC and 725oC for initially Pd and PdOy, respectively, which can be associated with the high-temperature reduction of PdO into Pd.

  6. Perbaikan Produktivitas Dengan Pendekatan Green Productivity Di Pks PT. Multimas Nabati Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Damanik, Wan Pider

    2017-01-01

    PT. Multimas Nabati Asahan merupakan salah satu perusahaan penghasil minyak dalam Wilmar Group. PT Multimas memiliki beberapa proses produksi dengan memanfaatkan bahan baku dari kelapa sawit. PT. Multimas mengolah kelapa sawit menjadi minyak sawit atau crude palm oil (CPO) dan inti sawit (Kernel). Permasalahan yang dihadapi perusahaan adalah limbah padat tandan kosong yang ditumpuk dilingkungan pabrik dan belum adanya planning untuk pengolahan lebih lanjut dapat menimbulkan dampak buruk dilin...

  7. Inclusive single-particle production in two-photon collisions at LEP II with the DELPHI detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, U; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Munich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Némécek, S; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevski, A; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Radojicic, D; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Vertogradova, Yu L; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2009-01-01

    A study of the inclusive charged hadron production in two-photon collisions is described. The data were collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP II. Results on the inclusive single-particle p_T distribution and the differential charged hadrons dsigma/dp_T cross-section are presented and compared to the predictions of perturbative NLO QCD calculations and to published results.

  8. Low-temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/α-MoC catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lili; Zhou, Wu; Gao, Rui; Yao, Siyu; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Wenqian; Zheng, Shijian; Jiang, Zheng; Yu, Qiaolin; Li, Yong-Wang; Shi, Chuan; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Ding

    2017-03-22

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200-350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM). This method requires less energy, and the simpler and more compact device design allows direct integration into PEMFC stacks. There remains, however, the need for an efficient APRM catalyst. Here we report that platinum (Pt) atomically dispersed on α-molybdenum carbide (α-MoC) enables low-temperature (150-190 degrees Celsius), base-free hydrogen production through APRM, with an average turnover frequency reaching 18,046 moles of hydrogen per mole of platinum per hour. We attribute this exceptional hydrogen production-which far exceeds that of previously reported low-temperature APRM catalysts-to the outstanding ability of α-MoC to induce water dissociation, and to the fact that platinum and α-MoC act in synergy to activate methanol and then to reform it.

  9. Simulation of product distribution at PT Anugrah Citra Boga by using capacitated vehicle routing problem method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamdjaya, T.; Jobiliong, E.

    2017-01-01

    PT Anugrah Citra Boga is a food processing industry that produces meatballs as their main product. The distribution system of the products must be considered, because it needs to be more efficient in order to reduce the shipment cost. The purpose of this research is to optimize the distribution time by simulating the distribution channels with capacitated vehicle routing problem method. Firstly, the distribution route is observed in order to calculate the average speed, time capacity and shipping costs. Then build the model using AIMMS software. A few things that are required to simulate the model are customer locations, distances, and the process time. Finally, compare the total distribution cost obtained by the simulation and the historical data. It concludes that the company can reduce the shipping cost around 4.1% or Rp 529,800 per month. By using this model, the utilization rate can be more optimal. The current value for the first vehicle is 104.6% and after the simulation it becomes 88.6%. Meanwhile, the utilization rate of the second vehicle is increase from 59.8% to 74.1%. The simulation model is able to produce the optimal shipping route with time restriction, vehicle capacity, and amount of vehicle.

  10. Deposition of thick Co-rich CoPtP films with high energy product for magnetic microelectromechanical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Santosh [Microsystems Center, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Roy, Saibal, E-mail: saibal.roy@tyndall.i [Microsystems Center, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-05-15

    We report the development of Co-rich CoPtP films of thicknesses up to 82 mum for use in magnetic MEMS applications. These films have been deposited using a combination of pulse-reverse plating with the addition of stress-relieving additives to the bath. The films were electroplated on sputtered Cu/Ti seed layer on silicon with an optimized thickness of 100/20 nm. The composition, crystalline structure, grain size and magnetic properties of the CoPtP films of varying thickness are compared and analyzed. The 3-mum-thick CoPtP film showed a columnar structure and strong perpendicular anisotropy. This film shows a perpendicular coercivity of 2150 Oe, a remanence of 0.564 T and a maximum energy product of 20 kJ/m{sup 3}. As the thickness of the plated film is increased, there is a gradual decrease in the coercivity and anisotropy. The 82-mum-thick film had a perpendicular coercivity of 1150 Oe and a remanence of 0.35 T. While there is a drop in coercivity and anisotropy, the remanence and maximum energy product remain constant for film thicknesses greater than 13 mum. The reason for the drop in coercivity and the near-constant remanence for thicker CoPtP films is discussed here. The coercivity of the thick Co-rich CoPtP film reported in this work is similar to those reported in the literature; the values of remanence, maximum energy product and saturation magnetization are the highest of all the thick (>50 mum) electroplated films in the literature.

  11. Jet p_T Resummation in Higgs Production at NNLL'+NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Iain W; Walsh, Jonathan R; Zuberi, Saba

    2013-01-01

    We present predictions for Higgs production via gluon fusion with a p_T veto on jets and with the resummation of jet-veto logarithms at NNLL'+$NNLO order. These results incorporate explicit O(alphas^2) calculations of soft and beam functions, which include the dominant dependence on the jet radius R. In particular the NNLL' order accounts for the correct boundary conditions for the N3LL resummation, for which the only unknown ingredients are higher-order anomalous dimensions. We use scale variations in a factorization theorem in both rapidity and virtuality space to estimate the perturbative uncertainties, accounting for both higher fixed-order corrections as well as higher-order towers of jet-p_T logarithms. This formalism also predicts the correlations in the theory uncertainty between the exclusive 0-jet and inclusive 1-jet bins. At the values of R used experimentally, there are important corrections due to jet algorithm clustering that include logarithms of R. Although we do not sum logarithms of R, we do...

  12. Low-temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/α-MoC catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lili; Zhou, Wu; Gao, Rui; Yao, Siyu; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Wenqian; Zheng, Shijian; Jiang, Zheng; Yu, Qiaolin; Li, Yong-Wang; Shi, Chuan; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Ding

    2017-03-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200-350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM). This method requires less energy, and the simpler and more compact device design allows direct integration into PEMFC stacks. There remains, however, the need for an efficient APRM catalyst. Here we report that platinum (Pt) atomically dispersed on α-molybdenum carbide (α-MoC) enables low-temperature (150-190 degrees Celsius), base-free hydrogen production through APRM, with an average turnover frequency reaching 18,046 moles of hydrogen per mole of platinum per hour. We attribute this exceptional hydrogen production—which far exceeds that of previously reported low-temperature APRM catalysts—to the outstanding ability of α-MoC to induce water dissociation, and to the fact that platinum and α-MoC act in synergy to activate methanol and then to reform it.

  13. Random walk of second class particles in product shock measures

    CERN Document Server

    Balazs, Marton; Kovacs, Peter; Rakos, Attila

    2009-01-01

    We consider shock measures in a class of conserving stochastic particle systems on Z. These shock measures have a product structure with a step-like density profile and include a second class particle at the shock position. We show for the asymmetric simple exclusion process, for the exponential bricklayers' process, and for a generalized zero range process, that under certain conditions these shocks, and therefore the second class particles, perform a simple random walk. Some previous results, including random walks of product shock measures and stationary shock measures seen from a second class particle, are direct consequences of our more general theorem. Multiple shocks can also be handled easily in this framework. Similar shock structure is also found in a nonconserving model, the branching coalescing random walk, where the role of the second class particle is played by the rightmost (or leftmost) particle.

  14. Pengukuran Dan Perbaikan Produktivitas Dengan Menggunakan Model APC (American Productivity Center) Di PT. Pantja Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Muhammad Gani

    2010-01-01

    PT. Pantja Surya adalah Perusahaan manufaktur yang memproduksi Crumb Rubber dengan Standard Indonesian Rubber yang berdiri sejak bulan juli 1965. Jenis produk yang diproduksi adalah S.I.R 20. Dalam menghadapi persaingan yang semakin kompetitif PT. Pantja Surya selalu berusaha meningkatkan produktivitas perusahaan, dimana untuk mengetahui tingkat produktivitas perusahaan perlu dilakukan suatu pengukuran produktivitas yang merupakan ukuran dan akan dijadikan sebagai patokan untuk dianalisa, ...

  15. Core–shell nanospheres Pt@SiO{sub 2} for catalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yujuan; Wang, Yuqing; Lu, Zhang-Hui, E-mail: luzh@jxnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiangshu, E-mail: cxs66cn@jxnu.edu.cn; Xiong, Lihua

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Pt@SiO{sub 2} core–shell NPs are synthesized via a simple one-pot synthetic route. • Ultrafine Pt NPs (∼4 nm) are embedded in well-proportioned SiO{sub 2} nanospheres. • Pt@SiO{sub 2} shows a high activity and good durability for H{sub 2} generation from AB. - Abstract: Ultrafine platinum nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in silica nanospheres (Pt@SiO{sub 2}) have been synthesized in a NP-5/cyclohexane reversed-micelle system followed by NaBH{sub 4} reduction. The as-synthesized core–shell nanocatalysts Pt@SiO{sub 2} were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopes, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and nitrogen adsorption–desorption investigations. Interestingly, the as-synthesized core–shell nanocatalysts Pt@SiO{sub 2} showed an excellent catalytic performance in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (BH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}, AB) at room temperature. Especially, the catalytic performance of the Pt@SiO{sub 2} remained almost unchanged after the five recycles and even after the heat treatment (673 K), because the silica shells inhibit aggregation or deformation of the metal cores. Besides, the kinetic studies showed that the catalytic hydrolysis of AB was first order with respect to the catalyst concentration and zero order with respect to the substrate concentration, respectively. The excellent catalytic activity and stability of Pt@SiO{sub 2} can make it have a bright future in the practical application.

  16. Production and consumption of biological particles in temperate tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heip, C.H.R.; Goosen, N.K.; Herman, P.M.J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    1995-01-01

    The question is reviewed whether a balance exists between production and consumption of biological particles in temperate tidal estuaries and what the relationships are between the magnitude of production and consumption processes and system carbon metabolism. The production terms considered are pri

  17. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  18. Search for pair production of new particles in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Berlendis, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of 13 TeV collisions and the start of Run 2 of the LHC, the potential to directly observe new particles produced in pairs has been greatly increased. This presentation will discuss a recent search from the ATLAS collaboration searching for pair production of new particles using the Run 2 dataset.

  19. Calcination of kaolinite clay particles for cement production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kaolinite rich clay particles calcined under certain conditions can attain favorable pozzolanic properties and can be used to substitute part of the CO2 intensive clinker in cement production. To better guide calcination of a clay material, a transient one-dimensional single particle model...

  20. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  1. Photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production using nanoparticulate titania and a novel Pt/carbon electrocatalyst: The concept of the "Photoelectrocatalytic Leaf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Lucian-Cristian; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production was realized my means of a double electrode carrying photocatalyst and electrocatalyst, deposited side by side on an FTO electrode, acting as a "Photoelectrocatalytic Leaf". As photocatalyst we used plain commercial nanoparticulate titania and as electrocatalyst a conductive carbon film made by a commercial carbon paste enriched with a small quantity of Pt nanoparticles (0.0134 mg/cm2). This quantity of Pt is much smaller than used in other applications and it may be further optimized. Hydrogen was produced in an alkaline environment in the presence of ethanol acting as sacrificial agent. A few variants of electrode geometry were studied in order to set the basic terms for efficient hydrogen production. It was found that optimal electrode geometry necessitates a much larger area for photocatalyst coverage than electrocatalyst and that it is preferable to divide photocatalyst and electrocatalyst areas in alternating zones.

  2. Non-Gaussianity from Particle Production during Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Barnaby

    2010-01-01

    on such features and discuss their implications for popular models of inflation. Inflationary particle production also leads to a very novel kind of nongaussian signature which may be observable in future missions.

  3. Production of high-performance and improved-durability Pt-catalyst /support for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells with pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Qayyum, Hamza; Lin, Guan-Ren; Chen, Szu-yuan; Tseng, Chung-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition in Ar atmosphere is used to deposit Pt nanoparticles onto gas diffusion layer, and its application to proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is optimized and characterized. When used at anode side, with a Pt loading of 17 μg cm-2 the fuel-cell current density at 0.6 V reaches 1.08 A cm-2, which is close to that of a cell with the anode made by conventional slurry process using E-TEK Pt /C of 200 μg cm-2 Pt loading. The usage of Pt is decreased by 12 fold. Such a low usage of Pt prepared by pulsed laser deposition can be ascribed to the prevention of forming isolated regions that occurs with Pt /C slurry, good dispersion of Pt particles on support, and small particle sizes of 2-3 nm. Furthermore, using accelerated degradation test, it is found that the pulsed laser deposition sample retains 60% of its initial electrochemical surface area after 5000 potential cycles, much higher than that with E-TEK Pt /C, which retains only 7% of its initial electrochemical surface area. The higher electrochemical durability can be attributed to the higher degree of graphitization in the gas diffusion layer used as compared with the carbon black in E-TEK Pt /C, which leads to stronger binding of the Pt nanoparticles onto the carbon support and stronger corrosion resistance of the carbon support.

  4. Particle production and reheating in the inflationary universe

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    Thermal field theory is applied to particle production rates in inflationary models, leading to new results for catalysed, or two-stage decay, where massive fields act as decay channels for the production of light fields. A numerical investigation of the Bolztmann equation in an expanding universe shows that the particle distributions produced during small amplitude inflaton oscillations or alongside slowly moving inflaton fields can thermalise.

  5. Central Exclusive Particle Production at High Energy Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M.G.; /Fermilab; Coughlin, T.D.; /University Coll. London; Forshaw, J.R.; /Manchester U.

    2010-06-01

    We review the subject of central exclusive particle production at high energy hadron colliders. In particular we consider reactions of the type A + B {yields} A + X + B, where X is a fully specified system of particles that is well separated in rapidity from the outgoing beam particles. We focus on the case where the colliding particles are strongly interacting and mainly they will be protons (or antiprotons) as at the ISR, Sp{bar p}S, Tevatron and LHC. The data are surveyed and placed within the context of theoretical developments.

  6. A Pt-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Sensor for Detecting SF6 Decomposition Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of partial discharge and analysis of SF6 gas components in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS is important for the diagnosis and operating state assessment of power equipment. The use of a Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 decomposition products is proposed in this paper. The electrochemical pulse deposition method is employed to prepare the sensor array. The sensor’s response to the main characteristic gaseous decomposition products of SF6 is evaluated. The gas sensing characteristic curves of the Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube sensor and intrinsic TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor are compared. The mechanism of the sensitive response is discussed. Test results showed that the Pt-doped nanoparticles not only change the gas sensing selectivity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor with respect to the main characteristic SF6 decomposition products, but also reduce the operating temperature of the sensor.

  7. The Impact of Particle Production on Gravitational Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S

    2016-01-01

    Baryogenesis driven by curvature effects is investigated by taking into account gravitationally induced particle production in the very early Universe. In our scenario, the baryon asymmetry is generated dynamically during an inflationary epoch powered by ultra-relativistic particles. The adiabatic particle production rate provides both the needed negative pressure to accelerate the radiation dominated Universe and a non-zero chemical potential which distinguishes baryons and anti-baryons thereby producing a baryon asymmetry in agreement with the observed value. Reciprocally, the present day asymmetry may be used to determine the inflationary scale at early times. Successful gravitational baryogenesis is dynamically generated for many different choices of the relevant model parameters.

  8. The impact of particle production on gravitational baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Singleton, D.

    2016-11-01

    Baryogenesis driven by curvature effects is investigated by taking into account gravitationally induced particle production in the very early Universe. In our scenario, the baryon asymmetry is generated dynamically during an inflationary epoch powered by ultra-relativistic particles. The adiabatic particle production rate provides both the needed negative pressure to accelerate the radiation dominated Universe and a non-zero chemical potential which distinguishes baryons and anti-baryons thereby producing a baryon asymmetry in agreement with the observed value. Reciprocally, the present day asymmetry may be used to determine the inflationary scale at early times. Successful gravitational baryogenesis is dynamically generated for many different choices of the relevant model parameters.

  9. Transverse momentum dependence of inclusive primary charged-particle production in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agostinelli, Andrea; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Berger, Martin Emanuel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boehmer, Felix Valentin; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dorheim, Sverre; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; Hilden, Timo Eero; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Esposito, Marco; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gumbo, Mervyn; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kadyshevskiy, Vladimir; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Okatan, Ali; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Sahoo, Pragati; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palmeri, Armando; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sanchez Rodriguez, Fernando Javier; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Segato, Gianfranco; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wagner, Vladimir; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-01-01

    The transverse momentum ($p_T$) distribution of primary charged particles is measured at midrapidity in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the range 0.15 < $p_T$ < 50 GeV/c. The spectra are compared to the expectation based on binary collision scaling of particle production in pp collisions, leading to a nuclear modification factor consistent with unity for $p_T$ larger than 2 GeV/c. The measurement is compared to theoretical calculations and to data in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

  10. Transverse momentum dependence of inclusive primary charged-particle production in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; De Caro, Annalisa; 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Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; 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Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kadyshevskiy, Vladimir; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Okatan, Ali; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Sahoo, Pragati; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palmeri, Armando; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sanchez Rodriguez, Fernando Javier; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Segato, Gianfranco; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wagner, Vladimir; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-09-16

    The transverse momentum ($p_T$) distribution of primary charged particles is measured at midrapidity in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the range 0.15 < $p_T$ < 50 GeV/c. The spectra are compared to the expectation based on binary collision scaling of particle production in pp collisions, leading to a nuclear modification factor consistent with unity for $p_T$ larger than 2 GeV/c. The measurement is compared to theoretical calculations and to data in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

  11. The crystallization processes in the aluminum particles production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mathematical model of the crystallization process of liquid aluminum particles in the spray-jet of the ejection-type atomizer was proposed. The results of mathematical modeling of two-phase flow in the spray-jet and the crystallization process of fluid particles are given. The influence of the particle size, of the flow rate and the stagnation temperature gas in the ranges of industrial technology implemented for the production of powders aluminum of brands ASD, on the crystallization characteristics were investigated. The approximations of the characteristics of the crystallization process depending on the size of the aluminum particles on the basis of two approaches to the mathematical description of the process of crystallization of aluminum particles were obtained. The results allow to optimize the process parameters of ejection-type atomizer to produce aluminum particles with given morphology.

  12. Risk Mapping of Bogie S2HD-9C Production Process that Take Effect on Production Fulfillment at PT. Barata Indonesia (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faza Yoshio Susanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Barata Indonesia (Persero is one of leading metal works company in Indonesia. It has 3 main business line which are engineering procurement and construction (EPC, industrial tools manufacturing, and foundry. As the company’s strategic objective in delivering quality product and service to the customer, PT Barata Indonesia should maintain their production process properly. One of the featured product of PT Barata Indonesia is bogie. The production process of bogie shows a fluctuative delivery fulfillment. It can be proved by the contract amendment information. Risk management can be used as the method to manage risk inside the production process of bogie. Therefore, this research is aimed to identify risks that may occur from each activities of bogie S2HD-9C’s production process. The risk identification is done by using fault tree analysis method in order to determine the root cause of each activity performed. The risk evaluation is done by using FMEA method which can classify the effects of failure based on the severity and occurrence of failure. Then continue to the risk mapping and risk mitigation determination for bogie S2HD-9C’s production process. Loss that caused by the emergence of risk also determined using value at risk method. Moreover, risk profile dashboard will be provided as the tools in managing risk.

  13. Characterization of particle exposure in ferrochromium and stainless steel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Merja; Huvinen, Markku; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kanerva, Tomi; Vanhala, Esa; Uitti, Jukka; Koivisto, Antti J; Junttila, Sakari; Luukkonen, Ritva; Tuomi, Timo

    2016-07-01

    This study describes workers' exposure to fine and ultrafine particles in the production chain of ferrochromium and stainless steel during sintering, ferrochromium smelting, stainless steel melting, and hot and cold rolling operations. Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust was assessed using IOM sampler with a cellulose acetate filter (AAWP, diameter 25 mm; Millipore, Bedford, MA). Filter sampling methods were used to measure particle mass concentrations in fixed locations. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were examined using an SMPS+C sequential mobile particle sizer and counter (series 5.400, Grimm Aerosol Technik, Ainring, Germany), and a hand-held condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Incorporated, MN). The structure and elemental composition of particles were analyzed using TEM-EDXA (TEM: JEM-1220, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan; EDXA: Noran System Six, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Madison,WI). Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust averaged 1.87, 1.40, 2.34, 0.30, and 0.17 mg m(-3) in sintering plant, ferrochromium smelter, stainless steel melting shop, hot rolling mill, and the cold rolling mill, respectively. Particle number concentrations measured using SMPS+C varied from 58 × 10(3) to 662 × 10(3) cm(-3) in the production areas, whereas concentrations measured using SMPS+C and CPC3007 in control rooms ranged from 24 × 10(3) to 243 × 10(3) cm(-3) and 5.1 × 10(3) to 97 × 10(3) cm(-3), respectively. The elemental composition and the structure of particles in different production phases varied. In the cold-rolling mill non-process particles were abundant. In other sites, chromium and iron originating from ore and recycled steel scrap were the most common elements in the particles studied. Particle mass concentrations were at the same level as that reported earlier. However, particle number measurements showed a high amount of ultrafine particles, especially in sintering, alloy smelting and melting, and tapping

  14. Production of cobalt and nickel particles by hydrogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, J.; Tapper, U.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2008-05-01

    Cobalt and nickel nanoparticles were produced by hydrogen reduction reaction from cobalt or nickel chloride precursor vapour in nitrogen carrier gas. This aerosol phase method to produce nanoparticles is a scalable one-step process. Two different setups were introduced in particle production: a batch type reactor and a continuously operated reactor. Common feature in these setups was hydrogen mixing in a vertical flow reactor. The process was monitored on-line for particle mass concentration and for gas phase chemical reactions. Tapered element oscillating microbalance measured the particle mass concentration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor relevant gas phase species. The produced cobalt and nickel particles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The produced cobalt and nickel particles were crystalline with cubic fcc structure. Twinning was often observed in cobalt particles while nickel particles were mostly single crystals. The cobalt particles formed typically long agglomerates. No significant neck growth between the primary particles was observed. The primary particle size for cobalt and nickel was below 100 nm.

  15. Kinematical Correlations for Higgs Boson Plus High P_{T} Jet Production at Hadron Colliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, C-P; Yuan, Feng

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the effect of QCD resummation to kinematical correlations in the Higgs boson plus high transverse momentum (P(T)) jet events produced at hadron colliders. We show that at the complete one-loop order, the Collins-Soper-Sterman resummation formalism can be applied to derive the Sudakov form factor. We compare the singular behavior of resummation calculation to fixed order prediction in the case that a Higgs boson and high P(T) jet are produced nearly back to back in their transverse momenta, and find perfect agreement. The phenomenological importance of the resummation effect at the LHC is also demonstrated.

  16. Role of Dissolved and Molecular Oxygen on Cu and PtCu Alloy Particle Structure during Laser Ablation Synthesis in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzun, Galina; Bönnemann, Helmut; Lehmann, Christian; Spliethoff, Bernd; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2017-05-05

    The role of molecular oxygen dissolved in the solvent is often discussed as being an influential factor on particle oxidation during pulsed laser ablation in liquids. However, the formation of the particles during laser synthesis takes place under extreme conditions that enable the decomposition of the liquid medium. Reactive species of the solvent may then affect particle formation due to a chemical reaction in the reactive plasma. Experimental results show a difference between the role of dissolved molecular oxygen and the contribution from the oxygen in water molecules. Using a metallic Cu target in air-saturated water, laser ablation led to 20.5 wt % Cu, 11.5 wt % Cu2 O, and 68 wt % CuO nanoparticles, according to X-ray diffraction results. In contrast to particles obtained in air-saturated water, no CuO was observed in the colloid synthesized in a Schlenk ablation chamber in completely oxygen-free water. Under these conditions, less-oxidized nanoparticles (25 wt % Cu and 75 wt % Cu2 O) were synthesized. The results show that nanoparticle oxidation during laser synthesis is mainly caused by reactive oxygen species from the decomposition of water molecules. However, the addition of molecular oxygen promotes particle oxidation. Storage of the Cu colloid in the presence of dissolved oxygen leads, due to aging, to nanostructures with a higher oxidation state than the freshly prepared colloid. The XRD pattern of the sample prepared in air-saturated acetone showed no crystalline phases, which is possibly due to small crystallites or low particle concentration. Concentration of the particles by centrifugation showed that in the large fraction (>20 nm), even less oxidized nanoparticles (46 wt % Cu and 54 wt % Cu2 O) were present, although the solubility of molecular oxygen is higher in acetone than in water. The nanoparticles in acetone were stable due to a Cu-catalyzed graphite layer formed on their surfaces. The influence of the solvent

  17. Possible Implication of a Single Nonextensive p(T) Distribution for Hadron Production in High-Energy pp Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL; Wilk, Grzegorz [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw, Poland; Cirto, Leonardo J. L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Brazil; Tsallis, Constantino [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Brazil

    2015-01-01

    Multiparticle production processes in pp collisions at the central rapidity region are usually considered to be divided into independent "soft" and "hard" components. The first is described by exponential (thermal-like) transverse momentum spectra in the low-p(T) region with a scale parameter T associated with the temperature of the hadronizing system. The second is governed by a power-like distributions of transverse momenta with power index n at high-p(T) associated with the hard scattering between partons. We show that the hard-scattering integral can be approximated as a nonextensive distribution of a quasi-power-law containing a scale parameter T and a power index n =1/(q-1), where q is the nonextensivity parameter. We demonstrate that the whole region of transverse momenta presently measurable at LHC experiments at central rapidity (in which the observed cross sections varies by 14 orders of magnitude down to the low p(T) region) can be adequately described by a single nonextensive distribution. These results suggest the dominance of the hard-scattering hadron-production process and the approximate validity of a "no-hair" statistical-mechanical description of the p(T) spectra for the whole p(T) region at central rapidity for pp collisions at high-energies.

  18. Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fat for diesel production: Study on model feed with Pt/alumina catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fats and oils is a viable method for producing renewable diesel oil. In this study a model feed consisting of oleic acid and tripalmitin in molar ratio 1:3 was hydrotreated at 325°C with 20bars H2 in a stirred batch autoclave with a 5wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and samples...

  19. Pt-Rh/g Al2O3 Influence of Catalyst Preparation Methods on Metallic Particle Dispersion and Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. da Fonseca

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available - Pt-Rh/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by successive incipient impregnations or coimpregnation. Characterization was achieved by H2 chemisorption and transmission electron microscopy. It was verified that method of preparation, ratio of metal weights and sequence of deposition are factors that result in very distinct catalysts.

  20. A Novel Aerosol Method for the Production of Hydrogel Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Guzman-Villanueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of generating hydrogel particles for various applications including drug delivery purposes was developed. This method is based on the production of hydrogel particles from sprayed polymeric nano/microdroplets obtained by a nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. In this study, particle synthesis parameters such as type of nebulizer, type of crosslinker, air pressure, and polymer concentration were investigated for their impact on the mean particle size, swelling behavior, and morphology of the developed particles. Spherical alginate-based hydrogel particles with a mean particle size in the range from 842 to 886 nm were obtained. Using statistical analysis of the factorial design of experiment it was found that the main factors influencing the size and swelling values of the particles are the alginate concentration and the air pressure. Thus, it was demonstrated that the method described in the current study is promising for the generation of hydrogel particles and it constitutes a relatively simple and low-cost system.

  1. Weak production of strange particles off the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Rafi; Athar, M Sajjad; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The strange particle production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is investigated at low and intermediate energies. We develop a microscopic model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangian. The studied mechanisms are the main source of single kaon production for (anti)neutrino energies up to 1.5 GeV. Using this model we have also studied the associated production of kaons and hyperons. The cross sections are large enough to be measured by experiments such as MINER$\

  2. Negative particle production at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Cristallini, A; D'Agostino-Bruno, M; Ellis, R J; Giacomelli, G; Maroni, C; Mercatali, F; Rossi, A M; Vannini, G

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results on the production of negative particles in inclusive reactions at intermediate angles (80-200 mrad) at the CERN ISR are reported. Pion production, is still the dominant process; within experimental errors, scaling holds for negative pions or alternatively a limiting distribution is reached at relatively low energies. However the antiproton production cross-sections are apparently larger than smaller energies. (14 refs).

  3. Particle production in pp and Pb-Pb collisions with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, F

    2012-01-01

    The performance and capabilities of the ALICE experiment allow to study the hadron pro­ duction over a wide range of momenta both in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. ALICE, with respect to the other LHC experiments, contributes especially with the measurement of identified particles, resonances and multi-strange baryons down to very low Pt. A review of the most recent results obtained in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV is reported. Transverse momentum spectra allow to characterize the dynamical evolution of the system produced in nuclear collisions, while production yields and ratios are discussed from a thermodynamical point of view. Results are finally compared to measurements at lower energies and predictions for the LHC.

  4. Particle Production under External Fields and Its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents studies of vacuum pair productions and its applications in early universe cosmology and high energy astrophysics. Vacuum often becomes unstable and spontaneously decays into pairs of particles in rapidly expanding universes or under strong external electromagnetic fields. Theoretically, spontaneous pair productions due to such non-trivial backgrounds of spacetimes or electromagnetic fields are well-understood. However, the effect of particle productions has not been observed so far because of experiemtal difficulties in obtaining large curvatures of space-times or strong electric fields. Although it may be impossible to observe the pair productions directly via laboratory experiments, there are still powerful sources of space-time curvatures or electric fields in cosmology and astrophysics, which result in observations. In Part I, we explore the inflationary models in early universe utilizing pair productions through gravity. We study observable signatures on the cosmic microwave background, such as isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities, generated from the particle production of WIMPzillas and axions during or after inflation. In Part II, we investigate the electron-positron pair production in the magnetosphere of pulsars whose electromagnetic fields are expected to close to or even greater than the pair production threshold. In particular, we demonstrate that the pair production may be responsible for giant pulses from the Crab pulsar.

  5. Gravitational particle production in oscillating backgrounds and its cosmological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2016-09-01

    We study the production of light particles due to the oscillation of the Hubble parameter or the scale factor. Any coherently oscillating scalar field, irrespective of its energy fraction in the Universe, imprints such an oscillating feature on them. Not only Einstein gravity but the extended gravity models, such as models with nonminimal (derivative) coupling to gravity and f (R ) gravity, lead to oscillation of the scale factor. We present a convenient way to estimate the gravitational particle production rate in these circumstances. Cosmological implications of gravitational particle production, such as dark matter/radiation and moduli problem, are discussed. For example, if the theory is described solely by the standard model plus the Peccei-Quinn sector, the Starobinsky R2 inflation may lead to an observable amount of axion dark radiation.

  6. Gravitational Particle Production in Oscillating Background and Its Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    We study production of light particles due to oscillation of the Hubble parameter or the scale factor. Any coherently oscillating scalar field, irrespective of its energy fraction in the universe, imprints such an oscillating feature on them. Not only the Einstein gravity but extended gravity models, such as models with non-minimal (derivative) coupling to gravity and $f(R)$ gravity, lead to oscillation of the scale factor. We present a convenient way to estimate the gravitational particle production rate in these circumstances. Cosmological implications of gravitational particle production, such as dark matter/radiation and moduli problem, are discussed. For example, if the theory is described solely by the standard model plus the Peccei-Quinn sector, the Starobinsky $R^2$ inflation may lead to observable amount of axion dark radiation.

  7. Pseudorapidity and pt dependence of identified-particle azimuthal flow for √sNN=200 GeV Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Victoria

    2008-10-01

    The observation of a strong azimuthal flow signature at RHIC suggests rapid system equilibration leading to an almost perfect fluid state. The longitudinal extent of the flow behavior depends on the formation dynamics for this state and can be studied by measuring the pseudorapidity dependence of the second Fourier component (v2) of the azimuthal angular distribution. We report on a measurement of identified-particle v2 as a function of pt (0.5-2.0 GeV/c), centrality (0-50%), and pseudorapidity (0BRAHMS spectrometers for particle identification (π, K, p) and the BRAHMS global detectors to determine the corresponding reaction-plane angles. Preliminary results for the Au+Au system have been reported earlier. Here we compare the final Au+Au results to new results obtained for the Cu+Cu system.

  8. Characterization of airborne particles during production of carbonaceous nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Behnoush; Kull, Christy M; Hull, Matthew S; Marr, Linsey C

    2008-06-15

    Despite the rapid growth in nanotechnology, very little is known about the unintended health or environmental effects of manufactured nanomaterials. The development of nanotechnology risk assessments and regulations requires quantitative information on the potential for exposure to nanomaterials. The objective of this research isto characterize airborne particle concentrations during the production of carbonaceous nanomaterials, such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, in a commercial nanotechnology facility. We measured fine particle mass concentrations (PM2.5), submicrometer size distributions, and photoionization potential, an indicator of the particles' carbonaceous content, at three locations inside the facility: inside the fume hood where nanomaterials were produced, just outside the fume hood, and in the background. The measurements were not selective for engineered nanomaterials and may have included both engineered nanomaterials and naturally occurring or incidental particles. Average PM2.5 and particle number concentrations were not significantly different inside the facility versus outdoors. However, large, short-term increases in PM2.5 and particle number concentrations were associated with physical handling of nanomaterials and other production activities. In many cases, an increase in the number of sub-100 nm particles accounted for the majority of the increase in total number concentrations. Photoionization results indicate that the particles suspended during nanomaterial handling inside the fume hood were carbonaceous and therefore likely to include engineered nanoparticles, whereas those suspended by other production activities taking place outside the fume hood were not. Based on the measurements in this study, the engineering controls at the facility appear to be effective at limiting exposure to nanomaterials.

  9. Bose-Einstein correlations in multiple particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalewski, Kacper

    1999-03-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in the framework of a class of independent particle production models. This generalizes the studies for a variety of models proposed previously. It is shown that the Bose-Einstein correlations lead for this class of models to Einstein's condensation at sufficiently high density. They also enhance unusual charge distributions and may explain the centauro and anticentauro events reported by cosmic ray physicists. For typical models the correlations cause a shrinking of the momentum distribution of the produced identical particles and an apparent shrinking of the production region.

  10. Bose-Einstein correlations in multiple particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Zalewski, Kasper

    1999-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in the framework of a class of independent particle production models. This generalizes the studies for a variety of models proposed previously. It is shown that the Bose-Einstein correlations lead for this class of models to Einstein's condensation at sufficiently high density. They also enhance unusual charge distributions and may explain the centauro and anticentauro events reported by cosmic ray physicists. For typical models the correlations cause a shrinking of the momentum distribution of the produced identical particles and an apparent shrinking of the production region.

  11. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Sing Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problem plaguing propane dehydrogenation process is the coke formation on the Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst which leads to catalyst deactivation. Due to information paucity, the physicochemical characteristics of the commercially obtained regenerated Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst (operated in moving bed reactor and coke formation at different temperatures of reaction were discussed. The physicochemical characterization of regenerated catalyst gave a BET surface area of 104.0 m2/g with graphitic carbon content of 8.0% indicative of incomplete carbon gasification during the industrial propylene production. Effect of temperatures on coke formation was identified by studying the product yield via temperature-programmed reaction carried out at 500oC, 600oC and 700oC. It was found that ethylene was precursor to carbon laydown while propylene tends to crack into methane. Post reaction, the spent catalyst possessed relatively lower surface area and pore radius whilst exhibited higher carbon content (31.80% at 700oC compared to the regenerated catalyst. Significantly, current studies also found that higher reaction temperatures favoured the coke formation. Consequently, the propylene yield has decreased with reaction temperature. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th March 2013; Revised: 28th April 2013; Accepted: 6th May 2013[How to Cite: Kah, S.H., Joanna Jo, E.C., Sim, Y.C., Chin, K.C. (2013. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 77-82. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82] | View in  |

  12. A study of strange particle production in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2002-01-01

    A study of strange particle production in νμ charged current interactions has been performed using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Yields of neutral strange particles ( K0s,Λ, Λ¯) have been measured. Mean multiplicities are reported as a function of the event kinematic variables Eν, W2 and Q2 as well as of the variables describing particle behaviour within a hadronic jet: xF, z and pT2. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with identified K 0s and Λ in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K ★±, Σ ★±, Ξ- and Σ0 have been observed.

  13. High efficiency of collisional Penrose process requires heavy particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Kota; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2015-01-01

    The center-of-mass energy of two particles can become arbitrarily large if they collide near the event horizon of an extremal Kerr black hole, which is called the Ba$\\rm \\tilde n$ados-Silk-West (BSW) effect. We consider such a high-energy collision of two particles which started from infinity and follow geodesics in the equatorial plane and investigate the energy extraction from such a high-energy particle collision and the production of particles in the equatorial plane. We analytically show that, on the one hand, if the produced particles are as massive as the colliding particles, the energy-extraction efficiency is bounded by $2.19$ approximately. On the other hand, if a very massive particle is to be produced as a result of the high-energy collision, which has negative energy and necessarily falls into the black hole, the upper limit of the energy-extraction efficiency is increased to $(2+\\sqrt{3})^2 \\simeq 13.9$. Thus, higher efficiency of the energy extraction, which is typically as large as 10, provide...

  14. WORKING POSTURE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING RULA (RAPID UPPER LIMB ASSESSMENT METHOD IN PRODUCTION PROCESS AT PT. INDANA PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongky Kusnandar Djiono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working posture can affect the comfort and productivity of labor in doing manual work. In this study, RULA method is used to determine the risk level of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs injury in the production process at PT. Indana Paint (consists of mixing and packaging steps for water-based paint, solvent-based paint, and base paint production, and then given proposed improvements to reduce the risk level. Method used in this research is direct observation and video recording of every work element to determine some awkward postures that will be assessed using RULA method. Thirty awkward postures are found, there are 7 working posture (23.3% have low risk level, 11 working posture (36.7% have medium risk level, and 12 working posture (40% have high risk level. Proposed improvements given is to brief the workers on appropriate lifting technique and working methods, adding mechanical aids for handling drums, and working position height adjustment.

  15. Production of heavy charged Higgs particles at very high energies

    OpenAIRE

    Grifols, Josep Antoni; Solà Peracaula, Joan

    1981-01-01

    The production of heavy charged Higgs bosons at very high energies (LEP) is investigated. It turns out that, in favorable circumstances, charged scalars of mass 50-100 GeV could be detected and be even more copiously produced than the standard neutral Weinberg-Salam-type Higgs particle of the same mass.

  16. High-pT hadron production and triggered particle correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, A.

    2006-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has performed measurements of high transverse momentum particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. High-pT hadrons are generated from hard parton scatterings early in the collision. The outgoing partons probe the surround

  17. Towards pair production near threshold with unstable particle effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M.; Kauer, N.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Signer, A.; /Durham U., IPPP; Zanderighi, G.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    We illustrate the use of effective theory techniques to describe processes involving unstable particles close to resonance. First, we present the main ideas in the context of a scalar resonance in an Abelian gauge-Yukawa model. We then outline the necessary modifications to describe W-pair production close to threshold in electron-positron collisions.

  18. Signals of single particle production at the earliest LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Fibonacci 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Torre, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.torre@pi.infn.i [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Fibonacci 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo Fibonacci 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-01-10

    Based on simple phenomenological Lagrangians, fulfilling reasonable consistency conditions, we consider under which circumstances the production of a single particle might be an early signal of new physics at the LHC. Effective final states are {gamma}{gamma} and {gamma}+jet already with tens of inverse picobarns of integrated luminosity at 7 TeV.

  19. Effect of using polyimide capillaries during thermal experiments on the particle size distribution of supported Pt nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gámez-Mendoza, Liliana; Resto, Oscar; Martínez-Iñesta, María

    2015-09-20

    Kapton HN-type polyimide capillaries are commonly used as sample holders for transmission X-ray experiments at temperatures below 673 K because of their thermal stability, high X-ray transmittance and low cost. Using high-angle annular dark field scanning high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, this work shows that using polyimide capillaries leads to the overgrowth of supported Pt nanoparticles during reduction at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg= 658 K) owing to an outgassing of water from the polyimide. Quartz capillaries were also studied and this overgrowth was not observed.

  20. High-pressure vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived oxygenates to hydrocarbons by a PtMo bimetallic catalyst: Product selectivity, reaction pathway, and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohe, Sara L.; Choudhari, Harshavardhan J.; Mehta, Dhairya D.; Dietrich, Paul J.; Detwiler, Michael D.; Akatay, Cem M.; Stach, Eric A.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delgass, W. Nicholas; Agrawal, Rakesh; Ribeiro, Fabio H.

    2016-12-01

    High-pressure, vapor-phase, hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions of dihydroeugenol (2-methoxy-4-propylphenol), as well as other phenolic, lignin-derived compounds, were investigated over a bimetallic platinum and molybdenum catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (5%Pt2.5%Mo/MWCNT). Hydrocarbons were obtained in 100% yield from dihydroeugenol, including 98% yield of the hydrocarbon propylcyclohexane. The final hydrocarbon distribution was shown to be a strong function of hydrogen partial pressure. Kinetic analysis showed three main dihydroeugenol reaction pathways: HDO, hydrogenation, and alkylation. The major pathway occurred via Pt catalyzed hydrogenation of the aromatic ring and methoxy group cleavage to form 4-propylcyclohexanol, then Mo catalyzed removal of the hydroxyl group by dehydration to form propylcyclohexene, followed by hydrogenation of propylcyclohexene on either the Pt or Mo to form the propylcyclohexane. Transalkylation by the methoxy group occurred as a minor side reaction. Catalyst characterization techniques including chemisorption, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to characterize the catalyst structure. Catalyst components identified were Pt particles, bimetallic PtMo particles, a Mo carbide-like phase, and Mo oxide phases.

  1. Measurement of charmed particle production in hadronic reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the production cross-section for charmed particles in hadronic reactions, study their production mechanism, and search for excited charmed hadrons.\\\\ \\\\ Charmed Mesons and Baryons will be measured in $\\pi$ and $p$ interactions on Beryllium between 100 and 200 GeV/c. The trigger will be on an electron from the leptonic decay of one charmed particle by signals from the Cerenkov counter (Ce), the electron trigger calorimeter (eCal), scintillation counters, and proportional wire chambers. The accompanying charmed particle will be measured via its hadronic decay in a two-stage magnetic spectrometer with drift chambers (arms 2, 3a, 3b, 3c), two large-area multicell Cerenkov counters (C2, C3) and a large-area shower counter ($\\gamma$-CAL). The particles which can be measured and identified include $\\gamma, e, \\pi^{\\pm}, \\pi^{0}, K^{\\pm}, p, \\bar{p}$ so that a large number of hadronic decay modes of charmed particles can be studied. \\\\ \\\\ A silicon counter telescope with 5 $\\m...

  2. JIMWLK evolution for multi-particle production with rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, E., E-mail: edmond.iancu@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Triantafyllopoulos, D.N., E-mail: trianta@ectstar.eu [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT) and Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, I-38123 Villazzano (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    We study multi-particle production with rapidity correlations in proton–nucleus collisions at high energy in the Color Glass Condensate framework. The high-energy evolution responsible for such correlations is governed by a generalization of the JIMWLK equation describing the simultaneous evolution of the strong nuclear color fields in the direct amplitude and the complex conjugate amplitude. This functional equation can be used to derive ordinary evolution equations for the cross-sections for particle production, but the ensuing equations appear to be too complicated to be useful in practice, including in the limit of a large number of colors N{sub c}. We propose an alternative formulation based on a Langevin process, which is valid for generic N{sub c} and is better suited for numerical implementations. For illustration, we present the stochastic equations which govern two gluon production with arbitrary rapidity separation.

  3. Weak production of strange particles off the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Simo, I. Ruiz [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Trento Via Sommarive 14, Povo (Trento) I-38123 (Italy); Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The strange particle production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is investigated at low and intermediate energies. We develop a microscopic model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangian. The studied mechanisms are the main source of single kaon production for (anti)neutrino energies up to 1.5 GeV. Using this model we have also studied the associated production of kaons and hyperons. The cross sections are large enough to be measured by experiments such as MINERνA, T2K and NOνA.

  4. KAERI charged particle cross section library for radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y O; Zhuang, Y X

    2001-01-01

    This report summarized information and figures describing the 'KAERI Charged Particle Cross Section Library for Radioisotope production' The library contains proton-, deutron-, He-3-, and alpha-induced monitor cross sections, and gamma- and positron-emitter production cross sections. Experimental data and evaluation methods are described, and the evaluated cross sections are compared with those of the IAEA, MENDL, and LA150. The library has cross sections and emission spectra suitable for the transport analysis in the design of radioisotope production system, and are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ in ENDF-6 format.

  5. Synthesis of Pt-Ni Octahedra in Continuous-Flow Droplet Reactors for the Scalable Production of Highly Active Catalysts toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guangda; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Xuan; Park, Jinho; Lu, Ning; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Wang, Liduo; Xia, Younan

    2016-06-01

    A number of groups have reported the syntheses of nanosized Pt-Ni octahedra with remarkable activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), a process key to the operation of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. However, the throughputs of those batch-based syntheses are typically limited to a scale of 5-25 mg Pt per batch, which is far below the amount needed for commercial evaluation. Here we report the use of droplet reactors for the continuous and scalable production of Pt-Ni octahedra with high activities toward ORR. In a typical synthesis, Pt(acac)2, Ni(acac)2, and W(CO)6 were dissolved in a mixture of oleylamine, oleic acid, and benzyl ether, and then pumped into a polytetrafluoroethylene tube. When the solution entered the reaction zone at a temperature held in the range of 170-230 °C, W(CO)6 quickly decomposed to generate CO gas, naturally separating the reaction solution into discrete, uniform droplets. Each droplet then served as a reactor for the nucleation and growth of Pt-Ni octahedra whose size and composition could be controlled by changing the composition of the solvent and/or adjusting the amount of Ni(acac)2 added into the reaction solution. For a catalyst based on Pt2.4Ni octahedra of 9 nm in edge length, it showed an ORR mass activity of 2.67 A mgPt(-1) at 0.9 V, representing an 11-fold improvement over a state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.24 A mgPt(-1)).

  6. Micromagnetic simulation with three models of FeCo/L10 FePt exchange-coupled particles for bit-patterned media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying; Wang Rui; Xie Hai-Long; Bai Jian-Min; Wei Fu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Compositing soft and hard materials is a promising method to decrease the coercivity of L10 FePt,which is considered to be a suitable material for bit-patterned media.This paper reports the simulation of three models of FeCo/L10 FePt exchange-coupled composite particles for bit patterned media by the OOMMF micromagnetic simulation software:the enclosed model,the side-enclosed model,and the top-covered model.All of them have the same volumes of the soft and hard parts but different shapes.Simulation results show that the switching fields for the three models can be reduced to about 10 kOe (1Oe =79.5775 A/m) and the factor gain can be improved to 1.4 when the interface exchange coefficient has a proper value.Compared to the other models,the enclosed model has a wider range of interface exchange coefficient values,in which a low switching field and high gain can be obtained.The dependence of the switching fields on the angle of the applied field shows that none of the three models are easily affected by the stray field of a magnetic head.

  7. Facets of Tunneling Particle production in external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of particle production in an uniform electric field and Schwarzchild-like spacetimes. Both problems can be reduced to solving an effective one-dimensional Schrodinger equation with a potential barrier. In the electric field case, the potential is that of an inverted oscillator -x^2 while in the case of Schwarchild-like spacetimes, the potential is of the form -1/x^2 near the horizon. The transmission and reflection coefficients can easily be obtained for both potentials. To describe particle production, these coefficients have to be suitably interpreted. In the case of the electric field, the standard Bogoliubov coefficients can be identified and the standard gauge invariant result is recovered. However, for Schwarzchild-like spacetimes, such a tunnelling interpretation appears to be invalid. The Bogoliubov coefficients cannot be determined by using an identification process similar to that invoked in the case of the electric field. The reason for such a discrepancy appea...

  8. Particle Production Measurements using the MIPP Detector at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Sonam

    2013-01-01

    The Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment is a fixed target hadron production experiment at Fermilab. It measures particle production in interactions of 120 GeV/c primary protons from the Main Injector and secondary beams of $\\pi^{\\pm}, \\rm{K}^{\\pm}$, p and $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ from 5 to 90 GeV/c on nuclear targets which include H, Be, C, Bi and U, and a dedicated run with the NuMI target. MIPP is a high acceptance spectrometer which provides excellent charged particle identification using Time Projection Chamber (TPC), Time of Flight (ToF), multicell Cherenkov (CKOV), Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, and Calorimeter for neutrons. We present inelastic cross section measurements for 58 and 85 GeV/c p-H interactions, and 58 and 120 GeV/c p-C interactions. A new method is described to account for the low multiplicity inefficiencies in the interaction trigger using KNO scaling. Inelastic cross sections as a function of multiplicity are also presented. The MIPP data are compared with the Monte Carl...

  9. CP Violation in Correlated Production and Decay of Unstable Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    We study resonant CP-violating Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen correlations that may take place in the production and decay of unstable scalar particles at high-energy colliders. We show that as a consequence of unitarity and CPT invariance of the S-matrix, in 2 --> 2 scatterings mediated by mixed scalar particles, at least three linearly independent decay matrices associated with the unstable scalar states are needed to obtain non-zero CP-odd observables that are also odd under C-conjugation. Instead, for the correlated production and decay of two unstable particle systems in 2 --> 4 processes, we find that only two independent decay matrices are sufficient to induce a net non-vanishing CP-violating phenomenon. As an application of this theorem, we present numerical estimates of CP asymmetries for the correlated production and decay of supersymmetric scalar top--anti-top pairs at the LHC, and demonstrate that these could reach values of order one. As a byproduct of our analysis, we develop a novel spinorial trace ...

  10. CP violation in correlated production and decay of unstable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Olaf; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2012-03-01

    We study resonant CP-violating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations that may take place in the production and decay of unstable scalar particles at high-energy colliders. We show that as a consequence of unitarity and CPT invariance of the S-matrix, in 2→2 scatterings mediated by mixed scalar particles, at least three linearly independent decay matrices associated with the unstable scalar states are needed to obtain non-zero CP-odd observables that are also odd under C-conjugation. Instead, for the correlated production and decay of two unstable particle systems in 2→4 processes, we find that only two independent decay matrices are sufficient to induce a net non-vanishing CP-violating phenomenon. As an application of this theorem, we present numerical estimates of CP asymmetries for the correlated production and decay of supersymmetric scalar top-anti-top pairs at the LHC, and demonstrate that these could reach values of order one. As a byproduct of our analysis, we develop a novel spinorial trace technique, which enables us to efficiently evaluate lengthy expressions of squared amplitudes describing the resonant scalar transitions.

  11. CP violation in correlated production and decay of unstable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, Olaf, E-mail: kittel@th.physik.uni-bonn.de [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Pilaftsis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.pilaftsis@manchester.ac.uk [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Theoretical Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia - CSIC, E-46100 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-03-21

    We study resonant CP-violating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations that may take place in the production and decay of unstable scalar particles at high-energy colliders. We show that as a consequence of unitarity and CPT invariance of the S-matrix, in 2{yields}2 scatterings mediated by mixed scalar particles, at least three linearly independent decay matrices associated with the unstable scalar states are needed to obtain non-zero CP-odd observables that are also odd under C-conjugation. Instead, for the correlated production and decay of two unstable particle systems in 2{yields}4 processes, we find that only two independent decay matrices are sufficient to induce a net non-vanishing CP-violating phenomenon. As an application of this theorem, we present numerical estimates of CP asymmetries for the correlated production and decay of supersymmetric scalar top-anti-top pairs at the LHC, and demonstrate that these could reach values of order one. As a byproduct of our analysis, we develop a novel spinorial trace technique, which enables us to efficiently evaluate lengthy expressions of squared amplitudes describing the resonant scalar transitions.

  12. Direct ethanol fuel cell, CO and ethanol oxidation on core-shell C/Ni-Au-[Pt and (Pt- Ir)] catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.A.D.; Tremiliosi-Filho, G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], Email: cesaraug@sc.usp.br; Kokoh, K.B.; Coutanceau, C.; Baranton, S. [Universite de Poitiers (France). Lab. de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO). Equipe Electrocatalyse

    2010-07-01

    In this paper presents to study of the Pt and Pt-Ir monolayer that were deposited on core-shell Ni-Au nanoparticles supported on carbon. Catalysts with the following molar ratios were prepared: Pt and Pt{sub 65}Ir{sub 35}, Pt{sub 75}Ir{sub 2}5, Pt{sub 80}Ir{sub 20} and Pt{sub 85}Ir{sub 15}. The means particle sizes were in the range of 2 - 6 nm for all catalysts. The electrochemical properties examined in the ethanol and CO oxidation by cyclic voltammetry, and In situ IR spectroscopy measurements (SPAIRS) enabled to determine intermediates and reaction products as a function of the metallic compositions of catalysts. All of the catalysts were tested as anodes of a single direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) tests in 1.0 M ethanol solution. As a result, higher power densities were obtained with the core-shell particles in comparison to those issued from the commercial catalyst (Pt-ETEK). Thus, the maximum power densities at 90 deg C for the different systems are: (i) commercial C/Pt catalyst (E-TEK): ca. 0.010 W cm{sup -2}, C/Ni-Au-(Pt{sub 85}Ir{sub 15}): ca. 0.013 W cm{sup -2} and C/Ni-Au-Pt: ca. 0.018 W cm{sup -2} (all core-shell systems were normalization by Pt load). As a result, the performance of the core-shell nanoparticles is much better than that produced for the commercial catalyst and the C/Ni-Au-Pt system showed the best performance. (author)

  13. Probing the Charge Separation Process on In2S3/Pt-TiO2 Nanocomposites for Boosted Visible-light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Yijiao; Backus, Ellen H G; Bonn, Mischa; Lou, Shi Nee; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Amala, Rose

    2016-01-01

    A simple refluxing wet-chemical approach is employed for fabricating In2S3/Pt-TiO2 heterogeneous catalysts for hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation. When the mass ratio between Pt-TiO2 and cubic-phased In2S3 (denoted as In2S3/Pt-TiO2) is two, the composite catalyst shows the highest hydrogen production, which exhibits an 82-fold enhancement over in-situ deposited Pt-In2S3. UV-vis diffuse reflectance and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectra elucidate that the conduction band of In2S3 is 0.3 eV more negative compared to that of TiO2, favoring charge separation in the nanocomposites. Photoelectrochemical transient photo-current measurements and optical pump - terahertz probe spectroscopic studies further corroborate the charge separation in In2S3/Pt-TiO2. The migration of photo-induced electrons from the In2S3 conduction band to the TiO2 conduction band and subsequently into the Pt nanoparticles is found to occur within 5 picoseconds. Based on the experimental evidence, a charge separation pro...

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production of Water-Soluble Pt (Ⅱ)-Salen Complex%水溶性Pt(Ⅱ)-Salen配合物的合成、表征和光催化制氢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊仁杰; 陈勇; 傅文甫

    2012-01-01

    本文合成了一种水溶性的Pt (Ⅱ)-Salen配合物(Salen=双5-磺酸钾水杨醛合邻苯二胺席夫碱),将其用于光催化制氢.研究发现在光催化制氢体系中仅存在Pt(Ⅱ)-Salen配合物和三乙胺(TEA)而没有额外加入催化剂时,在可见光照射下有氢气产生.进一步的研究表明,Pt (Ⅱ)-Salen配合物在体系中既是光敏剂,又是催化剂Pt纳米粒子的前体.同时,制氢体系中除了TEA外没有使用有机溶剂.该结果为简化多组分制氢体系提供了新思路.%A new water-soluble Pt(II) -Salen complex ( Salen = NN1 -substituted bis(salicyl-aldimine-5-sulphonic acid) potassium salt) was synthesized, characterized and employed in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution system. In the presence of TEA, this system could produce hydrogen effectively without additional catalyst. An investigation found that the Pt(II) -Salen complex could be employed as photosensitizer. Besides, it could also be the precursor of the catalyst. In addition, there was not organic solvent except TEA in the hydrogen evolution system. The result provided a new way to simplify the multi-component system for photocatalytic hydrogen production.

  15. Quantifying jet transport properties via large $p_T$ hadron productions at NLO

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Ben-Wei; Wang, Enke

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ for large $p_T$ single hadron is studied in a next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) parton model with medium-modified fragmentation functions (mFFs) due to jet quenching in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The energy loss of the hard partons in the QGP is incorporated in the mFFs which utilize two most important parameters to characterize the transport properties of the hard parton jets: the jet transport parameter $\\hat q_{0}$ and the mean free path $\\lambda_{0}$, both at the initial time $\\tau_0$. A phenomenological study of the experimental data for $R_{AA}(p_{T})$ is performed to constrain the two parameters with simultaneous $\\chi^2/{\\rm d.o.f}$ fits to RHIC as well as LHC data. We obtain for energetic quarks $\\hat q_{0}\\approx 1.1 \\pm 0.2$ GeV$^2$/fm and $\\lambda_{0}\\approx 0.4 \\pm 0.03$ fm in central $Au+Au$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV, while $\\hat q_{0}\\approx 1.7 \\pm 0.3$ GeV$^2$/fm, and $\\lambda_{0}\\approx 0.5 \\pm 0.05$ fm in central $Pb+...

  16. New Energetic Particle Data and Products from the GOES Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsager, Terrance; Rodriguez, Juan

    The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program has provided continuous, real-time measurements of the near-Earth space environment for decades. In addition to their scientific value, the GOES energetic particle measurements are the basis for a variety of space weather products and services, including the forecasting of elevated energetic particle levels, real-time knowledge of the satellite environment at geostationary orbit, and data to allow post-event analyses when satellite anomalies occur. The GOES satellites have traditionally provided measurements of high-energy electrons, protons, and alpha particles (100s of keV to 100s of MeV). Beginning with the launch of GOES-13 in 2006, the measurement capabilities were expanded to include medium-energy electrons and protons (10s to 100s of keV) with pitch angle resolution. The next generation of GOES satellites, starting with GOES-R in 2016, will include low-energy electrons and ions (10s of eV to 10s of keV) as well as energetic heavy ions. In this presentation, we will overview the GOES particle measurements available now and in the future and describe the space weather services and scientific investigations that these data support.

  17. Phenomenology of supersymmetric particle production process at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenkel, Maike Christina

    2009-07-20

    We study the hadronic production of strongly interacting SUSY particles in the framework of the MSSM. In particular, we consider top-squark pair, gluino. squark pair, and same sign squark-squark pair production processes. Aiming at precise theoretical predictions, we calculate the cross section contributions of electroweak origin up to the one-loop level. We find sizable effects both from tree-level electroweak subprocesses and next-to-leading order electroweak corrections, reaching the 20% level in kinematical distributions. In a second part of this thesis, we investigate the phenomenology of R-parity violating B{sub 3} SUSY models with the lightest stau ({tau}{sub 1}) being the LSP. We analyze the possible {tau}{sub 1} decay modes, taking into account the dynamical generation of non-zero R-parity violating couplings at lower scales. As an application of our studies which is interesting for experiments at particle accelators, we discuss single slepton production at the LHC and give numerical results for single smuon production. (orig.)

  18. Blue tensor spectrum from particle production during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukohyama, Shinji; Namba, Ryo [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Shiu, Gary, E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp, E-mail: ryo.namba@ipmu.jp, E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: shiu@physics.wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We discuss a mechanism of particle production during inflation that can result in a blue gravitational wave (GW) spectrum, compatible with the BICEP2 result and with the r < 0.11 limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the Planck pivot scale. The mechanism is based on the production of vector quanta from a rolling pseudo-scalar field. Both the vector and the pseudo-scalar are only gravitationally coupled to the inflaton, to keep the production of inflaton quanta at an unobservable level (the overproduction of non-gaussian scalar perturbations is a generic difficulty for mechanisms that aim to generate a visible GW signal from particle production during inflation). This mechanism can produce a detectable amount of GWs for any inflationary energy scale. The produced GWs are chiral and non-gaussian; both these aspects can be tested with large-scale polarization data (starting from Planck). We study how to reconstruct the pseudo-scalar potential from the GW spectrum.

  19. Blue Tensor Spectrum from Particle Production during Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Mukohyama, Shinji; Peloso, Marco; Shiu, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a mechanism of particle production during inflation that can result in a blue gravitational wave (GW) spectrum, compatible with the BICEP2 result and with the r < 0.11 limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the Planck pivot scale. The mechanism is based on the production of vector quanta from a rolling pseudo-scalar field. Both the vector and the pseudo-scalar are only gravitationally coupled to the inflaton, to keep the production of inflaton quanta at an unobservable level (the overproduction of non-gaussian scalar perturbations is a generic difficulty for mechanisms that aim to generate a visible GW signal from particle production during inflation). This mechanism can produce a detectable amount of GWs for any inflationary energy scale. The produced GWs are chiral and non-gaussian; both these aspects can be tested with large-scale polarization data (starting from Planck). We study how to reconstruct the pseudo-scalar potential from the GW spectrum.

  20. Ultra-forward particle production from CGC+Lund fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Albacete, Javier L; Nara, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of data on single inclusive pion production measured by the LHCf collaboration in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus at ultra-forward rapidities, $8.8 \\leq\\! y\\leq \\!10.8$. We also analyse forward RHIC data for calibration purposes. Our analysis relies on the use of a Monte Carlo event generator that combines a perturbative description of the elementary scattering process at partonic level based on the hybrid formalism of the Color Glass Condensate with an implementation of hadronization in the framework of the Lund string fragmentation model. This procedure allows us to reach values of the momenta of the produced particles as low as detected experimentally $p_t\\sim0.1$ GeV. We achieve a good description of single inclusive spectra of charged particles and neutral pions at RHIC and the LHC respectively, and nuclear modification factors for proton-lead collisions at the LHC. Our results add evidence to the idea that particle production in the domain of very small Bjorken-$x$ is...

  1. Particle production with left-right neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Seishi; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2016-03-01

    When the Higgs field starts oscillation after Higgs inflation, gauge bosons are produced nonperturbatively near the enhanced symmetry point (ESP). Just after the particle production, when the Higgs field is going away from the ESP, these gauge bosons gain mass and decay or annihilate into Standard Model (SM) fermions. Left-handed neutrinos can be generated in that way. If one assumes the seesaw mechanism, the mass matrix of a pair of left- and right-handed neutrinos is nondiagonal. Although their mixing in the mass eigenstates is negligible in the true vacuum, it could be significant near the edge of the Higgs oscillation, where the off-diagonal component is large. Therefore, the left-handed neutrinos generated from the gauge bosons can start neutrino oscillation between the right-handed neutrinos. We study the particle production when such left-right (L-R) neutrino oscillation is significant. For a working example, the nonthermal leptogenesis scenario after Higgs inflation is examined, which cannot be realized without the L-R neutrino oscillation. The same mechanism could be applied to other singlet particles whose abundance has been neglected.

  2. On some issues of gravitationally induced adiabatic particle productions

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Supriya; Pramanik, Souvik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the current accelerating universe driven by the gravitationally induced adiabatic matter creation process. To elaborate the underlying cognitive content, here we consider three models of adiabatic particle creation and constrain the model parameters by fitting the models with the Union 2.1 data set using $\\chi^2$ minimization technique. The models are analyzed by two geometrical and model independent tests, viz., cosmography and $Om$-diagnostic, which are widely used to distinguish the cosmological models from $\\Lambda$CDM. We also compared present values of those model independent parameters with that of the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model. Finally, the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics and the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium for the particle production models have been tested.

  3. Investigation of rare particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.

    1991-01-01

    During FY91 we began our investigation of rare particle production in relativistic nuclear collisions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. We were funded for a period of one year to perform the initial experimental search, E858, to determine the level of antideuteron ({bar d}) production in Si+Au collisions at the AGS. We accomplished this goal with the discovery of two {bar d}'s in the June 1990 run. We describe in this paper experiment performed and the results obtained. We performed our rare particle search at the A-1 line of the AGS. We instrumented the line with a four time-of-flight (TOF) detectors, two high pressure gas Cerenkox (ck) detectors, and four drift tube (DT) tracking detectors. The TOF detectors achieved time resolution of better than 100ps leading to a mass resolution of <15 MeV at 1 GeV. The Ck detectors were used both to suppress the large {pi}{sup {minus}} signal and in {pi}/K separation at high rigidities. The DT system provided particle trajectories for all of the particles passing the trigger requirements. In this experiment we measured the {pi}{sup {minus}}, K-, and {bar p} momentum spectra at 0{sup o} for rigidities from 2 to 8 GV to a statistical accuracy of 1--3% at all settings. We found that the {bar p} yield as a function of target did not show any evidence for reabsorption within the interaction volume. We also found two {bar d}'s, the first observation of complex antinuclei produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The {bar d} yield is at least an order of magnitude smaller than prediced using a simple coalescence model based on the d/p ratio from E802 and the {bar p} spectrum measured in our experiment.

  4. Synthesis of PtSn nanostructured catalysts supported over TiO{sub 2} and Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} particles for the electro-oxidation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.E. [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Gravina, A.N. [Departamento de Química, INQUISUR, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Sieben, J.M., E-mail: jmsieben@uns.edu.ar [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Messina, P.V. [Departamento de Química, INQUISUR, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Duarte, M.M.E. [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • PtSn particles supported on TiO2 and Ce-doped TiO2 were evaluated as catalysts for EOR. • PtSn/TiO2 showed better mass current and higher TON than PtSn/Ce–TiO2 materials. • The activity for EOR decreased markedly with increasing Ce content in the TiO2. - Abstract: PtSn/TiO2 and PtSn/Ce-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for ethanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Titanium dioxide and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method followed by calcination at 923 K. Bimetallic PtSn catalysts supported on the oxide materials were synthesized by microwave assisted reduction in ethylene glycol (EG). The structural properties of the resulting materials were evaluated via TEM and XRD, and the compositions were assessed by EDX and ICP-AES analysis. PtSn nanoparticles of about 3–4 nm were deposited on TiO2 and Ce–TiO2 particles. It was found that the catalyst composition is scarcely influenced by the cerium content in the mixed oxides while the electrochemical surface area per unit mass decreases upon the incorporation of Ce in the anatase lattice. The electrochemical tests pointed out that the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation decreases markedly as the Ce content increases. The results indicate that the presence of cerium in the titanium dioxide crystalline network induces local structural and electronic modifications, thereby leading to a reduction of the crystallinity, surface conductivity and the amount of OH species adsorbed on the surface of the oxide support.

  5. Resummation for supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brensing, Silja Christine

    2011-05-10

    The search for supersymmetry is among the most important tasks at current and future colliders. Especially the production of coloured supersymmetric particles would occur copiously in hadronic collisions. Since these production processes are of high relevance for experimental searches accurate theoretical predictions are needed. Higher-order corrections in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to these processes are dominated by large logarithmic terms due to the emission of soft gluons from initial-state and final-state particles. A systematic treatment of these logarithms to all orders in perturbation theory is provided by resummation methods. We perform the resummation of soft gluons at next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) accuracy for all possible production processes in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In particular we consider pair production processes of mass-degenerate light-flavour squarks and gluinos as well as the pair production of top squarks and non-mass-degenerate bottom squarks. We present analytical results for all considered processes including the soft anomalous dimensions. Moreover numerical predictions for total cross sections and transverse-momentum distributions for both the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Tevatron are presented. We provide an estimate of the theoretical uncertainty due to scale variation and the parton distribution functions. The inclusion of NLL corrections leads to a considerable reduction of the theoretical uncertainty due to scale variation and to an enhancement of the next-to-leading order (NLO) cross section predictions. The size of the soft-gluon corrections and the reduction in the scale uncertainty are most significant for processes involving gluino production. At the LHC, where the sensitivity to squark and gluino masses ranges up to 3 TeV, the corrections due to NLL resummation over and above the NLO predictions can be as high as 35 % in the case of gluino-pair production, whereas at the

  6. Production of renewable hydrogen from aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol over Pt catalysts supported on different oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Andre O. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia/MCT, Laboratorio de Catalise, Av. Venezuela 82/507, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22081-312 (Brazil); Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praca General Tiburcio, 80 Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22290-270 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michelly T.; Zimmaro, Adriana; Fraga, Marco A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia/MCT, Laboratorio de Catalise, Av. Venezuela 82/507, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22081-312 (Brazil); Borges, Luiz E.P. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praca General Tiburcio, 80 Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22290-270 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    Aqueous-phase reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons for hydrogen production presents several advantages as feed molecules can be easily found in a wide range of biomass, there is no need for its vaporization and the process allows thorough exploitation of the environmental benefits of using hydrogen as an energy carrier. The use of glycerol in particular is motivated due to its availability as a consequence of increasing biodiesel production worldwide. In this contribution, the performance of Pt-based catalysts supported on different oxides (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, MgO and CeO{sub 2}) is studied on glycerol reforming. All catalysts led to a hydrogen-rich gas phase. However, a good potential activity with high production of hydrogen and low concentration of undesired hydrocarbons was accomplished over the catalysts supported on MgO and ZrO{sub 2}. The high electron donating character of such oxides indicates the influence of the nature of the support in catalytic performance for glycerol reforming. (author)

  7. Dark matter from gravitational particle production at reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami

    2017-02-01

    We show that curvature induced particle production at reheating generates adiabatic dark matter if there are non-minimally coupled spectator scalars weakly coupled to visible matter. The observed dark matter abundance implies an upper bound on spectator masses m and non-minimal coupling values ξ. For example, assuming quadratic inflation, instant reheating and a single spectator scalar with only gravitational couplings, the observed dark matter abundance is obtained for m~ 0.1 GeV and ξ ~ 1. Larger mass and coupling values of the spectator are excluded as they would lead to overproduction of dark matter.

  8. Continuous quantum mechanics of single particles in closed and quasi-closed systems: Pt. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brieger, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Physik

    2004-07-01

    The established statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics never envisioned our today's ability to handle and investigate single particles in trap devices. After scrutinizing the development of quantum mechanics, we point out that Schroedinger's equation establishes an energy representation, which obtains the energy eigenvalues as extrema of the energy curve or on the energy hypersurface, respectively. We also strongly emphasize its never exhausted capability of accounting in classical terms and full detail for the dynamics of single particles in closed systems. This is demonstrated for several familiar examples. They show that the eigensolutions to Schroedinger's equation must not blindly be identified with physically stationary states. The gained insight into the true dynamics allows to describe, without involving QED, the time evolution of a complete spontaneous transition as being driven by unbalanced internal dynamics. This mechanism relies on the fact that perfect balances are only possible in the exact extrema of the total energy and that any deviation, which is characterized by nonstationary states, makes multipole moments oscillate and emit electromagnetic radiation. (orig.)

  9. CO2 Hydrogenation over Oxide-Supported PtCo Catalysts: The Role of the Oxide Support in Determining the Product Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, Shyam; Yu, Weiting; Yang, Xiaofang; Yan, Binhang; Huang, Yanqiang; Wan, Weiming; Liu, Ping; Chen, Jingguang G

    2016-07-04

    By simply changing the oxide support, the selectivity of a metal-oxide catalysts can be tuned. For the CO2 hydrogenation over PtCo bimetallic catalysts supported on different reducible oxides (CeO2 , ZrO2 , and TiO2 ), replacing a TiO2 support by CeO2 or ZrO2 selectively strengthens the binding of C,O-bound and O-bound species at the PtCo-oxide interface, leading to a different product selectivity. These results reveal mechanistic insights into how the catalytic performance of metal-oxide catalysts can be fine-tuned.

  10. Catalytic recombination of dissociation products with Pt/SnO2 for rare and common isotope long-life, closed-cycle CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth G.; Sidney, B. D.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Miller, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports results on recombination of pulsed CO2 laser dissociation products with Pt/SnO2 catalysts, and supporting studies in a surrogate laboratory catalyst reactor. The closed-cycle, pulsed CO2 laser has been continuously operated for one million pulses with an overall power degradation of less than 5 percent by flowing the laser gas mixture through a 2-percent Pt/SnO2 catalyst bed. In the surrogate laboratory reactor, experiments have been conducted to determine isotopic exchange with the catalyst when using rare-isotope gases. The effects of catalyst pretreatment, sample weight, composition, and temperature on catalyst efficiency have also been determined.

  11. Measurement of the particle production properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, Alessia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the particle production properties with the ATLAS detector A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. A similar comparison between measurements and MC generator predictions will be shown for the strange meson content in topquark pair events. Studies of particle correlations in high-energy collisions can provide valuable insights into the detailed understanding of the space-time geometry of the hadronization region. The ATLA...

  12. Strange particle production in hadronic Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, K.G. III

    1996-04-01

    A study has been made of neutral strange baryons and pseudoscalar mesons produced in hadronic decays of the weak gauge boson V. The experiment was performed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, which has the unique capability of colliding highly polarized electrons with unpolarized positrons. Overall production rates and spectra of the K{sup 0} and the {Lambda}{sup 0} (+{Lambda}{sup 0}) were measured and compared with other experiments as well as with Quantum Chromodynamics calculations. The combination of the small, stable beam spots produced by the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) and the precision vertexing capabilities of the SLC Large Detector (SLD) permitted the separation of the hadronic events into three quark flavor-enriched samples. An unfolding was performed to obtain flavor-pure samples, and for the first time measurements were made of K{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sup 0} (+{Lambda}{sup 0}) production rates and spectra in uds, c, and b quark events at the Z{sup 0} pole. This measurement revealed significant production differences. Utilizing the large quark production asymmetry due to the polarized electron beam, high-purity quark and antiquark jet samples were obtained. The first measurement of production differences of the {Lambda}{sup 0} baryon in quark and antiquark jets was performed, which provided clear evidence for a leading particle effect at high momenta.

  13. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-02

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year.

  14. Measurement of the integrated and differential t-tbar production cross sections for high-pt top quarks in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-04-30

    The cross section for pair production of top quarks (t-tbar) with high transverse momenta is measured in pp collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with sqrt(s) = 8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse-femtobarns. The measurement is performed using lepton+jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark pt and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be sigma[t-tbar] = 0.499 +/- 0.035 (stat+syst) +/- 0.095 (theory) +/- 0.013 (lumi) pb for top quark pt > 400 GeV. The parton-level measurement is sigma[t-tbar] = 1.44 +/- 0.10 (stat+syst) +/- 0.29 (theory) +/- 0.04 (lumi) pb. The integrated and differential cross section results are compared to predictions from several event generators.

  15. Optimum thickness of soft magnetic phase in FePt/FeCo permanent magnet superlattices with high energy product and large magnetic anisotropy energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Jain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio calculations on hard/soft (FePtm/(FeCon, (m = 4, 6, 8 and n = 2-2m magnetic superlattices show that the B2 type FeCo layers become anisotropic with varying interlayer spacing and enhanced magnetic moments. The average magnetic moment in superlattices is higher than in bulk FePt, resulting in high maximum energy product for (FePt4/(FeCo8 which is nearly double the calculated value for bulk FePt. The calculation of the magnetic anisotropy energy shows that the optimal thickness of the soft magnetic phase for good permanent magnet behaviour of the superlattice is less than ∼2 nm.

  16. Measurement of low $p_{T}$ $D^{0}$ meson production cross section at CDF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussini, Manuel [Univ. of Bologna (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    In this thesis we present a study of the production of D0 meson in the low transverse momentum region. In particular the inclusive differential production cross section of the D0 meson (in the two-body decay channel D0 → K-π+) is obtained extending the published CDF II measurement to pT as low as 1.5 GeV/c. This study is performed at the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab with the CDF II detector.

  17. Particle dynamics and pair production in tightly focused standing wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirka, M.; Klimo, O.; Vranić, M.; Weber, S.; Korn, G.

    2017-05-01

    With the advent of 10 PW laser facilities, new regimes of laser-matter interaction are opening since effects of quantum electrodynamics, such as electron-positron pair production and cascade development, start to be important. The dynamics of light charged particles, such as electrons and positrons, is affected by the radiation reaction force. This effect can strongly influence the interaction of intense laser pulses with matter since it lowers the energy of emitting particles and transforms their energy to the gamma radiation. Consequently, electron-positron pairs can be generated via Breit-Wheeler process. To study this new regime of interaction, numerical simulations are required. With their help it is possible to predict and study quantum effects which may occur in future experiments at modern laser facilities. In this work we present results of electron interaction with an intense standing wave formed by two colliding laser pulses. Due to the necessity to achieve ultra intense laser field, the laser beam has to be focused to a μm-diameter spot. Since the paraxial approximation is not valid for tight focusing, the appropriate model describing the tightly focused laser beam has to be employed. In tightly focused laser beam the longitudinal component of the electromagnetic field becomes significant and together with the ponderomotive force they affect the dynamics of interacting electrons and also newly generated Breit-Wheeler electron-positron pairs. Using the Particle-In-Cell code we study electron dynamics, gamma radiation and pair production in such a configuration for linear polarization and different types of targets.

  18. Particle production with L-R neutrino oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Enomoto, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    When the Higgs field starts oscillation after Higgs inflation, gauge bosons are produced non-perturbatively near the Enhanced Symmetry Point (ESP). Just after the particle production, when the Higgs field is going away from the ESP, these gauge bosons gain mass and decay or annihilate into Standard Model (SM) fermions. Left-handed neutrinos can be generated in that way. If one assumes the see-saw mechanism, the mass matrix of a pair of left and right-handed neutrinos is non-diagonal. Although their mixing in the mass eigenstates is negligible in the true vacuum, it could be significant near the edge of the Higgs oscillation, where the off-diagonal component is large. Therefore, the left-handed neutrinos generated from the gauge bosons can start neutrino oscillation between the right-handed neutrinos. We study the particle production when such L-R neutrino oscillation is significant. For a working example, the non-thermal leptogenesis scenario after Higgs inflation is examined, which cannot be realized without...

  19. Photocatalytic H2 Production Using Pt-TiO2 in the Presence of Oxalic Acid: Influence of the Noble Metal Size and the Carrier Gas Flow Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Kmetykó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the experiments was to investigate the differences in the photocatalytic performance when commercially available Aeroxide P25 TiO2 photocatalyst was deposited with differently sized Pt nanoparticles with identical platinum content (1 wt%. The noble metal deposition onto the TiO2 surface was achieved by in situ chemical reduction (CRIS or by mixing chemically reduced Pt nanoparticle containing sols to the aqueous suspensions of the photocatalysts (sol-impregnated samples, CRSIM. Fine and low-scale control of the size of resulting Pt nanoparticles was obtained through variation of the trisodium citrate concentration during the syntheses. The reducing reagent was NaBH4. Photocatalytic activity of the samples and the reaction mechanism were examined during UV irradiation (λmax = 365 nm in the presence of oxalic acid (50 mM as a sacrificial hole scavenger component. The H2 evolution rates proved to be strongly dependent on the Pt particle size, as well as the irradiation time. A significant change of H2 formation rate during the oxalic acid transformation was observed which is unusual. It is probably regulated both by the decomposition rate of accumulated oxalic acid and the H+/H2 redox potential on the surface of the catalyst. The later potential is influenced by the concentration of the dissolved H2 gas in the reaction mixture.

  20. Horticultural production and marketing in Kenya : Pt. 3: Taita Taveta district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Magori, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Third part of a study undertaken within the framework of the Food and Nutrition Studies Programme (FNSP), a Kenyan-Dutch cooperation project. The study examined the production and marketing of horticultural commodities in selected districts in Kenya. Part 3 focuses on Taita Taveta district in Coast

  1. Horticultural production and marketing in Kenya : Pt. 3: Taita Taveta district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Magori, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Third part of a study undertaken within the framework of the Food and Nutrition Studies Programme (FNSP), a Kenyan-Dutch cooperation project. The study examined the production and marketing of horticultural commodities in selected districts in Kenya. Part 3 focuses on Taita Taveta district in Coast

  2. Precise predictions for supersymmetric particle production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothering, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    One of the main objectives of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Among the most promising candidates is the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) which postulates the existence of further particles. Since none of these supersymmetric particles have been found yet, their mass limits have been shifted to high values. Hence, with the available energy of the LHC they would always be produced close to their production threshold. This leads to predictions for cross sections which are characterized by the presence of dominant logarithmic terms stemming from multiple soft gluon emission. These contributions spoil the convergence of the perturbative series and require a resummation to predict reliable results in these critical kinematical phase space regions. As the attention of experimental searches has been shifted towards electroweak supersymmetric particle production at the LHC, we update in this thesis our predictions for direct slepton pair production at proton-proton collision to next-to-leading order (NLO) matched to resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. As a benchmark scenario we choose simplified models which have the advantage of only containing a few relevant physical parameters. They are now commonly adopted by the experimental collaborations for slepton and electroweak gaugino searches. We find that the scale dependence is drastically reduced by including NLL corrections, especially for large slepton masses. For increasing mass limits we hint towards the significance of next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic contributions to the cross section. By using modern Monte Carlo techniques we reanalyze ATLAS and CMS results for slepton searches for different assumptions about the compositions of the sleptons and their neutralino decay products. We observe similar mass limits for selectrons and smuons as both collaborations and find that masses for left-handed (right-handed) selectrons and

  3. PENERAPAN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM PADA PENJADWALAN PRODUKSI (Studi Kasus di PT Brother Silver Product Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Febriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research gives an alternative to build production schedule using Evolutionary Algorithm. The objective function is minimizing production makespan. Shortest Processing Time (SPT and Longest Processing Time (LPT methods are used as initial solution. The algorithm is implemented on house ware factory and the result show the final solution has makespan 26,74 % less than initial solution. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini memberikan alternatif dalam menyusun suatu jadwal produksi dengan menggunakan Evolutionary Algorithm. Fungsi tujuan yang akan dicapai adalah meminimumkan makespan produksi. Metode Shortest Processing Time (SPT dan Longest Processing Time (LPT digunakan sebagai solusi awal. Algoritma ini kemudian diterapkan pada pabrik peralatan rumah tangga dan solusi akhir menunjukan Evolutionary Algorithm memberikan makespan 26.74% lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan solusi awal. Kata kunci: Evolutionary Algorithm, Penjadwalan.

  4. AcerDET-2.0: a particle level fast simulation and reconstruction package for phenomenological studies on high p_T physics at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mikos, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    The fortran version of the AcerDET package has been published in [1], and used in the multiple publications on the predictions for physics at LHC. The package provides, starting from list of particles in the event, the list of reconstructed jets, isolated electrons, muons, photons and reconstructed missing transverse energy. The AcerDET represents a simplified version of the package called ATLFAST, used since several years within ATLAS Collaboration. In the fast simulation implemented in AcerDET, some functionalities of ATLFAST are absent, but the most crucial detector effects are implemented and the parametrisations are largely simplified. Therefore it is not representing details neither of ATLAS nor CMS detectors. This short paper documents a new C++ implementation of the same algorithms as used in [1]. We believe that the package can be well adequate for some feasibility studies of the high p_T physics at LHC and at planned ppFCC. The further evolution of this code is planned. [1] E. Richter-Was, AcerDET: ...

  5. Measurement of neutral strange particle production in the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2013-09-01

    Measurements are presented of the production of primary K(S)0 and Lambda particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV in the region transverse to the leading charged-particle jet in each event. The average multiplicity and average scalar transverse momentum sum of K(S)0 and Lambda particles measured at pseudorapidities abs(eta) < 2 rise with increasing charged-particle jet pt in the range 1-10 GeV and saturate in the region 10-50 GeV. The rise and saturation of the strange particle yields and transverse momentum sums in the underlying event are similar to those observed for inclusive charged particles, which confirms the impact-parameter picture of multiple parton interactions. The results are compared to recent tunes of the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator. The PYTHIA simulations underestimate the data by 15-30% for K(S)0 mesons and by about 50% for Lambda baryons, a deficit similar to that observed for the inclusive strange particle production in non-single-diffractive proton-proton collisions. The constant strange- to charged-particle activity ratios and the similar trends for mesons and baryons indicate that the multiparton-interaction dynamics is decoupled from parton hadronization, which occurs at a later stage.

  6. Insight into particle production mechanisms from angular correlations of identified particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Two-particle angular correlations are a robust tool which provide access to the underlying physics phenomena of particle production in collisions of both protons and heavy ions by studying distributions of particles in pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle difference. The correlation measurement is sensitive to several phenomena, including mini-jets, elliptic flow, Bose-Einstein correlations, resonance decays, conservation laws, which can be separated by selections of momentum, particle type and by analysing the shapes of the correlation structures. In this talk, we report measurements of the correlations of identified particles and their antiparticles (for pions, kaons, protons, and lambdas) at low transverse momenta in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, recently submitted for publication by the ALICE Collaboration [arXiv:1612.08975]. The analysis reveals differences in particle production between baryons and mesons. The correlation functions for mesons exhibit the expected peak dominated by effects of mini-jet...

  7. Production of strange particles in charged jets in p--Pb and Pb--Pb collisions measured with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Studies of jet production can provide information about the properties of the hot and dense strongly interacting matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Specifically, measurement of strange particles in jets may clarify the role of fragmentation processes in the anomalous baryon to meson ratio at intermediate particle pT that was observed in PbPb and, to a lesser extent, in pPb collisions. In this contribution, measurements of the pT spectra of Lambda and Antilambda baryons and K0s mesons produced in association with charged jets in PbPb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=5.02 TeV are presented. The analysis is based on data which was recorded by ALICE at the LHC, exploiting its excellent particle identification capabilities. The baryon meson ratios of the spectra of strange particles associated with jets are studied for different event activities in p-Pb and are restricted to central events in PbPb. A comparison to the ratios obtained for inclusive particles a...

  8. Differences in high $p_{t}$ meson production between CERN SPS and RHIC heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, G; Barnafoldi, G G; Yi Zhang; Fái, G; Papp, Gabor; Levai, Peter; Barnafoldi, Gergely G.; Zhang, Yi; Fai, George

    2001-01-01

    In this talk we present a perturbative QCD improved parton model calculation for light meson production in high energy heavy ion collisions. In order to describe the experimental data properly, one needs to augment the standard pQCD model by the transverse momentum distribution of partons ("intrinsic k/sub T/"). Proton-nucleus data indicate the presence of nuclear shadowing and multi-scattering effects. Further corrections are needed in nucleus-nucleus collisions to explain the observed reduction of the cross section. We introduce the idea of proton dissociation and compare our calculations with the SPS and RHIC experimental data. (18 refs).

  9. Electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton degradations of the drug beta-blocker propranolol using a Pt anode: Identification and evolution of oxidation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isarain-Chavez, Eloy; Cabot, Pere Lluis; Centellas, Francesc; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Arias, Conchita; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    The beta-blocker propranolol hydrochloride has been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using a single cell with a Pt anode and an air diffusion cathode (ADE) for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrogeneration and a combined system containing the above Pt/ADE pair coupled in parallel to a Pt/carbon-felt (CF) cell. Organics are mainly oxidized with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) formed from Fenton's reaction between added Fe{sup 2+} and electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The PEF treatment in Pt/ADE-Pt/CF system yields almost total mineralization because {center_dot}OH production is enhanced by Fe{sup 2+} regeneration from Fe{sup 3+} reduction at the CF cathode and Fe(III) complexes with generated carboxylic acids are rapidly photodecarboxylated under UVA irradiation. Lower mineralization degree is found for PEF in Pt/ADE cell due to the little influence of UVA light on Fe{sup 2+} regeneration. The homologous EF processes are much less potent as a result of the persistence of Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes. Aromatic intermediates such as 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthoquinone and phthalic acid and generated carboxylic acids such as pyruvic, glycolic, malonic, maleic, oxamic, oxalic and formic are identified. While chloride ion remains stable, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions are released to the medium. A reaction sequence for propranolol hydrochloride mineralization is proposed.

  10. PT quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S P

    2013-04-28

    PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on PT-symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a PT-symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the PT phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathematics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of PT-synthetic materials are being developed, and the PT phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  11. Coherent soft particle production in Z decays into three jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2005-01-01

    Low-energy particle production perpendicular to the event plane in three-jet events produced in Z decays in e+e- annihilation is measured and compared to that perpendicular to the event axis in two-jet events. The topology dependence of the hadron production ratio is found to agree with a leading-order QCD prediction. This agreement and especially the need for the presence of a destructive interference term gives evidence for the coherent nature of gluon radiation. Hadron production in three-jet events is found to be directly proportional to a single topological scale function of the inter-jet angles. The slope of the dependence of the multiplicity with respect to the topological scale was measured to be: 2.211 +/- 0.014 (stat.) +/- 0.053 (syst.) in good agreement with the expectation given by the colour-factor ratio C_A / C_F = 9/4. This result strongly supports the assumption of local parton-hadron duality, LPHD, at low hadron momentum.

  12. Lab interdependencies and the advanced design and production technologies (ADaPT) initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1995-10-01

    I am delighted to be here today. I was left with a very strong impression this morning about the large degree of integration that has been achieved in the science-based stockpile stewardship program in the last year. When Vic Reis convened this program last February, many of you same people from Energy Research, Defense Programs, and the external community were there. We talked about areas of investments: in credible capability and industrial interaction, the impact on the research community, and so on. The product was the published quality function deployment chart. The activities on the chart were important, but they did not have coherence. In listening to the presentations this morning, particularly the last four, I hear a high degree of coherence and integration, which is very pleasing.

  13. Inclusive particle production in. pi. /sup -/n interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Doroba, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wroblewski, A.K.; Zieminski, A.; Kisielewska, D.; Muryn, B.; Pawlik, B.; Zielinski, W.

    1981-01-01

    Results on inclusive particle production in ..pi../sup -/n interactions at 21, 205 and 360 GeV/c are presented. The invariant cross sections in both neutron fragmentation and central regions are found to be equal within errors to the corresponding cross sections for ..pi../sup +/p collisions and exhibit the same energy dependence. A strong energy dependence of the invariant cross section ratios of negative and positive pions is observed. There is also an indication of transverse momentum dependence of these ratios. The ..pi../sup -/..pi..sup(+-) correlations in the neutron fragmentation region show little variation with energy and are in agreement with the predictions of the naive quark recombination scheme.

  14. Production of Dirac particle in twisted Minkowsky space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Samary, Dine Ousmane; Kanfon, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the Dirac equation interacting with external gravitation field. This curve background, which correspond to the deformation of Minkowsky space-time is described with the tetrad of the form $e_b^\\mu(x)=\\varepsilon(\\delta_b^\\mu+\\omega_{ba}^\\mu x^a)$, where $\\varepsilon=1$ for $\\mu=0$ and $\\varepsilon=i$ for $\\mu=1,2,3.$ Using separation of variables the corresponding Dirac equation is solved. The probability density of the vacuum-vacuum pair creation is given. In particular case of vanishing electromagnetic fields, we point out that, this external gravitation field modify weakly the well know probability of pair production of the Dirac particle given in ordinary space-time.

  15. Subthreshold production of pions in coincidence with light particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbera, R.; Badala, A.; Adorno, A.; Bonasera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy)); Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Laville, J.L. (Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire); Jin, G.M. (Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)); Rosato, E. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy))

    1990-12-03

    He ions have been detected in coincidence with charged pions in the reaction {sup 16}O on {sup 27}Al at E{sub lab}=94 MeV/u. We analyse velocity spectra and cross-sections of He ions emitted in the angular range 4deg/150deg in coincidence with charged pions detected at 90deg. A two source emission mechanism of the helium particles and a pion statistical production from an equilibrated participant zone is stressed. The absolute yields at different angles are compared with results of a theoretical model for medium energy heavy ion reactions in the frame of a participant-spectator picture. A comparison of the pion energy spectra with Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations and a discussion on the time scale for pion emission is also presented. (orig.).

  16. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Pt. I: General Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bruce A.; Scully, Richard J.; Petrosky, Charles Edward

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, hereafter called steelhead, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, hereafter called chinook, in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages for the past seven years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority (Fish and Wildlife Program, Northwest Power Planning Council). A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  17. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Pt. I: General Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bruce A.; Scully, Richard J.; Petrosky, Charles Edward

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, hereafter called steelhead, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, hereafter called chinook, in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages for the past seven years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority (Fish and Wildlife Program, Northwest Power Planning Council). A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  18. Orientation of FePt nanoparticles on top of a-SiO2/Si(001), MgO(001) and sapphire(0001): effect of thermal treatments and influence of substrate and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Martin; Ziemann, Paul; Zhang, Zaoli; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Wiedwald, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    particle orientation was found to be strongest. From a random orientation in the as-prepared state observed for both, small and large FePt NPs, annealing at 650 °C for 30 min reorients the small particles towards a cube-on-cube epitaxial orientation with a minor fraction of (111)-oriented particles. In contrast, large FePt NPs keep their as-prepared random orientation even after doubling the annealing period at 650 °C to 60 min.

  19. Measurement of neutral strange particle production in the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; 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Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; De Remigis, Paolo; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Grigelionis, Ignas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Takasugi, Eric; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Lacroix, Florent; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wang, Fuqiang; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Walker, Matthew; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Kaadze, Ketino; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the production of primary $K_S^0$ and $\\Lambda$ particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV in the region transverse to the leading charged-particle jet in each event. The average multiplicity and average scalar transverse momentum sum of $K_S^0$ and $\\Lambda$ particles measured at pseudorapidities abs(eta) < 2 rise with increasing charged-particle jet pt in the range 1-10 GeV and saturate in the region 10-50 GeV. The rise and saturation of the strange particle yields and transverse momentum sums in the underlying event are similar to those observed for inclusive charged particles, which confirms the impact-parameter picture of multiple parton interactions. The results are compared to recent tunes of the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator. The PYTHIA simulations underestimate the data by 15-30% for $K_S^0$ mesons and by about 50% for $\\Lambda$ baryons, a deficit similar to that observed for the inclusive strange particle production in non-single-diffractive pro...

  20. Productive Interactions: heavy particles and non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Flauger, Raphael; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the shape and amplitude of oscillatory features in the primordial power spectrum and non-Gaussianity induced by periodic production of heavy degrees of freedom coupled to the inflaton $\\phi$. We find that non-adiabatic production of particles can contribute effects which are detectable or constrainable using cosmological data even if their time-dependent masses are always heavier than the scale $\\dot \\phi^{1/2}$, much larger than the Hubble scale. This provides a new role for UV completion, consistent with the criteria from effective field theory for when heavy fields cannot be integrated out. This analysis is motivated in part by the structure of axion monodromy, and leads to an additional oscillatory signature in a subset of its parameter space. At the level of a quantum field theory model that we analyze in detail, the effect arises consistently with radiative stability for an interesting window of couplings up to of order $\\lesssim 1$. The amplitude of the bispectrum and higher-point functions ...

  1. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H.; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Rajasthan (India). Div. of Agricultural Engineering and Energy

    2004-09-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot and areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the ''Thar Desert''. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr {<=} annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as

  2. Investigation of pionic contribution in the lepton and anti-lepton production cross section in p-Cu and p-Pt collision

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, R

    2016-01-01

    For detailed explanation of the experimental results of lepton production cross section in hadronic collisions such as nucleon-nucleon or nucleon-nuclei, it is of great importance to use quarks and sea quarks distribution function inside free and bound nucleons. In this paper the role of pion cloud inside the nucleus in the structure function of Cu and Pt nuclei and the EMC ratio of these nuclei were investigated by using harmonic oscillator model.

  3. Switching-off toluene formation in the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol using supported trimetallic Au-Pd-Pt nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian; Miedziak, Peter J; Kesavan, Lokesh; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Sankar, Meenakshisundaram; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Antonio; Forde, Michael M; Edwards, Jennifer K; Knight, David W; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2013-01-01

    Trimetallic Au-Pd-Pt nanoparticles have been supported on activated carbon by the sol-immobilisation method. They are found to be highly active and selective catalysts for the solvent-free aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The addition of Pt promotes the selectivity to the desired product benzaldehyde at the expense of toluene formation. Detailed aberration corrected STEM-XEDS analysis confirmed that the supported particles are indeed Au-Pd-Pt ternary alloys, but also identified composition fluctuations from particle-to-particle which vary systematically with nanoparticle size.

  4. Exploring the potential of remote plasma sputtering for the production of L10 ordered FePt thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygridou, S.; Barton, C. W.; Nutter, P. W.; Thomson, T.

    2017-07-01

    Lowering the temperature at which the desirable L10 phase forms in FePt thin films is a key requirement in the development of next generation high-density data storage media and spintronic devices. Remote plasma sputtering offers a higher degree of control over the sputtering parameters, allowing the properties of films to be tailored, and potentially can affect the ordering kinetics of the L10 phase of FePt. Here, we report a comprehensive study of FePt thin films deposited under a range of temperatures and sputtering conditions. X-ray diffraction and magnetometry investigations show that whilst FePt thin films ordered in the L10 phase with high perpendicular anisotropy can be produced using this technique, there is no significant reduction in the required ordering temperature compared with films produced using conventional DC sputtering. Optimally ordered L10 FePt films were fabricated when the film was deposited at a substrate temperature of 200 °C, followed by post annealing at 750 °C.

  5. Effect of Particle Size Upon Pt/SiO2 Catalytic Cracking of n-Dodecane Under Supercritical Conditions: in situ SAXS and XANES Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Sungsik; Kumbhalkar, Mrunmayi; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Dumesic, James A; Winans, Randall E.

    2017-01-01

    The endothermic cracking and dehydrogenation of n-dodecane is investigated over well-defined nanometer size platinum catalysts supported on SiO2 to study the particle size effects in the catalytic cracking reaction, with simultaneous in situ monitoring of the particle size and oxidation state of the working catalysts by in situ SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) and XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The selectivity toward olefins products was found dominant in the 1 nm size platinum catalysts, whereas paraffins are dominant in the 2 nm catalysts. This reveals a strong correlation between catalytic performance and catalyst size as well as the stability of the nanoparticles in supercritical condition of n-dodecane. The presented results suggest that controlling the size and geometric structure of platinum nanocatalysts could lead to a fundamentally new level of understanding of nanoscale materials by monitoring the catalysts in realistic reaction conditions.

  6. Koppe's Work of 1948: A fundamental for non-equilibrium rate of particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2013-01-01

    In 1948, Koppe formulated an almost complete recipe for statistical-thermal models including particle production, formation and decay of resonances, temporal and thermal evolution of the interacting system, statistical approaches and equilibrium condition in final state of the nuclear interaction. As the rate of particle production was one of the basic assumptions, recalling Koppe's work would be an essential input to be involved in the statistical prediction of non-equilibrium particle production in recent and future ultra-relativistic collisions.

  7. Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-07-01

    Laser ablation of surfaces normally produce high temperature plasmas that are difficult to control. By irradiating small particles in the gas phase, we can better control the size and concentration of the resulting particles when different materials are photofragmented. Here, we irradiate soot with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. Irradiating the original agglomerated particles at fluences ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 J/cm{sup 2} with repetition rates of 20 and 100 Hz produces a large number of small, unagglomerated particles, and a smaller number of spherical agglomerated particles. Mean particle diameters from 20 to 50 nm are produced from soot originally having a mean electric mobility diameter of 265nm. We use a non-dimensional parameter, called the photon/atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding the photofragmentation process. This parameter is the ratio of the number of photons striking the soot particles to the number of the carbon atoms contained in the soot particles, and is a better metric than the laser fluence for analyzing laser-particle interactions. These results suggest that UV photofragmentation can be effective in controlling particle size and morphology, and can be a useful diagnostic for studying elements of the laser ablation process.

  8. Beauty is distractive: particle production during multifield inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten [Institute for Astrophysics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Byrnes, Christian [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Langlois, David, E-mail: dbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: tbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: byrnes@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC (CNRS-Université Paris 7), 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2011-08-01

    We consider a two-dimensional model of inflation, where the inflationary trajectory is ''deformed'' by a grazing encounter with an Extra Species/Symmetry Point (ESP) after the observable cosmological scales have left the Hubble radius. The encounter entails a sudden production of particles, whose backreaction causes a bending of the trajectory and a temporary decrease in speed, both of which are sensitive to initial conditions. This ''modulated'' effect leads to an additional contribution to the curvature perturbation, which can be dominant if the encounter is close. We compute associated non-Gaussianities, the bispectrum and its scale dependence as well as the trispectrum, which are potentially detectable in many cases. In addition, we consider a direct modulation of the coupling to the light field at the ESP via a modulaton field, a mixed scenario whereby the modulaton is identified with a second inflaton, and an extended Extra Species Locus (ESL); all of these scenarios lead to similar additional contributions to observables. We conclude that inflaton interactions throughout inflation are strongly constrained if primordial non-Gaussianities remain unobserved in current experiments such as PLANCK. If they are observed, an ESP encounter leaves additional signatures on smaller scales which may be used to identify the model.

  9. Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blümel, C., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Schmidt, J., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Dielesen, A., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Sachs, M., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Winzer, B., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Peukert, W., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Wirth, K.-E., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de [Institute of Particle Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

  10. Further studies of a zinc-air cell employing a packed bed anode. Pt. 2; Regeneration of zinc particles and electrolyte by fluidized bed electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaskan, G.; Evans, J.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering); Huh, T. (Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1992-10-01

    Fluidized bed zinc electrodeposition appears to be an efficient way of regenerating zinc particles and electrolyte from the discharge products of the cell. Using a laboratory cell, various electrode materials were examined to determine their suitability for this electrodeposition. The effects of current density and zincate concentration on the performance of the cell were determined. The lowest d.c. electrical energy consumption achieved was 1.92 kWh kg[sup -1] of zinc at 1000 A m[sup -2] superficial current density. The corresponding figure at 2000 A m[sup -2] was 2.08 kWh kg[sup -1]. (Author).

  11. Colloidal synthesis and structural control of PtSn bimetallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Stöver, Jörg; Zielasek, Volkmar; Altmann, Lena; Thiel, Karsten; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Bäumer, Marcus; Borchert, Holger; Parisi, Jürgen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2011-09-06

    PtSn bimetallic nanoparticles with different particle sizes (1-9 nm), metal compositions (Sn content of 10-80 mol %), and organic capping agents (e.g., amine, thiol, carboxylic acid and polymer) were synthesized by colloidal chemistry methods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show that, depending on the particle size, the as-prepared bimetallic nanocrystals have quasi-spherical or faceted shapes. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses indicate that for all samples the signals of both Pt and Sn can be detected from single nanoparticles, confirming that the products are actually bimetallic but not only a physical mixture of pure Pt and Sn metal nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were also conducted on the bimetallic particle systems. When compared with the diffraction patterns of monometallic Pt nanoparticles, the bimetallic samples show distinct shifts of the Bragg reflections to lower degrees, which gives clear proof of the alloying of Pt with Sn. However, a quantitative analysis of the lattice parameter shifts indicates that only part of the Sn atoms are incorporated into the alloy nanocrystals. This is consistent with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements that reveal the segregation of Sn at the surfaces of the nanocrystals. Moreover, short PtSn bimetallic nanowires were synthesized by a seed-mediated growth method with amine-capped bimetallic particles as precursors. The resulting nanowires have an average width of 2.3 nm and lengths ranging from 5 to 20 nm. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. α particle particle production in the scattering of He-6 by Pb-208 at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Escrig, Diego; Sánchez Benítez, Ángel Miguel; Moro, A. M.; González Álvarez, Marcos A.; Andrés, M. V.; Angulo, C.; García Borge, María José; Cabrera Caño, Jesús; Cherubini, S.; Damaret, P.; Espino, José Manuel; Figuera, P.; Freer, M.; García Ramos, José Enrique; Gómez Camacho, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    New experimental data from the scattering of 6He + 208Pb at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier are presented. The yield of breakup products coming from projectile fragmentation is dominated by a strong group of α particles. The energy and angular distribution of this group have been analyzed and compared with theoretical calculations. This analysis indicates that the α particles emitted at backward angles in this reaction are mainly due to two-neutron transfer to weakly bound state...

  13. Nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particle-deposited N-doped graphene as an activity-modulated Pt-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavale, Vishal M.; Singh, Santosh K.; Nadeema, Ayasha; Gaikwad, Sachin S.; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-11-01

    The size-controlled growth of nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particles (2-3 nm) and their concomitant dispersion on N-doped graphene (Fe-Fe2O3/NGr) could be attained when the mutually assisted redox reaction between NGr and Fe3+ ions could be controlled within the aqueous droplets of a water-in-oil emulsion. The synergistic interaction existing between Fe-Fe2O3 and NGr helped the system to narrow down the overpotential for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by bringing a significant positive shift to the reduction onset potential, which is just 15 mV higher than its Pt-counterpart. In addition, the half-wave potential (E1/2) of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr is found to be improved by a considerable amount of 135 mV in comparison to the system formed by dispersing Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (Fe-Fe2O3/RGO), which indicates the presence of a higher number of active sites in Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. Despite this, the ORR kinetics of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr are found to be shifted significantly to the preferred 4-electron-transfer pathway compared to NGr and Fe-Fe2O3/RGO. Consequently, the H2O2% was found to be reduced by 78.3% for Fe-Fe2O3/NGr (13.0%) in comparison to Fe-Fe2O3/RGO (51.2%) and NGr (41.0%) at -0.30 V (vs. Hg/HgO). This difference in the yield of H2O2 formed between the systems along with the improvements observed in terms of the oxygen reduction onset and E1/2 in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr reveals the activity modulation achieved for the latter is due to the coexistence of factors such as the presence of the mixed valancies of iron nanoparticles, small size and homogeneous distribution of Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and the electronic modifications induced by the doped nitrogen in NGr. A controlled interplay of these factors looks like worked favorably in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. As a realistic system level validation, Fe-Fe2O3/NGr was employed as the cathode electrode of a single cell in a solid alkaline electrolyte membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). The system could display an open

  14. Simulating net particle production and chiral magnetic current in a CP-odd domain

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We elucidate the numerical formulation to simulate net production of particles and anomalous currents with CP-breaking background fields which cause an imbalance of particles over anti-particles. For a concrete demonstration we numerically impose pulsed electric and magnetic fields to observe that the dynamical chiral magnetic current follows together with the net particle production. The produced particle density is quantitatively consistent with the axial anomaly, while the chiral magnetic current is suppressed by a delay before the the onset of the current generation.

  15. Production of high specific activity (195m) Pt-cisplatinum at South African Nuclear Energy Corporation for Phase 0 clinical trials in healthy individual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaart, Jan Rijn; Wagener, Judith; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Sathekge, Mike; Soni, Nischal; Zinn, Christa; Perkins, Gary; Smith, Suzanne V

    2013-01-01

    Platinum agents continue to be the main chemotherapeutic agents used in the first-line and second-line treatments of cancer patients. It is important to fully understand the biological profile of these compounds in order to optimize the dose given to each patient. In a joint project with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation and the Nuclear Medicine Department at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation synthesized and supplied (195m) Pt-cisplatinum (commonly referred to as cisplatin) for a clinical pilot study on healthy volunteers. Enriched (194) PtCl2 was prepared by digestion of enriched (194) Pt metal (>95%) followed by thermal decomposition over a 3 h period. The (194) PtCl2 was then placed in a quartz ampoule, was irradiated in SAFARI-1 up to 200 h, then decay cooled for a minimum of 34 h prior to synthesis of final product. (195m) Pt(NH3 )2 I2 , formed with the addition of KI and NH4 OH, was converted to the diaqua species [(195m) Pt(NH3 )2 (H2 O)2 ](2+) by reaction with AgNO3 . The conversion to (195m) Pt-cisplatinum was completed by the addition of concentrated HCl. The final product yield was 51.7% ± 5.2% (n = 5). The chemical and radionuclidic purity in each case was >95%. The use of a high flux reactor position affords a higher specific activity product (15.9 ± 2.5 MBq/mg at end of synthesis) than previously found (5 MBq/mg). Volunteers received between 108 and 126 MBq of radioactivity, which is equivalent to 6.8-10.0 mg of carrier cisplatinum. Such high specific activities afforded a significant reduction (~50%) in the chemical dose of a carrier cisplatinum, which represents less than 10% of a typical chemotherapeutic dose given to patients. A good manufacturing practice GMP compliant product was produced and was administered to 10 healthy volunteers as part of an ethically approved Phase 0 clinical trial. The majority of the injected activity 27.5% ± 5.8% was excreted

  16. Ethanol electrooxidation on novel carbon supported Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts with varied Pt:Sn ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, L. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 116023 Dalian (China); Colmenares, L.; Jusys, Z. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Sun, G.Q. [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 116023 Dalian (China)], E-mail: gqsun@dicp.ac.cn; Behm, R.J. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)], E-mail: juergen.behm@uni-ulm.de

    2007-12-01

    Novel carbon supported Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts with Pt:Sn atomic ratios of 5:5, 6:4, 7:3 and 8:2 were prepared by a modified polyol method and characterized with respect to their structural properties (X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)), chemical composition (XPS), their electrochemical properties (base voltammetry, CO{sub ad} stripping) and their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for ethanol oxidation (ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR)). The data show that the Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts are composed of Pt and tin oxide nanoparticles with an average Pt particle diameter of about 2 nm. The steady-state activity of the Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts towards the EOR decreases with tin content at room temperature, but increases at 80 deg. C. On all Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts, acetic acid and acetaldehyde represent dominant products, CO{sub 2} formation contributes 1-3% for both potentiostatic and potentiodynamic reaction conditions. With increasing potential, the acetaldehyde yield decreases and the acetic acid yield increases. The apparent activation energies of the EOR increase with tin content (19-29 kJ mol{sup -1}), but are lower than on Pt/C (32 kJ mol{sup -1}). The somewhat better performance of the Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts compared to alloyed PtSn{sub x}/C catalysts is attributed to the presence of both sufficiently large Pt ensembles for ethanol dehydrogenation and C-C bond splitting and of tin oxide for OH generation. Fuel cell measurements performed for comparison largely confirm the results obtained in model studies.

  17. Production and applications of neutrons using particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichester, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  18. Production and Properties of Composite Material Comprising Gd Multiscale Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a novel method of producing Gd particles and preserving them from oxidation. The particles were produced in liquid paraffin by means of AC electric discharge and stored in the solidified paraffin. After seven months, the surface of the Gd was found to be exempt of oxidation. Moreover a composite material formed from mixing paraffin with Gd particles was conductive and magnetic and also presented photovoltaic effect. This method is a promising means of producing, at an industrial scale, particles from materials extremely sensitive to environment such as rare earth materials. Also the new material consisted of Gd particles in a paraffin matrix can find applications in many branches of industry.

  19. PRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRONS USING PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  20. $J/\\psi$ production at low $p_T$ in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang,; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-01

    The $J/\\psi$ $p_T$ spectrum and nuclear modification factor ($R_{\\textit{AA}}$) are reported for $p_T < 5$ GeV/c and $|y|<1$ from 0-60% central Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} =200$ GeV at STAR. A significant suppression of $p_T$-integrated $J/\\psi$ production is observed in central Au+Au events, with less suppression observed in Cu+Cu. The $p_T$ dependence of the $R_{\\textit{AA}}$ is observed to increase at a higher $p_T$ region. The data are compared with the previously published RHIC results. Comparing with model calculations, it is found that the invariant yields at low $p_T$ are significantly above hydrodynamic flow predictions but are consistent with models that include color screening and regeneration.

  1. MANIFESTATION OF THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE IN PARTICLE PRODUCTION AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCHIN,K.

    2004-07-26

    In this paper we discuss the experimental signatures of the new form of nuclear matter--the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) in particle production at RHIC. We show that predictions for particle production in p(d)A and AA collisions derived from these properties are in agreement with data collected at RHIC.

  2. Enhancement of photoinduced hydrogen production from irradiated Pt/TiO{sub 2} suspensions with simultaneous degradation of azo-dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patsoura, Alexia; Kondarides, Dimitris I.; Verykios, Xenophon E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2006-05-02

    The production of hydrogen from aqueous Pt/TiO{sub 2} suspensions illuminated with UV-vis light has been examined in the absence and in presence of azo-dyes in solution. The effects of operational variables, including dye concentration, solution pH and temperature, on the rate of hydrogen production were investigated. It has been found that deposition of Pt (0.5wt.%) on the semiconductor surface results in an increase of the H{sub 2} production rate, which goes through a maximum with time of irradiation and then drops to steady-state values comparable to those obtained over bare TiO{sub 2}. Both, maximum and steady-state rates obtained over Pt/TiO{sub 2} suspensions were found to increase with increasing solution pH and temperature. Addition of small quantities of azo-dyes in solution results in significantly enhanced rates of H{sub 2} production for a period which depends on dye concentration, solution pH and, to a lesser extent, solution temperature. It is proposed that the dye acts as a scavenger of photogenerated oxidizing species while it is degraded toward CO{sub 2} and inorganic ions. When complete mineralization is achieved, oxygen can no longer be removed from the photocatalyst surface and the rate drops to steady-state values, comparable to those obtained in the absence of azo-dye in solution. The amount of additional H{sub 2} produced is directly proportional to the amount of dye added in the solution. The rate increases with increasing solution pH, where dye degradation is faster, indicating that the process is limited by the rate of consumption of photogenerated oxygen. It is concluded that, under certain experimental conditions, it is possible to obtain significantly enhanced rates of photoinduced hydrogen production from Pt/TiO{sub 2} suspensions with simultaneous mineralization of azo-dyes. The process could be used for combined production of fuel H{sub 2} and degradation of organic pollutants present in water. (author)

  3. Hadron and Photon Production of J Particles and the Origin of J Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S. C. C.

    1975-01-01

    There have been many theoretical speculations on the existence of long lived neutral particles with a mass larger than 10 GeV/c{sup 2} which play the role of weak interactions that photons play in electromagnetic interactions. There is, however, no theoretical justification, and no predictions exist, for long lived particles in the mass region 1-10 GeV/{up 2}. Even though there is no strong theoretical justification for the existence of long lived particles at low masses, there is no experimental indication that they should not exist. Until last year no high sensitivity experiment had been done in this mass region.

  4. Centrality Dependence of Charged Particle Production at Large Transverse Momentum in Pb--Pb Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin

    2013-01-01

    The inclusive transverse momentum (pT) distributions of primary charged particles are measured in the pseudo-rapidity range |$\\eta$| 30 GeV/c. In peripheral collisions (70–80%), the suppression is weaker with $R_{AA}$ about 0.7 almost independent of pT. The measured nuclear modification factors are compared to other measurements and model calculations.

  5. Prediction of (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of dissolution products of H2 [Pt(OH)6 ] in nitric acid solutions by DFT methods: how important are the counter-ion effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipis, Athanassios C; Karapetsas, Ioannis N

    2016-08-01

    (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of octahedral Pt(IV) complexes with general formula [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ](2-) , [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) (n = 1-6), and [Pt(NO3 )6 - n  - m (OH)m (OH2 )n ](-2 + n - m) formed by dissolution of platinic acid, H2 [Pt(OH)6 ], in aqueous nitric acid solutions are calculated employing density functional theory methods. Particularly, the gauge-including atomic orbitals (GIAO)-PBE0/segmented all-electron relativistically contracted-zeroth-order regular approximation (SARC-ZORA)(Pt) ∪ 6-31G(d,p)(E)/Polarizable Continuum Model computational protocol performs the best. Excellent second-order polynomial plots of δcalcd ((195) Pt) versus δexptl ((195) Pt) chemical shifts and δcalcd ((195) Pt) versus the natural atomic charge QPt are obtained. Despite of neglecting relativistic and spin orbit effects the good agreement of the calculated δ (195) Pt chemical shifts with experimental values is probably because of the fact that the contribution of relativistic and spin orbit effects to computed σ(iso) (195) Pt magnetic shielding of Pt(IV) coordination compounds is effectively cancelled in the computed δ (195) Pt chemical shifts, because the relativistic corrections are expected to be similar in the complexes and the proper reference standard used. To probe the counter-ion effects on the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the anionic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ](2-) and cationic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) (n = 0-3) complexes we calculated the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the neutral (PyH)2 [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ] (n = 1-6; PyH = pyridinium cation, C5 H5 NH(+) ) and [Pt(NO3 )n (H2 O)6 - n ](NO3 )4 - n (n = 0-3) complexes. Counter-anion effects are very important for the accurate prediction of the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the cationic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) complexes, while counter-cation effects are less important for the anionic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6

  6. Gravitationally induced particle production and its impact on structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of a continuous particles creation processes on the linear and nonlinear matter clustering, and its consequences on the weak lensing effect induced by structure formation. We study the line of sight behavior of the contribution to the bispectrum signal at a given angular multipole $l$, showing that the scale where the nonlinear growth overcomes the linear effect depends strongly of particles creation rate.

  7. Fermionic Particle Production by Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogut, Kenan; Yanar, Hilmi; Havare, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Creation of fermionic particles by a time-dependent electric field and a space-dependent magnetic field is studied with the Bogoulibov transformation method. Exact analytic solutions of the Dirac equation are obtained in terms of the Whittaker functions and the particle creation number density depending on the electric and magnetic fields is determined. Supported by the Research Fund of Mersin University in TURKEY with project number: 2016-1-AP4-1425

  8. Jet quenching and high-pt azimuthal asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P; Vitev, I

    2002-01-01

    The azimuthal anisotropy of high-pt particle production in non-central heavy ion collisions is among the most promising observables of partonic energy loss in an azimuthally non-symmetric volume of quark-gluon plasma. We discuss the implications of nuclear geometry for the models of partonic energy loss in the context of recent RHIC data and consequences for observation of jet quenching at the LHC.

  9. Intercomparison of electron probe micro-analyses and particle induced X-ray emission analyses of Pt-Pd-Ni-S matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, R.K.W. E-mail: rkwm@scientia.up.ac.zarmerkle@postino.up.ac.za; Franklyn, C.B.; Przybylowicz, W.; Verryn, S.M.C

    2002-05-01

    Divergencies in the compositions of phases from the Pt-Pd-Ni-S system, derived from electron probe micro-analysis and micro-PIXE analysis of thick samples have been investigated. Discrepancies stem from the different penetration and excitation processes of the two techniques. A specially prepared set of targets, of varying element ratios of Pt, Pd, Ni and S, were studied in a round robin analysis using three independent experimental facilities and analytical procedures. The results allow identification of the different phases, but the observed deviations can only partly be explained by software deficiencies.

  10. Modeling of PEM fuel cell Pt/C catalyst degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; Fuller, Thomas F.

    Pt/C catalyst degradation remains as one of the primary limitations for practical applications of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Pt catalyst degradation mechanisms with the typically observed Pt nanoparticle growth behaviors have not been completely understood and predicted. In this work, a physics-based Pt/C catalyst degradation model is proposed with a simplified bi-modal particle size distribution. The following catalyst degradation processes were considered: (1) dissolution of Pt and subsequent electrochemical deposition on Pt nanoparticles in cathode; (2) diffusion of Pt ions in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA); and (3) Pt ion chemical reduction in membrane by hydrogen permeating through the membrane from the negative electrode. Catalyst coarsening with Pt nanoparticle growth was clearly demonstrated by Pt mass exchange between small and large particles through Pt dissolution and Pt ion deposition. However, the model is not adequate to predict well the catalyst degradation rates including Pt nanoparticle growth, catalyst surface area loss and cathode Pt mass loss. Additional catalyst degradation processes such as new Pt cluster formation on carbon support and neighboring Pt clusters coarsening was proposed for further simulative investigation.

  11. Exchange-Coupled FePt Nanoparticle Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Vedantam, T.; Dai, Z. R.; Wang, Z. L.; Liu, J. P.; Sun, Shouheng

    2002-03-01

    High-performance permanent magnetic materials for energy-related applications need large energy-products. A permanent magnet with large (BH) products should exhibit both a high saturation magnetization , M_s, and a large coercive field, H_c. L10 ordered FePt has high Ms ( ~ 1100 emu/cm^3) and large magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant Ku (> 5e10^7 erg/cm^3), therefore may be a suitable candidates for permanent magnetic materials. We report synthesis of exchange-coupled FePt nanoparticle assemblies via solution phase deposition and controlled thermal annealing. FePt nanoparticles are prepared by high temperature solution phase decomposition of Fe(CO)_5and reduction of Pt(acac)2 in the presence of oleic acid and oleyl amine. The Fe and Pt composition of the nanoparticles is tuned by adjusting the molar ratio of Fe(CO)5 to Pt(acac)_2. The nanoparticles are easily dispersed into alkane solvent. Depositing particle dispersion on a solid substrate and controlling solvent evaporation yield self-organized magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. Magnetic hysteresis loops, remanence curves, and δM measurements show that annealing for short time under nitrogen yields isolated particle assemblies with random crystalline orientations. Prolonged annealing under reducing atmosphere leads to the evaporation of the organic surfactants, and results in grain agglomeration and inter grain exchange coupling. The degree of coupling can be readily controlled by annealing conditions. Changes in the magnetization reversal behavior have also been observed.This work is supported by DARPA No. DAAD 19-01-1-0546.

  12. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-02-09

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R&D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have 5

  13. Results on identified particle production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions measured with ALICE at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Velasquez Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique capabilities of the ALICE detectors for particle identification, different measurements have been performed to study the properties of the hot and dense matter created in the Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV. The analysis of the p-Pb data at √sNN = 5.02 TeV reveals that the suppression of high pT hadrons observed in heavy nuclei collisions can not be explained as due to initial state effects. The systems created in the p-Pb collisions do not show evidence of jet quenching but, surprisingly, exhibit characteristics of flow. In this paper a review of the main results on identified particle production measured in different colliding systems is presented, data are also compared to models.

  14. Production of crosslinked protein particles through membrane emulsification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé-Jacobs, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available the disadvantages of stirred reactors for our application. AIM the purpose of this study was to investigate membrane emulsification as a scale-up method for crosslinked bovine serum albumin (BSA) particles. Factors investigated were crosslinker and surfactant...P Initial studies showed that particles produced through membrane emulsion were much larger than the expected size of 2-3 times the mesh size (20 µm) of the membrane (i.e. much larger than 40-60 µm). crosslinker and surfactant concentration were...

  15. Towards a comprehensive insight into efficient hydrogen production by self-assembled Ru(bpy)3(2+)-polymer-Pt artificial photosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huan; Liu, Dan; Long, Jinlin; Zhang, Zizhong; Zhuang, Huaqiang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xuxu

    2015-04-28

    The role of polymers in artificial photosystems has been studied in detail. The photosystems were composed of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) chloride as a photosensitizer (PS), colloidal Pt stabilized by polymer as a hydrogen-evolving catalyst and sodium ascorbate as an electron donor, without the addition of a traditional molecular electron mediator. Comprehensive insights into the production of hydrogen on irradiation with visible light were achieved. Several polymers, including neutral polyvinyl pyrrolidone, anionic poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) and poly(acrylic acid) not only stabilized the nanoparticles, but were also effective in the production of hydrogen. Under the optimum conditions, an outstanding apparent quantum efficiency of 12.8% for the evolution of hydrogen was achieved. The formation of self-assembled and spatially separated donor-acceptor complexes via the non-covalent intermolecular interaction between PS and the polymer-Pt was pivotal in the efficient conversion of solar energy to hydrogen fuel. Important details of the photo-induced electron and energy transfer processes in the self-assembled artificial photosystems were determined by nanosecond transient absorption spectrometry and time-resolved fluorescence spectrometry. The initial step in the photo-catalytic production of hydrogen was a reductive quenching of the triplet excited state of the PS by sodium ascorbate, leading to a reduced form of PS, which could then be quickly quenched by the polymer. The rate-determining step was the electron transfer from PS to the catalyst via the polymer bridge.

  16. Orientation of FePt nanoparticles on top of a-SiO2/Si(001, MgO(001 and sapphire(0001: effect of thermal treatments and influence of substrate and particle size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schilling

    2016-04-01

    effect of annealing on particle orientation was found to be strongest. From a random orientation in the as-prepared state observed for both, small and large FePt NPs, annealing at 650 °C for 30 min reorients the small particles towards a cube-on-cube epitaxial orientation with a minor fraction of (111-oriented particles. In contrast, large FePt NPs keep their as-prepared random orientation even after doubling the annealing period at 650 °C to 60 min.

  17. High pressure CO hydrogenation over bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Medford, Andrew James; Studt, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts for production of higher alcohols in high pressure CO hydrogenation has been assessed. Two catalysts (Pt3Co/SiO2 and PtCo/SiO2) were tested, and the existing literature on CO hydrogenation over Pt-Co catalysts was reviewed. It is found that the catalyst...

  18. PT Symmetry as a Generalization of Hermiticity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jie-hong

    2010-01-01

    The Hilbert space in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is formulated as a linear vector space with a dynamic weight function in the inner product. The most general PT-symmetric matrix Hamiltonians are constructed for 2*2 and 3*3 cases. In the former case, the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian represents the most general matrix Hamiltonian with a real spectrum. In both cases, the Hermitian matrix is shown to be a special case of PT-symmetric matrices. This finding confirms and strengthens the early belief that the PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is a generalization of the conventional Hermitian quantum mechanics.

  19. Nonperturbative evaluation of quantum particle production in parametric resonance enhanced by noise

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Asako

    2016-01-01

    Numerical studies are reported to support the idea to explain the particle production in late inflationary era based on the parametric resonance with a noise effect. Two nonperturbative renormalization group formulations are used to numerically calculate the time evolution of particle numbers. Firstly, the dynamical renormalization group (DRG) method is applied to sum up the secular contributions. Secondly, we derive an exact evolution equation of the particle number which turned out to be possible surprisingly owing to the presence of the noise effect. Our numerical results show a drastic enhancement of the particle production in agreement with earlier works qualitatively. A comparison is made of numerical results based on two methods. Our work provides nonperturbative and quantitative methods to evaluate the particle production for the inflationary cosmology.

  20. Connecting inflation with late cosmic acceleration by particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    A continuous process of creation of particles is investigated as a possible connection between the inflationary stage with late cosmic acceleration. In this model, the inflationary era occurs due to a continuous and fast process of creation of relativistic particles, and the recent accelerating phase is driven by the non-relativistic matter creation from the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum, which finally results in an effective equation of state less than $-1$. Thus, explaining recent results in favor of a phantom dynamics without the need of any modifications in the gravity theory has been proposed. Finally, we confront the model with recent observational data of type Ia Supernova, history of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background.

  1. The Landscape of Particle Production: Results from PHOBOS

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, P; Baker, M D; Ballintijn, M; Barton, D S; Becker, B; Betts, R R; Bickley, A A; Bindel, R; Budzanowski, A; Busza, W; Carroll, A; Decowski, M P; García, E; Gburek, T; George, N; Gulbrandsen, K H; Gushue, S; Halliwell, C; Hamblen, J; Harrington, A S; Heintzelman, G A; Henderson, C; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Holynski, R; Holzman, B; Iordanova, A; Johnson, E; Kane, J L; Katzy, J; Khan, N; Kucewicz, W; Kulinich, P; Kuo, C M; Lee, J W; Lin, W T; Manly, S; McLeod, D; Mignerey, A C; Nouicer, R; Olszewski, A; Pak, R; Park, I C; Pernegger, H; Reed, C; Remsberg, L P; Reuter, M; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rosenberg, L J; Sagerer, J; Sarin, P; Sawicki, P; Sedykh, I; Skulski, W; Smith, C E; Stephans, G S F; Sukhanov, A; Tang, J L; Tonjes, M B; Trzupek, A; Vale, C; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Verdier, R; Veres, G I; Wolfs, F L H; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K; Wuosmaa, A H; Wyslouch, B W; Zhang, J; Steinberg, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC are presented, both from Au+Au collisions from the 2001 run and p+p and d+Au collisions from 2003. The centrality dependence of the total charged particle multiplicity in p+p and d+Au show features, such as Npart-scaling and limiting fragmentation, similar to p+A collisions at lower energies. Multiparticle physics in Au+Au is found to be local in (pseudo)rapidity, both when observed by HBT correlations and by forward-backward pseudorapidity correlations. The shape of elliptic flow in Au+Au, measured over the full range of pseudorapidity, appears to have a very weak centrality dependence. Identified particle ratios in d+Au reactions show little difference between the shape of proton and anti-proton spectra, while the absolute yields show an approximate m_T scaling.

  2. Cross sections for the formation of 195Hgm,g, 197Hgm,g, and 196Aum,g in alpha and 3He-particle induced reactions on Pt: Effect of level density parameters on the calculated isomeric cross-section ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Sudár, S.; Qaim, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured for the reactions Pt-nat(He-3,xn)Hg-195(m,g),Pt-nat(He-3,xn)Hg-197(m,g),Pt-nat(He-3,x)Au-196(m,g), and Pt-nat(alpha,xn)Hg-197(m,g) over the energy range of 18-35 MeV for He-3 particles and 17-26 MeV for alpha particles. The reactions Au-197(p,n)Hg-197(m,g) were also investigated over the proton energy range of 6-20 MeV. The three projectiles were produced at the Julich variable-energy compact cyclotron (CV 28). Use was made of the activation technique in com...

  3. Preparation of Size-tunable, Highly Monodisperse PVP-Protected Pt-nanoparticles by Seed-mediated Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, Matthias Michael; Jones, Louis C.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-04-02

    We demonstrate a preparative method which produces highly-monodisperse Pt-nanoparticles of tunable size without the external addition of seed particles. Hexachloroplatinic acid is dosed slowly to an ethylene glycol solution at 120 C and reduced in the presence of a stabilizing polymer poly-N-vinylpyrollidone (PVP). Slow addition of the Pt-salt first will first lead to the formation of nuclei (seeds) which then grow further to produce larger particles of any desired size between 3 and 8nm. The amount of added hexachloroplatinic acid precursor controls the size of the final nanoparticle product. TEM was used to determine size and morphology and to confirm the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Good reproducibility of the technique was demonstrated. Above 7nm, the particle shape and morphology changes suddenly indicating a change in the deposition selectivity of the Pt-precursor from (100) towards (111) crystal faces and breaking up of larger particles into smaller entities.

  4. Dendrimer Templated Synthesis of One Nanometer Rh and Pt Particles Supported on Mesoporous Silica: Catalytic Activity for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wenyu; Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Zhang, Yawen; Habas, Susan E.; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-05-09

    Monodisperse rhodium (Rh) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as small as {approx}1 nm were synthesized within a fourth generation polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimer, a hyperbranched polymer, in aqueous solution and immobilized by depositing onto a high-surface-area SBA-15 mesoporous support. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the as-synthesized Rh and Pt nanoparticles were mostly oxidized. Catalytic activity of the SBA-15 supported Rh and Pt nanoparticles was studied with ethylene hydrogenation at 273 and 293 K in 10 torr of ethylene and 100 torr of H{sub 2} after reduction (76 torr of H{sub 2} mixed with 690 torr of He) at different temperatures. Catalysts were active without removing the dendrimer capping but reached their highest activity after hydrogen reduction at a moderate temperature (423 K). When treated at a higher temperature (473, 573, and 673 K) in hydrogen, catalytic activity decreased. By using the same treatment that led to maximum ethylene hydrogenation activity, catalytic activity was also evaluated for pyrrole hydrogenation.

  5. Remarks on the PT-pseudo-norm in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc Tai Trinh [Department of Mathematics, Teacher Training College of Dalat, 29 Yersin, Dalat (Viet Nam)]|[Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy)

    2005-04-22

    This paper presents an underlying analytical relationship between the PT-pseudo-norm associated with the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian H = p{sup 2} + V(q) and the Stokes multiplier of the differential equation corresponding to this Hamiltonian. We show that the sign alternation of the PT-pseudo-norm, which has been observed as a generic feature of the PT-inner product, is essentially controlled by the derivative of a Stokes multiplier with respect to the eigenparameter.

  6. The model of the mechanical interaction of particles with the combustion products in a nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teterev, A. V.; Mandrik, P. A.; Misuchenko, N. I.; Rudak, L. V.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes the development of model of interaction of condensed particles with the gas flow in the Laval nozzle. Conducted parametric calculations have shown that the interaction of particles with the combustion products, even with a relatively small volume content may lead to a qualitative change in the internal flow in the Laval nozzle, and thereby influence the characteristics of the nozzle.

  7. Charged particle production at the CERN ISR as a function of transverse momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Capiluppi, P; D'Agostino-Bruno, M; Ellis, R J; Giacomelli, G; Poe, R T; Rossi, A M; Vannini, G

    1972-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the production of charged particles in inclusive reactions at ISR energies. The data have been taken as function of transverse momentum p/sub t/ at the fixed x- values of 0.08, 0.16 and 0.32. The behaviour of the p/sub t/- distributions for the different particles is discussed. (9 refs).

  8. Baryon stopping and charged particle production from lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Milton Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Net proton (proton minus antiproton) and negative charge hadron spectra (h-) from central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron were measured and compared to spectra from central collisions of the lighter S+S system. Net baryon distributions were derived from those of net protons and net lambdas. Stopping, or rapidity shift with respect to the beam, of net protons and net baryons increase with system size. The mean transverse momentum <pT> of net protons also increase with system size. The h- rapidity density scales with the number of participant nucleons for nuclear collisions, where their <pT> is independent of system size. The <pT> dependence upon particle mass and system size is consistent with larger transverse flow velocity at midrapidity for central collisions of Pb+Pb compared to that of S+S.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dan; WU Gang; XU Boqing

    2005-01-01

    Aucore-Ptshell (Au@Pt) nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by reducing K2PtCl6 with hydrogen in the solution containing Au colloids and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The particles obtained were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM and XPS techniques. UV-Vis spectra show that the surface plasmon absorption feature of Au colloids is significantly reduced with increasing the amount of reduced Pt. TEM images that the metals are found always appear as spherical nanoparticles and their sizes grow apparently due to the reduction of PtCl62- ions, indicating that Pt is deposited from solution onto Au particle surface and forms a Pt-layer with uniform thickness. In the XPS spectra, the signals of Au metal decrease due to the reductive deposition of Pt on the surface of the Au colloids. UV-Vis and XPS data are consistent in showing that when the amount of Pt in the AuPt colloids is increased to reach an overall atomic ratio of Pt/Au=2, the Pt deposits form a shell covering completely the surface of Au particles, demonstrating the core-shell structure of the synthesized AuPt particles.

  10. A molecule-like PtAu24(SC6H13)18 nanocluster as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyuju; Choi, Woojun; Tang, Qing; Kim, Minseok; Lee, Yongjin; Jiang, De-En; Lee, Dongil

    2017-03-01

    The theoretically predicted volcano plot for hydrogen production shows the best catalyst as the one that ensures that the hydrogen binding step is thermodynamically neutral. However, the experimental realization of this concept has suffered from the inherent surface heterogeneity of solid catalysts. It is even more challenging for molecular catalysts because of their complex chemical environment. Here, we report that the thermoneutral catalyst can be prepared by simple doping of a platinum atom into a molecule-like gold nanocluster. The catalytic activity of the resulting bimetallic nanocluster, PtAu24(SC6H13)18, for the hydrogen production is found to be significantly higher than reported catalysts. It is even better than the benchmarking platinum catalyst. The molecule-like bimetallic nanocluster represents a class of catalysts that bridge homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and may provide a platform for the discovery of finely optimized catalysts.

  11. Amorphous particle deposition and product quality under different conditions in a spray dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Wai Woo; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Siti Masrinda Tasirin; Meor Zainal Meor Talib

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of amorphous particles, as a prevalent problem particularly in the spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices, is due to low-molecular weight sugars and is strongly dependent on the condition of the particles upon collision with the dryer wall. This paper investigates the condition of the amorphous particles impacting the wall at different drying conditions with the aim of elucidating the deposition mechanism and physical phenomena in the drying chamber. A model sucrose-maltodextrin solution was used to represent the low-molecular-weight sugar. Particle deposits were collected on sampling plates placed inside the dryer for analyses of moisture content, particle rigidity (using SEM) and size distribution. Moisture content was adopted as a general indicator of stickiness. Product particles collected at the bottom of the experimental dryer were found to have higher moisture than particle deposits on samplers inside the dryer. Moisture content profile in the dryer shows that apart from the atomizer region, where particles are relatively wet, particle deposits at other regions exhibit similar lower moisture content. At the highest temperature adopted in the experiments, particles became rubbery suggesting liquid-bridge formation as the dominant deposition mechanism. Further analysis on particles size distribution reveals a particle segregation mechanism whereby smaller particles follow preferentially to the central air stream while larger particles tend to re-circulate in the chamber, as predicted in past CFD simulation. The findings from this work will form the basis and provide validating data for further modeling of wall deposition of amorphous particles in spray drying using CFD.

  12. Pair production of Dirac particles in a d+1-dimensional noncommutative space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Samary, Dine Ousmane; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the exact computation of the propability of fermionic particle pair production in $(d+1)-$ dimensional noncommutative Moyal space. Using the Seiberg-Witten maps that establish relations between noncommutative and commutative field variables, to first order in the noncommutative parameter $\\theta$, we derive the probability density of vacuum-vacuum pair production of Dirac particles. The cases of constant electromagnetic, alternating time-dependent and space-dependent electric fields are considered and discussed.

  13. Pair production of Dirac particles in a -dimensional noncommutative space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousmane Samary, Dine; N'Dolo, Emanonfi Elias; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2014-11-01

    This work addresses the computation of the probability of fermionic particle pair production in -dimensional noncommutative Moyal space. Using Seiberg-Witten maps, which establish relations between noncommutative and commutative field variables, up to the first order in the noncommutative parameter , we derive the probability density of vacuum-vacuum pair production of Dirac particles. The cases of constant electromagnetic, alternating time-dependent, and space-dependent electric fields are considered and discussed.

  14. Pair production of Dirac particles in a d + 1-dimensional noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ousmane Samary, Dine [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin); N' Dolo, Emanonfi Elias; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert [University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin)

    2014-11-15

    This work addresses the computation of the probability of fermionic particle pair production in d + 1-dimensional noncommutative Moyal space. Using Seiberg-Witten maps, which establish relations between noncommutative and commutative field variables, up to the first order in the noncommutative parameter θ, we derive the probability density of vacuum-vacuum pair production of Dirac particles. The cases of constant electromagnetic, alternating time-dependent, and space-dependent electric fields are considered and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Electroweak contributions to SUSY particle production processes at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabella, Edoardo

    2009-07-22

    In this thesis we have computed the electroweak contributions of O({alpha}{sub s}{alpha}), O({alpha}{sup 2}) and O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) to three different classes of processes leading to the hadronic production of the SUSY partners of quarks and gluons, i.e. squarks and gluinos. The theoretical framework is the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. The three processes are gluino pair production, diagonal squark-antisquark and associated squark-gluino production.

  16. The role of VOC oxidation products in continental new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol physical and chemical properties and trace gas concentrations were measured during the QUEST field campaign in March–April, 2003, in Hyytiälä, Finland. Our aim was to understand the role of oxidation products of VOC's such as mono- and sesquiterpenes in atmospheric nucleation events. Particle chemical compositions were measured using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and chemical compositions of aerosol samples collected with low-pressure impactors and a high volume sampler were analysed using a number of techniques. The results indicate that during and after new particle formation, all particles larger than 50 nm in diameter contained similar organic substances that are likely to be mono- and sesquiterpene oxidation products. The oxidation products identified in the high volume samples were shown to be mostly aldehydes. In order to study the composition of particles in the 10–50 nm range, we made use of Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer results. We found that during nucleation events, both 10 and 50 nm particle growth factors due to uptake of ethanol vapour correlate strongly with gas-phase monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP concentrations, indicating that the organic constituents of particles smaller than 50 nm in diameter are at least partly similar to those of larger particles. We furthermore showed that particle growth rates during the nucleation events are correlated with the gas-phase MTOP concentrations. This indicates that VOC oxidation products may have a key role in determining the spatial and temporal features of the nucleation events. This conclusion was supported by our aircraft measurements of new 3–10 nm particle concentrations, which showed that the nucleation event on 28 March 2003, started at the ground layer, i.e. near the VOC source, and evolved together with the mixed layer. Furthermore, no new particle formation was detected upwind away from the forest, above the frozen Gulf of Bothnia.

  17. The role of VOC oxidation products in continental new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol physical and chemical properties and trace gas concentrations were measured during the QUEST field campaign in March–April 2003, in Hyytiälä, Finland. Our aim was to understand the role of oxidation products of VOC's such as mono- and sesquiterpenes in atmospheric nucleation events. Particle chemical compositions were measured using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and chemical compositions of aerosol samples collected with low-pressure impactors and a high volume sampler were analysed using a number of techniques. The results indicate that during and after new particle formation, all particles larger than 50 nm in diameter contained similar organic substances that are likely to be mono- and sesquiterpene oxidation products. The oxidation products identified in the high volume samples were shown to be mostly aldehydes. In order to study the composition of particles in the 10–50 nm range, we made use of Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer results. We found that during nucleation events, both 10 and 50 nm particle growth factors due to uptake of ethanol vapour correlate strongly with gas-phase monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP concentrations, indicating that the organic constituents of particles smaller than 50 nm in diameter are at least partly similar to those of larger particles. We furthermore showed that particle growth rates during the nucleation events are correlated with the gas-phase MTOP concentrations. This indicates that VOC oxidation products may have a key role in determining the spatial and temporal features of the nucleation events. This conclusion was supported by our aircraft measurements of new 3–10 nm particle concentrations, which showed that the nucleation event on 28 March 2003, started at the ground layer, i.e. near the VOC source, and evolved together with the mixed layer. Furthermore, no new particle formation was detected upwind away from the forest, above the frozen Gulf of Bothnia.

  18. Correlations in Particle Production in Nuclear Collisions at LHC Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Sputowska, Iwona

    New data on forward-backward charged particle correlations and multiplicity uctuations in Pb+Pb collisions at p sNN = 2.76 TeV measured by the ALICE detector at CERN are presented. The analysis focuses on the dependence of (a) the correlation coecient bcorr, (b) the intensive quantity ! and (c) the strongly-intensive quantity as a function of (1) the pseudorapidity gap (2) the centrality of the collision and (3) the width of the centrality bin. The considered observables are studied for Pb+Pb data with two dierent centrality estimators. The centrality selection methods are based on charged particle multiplicity measurement by the ALICE VZERO detector and on determination of energy carried by spectator systems by the Zero Degree Calorimeter. A strong dependence of the measured magnitude of forward-backward correlation (bcorr), and of the size of multiplicity uctuations (!), is observed as a function of the ap- plied centrality estimator and as a function of the size of centrality window. A dominant eect on ...

  19. CP Violation in Production and Decay of Supersymmetric Particles

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze CP violating effects of MSSM phases in production and two-body decays of neutralinos, charginos and sfermions. For different supersymmetric processes we define and calculate CP-odd asymmetries, which base on triple products. We present numerical results for electron-positron collisions at a future linear collider with a center of mass energy of 500-800 GeV, high luminosity and longitudinally polarized beams.

  20. CP violation in production and decay of supersymmetric particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, O.

    2004-07-01

    In this thesis we analyze CP violating effects of MSSM phases in production and two-body decays of neutralinos, charginos and sfermions. For different supersymmetric processes we define and calculate CP-odd asymmetries, which base on triple products. We present numerical results for electron-positron collisions at a future linear collider with a center of mass energy of 500-800 GeV, high luminosity and longitudinally polarized beams. (Orig.)

  1. Biodiesel production over supported nano-magnesium oxide particles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Tech. (Chemical Engineering) There are a number of processes for the production of biodiesel. Homogenous catalysed processes are the most popular in large scale production due to short reaction times and less extreme reaction conditions. Despite this, homogenous catalysts have a number of disadvantages which include: high probability of soap formation in the presence of water and free fatty acids; they cannot be re-used since some of the catalyst is consumed during the reaction and the s...

  2. Production and characterization of titanium (Ti), platinum (Pt) and tantalum (Ta) thin films for native DNA biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Eminegül; Kepceoǧlu, Abdullah; Gezgin, Serap Yiǧit; Kars, Meltem Demirel; Kılıç, Hamdi Şükür

    2017-02-01

    The use of the femtosecond (fs) laser pulses for ablation applications have several advantageous and Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is an ablation-driven transfer process. The use of fs laser pulses for LIFT is gaining a great attraction nowadays. The most of the Direct Writing (DW) methods are laser based techniques and the LIFT technique is the one of them. This spectacular technique allows high resolution without lithographic processes. In this study, we have grown Ti, Pt and Ta thin films on the microscope slides by Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD) technique using Nd:YAG laser in the high vacuum condition. As a result, thin films produced in this work is a good candidate to produce native DNA biosensors based on LIFT technique.

  3. Anisotropic particle production and azimuthal correlations in high-energy pA collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We summarize some recent ideas relating to anisotropic particle production in high-energy collisions. Anisotropic gluon distributions lead to anisotropies of the single-particle azimuthal distribution and hence to disconnected contributions to multi-particle cumulants. When these dominate, the four-particle elliptic anisotropy $c_2\\{4\\}$ changes sign. On the other hand, connected diagrams for $m$-particle cumulants are found to quickly saturate with increasing $m$, a ``coherence'' quite unlike conventional ``non-flow'' contributions such as decays. Finally, we perform a first exploratory phenomenological analysis in order to estimate the amplitude ${\\cal A}$ of the $\\cos(2\\varphi)$ anisotropy of the gluon distribution at small $x$, and we provide a qualitative prediction for the elliptic asymmetry from three-particle correlations, $c_2\\{3\\}$.

  4. Soft particle production in very high energy hadron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr; Ridky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray (CR) showers exist over a large span of energies. We focus in particular on the excess of multi-muon bundles observed by the DELPHI detector at LEP and on the excess in the muon number in general reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Even though the primary CR energies relevant for these experiments differ by orders of magnitude, we can find a single mechanism which can simultaneously increase predicted muon counts for both, while not violating constraints from accelerators or from the longitudinal shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. We present a brief motivation and describe a practical implementation of such a model, based on the addition of soft particles to interactions above a chosen energy threshold. Results of an extensive set of simulations show the behavior of this model in various parts of a simplified parameter space.

  5. Soft Particle Production in Very High Energy Hadron Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ebr, Jan; Ridky, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray (CR) showers exist over a large span of energies. We focus in particular on the excess of multi-muon bundles observed by the DELPHI detector at LEP and on the excess in the muon number in general reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Even though the primary CR energies relevant for these experiments differ by orders of magnitude, we can find a single mechanism which can simultaneously increase predicted muon counts for both, while not violating constraints from accelerators or from the longitudinal shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. We present a brief theoretical motivation and describe a practical implementation of such a model, based on the addition of soft particles to interactions above a chosen energy threshold. Results of an extensive set of simulations show the behavior of this model in various parts of a simplified parameter space.

  6. Electric energy production by particle thermionic-thermoelectric power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettinger, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermionic-thermoelectric power generators, composed of a thin layer of porous, low work function material separating a heated emitter electrode and a cooler collector electrode, have extremely large Seebeck coefficients of over 2 mV/K and can provide significant output power. Preliminary experiments with 20-micron thick (Ba Sr Ca)O coatings, limited by evaporative loss to temperatures below 1400 K, have yielded short circuit current densities of 500 mA/sq cm and power densities of 60 mW/ sq cm. Substantially more output is expected with cesium-coated refractory oxide particle coatings operating at higher temperatures. Practical generators will have thermal-to-electrical efficiencies of 10 to 20%. Further increases can be gained by cascading these high-temperature devices with lower temperature conventional thermoelectric generators.

  7. Strange particle production at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Rafi; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 2 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva, T2K and NO$\

  8. Electrodeposition and electrocatalytic activity of Pt and Pt-alloy nanoparticles and thin films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin

    Pt and Pt-based alloy catalysts were synthesized by electrodeposition on HOPG. The nucleation and growth, morphology, composition and crystal structure, and electrocatalytic activity (towards relevant reactions in the frame of PEMFCs and DMFCs) of these model electrodes were systematically investigated. The presence of chlorides inhibits the Pt reduction processes. There is a transition from progressive to instantaneous nucleation with increasing overpotential for the deposition from 1 mM H2PtCl6 electrolytes. The possibility of instantaneous nucleation at large overpotential by using electrolytes with large chloride concentration is advantageous for the growth of small, well dispersed nanoparticles. The electrochemical data were confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging studies. Relatively narrow size distributed nanoparticles can be obtained from the current system. While MOR activity decreases with decreasing particle size, the HER and HOR activity of deposited Pt particles increases with decreasing deposition period. The ORR activity first increases then decreases with increasing deposition time. Interactions between Pt and Ru, or Ni or Co are observed and they form solid solution as verified by XRD. Underpotential deposition occurs for Pt-Ni or Pt-Co co-electrodeposition. Pt-Ru deposition can be described as progressive nucleation at low overpotential and instantaneous nucleation at high overpotentials. Through direct morphological observations, the Pt-Ni or Pt-Co nucleation can be approximately described as progressive. Pt-Ru deposits are superior to Pt towards MOR. The optimum Ru content is about 50 at.%. Pt-Ni and Pt-Co deposits are more active than Pt for ORR. The optimum content is about 30 at.% Ni or 50 at.% Co. Dealloying of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ni or Pt-Co electrodeposit is observed after electrochemical characterization. The extent of dealloying increases with the content of the alloying element.

  9. The study on carbon nanotubes-supported Pt catalysts for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱捷; 朱红; 康晓红; 葛奉娟; 杨玉国

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-supported-platinum (Pt/CNTs) and carbon-supported-platinum (Pt/C) catalysts were prepared by in situ chemical reduction method and analyzed by TEM and XRD. Then the experiments were carried out to test the performance of PEMFCs with the Pt electrodes. The results showed that in both catalyst, Pt was of small particle size (about 4 nm) and Pt/CNTs exhibited higher catalytic activity than Pt/C.

  10. Energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions of crude palm oil production system in Indonesia (Case study: Mill P, PT X, Sumatera Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarani, Pertiwi; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Wieddya

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest palm oil producers in the world. The total exported crude palm oil (CPO) and its derivatives in 2015 reached about 26.40 million tons or increase at 21% compared to the previous year (2014). However, the further expansion of the CPO production system could potentially have environmental impacts. The objective of this study is to analyze the energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions at mill P, PT X located in Sumatera Island. System analysis approaches was applied to this study and the assessment was focused on a CPO production system in PT XYZ located on the Sumatera Island. The system boundary was determined based on the field study. The data collection consisted of all the input and output energy which involving all input materials (including fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, water, etc.) and energy consumption (consumption of diesel, electricity, etc.) starting from plantation activities (at the oil palm plantation) to the conversion process (at the palm oil mill). The energy output from biodiesel was 480.46 GJ/ha (2014) and decreased to 450.79 GJ/ha (2015). Surplus energy from biogas was 15.21 GJ/ha (2014) and 13.57 GJ/ha (2015). The NEP was 494.56 GJ/ha and decreased to 317.84 GJ/ha. Meanwhile, the NER decreased from 3.27 (2014) to 3.17 (2015). The NEP in this mill is significantly higher than other related studies of similar palm oil production system in other companies. The emission of the activities in the palm estate increased from 12.50 kgCO2eq/ton FFB to 22.057 kgCO2eq/ton FFB. In the palm oil mill, the emission decreased from 2,509.93 kgCO2eq/ton CPO to 2,057.14 kgCO2eq/ton CPO.

  11. Strange Resonance and Charmed Particle Production in Muon-Associated Neutrino Neon Charged-Current Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Eric Roy

    The production of strange resonances and charmed particles in nu_{mu} Ne charged-current interactions was measured in the 15 ft Bubble Chamber. The chamber, filled with a heavy Ne-H_2 mixture, was exposed at Fermilab to a wide-band horn-focussed neutrino beam with peak energy ~20 GeV. In a 390,000 expansion exposure of the chamber, ~125,000 charge-current events occurred within the fiducial volume. Among these events were 4381 (3676) well-reconstructed K _sp{s}{0} ( Lambda^0) decays. The events containing these neutral strange particle decays are examined to measure strange resonance and charmed particle production. Inclusive production rates or rate limits per charged-current event are measured for the K*(890) and Sigma^ {*}(1380) resonances. The production of any particular resonance is measured to be typically {cal O}(1%), and resonance decays are shown to account for 10-25% of K^0 /|{rm K}^0 's and Lambda^0's. Production rates or rate limits are measured for charmed particles via hadronic decays which include a neutral strange particle --these rates are typically {cal O} (1%) and are consistent with the rate at which charmed particle semileptonic decays were observed during the same experiment. ftn*Research supported by the National Science Foundation. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University.

  12. Hydrogen production for fuel cell by oxidative reforming of diesel surrogate: influence of ceria and/or lanthana over the activity of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C. Alvarez-Galvan; R.M. Navarro; F. Rosa; Y. Briceno; M.A. Ridao; J.L.G. Fierro [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    A series of Pt catalysts supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Pt/A), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} (Pt/A-C), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Pt/A-L) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} (Pt/A-L-C) have been prepared and tested in the oxidative reforming of diesel surrogate with the aim of studying the influence of ceria and lanthana additives over the activity and stability toward hydrogen production for fuel cell application. Several characterization techniques, such as adsorption-desorption of N{sub 2}, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction, H{sub 2} chemisorption, and thermogravimetric analysis, have been used to define textural, structural, and surface properties of catalysts and to establish relationships with their behaviour in reaction. This physicochemical characterization has shown that lanthana inhibits the formation of {alpha} phase in alumina support and decreases ceria dispersion. Activity results show a better performance of ceria-loaded catalysts, being the Pt/A-C sample the system that offers higher H{sub 2} yields after 8 h of reaction. The greater H{sub 2} production for ceria-loaded catalysts, particularly in the case of the system Pt/A-C, is attributed to the Pt-Ce interaction that may change the electronic properties and/or the dispersion of active metal phase. Also, the Ce{sup III} form of Ce{sup IV}/Ce{sup III} redox pair enhances the adsorption of oxygen and water molecules, thus increasing the catalytic activity and also decreasing coke deposition over surface active Pt phases. Stability tests showed that catalysts in which Pt crystallites are deposited on the alumina substrate covered by a lanthana monolayer, give rise to an increase in stability toward H{sub 2} production. 48 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Chameleons in the Early Universe: Kicks, Rebounds, and Particle Production

    CERN Document Server

    Erickcek, Adrienne L; Burrage, Clare; Huang, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Chameleon gravity is a scalar-tensor theory that includes a non-minimal coupling between the scalar field and the matter fields and yet mimics general relativity in the Solar System. The scalar degree of freedom is hidden in high-density environments because the effective mass of the chameleon scalar depends on the trace of the stress-energy tensor. In the early Universe, when the trace of the matter stress-energy tensor is nearly zero, the chameleon is very light, and Hubble friction prevents it from reaching the minimum of its effective potential. Whenever a particle species becomes non-relativistic, however, the trace of the stress-energy tensor is temporarily nonzero, and the chameleon begins to roll. We show that these "kicks" to the chameleon field have catastrophic consequences for chameleon gravity. The velocity imparted to the chameleon by the kick is sufficiently large that the chameleon's mass changes rapidly as it slides past its potential minimum. This nonadiabatic evolution shatters the chameleo...

  14. Charged particle production under EMCal trigger condition with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Patrick [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The ALICE experiment at the LHC is designed to study the properties of the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The measured transverse momentum (p{sub T}) distribution in heavy ion collisions can be compared to that measured in pp collisions in terms of the nuclear modification factor (R{sub AA}). The minimum bias pp reference at √(s) = 2.76 TeV and therefore R{sub AA} in Pb-Pb collisions are currently limited in their p{sub T} range to p{sub T} = 50 GeV/c. To extend the p{sub T} distribution to higher p{sub T} (p{sub T} > 50 GeV/c), triggers can be used. We present an analysis of the cross section of inclusive charged particles in pp collisions as a function of p{sub T} with a selection on deposited energy in the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal). Results based on a Toy Monte Carlo simulation including realistic EMCal geometry and acceptance to evaluate trigger biases are presented.

  15. The use of rotating electric are for spherical particle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bica, Ion

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental device designed to obtain spherical partióles by means of a rotating electric are. A rotation frequency of the electric are of 750 s-1, a voltage of 50 V (dc and a current of 100 A was used. The mass flow rate was 3 g.min-1. Under these conditions particles of 15 to 20 μm in diameter were obtained.

    Este trabajo presenta la instalación experimental destinada a la obtención de partículas esféricas utilizando un arco eléctrico rotatorio. Para ello se utilizó una frecuencia de rotación del arco eléctrico de 750 s-1 a un voltaje del arco de 50 V (cc y una corriente de 100 A. La velocidad de flujo de materia fue de 3 g.min-1 obteniéndose partículas de diámetros comprendidos entre 15 y 20 μm.

  16. Pictures of Particle Production in Proton-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Alfred H

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on gluon(jet) production in dilute(proton)-dense(nucleus) collisions. Depending on the frame and gauge, gluon production can be viewed as a freeing of gluons coming from either the proton wave function or from the nucleus wave function. These (apparently) very different pictures must lead to the same result and the purpose of this paper is to see how that happens. The focus is on gluons having $k_\\perp\\sim Q_S$ or gluons in the scaling region $k_\\perp/Q_S\\gg 1$. In the McLerran-Venugopalan(MV) model with $k_\\perp\\sim Q_S$ we are able to derive gluon production in a way that (graphically) manifestly shows $k_\\perp$-factorization in terms of the number density of gluons in the nuclear wave function. We presume that this picture, and $k_\\perp$-factorization, continues to hold in the presence of small-$x$ evolution although we have not been able to explicitly verify this. Our result is in agreement with usual $k_\\perp$-factorization where the gluon number density of the nucleus does not appear i...

  17. A mechanism for the production of ultrafine particles from concrete fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Nassib; Rohan Jayaratne, E; Johnson, Graham R; Alroe, Joel; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga; Cravigan, Luke; Faghihi, Ehsan Majd; Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-03-01

    While the crushing of concrete gives rise to large quantities of coarse dust, it is not widely recognized that this process also emits significant quantities of ultrafine particles. These particles impact not just the environments within construction activities but those in entire urban areas. The origin of these ultrafine particles is uncertain, as existing theories do not support their production by mechanical processes. We propose a hypothesis for this observation based on the volatilisation of materials at the concrete fracture interface. The results from this study confirm that mechanical methods can produce ultrafine particles (UFP) from concrete, and that the particles are volatile. The ultrafine mode was only observed during concrete fracture, producing particle size distributions with average count median diameters of 27, 39 and 49 nm for the three tested concrete samples. Further volatility measurements found that the particles were highly volatile, showing between 60 and 95% reduction in the volume fraction remaining by 125 °C. An analysis of the volatile fraction remaining found that different volatile material is responsible for the production of particles between the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Release of VOCs and particles during use of nanofilm spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Asger W; Jensen, Keld A; Janfelt, Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R; Clausen, Per A; Wolkoff, Peder

    2009-10-15

    Here, we present emission data on VOCs and particles emitted during simulated use of four commercial nanofilm spray products (NFPs) used for making easy-to-clean or self-cleaning surfaces on floors, ceramic tiles, and windows. The aim was to characterize the emitted VOCs and to provide specific source strength data for VOCs and particles released to the airduring use of the products. Containers with NFP were mounted on a spray-stand inside a closed stainless steel chamber with no air exchange. NFPs were sprayed in amounts corresponding to 1 m2 surface toward a target plate at a distance of 35 cm. Released VOCs were measured by a combination of air sampling on Tenax TA adsorbent followed by thermal desorption GC/MS and GC/FID analysis and real time measurements using a miniature membrane inlet mass spectrometer. Particles were measured using a fast mobility particle sizer and an aerosol particle sizer. A number of VOCs were identified, including small alcohols, ketones and ethers, chlorinated acetones, a perfluorinated silane, limonene, and cyclic siloxanes. The number of generated particles was on the order of 3 x 10(8) to 2 x 10(10) particles/m3 per g sprayed NFP and were dominated by nanosize particles.

  19. Direct search for pair production of heavy stable charged particles in Z decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderstrom, E.; McKenna, J.A.; Abrams, G.S.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Averill, D.; Ballam, J.; Barish, B.C.; Barklow, T.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartelt, J.; Bethke, S.; Blockus, D.; Bonvicini, G.; Boyarski, A.; Brabson, B.; Breakstone, A.; Bulos, F.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Cence, R.J.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Cords, D.; Coupal, D.P.; Dauncey, P.; DeStaebler, H.C.; Dorfan, D.E.; Dorfan, J.M.; Drewer, D.C.; Elia, R.; Feldman, G.J.; Fernandes, D.; Field, R.C.; Ford, W.T.; Fordham, C.; Frey, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Gero, E.; Gidal, G.; Glanzman, T.; Goldhaber, G.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Gratta, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Hanson, G.; Harr, R.; Harral, B.; Harris, F.A.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hayes, K.; Hearty, C.; Heusch, C.A.; Hildreth, M.D.; Himel, T.; Hinshaw, D.A.; Hong, S.J.; Hutchinson, D.; Hylen, J.; Innes, W.R.; Jacobsen, R.G.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kent, J.; King, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Komamiya, S.; Koska, W.; Kowalski, L.A.; Kozanecki, W.; Kral, J.F.; Kuhlen, M.; Lab

    1990-06-18

    A search for pair production of stable charged particles from {ital Z} decay has been performed with the Mark II detector at the SLAC Linear Collider. Particle masses are determined from momentum, ionization energy loss, and time-of-flight measurements. A limit excluding pair production of stable fourth-generation charged leptons and stable mirror fermions with masses between the muon mass and 36.3 GeV/{ital c}{sup 2} is set at the 95% confidence level. Pair production of stable supersymmetric scalar leptons with masses between the muon mass and 32.6 GeV/{ital c}{sup 2} is also excluded.

  20. Search for chargino-neutralino production in p-pbar collisions at 1.96 TeV with high pT leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez-Gonzalez, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrerar, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillol, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerritop, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenarr, C; Cuevaso, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdeckerd, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; García, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoloua, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokarisa, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gonzlez, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraesda Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hillc, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Le Compte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Leeq, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakisa, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martinj, V; Martínez, M; Martinez-Ballarin, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNultyi, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzemerk, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsenf, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohosh, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademackerc, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salt, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojiman, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffarde, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thomg, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; Van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquezl, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouevq, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whitesone, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittichg, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yangm, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhengb, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2007-01-01

    We present a search for the associated production of charginos and neutralinos in p-pbar collisions at 1.96 TeV. The data were collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II) and correspond to integrated luminosities between 0.7 and 1.0 fb-1. We look for final states with one high pT electron or muon, and two additional leptons. Our results are consistent with the standard model expectations, and we set limits on the cross section as a function of the chargino mass in three different supersymmetric scenarios. For a specific MSSM scenario with no slepton mixing we set a 95 % C.L. limit at 151 GeV/c^2.

  1. Single Productions of Colored Particles at the LHC: An Example with Scalar Leptoquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Tanumoy; Seth, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    Current LHC searches for new colored particles generally focus on their pair production channels and assume any single production to be negligible. We argue that such an assumption may be unnecessary in some cases. Inclusion of model dependent single productions in pair production searches can give us new information about model parameters. Considering the example of the recent CMS search for first generation scalar leptoquark in the pair production channel, we illustrate how single productions can be systematically included in the signal estimations and demonstrate how it can affect the mass exclusion limits and give new bounds on leptoquark-lepton-quark couplings.

  2. In situ chemical fabrication of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites as supports of Pt for methanol electrooxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAL; Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    In this study,platinum(Pt)-polyaniline(PANI)/MWNTs catalysts were synthesized by two sequential reactions.First,coreshell structural PANI/MWNTs composites were fabricated by in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization,in which MWNTs act as the core and PANI as the shell.Then,Pt particles were deposited on the PANI/MWNTs composites by a chemical reduction method.The morphology and constitution of the products were characterized by FT IR,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and XRD.It was observed that the Pt particles were smaller in size and more uniformly distributed on these composite supports than those on the reference,pure MWNT supports.XRD results showed higher Pt(111) content in the catalyst deposited on PANI/MWNTs supports than that on MWNTs.The cyclic voltammeter(CV) tests demonstrated that the electrode modified by Pt-PANI/MWNTs ternary composite catalyst showed a higher catalytic stability than Pt-MWNT binary catalyst did,due to the synergic interaction between Pt and the composite support.

  3. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing

  4. CO surface electrochemistry on Pt-nanoparticles: A selective review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, K.J.J. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arenz, M. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blizanac, B.B. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stamenkovic, V. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, P.N. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Markovic, N.M. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: nmmarkovic@lbl.gov

    2005-09-05

    Oxidation of CO on platinum nanoparticles ranging in size from 1 to 30 nm has been studied in acid electrolytes. We found that Pt nanoparticles, characterized by transmission electron microscopy, are not perfect cubo-octahedrons and that large particles have 'rougher' surfaces than small particles. The importance of 'defect' sites for the catalytic properties of nanoparticles was probed by using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and rotating disk electrode. From IRAS experiments, by monitoring how the vibrational frequency of a-top CO ({nu} {sub CO}) as well as the concomitant development of dissolved CO{sub 2} are affected by the number of defects on Pt nanoparticles, we suggested that defects play a significant role in CO 'clustering' on nanoparticles, causing CO to decrease/increase in local coverage, which results in anomalous redshift/blueshift {nu} {sub CO} frequency deviations from the normal Stark-tuning behavior. The observed {nu} {sub CO} deviations are accompanied by CO{sub 2} production, which increases by increasing the number of defects on the nanoparticles, i.e., 1 {<=} 2 < 5 << 30 nm. We suggest that the catalytic activity for CO adlayer oxidation (CO stripping) is predominantly influenced by the ability of the surface to dissociate water and to form OH{sub ad} on defect sites. We demonstrate that the catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles for CO oxidation under the condition of continuous CO supply to the surface depends on the pre-history of the electrode. If the surface is precovered by CO, the particle size has a negligible effect on CO oxidation. However, on an oxide-precovered surface CO bulk oxidation increases with decreasing particle size, i.e., with increasing oxophilicity of the particles. We found, if specific sites on the surface are active for OH adsorption, then the electrocatalytic activity for CO oxidation changes as the concentration of these sites changes with particle size.

  5. Assessment of exhaust emissions from carbon nanotube production and particle collection by sampling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Hofmann, Mario; Hallock, Marilyn; Ellenbecker, Michael; Kong, Jing

    2015-11-01

    This study performed a workplace evaluation of emission control using available air sampling filters and characterized the emitted particles captured in filters. Characterized particles were contained in the exhaust gas released from carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Emitted nanoparticles were collected on grids to be analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CNT clusters in the exhaust gas were collected on filters for investigation. Three types of filters, including Nalgene surfactant-free cellulose acetate (SFCA), Pall A/E glass fiber, and Whatman QMA quartz filters, were evaluated as emission control measures, and particles deposited in the filters were characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to further understand the nature of particles emitted from this CNT production. STEM analysis for collected particles on filters found that particles deposited on filter fibers had a similar morphology on all three filters, that is, hydrophobic agglomerates forming circular beaded clusters on hydrophilic filter fibers on the collecting side of the filter. CNT agglomerates were found trapped underneath the filter surface. The particle agglomerates consisted mostly of elemental carbon regardless of the shapes. Most particles were trapped in filters and no particles were found in the exhaust downstream from A/E and quartz filters, while a few nanometer-sized and submicrometer-sized individual particles and filament agglomerates were found downstream from the SFCA filter. The number concentration of particles with diameters from 5 nm to 20 µm was measured while collecting particles on grids at the exhaust piping. Total number concentration was reduced from an average of 88,500 to 700 particle/cm(3) for the lowest found for all filters used. Overall, the quartz filter showed the most consistent and highest particle reduction control, and exhaust particles containing nanotubes were successfully

  6. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitava Sarkar; James K. Neathery; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-12-31

    A fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of operation since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products in one approach may be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase iron-based FTS and is a key factor for optimizing operating costs. The separation problem is further compounded by attrition of iron catalyst particles and the formation of ultra-fine particles.

  7. The Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Matrix Protein PPXY Late Domain Drives the Production of Defective Interfering Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Ziegler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses cause severe diseases in humans but establish asymptomatic, lifelong infections in rodent reservoirs. Persistently-infected rodents harbor high levels of defective interfering (DI particles, which are thought to be important for establishing persistence and mitigating virus-induced cytopathic effect. Little is known about what drives the production of DI particles. We show that neither the PPXY late domain encoded within the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV matrix protein nor a functional endosomal sorting complex transport (ESCRT pathway is absolutely required for the generation of standard infectious virus particles. In contrast, DI particle release critically requires the PPXY late domain and is ESCRT-dependent. Additionally, the terminal tyrosine in the PPXY motif is reversibly phosphorylated and our findings indicate that this posttranslational modification may regulate DI particle formation. Thus we have uncovered a new role for the PPXY late domain and a possible mechanism for its regulation.

  8. Particle production and nonlinear diffusion in relativistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wolschin, Georg

    2008-01-01

    The short parton production phase in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is treated analytically as a nonlinear diffusion process. The initial buildup of the rapidity density distributions of produced charged hadrons within tau_p = 0.25 fm/c occurs in three sources during the colored partonic phase. In a two-step approach, the subsequent diffusion in pseudorapidity space during the interaction time of tau_int = 7-10 fm/c (mean duration of the collision) is essentially linear as expressed in the Relativistic Diffusion Model (RDM) which yields excellent agreement with the data at RHIC energies, and allows for predictions at LHC energies. Results for d+Au are discussed in detail.

  9. $J/\\Psi$ production as a function of charged particle multiplicity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of J/Psi production as a function of charged particle pseudo-rapidity density dN_ch/d_eta in pp collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. J/Psi mesons are detected down to p_T = 0 via their decays into e+e- pairs at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.9) and into mu+mu- pairs at forward rapidity (2.5

  10. Gas/particle separation and sampling of oxidation products of aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sax, M.; Kalberer, M.; Zenobi, R.

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative chemical analysis of organic aerosols can only be achieved if the particle phase can be separated without artifacts from the gas phase. In this study we compare two different ambient air samplers for eight known volatile aromatic and non-aromatic oxidation products of aromatics. A polyurethane foam adsorbent and an annular diffusion denuder were operated along with particle filters. The analysis was done with GC-MS after liquid extraction of the samplers. (author)

  11. Search for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles at LHC Run 2 with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Carra, Sonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles decaying to final states with two or three leptons and missing transverse momentum is presented. The analysis is based on 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV proton-proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No significant deviations from the Standard Model expectation are observed and stringent exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are placed on the masses of the supersymmetric particles considered.

  12. Gravitationally induced adiabatic particle productions: From Big Bang to de Sitter

    CERN Document Server

    de Haro, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    In the background of a flat homogeneous and isotropic space-time, we consider a scenario of the universe driven by the gravitationally induced constant `adiabatic' particle productions. We have shown that this universe attains a big bang singularity in the past and at late-time, it asymptotically becomes de Sitter. To clarify this model universe, we perform a dynamical analysis. Further, we discussed the possible effects of this particle creations in the context of loop quantum cosmology.

  13. Pairwise mode entanglement in Schwinger production of particle-antiparticle pairs in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujie; Dai, Yue; Shi, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Quantum entanglement is the characteristic quantum correlation. Here, we use this concept to analyze the quantum entanglement generated by Schwinger production of particle-antiparticle pairs in an electric field, as well as the change of entanglement as a consequence of the electric field effect on a pre-existing entangled pair of particles. The system is partitioned by using momentum modes. Various kinds of pairwise mode entanglement are calculated as functions of the electric field. Both constant and pulsed electric fields are considered. The use of entanglement exposes information beyond that in particle number distributions.

  14. Hybrid particle swarm cooperative optimization algorithm and its application to MBC in alumina production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli Song; Li Kong; Yong Gan; Rijian Su

    2008-01-01

    An effective hybrid particle swarm cooperative optimization (HPSCO) algorithm combining simulated annealing method and simplex method is proposed. The main idea is to divide particle swarm into several sub-groups and achieve optimization through cooperativeness of different sub-groups among the groups. The proposed algorithm is tested by benchmark functions and applied to material balance computation (MBC) in alumina production. Results show that HPSCO, with both a better stability and a steady convergence, has faster convergence speed and higher global convergence ability than the single method and the improved particle swarm optimization method. Most importantly, results demonstrate that HPSCO is more feasible and efficient than other algorithms in MBC.

  15. Exotic particles at the LHC. Production via the Higgs portal and WIMP dark matter searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, Andre Georg

    2016-09-05

    This thesis addresses two different aspects of the search for Physics Beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, and motivated by the recent discovery of a new interaction mediated by the Higgs boson, we systematically analyze the impact of the Higgs interaction on the production of new particles at the LHC. Second, we investigate the collider signatures of long-lived particles decaying into leptons and invisible energy, and which are predicted to exist in a class of neutrino mass models with a weakly interacting dark matter particle.

  16. Pt and PtRu catalyst bilayers increase efficiencies for ethanol oxidation in proton exchange membrane electrolysis and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarawneh, Rakan M.; Pickup, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    Polarization curves, product distributions, and reaction stoichiometries have been measured for the oxidation of ethanol at anodes consisting of Pt and PtRu bilayers and a homogeneous mixture of the two catalysts. These anode structures all show synergies between the two catalysts that can be attributed to the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced at the PtRu catalyst by the Pt catalyst. The use of a PtRu layer over a Pt layer produces the strongest effect, with higher currents than a Pt on PtRu bilayer, mixed layer, or either catalyst alone, except for Pt at high potentials. Reaction stoichiometries (average number of electrons transferred per ethanol molecule) were closer to the values for Pt alone for both of the bilayer configurations but much lower for PtRu and mixed anodes. Although Pt alone would provide the highest overall fuel cell efficiency at low power densities, the PtRu on Pt bilayer would provide higher power densities without a significant loss of efficiency. The origin of the synergy between the Pt and PtRu catalysts was elucidated by separation of the total current into the individual components for generation of carbon dioxide and the acetaldehyde and acetic acid byproducts.

  17. High momentum particle and jet production in photon-photon collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wengler, T

    2006-01-01

    Jet and particle production have been studied in collisions of quasi-real photons collected during the LEP2 program. OPAL and DELPHI report good agreement of NLO perturbative QCD with the measured differential di-jet cross sections, which reach a mean transverse energy of the di-jet system of 25 GeV. L3, on the other hand, finds drastic disagreement of the same calculation with single jet production for transverse jet momenta larger than about 25 GeV. L3 observes similar disagreement between data and NLO QCD in their measurements of charged and neutral particle production at high transverse momenta of the particles. A recent measurement performed by DELPHI of the same quantities does not confirm this observation.

  18. The Effect of 5K2S Implementation to the Opportunities of Increasing Productivity and Workplace Improvement in PT. Andesen Jaya Plastik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmatullah Rachmatullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of Japanese companies in improving productivity is because they have a culture and a high work ethic to the application of KAIZEN management system. One such application is the Cultural 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke. In the Astra group, 5S is known as 5K2S (Order, neatness, cleanliness, sustainability Discipline, Safety, and Service. This study aims to assess the success of the application of the system 5K2S of PT. Andesen Jaya Plastik relating to opportunities for productivity. The method used isquantitative method with a descriptive study. The type of data used is primary and secondary data. While the techniques used in collecting the data are interviews, questionnaires, and literature studies. The number ofrespondents was 31 employees. Analysis of the data used is descriptive and multiple linear regression analysis. The real success rate reachs 82.24% at the stage of familiarization (effective and they have not yet advanced tothe next stage (prevention. The response of employees is between the Agree and Strongly Agree that is 4.11 point. The correlation between 5K2S to the opportunity of significant Productivity Improvement is Seiri/Order,Seiso/neatness, and Seiketsu/Sustainability.

  19. The Effect of 5K2S Implementation to the Opportunities of Increasing Productivity and Workplace Improvement in PT Andesen Jaya Plastik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmatullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of Japanese companies in improving productivity is because they have a culture and a high work ethic to the application of KAIZEN management system. One such application is the Cultural 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke. In the Astra group, 5S is known as 5K2S (Order, neatness, cleanliness, sustainability Discipline, Safety, and Service. This study aims to assess the success of the application of the system 5K2S of PT. Andesen Jaya Plastik relating to opportunities for productivity. The method used is quantitative method with a descriptive study. The type of data used is primary and secondary data. While the techniques used in collecting the data are interviews, questionnaires, and literature studies. The number of respondents was 31 employees. Analysis of the data used is descriptive and multiple linear regression analysis. The real success rate reachs 82.24% at the stage of familiarization (effective and they have not yet advanced to the next stage (prevention. The response of employees is between the Agree and Strongly Agree that is 4.11 point. The correlation between 5K2S to the opportunity of significant Productivity Improvement is Seiri/Order, Seiso/neatness, and Seiketsu/Sustainability.

  20. Beauty is more attractive: particle production and moduli trapping with higher dimensional interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Seishi [Kobayashi Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics,University of Warsaw, Hoa 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Iida, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Maekawa, Nobuhiro [Kobayashi Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomohiro [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology,Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2014-01-24

    We study quantum effects on moduli dynamics arising from particle production near the enhanced symmetry point (ESP). We focus on non-renormalizable couplings between the moduli field and the field that becomes light at the ESP. Considering higher dimensional interaction, we find that particle production is significant in a large area, which is even larger than the area that is expected from a renormalizable interaction. It is possible to find this possibility from a trivial adiabatic condition; however the quantitative estimation of particle production and trapping of the field in motion are far from trivial. In this paper we study particle production and trapping in detail, using both the analytical and numerical calculations, to find a clear and intuitive result that supports trapping in a vast variety of theories. Our study shows that trapping driven by a non-renormalizable interaction is possible. This possibility has not been considered in previous works. Some phenomenological models of particle physics will be mentioned to complement discussion.

  1. Beauty is more attractive: particle production andmoduli trapping with higher dimensional interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Seishi; Iida, Satoshi; Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    We study quantum effects on moduli dynamics arising from particle production near the enhanced symmetry point (ESP). We focus on non-renormalizable couplings between the moduli field and the field that becomes light at the ESP. Considering higher dimensional interaction, we find that particle production is significant in a large area, which is even larger than the area that is expected from a renormalizable interaction. It is possible to find this possibility from a trivial adiabatic condition; however the quantitative estimation of particle production and trapping of the field in motion are far from trivial. In this paper we study particle production and trapping in detail, using both the analytical and numerical calculations, to find a clear and intuitive result that supports trapping in a vast variety of theories. Our study shows that trapping driven by a non-renormalizable interaction is possible. This possibility has not been considered in previous works. Some phenomenological models of particle physics will be mentioned to complement discussion.

  2. Weak Production of Strange Particles and $\\eta$ Mesons off the Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Rafi; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The strange particle production induced by (anti)neutrino off nucleon has been studied for $|\\Delta S|=0$ and $|\\Delta S|=1$ channels. The reactions those we have considered are for the production of single kaon/antikaon, eta and associated particle production processes. We have developed a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangian. The basic parameters of the model are $f_\\pi$, the pion decay constant, Cabibbo angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet. For antikaon production we have also included $\\Sigma^*$(1385) resonance and for eta production $S_{11}$(1535) and $S_{11}$(1650) resonances are included.

  3. Weak production of strange particles and η mesons off the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Simo, I. Ruiz [Departamento de Física Atómica, Moleculary Nuclear, and Instituto de Física Teórica y Computacional Carlos I, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The strange particle production induced by (anti)neutrino off nucleon has been studied for |ΔS| = 0 and |ΔS| = 1 channels. The reactions those we have considered are for the production of single kaon/antikaon, eta and associated particle production processes. We have developed a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangian. The basic parameters of the model are f{sub π}, the pion decay constant, Cabibbo angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet. For antikaon production we have also included Σ*(1385) resonance and for eta production S{sub 11}(1535) and S{sub 11}(1650) resonances are included.

  4. L{sub i} (i=1,2,3) subshell X-ray production cross-sections and fluorescence yields for Ir, Pt, Pb and Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P.; Sharma, M.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Singh, N. E-mail: nsingh@pu.ac.in

    2003-09-01

    The L{sub i} (i=1,2,3) subshell X-ray production (XRP) cross-sections were measured for {sub 77}Ir, {sub 78}Pt, {sub 82}Pb and {sub 83}Bi following direct ionization in the L{sub i} (i=1,2,3) subshells by the 59.54 keV {gamma}-rays and the L{sub 3} subshell by the Br/Rb/Sr/Y K X-rays. The photon sources consisting of an {sup 241}Am source in (i) the direct excitation mode and (ii) the secondary excitation mode together with the KBr/RbNO{sub 3}/SrCO{sub 3} /Y secondary exciter and an Si(Li) detector were used. The L{sub i} (i=1,2,3) subshell fluorescence yields ({omega}{sub i}) for these elements were deduced using the measured XRP cross-sections and the L{sub i} subshell photoionization cross-sections based on the Hartree-Fock-Slater model. The measured {omega}{sub 1} values are found to be higher upto 50% than those based on the relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater (RDHS) calculations, while the {omega}{sub 2} and {omega}{sub 3} values exhibit good agreement. The predicted jump in the RDHS based {omega}{sub 1} values from {sub 77}Ir to {sub 78}Pt due to onset of intense L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4} CK transition is not observed.

  5. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%.

  6. Entropy production by Q-ball decay for diluting long-lived charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuya, S. [Kanagawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Information Science; Takahashi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The cosmic abundance of a long-lived charged particle such as a stau is tightly constrained by the catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis. One of the ways to evade the constraints is to dilute those particles by a huge entropy production. We evaluate the dilution factor in a case that non-relativistic matter dominates the energy density of the universe and decays with large entropy production. We find that large Q balls can do the job, which is naturally produced in the gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. (orig.)

  7. Structure functions and particle production in the cumulative region two different exponentials

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, M

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the recently proposed QCD based parton model for the cumulative phenomena in the interactions with nuclei two mechanisms for particle production, direct and spectator ones, are analysed. It is shown that due to final state interactions the leading terms of the direct mechanism contribution are cancelled and the spectator mechanism is the dominant one. It leads to a smaller slope of the cumulative particle production rates compared to the slope of the nuclear structure function in the cumulative region x>1, in agreement with the recent experimental data.

  8. Microwave sinthesys and characterization of Pt and Pt-Rh-Sn electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon supported Pt and Pt-Rh-Sn catalysts were synthesized by microwave-polyol method in ethylene glycol solution and investigated for the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction. The catalysts were characterized in terms of structure, morphology and composition by employing XRD, STM and EDX techniques. STM analysis indicated rather uniform particles and particle size of below 2 nm for both catalysts. XRD analysis of the Pt/C catalyst revealed two phases, one with the main characteristic peaks of face centered cubic crystal structure (fcc of platinum and another related to graphite like structure of carbon support Vulcan XC-72R. However, in XRD pattern of the Pt-Rh-Sn/C catalyst diffraction peaks for Pt, Rh or Sn cannot be resolved, indicating an extremely low crystallinity. The small particle sizes and homogeneous size distributions of both catalysts should be attributed to the advantages of microwave assisted modified polyol process in ethylene glycol solution. Pt-Rh- Sn/C catalyst is highly active for the ethanol oxidation with the onset potential shifted for more than 150 mV to negative values and with currents nearly 5 times higher in comparison to Pt/C catalyst. The stability tests of the catalysts, as studied by the chronoamperometric experiments, reveal that the Pt-Rh-Sn/C catalyst is evidently less poisoned then Pt/C catalyst. The increased activity of Pt-Rh-Sn/C in comparison to Pt/C catalyst is most probably promoted by bifunctional mechanism and the electronic effect of alloyed metals.

  9. Production of renewable hydrogen from aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol overPt catalysts supported on different oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, André O; Rodrigues, Michelly T.; Fraga, Marco André; Zimmaro, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous-phase reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons for hydrogen production presents several advantages as feed molecules can be easily found in a wide range of biomass, there is no need for its vaporization and the process allows thorough exploitation of the environmental benefits of using hydrogen as an energy carrier. The use of glycerol in particular is motivated due to its availability as a consequence of increasing biodiesel production worldwide. In this contribution, the performance ...

  10. Production and propagation of secondary particles near the earth; Production et propagation de particules secondaires au voisinage de la Terre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derome, L

    2008-01-15

    A few years ago the AMS01 embarked experiment showed a particular high component of the cosmic particle flux detected below the geo-magnetic cut which was surprising because this cut represents the minimal energy that is required for cosmic radiation to reach the earth and any cosmic ray below the cut is pushed away by the earth's magnetic field. This work is based on Monte-Carlo simulations involving the generation of primary cosmic particles, their propagation in the earth magnetic field, their interaction with earth's atmosphere and the production of secondary particles. These simulations have shown that the particles below the cut are in fact particles generated in the upper part of the atmosphere, escaping from it and being trapped by the earth's magnetic field. These Monte-Carlo simulations have also been used to assess the composition of below-the-cut flux in terms of protons, electrons, positrons and light nuclei, to check the production of anti-matter in the atmosphere, and to estimate the flux of atmospheric neutrinos. (A.C.)

  11. Influence of post-annealing on the properties of Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} film and submicron size particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Maj E-mail: maj.hanson@fy.chalmers.se; Kazakova, Olga; Svedberg, E.B

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of a 48 nm thick Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} film and submicron size elements made of the film were investigated. The initial film was grown by DC magnetron sputtering and post-annealed during 30 min at 300 deg. C. Arrays of circular dots with diameters d=200, 300 and 550 nm and a reference sample (diameter 1.7 mm) were made of the film by electron lithography and Ar ion milling. After structural analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterization by magnetization measurements and magnetic force microscopy, all samples were further annealed during 30 min at 600 deg. C. The XRD scans show that this led to an improvement of the crystalline quality in all samples, to a degree depending on the size of the dots. Both the structural and magnetic measurements imply that after the second heat treatment all samples have the easy magnetocrystalline direction (c-axis) mainly in the plane of the film, while the initial structures were characterized by a random distribution of c-axes.

  12. Subvisible (2-100 μm) particle analysis during biotherapeutic drug product development: Part 2, experience with the application of subvisible particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvari, Vincent; Narhi, Linda O; Spitznagel, Thomas M; Afonina, Nataliya; Cao, Shawn; Cash, Patricia; Cecchini, Irene; DeFelippis, Michael R; Garidel, Patrick; Herre, Andrea; Koulov, Atanas V; Lubiniecki, Tony; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Nesta, Douglas; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo; Polozova, Alla; Rossi, Mara; Schmidt, Roland; Simler, Robert; Singh, Satish; Weiskopf, Andrew; Wuchner, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Measurement and characterization of subvisible particles (including proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous particulate matter) is an important aspect of the pharmaceutical development process for biotherapeutics. Health authorities have increased expectations for subvisible particle data beyond criteria specified in the pharmacopeia and covering a wider size range. In addition, subvisible particle data is being requested for samples exposed to various stress conditions and to support process/product changes. Consequently, subvisible particle analysis has expanded beyond routine testing of finished dosage forms using traditional compendial methods. Over the past decade, advances have been made in the detection and understanding of subvisible particle formation. This article presents industry case studies to illustrate the implementation of strategies for subvisible particle analysis as a characterization tool to assess the nature of the particulate matter and applications in drug product development, stability studies and post-marketing changes. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uses of alpha particles, especially in nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, Syed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Scholten, Bernhard; Neumaier, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2016-11-01

    Alpha particles exhibit three important characteristics: scattering, ionisation and activation. This article briefly discusses those properties and outlines their major applications. Among others, α-particles are used in elemental analysis, investigation and improvement of materials properties, nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production. The latter two topics, dealing with activation of target materials, are treated in some detail in this paper. Measurements of excitation functions of α-particle induced reactions shed some light on their reaction mechanisms, and studies of isomeric cross sections reveal the probability of population of high-spin nuclear levels. Regarding medical radionuclides, an overview is presented of the isotopes commonly produced using α-particle beams. Consideration is also given to some routes which could be potentially useful for production of a few other radionuclides. The significance of α-particle induced reactions to produce a few high-spin isomeric states, decaying by emission of low-energy conversion or Auger electrons, which are of interest in localized internal radiotherapy, is outlined. The α-particle beam, thus broadens the scope of nuclear chemistry research related to development of non-standard positron emitters and therapeutic radionuclides.

  14. Hot beta particles in the lung: Results from dogs exposed to fission product radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident resulted in the release of uranium dioxide fuel and fission product radionuclides into the environment with the fallout of respirable, highly radioactive particles that have been termed {open_quotes}hot beta particles.{close_quotes} There is concern that these hot beta particles (containing an average of 150-20,000 Bq/particle), when inhaled and deposited in the lung, may present an extraordinary hazard for the induction of lung cancer. We reviewed data from a group of studies in dogs exposed to different quantities of beta-emitting radionuclides with varied physical half-lives to determine if those that inhaled hot beta particles were at unusual risk for lung cancer. This analysis indicates that the average dose to the lung is adequate to predict biologic effects of lung cancer for inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in the range of 5-50 Gy to the lung and with particle activities in the range of 0.10-50 Bq/particle.

  15. Signatures of Energy Flux in Particle Production: A Black Hole Birth Cry and Death Gasp

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2015-01-01

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  16. Signatures of energy flux in particle production: a black hole birth cry and death gasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-07-01

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  17. Signatures of energy flux in particle production: a black hole birth cry and death gasp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, Michael R.R. [Department of Physics, Nazarbayev University,53 Kabanbay Batyr Ave., Astana, Republic of (Kazakhstan); Ong, Yen Chin [Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-27

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole’s mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole’s birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  18. In situ construction of Ir@Pt/C nanoparticles in the cathode layer of membrane electrode assemblies with ultra-low Pt loading and high Pt exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Dai; Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Xiaoyuan; Tian, Xinlong; Qu, Chong; Nan, Haoxiong; Shu, Ting; Hou, Sanying; Yang, Lijun; Zeng, Jianhuang; Liao, Shijun

    2017-07-01

    A novel membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with ultra-low Pt loadings and high Pt exposure in the cathode layer is prepared by spraying Ir/C catalyst ink on the membrane surface to form a substrate layer, followed by in situ pulse electrochemical deposition of a Pt shell layer on the Ir core nanoparticles in the substrate layer. It makes the Pt loadings on cathode lower to 0.044 mg/cm2. In our system, the MEA with our novel cathode exhibits excellent performance in a H2/air single fuel cell, which is comparable to that of the MEA prepared with commercial Pt/C catalyst (Johnson Matthey 40% Pt) with Pt loadings of 0.1 mg/cm2. The electrode with core-shell structured catalysts is characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, EDS line-scan, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Based on the characterization results, it is found that the Pt is highly dispersed on the Ir NPs, and the electronic feature of Pt at shell layer can be tuned by the Ir core particle. Furthermore, the DFT calculation results also reveal the interaction between Pt at shell layer and Ir core. This work may provide a novel pathway to realize low Pt and high Pt utilization in low temperature fuel cells.

  19. THE APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING ARE: ELIMINATION IN THE CALCULATION OF COST OF PRODUCTION PT SEMEN TONASA (PERSERO, PANGKEP REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Menne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic conditions should be viewed as the catalyst for developing the ability to intelligently manage resources so that the people of Indonesia can be out of the condition. Effective management and efficiency is reflected in good planning and good planning requires good information. In order to plan well the utilization of company resources to fold the duplicate spiders, company management requires system information revealed by clearly and precisely the facts relating to the activity. PT Semen Tonasa is a fabrication company doing business in the field of cement industry and produces two types of cement, cement or Portland cement type 1 can (OPC and Portland cement (PPC Pazzolan. The benefits that can be gained if the company implemented the system of Activity-Based Costing are: elimination is obtained more accurate information, among others, to improve the quality of decision making. In the ABC product only burdened costs of resources and activities that are used and does not burdened by the cost of the resources and activities. This method causes the cost per unit of a more stable and consistent with the purposes of the imposition of costs to the product result in activity.

  20. Studies of particle production in pp collisions in the forward region at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072725

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector at the LHC has a pseudorapidity coverage $(2 < \\eta < 5)$ which allows it to perform particle production measurements in a kinematic region where QCD models have large uncertainties. Selected analyses on particle production measurements in $pp$ collisions are summarised in these proceedings. The energy flow has been measured separately for different event classes allowing to probe multi-parton interactions at large $\\eta$. The measured prompt hadron ratios are important for hadronisation models, while the $ \\bar {p}/p$ ratio is a good observable to test models of baryon number transport. Charm production has been studied to determine cross-sections and production ratios. All measurements are compared to a variety of theory predictions.

  1. Study of particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions for neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Palczewski, Tomasz Jan

    The dissertation presents a study of hadron product ion in the NA61/SHINE large acceptance spectrometer at CERN SPS. The differential cross se ctions were obtained for the production of negatively charged pions, neutral Kaons, and Lam bdas from the proton-Carbon interactions at 31 GeV/c. Methods of particle yields extraction from proton Carbon interactions were developed. An analysis chain of global correction m ethod (h- method) was established for the thin carbon target and as well for T2K replica targ et and compared to the results obtained with full particle identification. The h- method permits to cover larger phase space region not otherwise accessible. In addition, a full chain of V 0 analysis was prepared to obtain neutral Kaon and Lambda results in polar angle and momentum variables (p, θ ). Results on the differential production cross sections and mean mul tiplicities in production processes for negatively charge...

  2. Non-factorizable photonic corrections to resonant production and decay of many unstable particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak radiative corrections to the production of high-multiplicity final states with several intermediate resonances in most cases can be sufficiently well described by the leading contribution of an expansion about the resonance poles. In this approach, also known as pole approximation, corrections are classified into separately gauge-invariant factorizable and non-factorizable corrections, where the former can be attributed to the production and decay of the unstable particles on their mass shell. The remaining non-factorizable corrections are induced by the exchange of soft photons between different production and decay subprocesses. We give explicit analytical results for the non-factorizable photonic virtual corrections to the production of an arbitrary number of unstable particles at the one-loop level and, thus, deliver an essential building block in the calculation of next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections in pole approximation. The remaining virtual factorizable corrections can be obtain...

  3. Effect of radial flow on two particle correlations with identified triggers at intermediate pT in p-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debojit; Choudhury, Subikash; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-09-01

    Results from two-particle correlation between identified triggers (pions (π±), protons (p / p bar)) and un-identified charged particles at intermediate transverse momentum (pT) in p-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV have been presented. The events generated from a hybrid Monte-Carlo event generator, EPOS 3.107 that implements a flux-tube initial conditions followed by event by event 3+1D viscous hydrodynamical evolution, have been analyzed to calculate two-dimensional correlation functions in Δη- Δϕ. The strength of angular correlations at small relative angles (jet-like correlations), quantified in terms of near-side jet-like per-trigger yield has been calculated as a function of the event multiplicity. The yield associated with pion triggers exhibit negligible multiplicity dependence, while the proton-triggered yield shows a gradual suppression from low to high multiplicity events. In small collision systems like p-Pb where jet modification is expected to be less dominant, the observed suppression may be associated with the hydrodynamical evolution of the bulk system that generates an outward radial flow. Analogous measurements in Au-Au collisions at RHIC energy have shown a hint of dilution in proton-triggered correlation at its highest multiplicity suggesting that the soft physics processes in p-Pb and heavy ion collisions may have qualitative similarity.

  4. Prothrombin time (PT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PT; Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio ... PT is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR ( ...

  5. Direct Determination of the Ionization Energies of PtC, PtO, and PtO2 with VUVRadiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citir, Murat; Metz, Ricardo B.; Belau, Leonid; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-07-21

    Photoionization efficiency curves were measured for gas-phase PtC, PtO, and PtO2 using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at the Advanced Light Source. The molecules were prepared by laser ablation of a platinum tube, followed by reaction with CH4 or N2O and supersonic expansion. These measurements providethe first directly measured ionization energy for PtC, IE(PtC) = 9.45 +- 0.05 eV. The direct measurement also gives greatly improved ionization energies for the platinum oxides, IE(PtO) = 10.0 +- 0.1 eV and IE(PtO2) = 11.35 +- 0.05 eV. The ionization energy connects the dissociation energies of the neutral and cation, leading to greatly improved 0 K bond dissociation energies for the neutrals: D0(Pt-C) = 5.95 +- 0.07 eV, D0(Pt-O)= 4.30 +- 0.12 eV, and D0(OPt-O) = 4.41 +- 0.13 eV, as well as enthalpies of formation for the gas-phase molecules Delta H0 f,0(PtC(g)) = 701 +- 7 kJ/mol, Delta H0f,0(PtO(g)) = 396 +- 12 kJ/mol, and Delta H0f,0(PtO2(g)) = 218 +- 11 kJ/mol. Much of the error in previous Knudsen cell measurements of platinum oxide bond dissociation energies is due to the use of thermodynamic second law extrapolations. Third law values calculated using statistical mechanical thermodynamic functions are in much better agreement with values obtained from ionization energies and ion energetics. These experiments demonstrate that laser ablation production with direct VUV ionization measurements is a versatile tool to measure ionization energies and bond dissociation energies for catalytically interesting species such as metal oxides and carbides.

  6. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  7. Gravitational induced particle production through a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu; Mimoso, José P; Pavón, Diego

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility of a gravitationally induced particle production through the mechanism of a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling. An interesting feature of this gravitational theory is that the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor is nonzero. As a first step in our study we reformulate the model in terms of an equivalent scalar-tensor theory, with two arbitrary potentials. By using the formalism of open thermodynamic systems, we interpret the energy balance equations in this gravitational theory from a thermodynamic point of view, as describing irreversible matter creation processes. The particle number creation rates, the creation pressure, and the entropy production rates are explicitly obtained as functions of the scalar field and its potentials, as well as of the matter Lagrangian. The temperature evolution laws of the newly created particles are also obtained. The cosmological implications of the model are briefly investigated, and it is shown that the late-time cosmic acceleration may be...

  8. Analysis of Multi-particle Production at RHIC by Two-source Statistical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The data of multi-particle production in s1/2 =130 AGeV Au+Au collisions (RHIC) are analyzed by two-source statistical model which was successfully applied in analyzing the data of multi-particle production in 158 AGeV Pb+Pb collisions (SPS). It is found that sources in RHIC are different from that in SPS which has a small and hot inner source surrounded by a larger and cooler outer source. The two sources in RHIC are identical. They have the same temperature, volume, particle density and other thermodynamic quantities. Besides, the results of two-source model are identical with that of single-source model (the total volume of the two sources equals the volume of single source). The

  9. Effects of nutrients and turbulence on the production of transparent exopolymer particles: a mesocosm study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrotti, M.L.; Peters, Francesc; Beauvais, S.; Vidal, Montserrat; Egge, J.; Jacobsen, Anita; Marrasé, Cèlia

    2010-01-01

    The production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in response to several environmental variables was studied in 2 mesocosm experiments. The first (Expt 1) examined a gradient of 4 nutrient levels; the second (Expt 2) examined different conditions of silicate availability and zooplankton presence. Tanks were separated in 2 series, one subjected to turbulence and the other not influenced by turbulence. In tanks with nutrient addition, TEP were rapidly formed, with net apparent production...

  10. Effect of the state of distribution of supported Pt nanoparticles on effective Pt utilization in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Makoto; Park, Young-Chul; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Yano, Hiroshi; Tryk, Donald A; Kamino, Takeo; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2013-07-21

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cells, it is essential to minimize Pt loading, particularly at the cathode, without serious loss of performance. From this point of view, we will report an advanced concept for the design of high performance catalysts and membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs): first, the evaluation of Pt particle distributions on both the interior and exterior walls of various types of carbon black (CB) particles used as supports with respect to the "effective surface (ES)"; second, control of both size and location of Pt particles by means of a new preparation method (nanocapsule method); and finally, a new evaluation method for the properties of MEAs based on the Pt utilization (UPt), mass activity (MA), and effectiveness of Pt (EfPt), based on the ES concept. The amounts of Pt catalyst particles located in the CB nanopores were directly evaluated using the transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and corresponding three-dimensional images. By use of the nanocapsule method and optimization of the ionomer, increased MA and EfPt values for the MEA were achieved. The improvement in the cathode performance can be attributed to the sharp particle-size distribution for Pt and the highly uniform dispersion on the exterior surface of graphitized carbon black (GCB) supports.

  11. Micro-Sized Particle Production of Momordicas sp Extract Using Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizirwan Mel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. It is highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form from liquid feed-stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions. Therefore, spray drying is an ideal process where the end-product must comply with precise quality standards regarding particle size distribution, residual moisture content, bulk density, and particle shape. In this study, Momordica sp extract product has been successfully spray dried into micro scale of powder particle and will be used as plant-based insulin. The process optimized using Taguchi method with four factors and three levels has given a good quality of the product. The average of particle size was obtained at about 11 microns.ABSTRAK: Kering sembur digunakan secara meluas dalam proses industri yang melibatkan pembentukan zarah dan pengeringan. Ia amat sesuai dalam penghasilan pepejal kering secara beterusan dalam bentuk serbuk, butiran atau gumpalan daripada simpanan suapan bendalir sebagai larutan, emulsi dan ampaian boleh dipam. Maka, kering sembur adalah proses yang ideal apabila hasil akhir harus mematuhi piawaian kualiti yang tepat berkaitan dengan pengagihan saiz zarah, kandungan kelengsaan sisa, ketumpatan pukal dan bentuk zarah. Dalam kajian ini, produk ekstrak Momordica sp (dikenali juga sebagai peria katak telah berjaya dikering sembur menjadi serbuk zarah berskala mikro dan akan digunakan sebagai insulin berasaskan tumbuhan. Proses ini dioptimumkan dengan pengunaan kaedah Taguchi empat faktor dan tiga peringkat, agar memberikan hasil produk yang berkualiti. Kadar purata saiz zarah yang terhasil adalah lebih kurang 11 mikron.KEY WORDS: micro-sized, particle, Momordica sp, spray dryer.

  12. Search for the production of Higgs boson in association with invisible particles, in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hard, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Some theories predict the production of Higgs bosons in association with invisible particles. The signature of such events would be a Higgs boson associated to a large missing transverse energy. Such events are searched for in different decay modes of the Higgs boson, using about 10 fb-1 of p-p collisions at 13 TeV.

  13. The effect of particle inlet conditions on FCC riser hydrodynamics and product yields.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. L.; Golchert, B.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.; Huntsinger, A.; Petrick, M.

    1999-10-11

    Essential to today's modern refineries and the gasoline production process are fluidized catalytic cracking units. By using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate the riser, parametric and sensitivity studies were performed to determine the effect of catalyst inlet conditions on the riser hydrodynamics and on the product yields. Simulations were created on the basis of a general riser configuration and operating conditions. The results of this work are indications of riser operating conditions that will maximize specific product yields. The CFD code is a three-dimensional, multiphase, turbulent, reacting flow code with phenomenological models for particle-solid interactions, droplet evaporation, and chemical kinetics. The code has been validated against pressure, particle loading, and product yield measurements. After validation of the code, parametric studies were performed on various parameters such as the injection velocity of the catalyst, the angle of injection, and the particle size distribution. The results indicate that good mixing of the catalyst particles with the oil droplets produces a high degree of cracking in the riser.

  14. Experimental wrap-up: p ( d ) A — particle production and nuclear modification factors

    CERN Document Server

    Morsch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions was held in November 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa. This contribution is a summary of the results presented on particle production and nuclear modification factors in p–A like collisions.

  15. Emulsion chamber experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya multiple particle production and Centauro events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, A

    1999-03-01

    A review is made on the features of multiple particle production and the Centauro events, based on the data which are obtained by Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. Discussion follows on whether the Feynman scaling law is holding or violated around 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 18} eV, and on the origin of Centauro events.

  16. TUNING OF SIZE AND SHAPE OF AU-PT NANOCATALYST FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this paper, we report the precise control of the size, shape and surface morphology of Au-Pt nanocatalysts (cubes, blocks, octahedrons and dogbones) synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. Gold 'seeds' of different aspect ratios (1 to 4.2), grown by a silver-assisted approach, were used as templates for high-yield production of novel Au-Pt nanocatalysts at a low temperature (40 C). Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential (surface charge), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to better understand their physico-chemical properties, preferred reactivities and underlying nanoparticle growth mechanism. A rotating disk electrode was used to evaluate the Au-Pt nanocatalysts electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of direct methanol fuel cells. The results indicate the Au-Pt dogbones are partially and in some cases completely unaffected by methanol poisoning during the evaluation of the ORR. The ORR performance of the octahedron particles in the absence of MeOH is superior to that of the Au-Pt dogbones and Pt-black, however its performance is affected by the presence of MeOH.

  17. A model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.

    1985-02-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions and energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g/cm (2). Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurments of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth.

  18. The Effect of Particle Content, Particle Distribution, and Cold Deformation on the Recrystallization of Low Oxide Al-Al2O3 Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Bay, B.

    1972-01-01

    the oxide content (proportional to the reciprocal particle spacing) and the distribution of oxide particles either as a uniform distribution or as a regular three-dimensional network. From the microstructures after cold work and after recovery it is suggested that particle-retarded recrystallization may...... be caused by pinning, during the recovery stage, of sub-boundaries and of individual dislocations. The hypothesis of retardation of recrystallization as due to particle-enhanced homogenization of dislocation structures during deformation is not supported by the microstructural observations. In the product...

  19. Comparison of formic acid oxidation at supported Pt catalyst and at low-index Pt single crystal electrodes in sulfuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMALIJA V. TRIPKOVIC

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of formic acid was studied at supported Pt catalyst (47.5 wt%. Pt and a low-index single crystal electrodes in sulfuric acid. The supported Pt catalyst was characterized by the TEM and HRTEM techniques. The mean Pt particle diameter, calculated from electrochemical measurements, fits well with Pt particle size distribution determined by HRTEM. For the mean particle diameter the surface averaged distribution of low-index single crystal facets was established. Comparison of the activities obtained at Pt supported catalyst and low-index Pt single crystal electrodes revealed that Pt(111 plane is the most active in the potential region relevant for fuel cell applications.

  20. Corrosion rate estimations of microscale zerovalent iron particles via direct hydrogen production measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Carniato, Luca; Simons, Queenie; Schoups, Gerrit; Seuntjens, Piet; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-04-15

    In this study, the aging behavior of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles was investigated by quantifying the hydrogen gas generated by anaerobic mZVI corrosion in batch degradation experiments. Granular iron and nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles were included in this study as controls. Firstly, experiments in liquid medium (without aquifer material) were performed and revealed that mZVI particles have approximately a 10-30 times lower corrosion rate than nZVI particles. A good correlation was found between surface area normalized corrosion rate (RSA) and reaction rate constants (kSA) of PCE, TCE, cDCE and 1,1,1-TCA. Generally, particles with higher degradation rates also have faster corrosion rates, but exceptions do exists. In a second phase, the hydrogen evolution was also monitored during batch tests in the presence of aquifer material and real groundwater. A 4-9 times higher corrosion rate of mZVI particles was observed under the natural environment in comparison with the aquifer free artificial condition, which can be attributed to the low pH of the aquifer and its buffer capacity. A corrosion model was calibrated on the batch experiments to take into account the inhibitory effects of the corrosion products (dissolved iron, hydrogen and OH(-)) on the iron corrosion rate.

  1. Potential Applications of Hybrid Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH Particles in Pulp and Paper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia von Haartman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functionalization of papermaking pulp fibers using inorganic particles was investigated as a novel approach. Different layered double hydroxide (LDH particles were used in peroxide bleaching of thermomechanical pulp (TMP and in oxygen bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp. LDH particles were also tested as binding sites for optical brightening agents (OBA that are commonly used in paper production. The surface chemistry of LDH-treated pulps was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and apparent contact angle with water. Adsorbed LDH was not detected by XPS on the fiber surfaces after the bleaching trials, but it had a clear impact on the processes. LDH particles modified with terephthalate anions decreased the consumption of hydrogen peroxide and increased opacity by 3 units in TMP. Unmodified LDH particles enhanced the selectivity in oxygen delignification of kraft pulp, leading to 10% gain in ISO brightness and reduction of 2 units in Kappa number in comparison with conventional processes. Paper strength properties were unaffected in the presented system. After bleaching with LDH, the amount of anionic groups on pulp surfaces was increased. Also, the retention of OBA onto TMP fibers was improved with modified LDH particles. LDH proved to have great potential for current and prospective applications in pulp and paper manufacture.

  2. Particle Production after Inflation with Non-minimal Derivative Coupling to Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite.

  3. Search for Charmed Particle Production in Proton Proton Collisions at the CERN ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, William L

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results on a search for charmed particle production in proton-proton collisions at the center of mass energy (..sqrt..s) of 53 GeV are presented. Evidence of cidences, a signature of charmed particle production, was sought. The inclusive e/..pi.. ratio was measured with a magnetic spectrometer located at 32/sup 0/ from Beam 1 of Intersection I6 of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). The e/..pi.. ratio from direct (unknown) sources was found to rise from 1.06 x 10/sup -4/ at p/sub perpendicular to/ = 1.5 GeV/c to 5.53 x 10/sup -4/ at p/sub perpendicular to/ = 0.25 GeV/c. One possible source for this signal is the semi-leptonic decay of charmed particles (e.g., D ..-->.. K/sup 0/ e..nu..). If so, then electron-strange particle (e.g., ..lambda../sup 0/,K/sup 0/) coincidences are expected. The charged decay products of ..lambda../sup 0/ and K/sup 0/ were detected in a multiparticle spectrometer surrounding Beam 1 downstream of the intersection. To determine if there is an electron-strange part...

  4. Measurements of very forward particles production spectra at LHC: the LHCf experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Eugenio; Bonechi, Lorenzo; Bongi, Massimo; Castellini, Guido; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Haguenauer, Maurice; Itow, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Taiki; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Makino, Yuya; Masuda, Kimiaki; Matsubayashi, Eri; Menjo, Hiroaki; Muraki, Yasushi; Papini, Paolo; Ricciarini, Sergio; Sako, Takashi; Suzuki, Takuya; Tamura, Tadahisa; Tiberio, Alessio; Torii, Shoji; Tricomi, Alessia; Turner, W C; Ueno, Mana; Zhou, Qi Dong

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to two small sampling calorimeters installed in the LHC tunnel at ±140 m from IP1, the LHC forward (LHCf) experiment is able to detect neutral particles produced by high energy proton-ion collisions in the very forward region (pseudo-rapidity η > 8.4). The main aim of LHCf is to provide precise measurements of the production spectra relative to these particles, in order to tune hadronic interaction models used by ground-based cosmic rays experiments. In this paper we will present the current status of the LHCf experiment, regarding in particular collected data and analysis results, as well as future prospects

  5. Gravitationally induced particle production and its impact on the WIMP abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, I., E-mail: iuribaranov@usp.br [Departamento de Física Geral, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, J.A.S., E-mail: limajas@astro.iag.usp.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Física, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-110 Belém, Pará (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    A large set of independent astronomical observations have provided a strong evidence for nonbaryonic dark matter in the Universe. One of the most investigated candidates is an unknown long-lived Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which was in thermal equilibrium with the primeval plasma. Here we investigate the WIMP abundance based on the relativistic kinetic treatment for gravitationally induced particle production recently proposed in the literature (Lima and Baranov, 2014) [16]. The new evolution equation is deduced and solved both numerically and through a semi-analytical approach. The predictions of the WIMP observables are discussed and compared with the ones obtained in the standard approach.

  6. Gravitationally induced adiabatic particle production: from big bang to de Sitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-08-01

    In the background of a flat homogeneous and isotropic space-time, we consider a scenario of the Universe driven by the gravitationally induced ‘adiabatic’ particle production with constant creation rate. We have shown that this Universe attains a big bang singularity in the past and at late-time it asymptotically becomes de Sitter. To clarify this model Universe, we performed a dynamical analysis and found that the Universe attains a thermodynamic equilibrium in this late de Sitter phase. Finally, for the first time, we have discussed the possible effects of ‘adiabatic’ particle creations in the context of loop quantum cosmology.

  7. Gravitationally induced particle production and its impact on the WIMP abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baranov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A large set of independent astronomical observations have provided a strong evidence for nonbaryonic dark matter in the Universe. One of the most investigated candidates is an unknown long-lived Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP which was in thermal equilibrium with the primeval plasma. Here we investigate the WIMP abundance based on the relativistic kinetic treatment for gravitationally induced particle production recently proposed in the literature (Lima and Baranov, 2014 [16]. The new evolution equation is deduced and solved both numerically and through a semi-analytical approach. The predictions of the WIMP observables are discussed and compared with the ones obtained in the standard approach.

  8. Gravitationally Induced Particle Production and its Impact on the WIMP Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, I

    2015-01-01

    A large set of independent astronomical observations have provided a strong evidence for nonbaryonic dark matter in the Universe. One of the most investigated candidates is an unknown long-lived Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which was in thermal equilibrium with the primeval plasma. Here we investigate the WIMP abundance based on the relativistic kinetic treatment for gravitationally induced particle production recently proposed in the literature (Lima \\& Baranov, Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 90}, 043515, 2014). The new evolution equation is deduced and solved both numerically and also through a semi-analytical approach. The predictions of the WIMP observables are discussed and compared with the ones obtained in the standard approach.

  9. PT-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the PT-symmetric version of quantum electrodynamics, it is argued that the C operator introduced in order to define a unitary inner product has nothing to do with charge conjugation.

  10. Raman studies of Rh and Pt on La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts used in a membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornaglia, L.M.; Munera, J.; Irusta, S.; Lombardo, E.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica, (FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829-3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2004-05-28

    Rh and Pt catalysts supported on lanthanum oxide were prepared by wet impregnation. The solids were used in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor to produce hydrogen through the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. The effect of the sweep gas flow rate and W/F upon the conversions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, as well as on the production of H{sub 2} was studied. The best performing catalyst was Rh (0.6%). It yielded a methane conversion 38% higher than the thermodynamic value and the highest H{sub 2} permeate flux across the membrane. Lanthanum phases on the support and the catalysts were characterized by Laser Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and XRD. The support and the calcined fresh catalysts exhibited a mixture of phases which were influenced by the metal type. Furthermore, platinum seemed to favor the formation of Ia-La{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} after a short treatment in flowing CO{sub 2}. However, the only remaining crystalline phase after 100h on stream was II-La{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. A small amount of graphitic carbon was detected using Laser Raman spectroscopy, despite the fact that no carbon deposition was observed through TGA measurements. The graphite crystallization order seemed to be dependent upon the contact time of the reactants.

  11. Pt/Mesoporous Carbon Counter Electrode with a Low Pt Loading for High-Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pt/Mesoporous carbon counter electrodes with a low Pt loading for dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by coating Pt/mesoporous carbon on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Pt/mesoporous carbon samples were prepared by reducing H2PtCl6 with NaBH4 in mesoporous carbon and characterized by N2 adsorption analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Pt particles deposited on mesoporous carbon support were found to be in uniform shape and narrow range of particle size. Low-Pt-loading Pt/mesoporous carbon counter electrode showed a high electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement displayed a low charge-transfer resistance of 1.2 Ωcm2 for 1-Pt/mesoporous carbon counter electrode. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on the 1-Pt/mesoporous carbon counter electrode achieved an overall conversion efficiency of 6.62% under one sun illumination, which is higher than that of the cell with the conventional Pt counter electrode.

  12. Methanol electro-oxidation on Pt/C modified by polyaniline nanofibers for DMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiani, Mohammad; Rezaei, Behzad; Jalili, Jalal [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    In the present study, in order to achieve an inexpensive tolerable anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell applications, a composite of polyaniline nanofibers and Pt/C nano-particles, identified by PANI/Pt/C, was prepared by in-situ electropolymerization of aniline and trifluoromethane sulfonic acid on glassy carbon. The effect of synthesized PANI nanofibers in methanol electrooxidation reaction was compared by bare Pt/C by different electrochemical methods such as; cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also employed to morphological study of the modified catalyst layer. The test results reveal that introduction of PANI nanofibers within catalyst layer improves the catalyst activity in methanol oxidation, hinders and prevents catalyst from more poisoning by intermediate products of methanol oxidation and improves the mechanical properties of the catalyst layer. SEM images also indicate that PANI nanofibers placed between platinum particles and anchor platinum particles and alleviate the Pt migration during methanol electrooxidation. (author)

  13. Mini-jet production in proton-antiproton interactions and particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Haiqiao

    1997-04-01

    The thesis is based on the data analysis and detector development of the EMU01/CERN, E863/BNL and UA1/CERN experiments. Particle fluctuations are studied with the scaled factorial moments in the fragmentation region of oxygen induced emulsion interactions from 3.7 to 200 A GeV. The intermittency indices show an energy independent behaviour in the target and projectile regions of pseudorapidity. In order to study the origin of the fluctuations, jet-like and ring-like substructures of particles produced in the azimuthal plane are investigated for the S - Au, S - Em and O - Em interactions at 200 A GeV. The study shows that the two particle azimuthal correlations can be well understood if Bose-Einstein correlations and {gamma}-conversion are included. A nuclear rescattering model, which incorporates the FRITIOF model, has been developed. The model can well describe multiplicity distributions of slow recoiling protons, evaporation particles and their correlations with particles produced in high energy heavy ion collisions. In order to improve the measurements of Pb induced collisions, an automatic system based on the CCD technique and image processing was developed. This system has been used to measure densities of the particles produced. Mini-jet production is studied using the UA1 1987 minimum bias data sample for p (anti) interaction at s{sup 1/2} 0 630 GeV. The study shows that the transverse energy distribution of mini-jets is in good agreement with the QCD prediction. The angular distributions of two leading jets show the behaviour of elastic scattering of partons with gluon exchange. 86 refs.

  14. Evaluation of Pt{sub 40}Pd{sub 60}/MWCNT electrocatalyst as ethylene glycol-tolerant oxygen reduction cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, D.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, C.P. 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Alvarez-Contreras, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C. P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Luna, S. Fraire; Varela, F.J. Rodriguez [Cinvestav Unidad Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13.5, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, C.P. 25900 (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Pt-Pd/MWCNT with Pt:Pd atomic ratio 40:60 and Pt/MWCNT electrocatalyst were synthesized and evaluated as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathodes for Direct Ethylene Glycol Fuel Cells (DEGFC) applications. As reference, a commercial Pt/C material was also tested. We found that Pt-Pd/MWCNT has high tolerance capability to EG and higher selectivity for the ORR compared to the Pt-alone materials. As a result, the shift in onset potential for the ORR, E{sub onset}, at Pt-Pd/MWCNT was considerably smaller than the shift at Pt/MWCNT or Pt/C. The average particle size (from XRD) was 3.5 and 4 nm for Pt/MWCNT and Pt-Pd/MWCNT, respectively. A moderate degree of alloying was determined for the Pt-Pd material. An advantageous application of Pt-Pd electrocatalysts should be in DEGFCs. (author)

  15. Cosmological solutions with gravitational particle production and non-zero curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Pan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    In a homogeneous and isotropic universe with non-zero spatial curvature we consider the effects of gravitational particle production in the dynamics of the universe. We show that the dynamics of the universe in such a background are characterized by a single nonlinear differential equation which is significantly dependent on the rate of particle creation and whose solutions can be dominated by curvature effects at early times. For different particle creation rates we apply the singularity test in order to find the analytic solutions of the background dynamics. We describe the behavior of the cosmological solutions for both open and closed universes. We also show how the effects of curvature can be produced by the presence of a second perfect fluid with an appropriate equation of state.

  16. Finite-width effects in unstable-particle production at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Falgari, P; Signer, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a general formalism for the calculation of finite-width contributions to the differential production cross sections of unstable particles at hadron colliders. In this formalism, which employs an effective-theory description of unstable-particle production and decay, the matrix element computation is organized as a gauge-invariant expansion in powers of $\\Gamma_X/m_X$, with $\\Gamma_X$ and $m_X$ the width and mass of the unstable particle. This framework allows for a systematic inclusion of off-shell and non-factorizable effects whilst at the same time keeping the computational effort minimal compared to a full calculation in the complex-mass scheme. As a proof-of-concept example, we give results for an NLO calculation of top-antitop production in the $q \\bar{q}$ partonic channel. As already found in a similar calculation of single-top production, the finite-width effects are small for the total cross section, as expected from the na\\" ive counting $\\sim \\Gamma_t/m_t \\sim 1%$. However, they can be si...

  17. A Study of Particle Production in Proton Induced Collisions Using the MIPP Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Sonam [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India)

    2015-01-01

    The Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment is a fixed target hadron production experiment at Fermilab. MIPP is a high acceptance spectrometer which provides excellent charged particle identification using Time Projection Chamber (TPC), Time of Flight (ToF), multicell Cherenkov (Ckov), ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, and Calorimeter for neutrons. The MIPP experiment is designed to measure particle production in interactions of 120 GeV/c primary protons from the Main Injector and secondary beams of $\\pi^{\\pm}, \\rm{K}^{\\pm}$, p and $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ from 5 to 90 GeV/c on nuclear targets which include H, Be, C, Bi and U, and a dedicated run with the NuMI target. The goal of the experiment is to measure hadron production cross sections or yields using these beams and targets. These hadronic interaction data can have a direct impact on the detailed understanding of the neutrino fluxes of several accelerator-based neutrino experiments like MINOS, MINER$\

  18. The Production of FRW Universe and Decay to Particles in Multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2017-09-01

    In this study, first, it will be shown that as the Hubble parameter, " H", increases the production cross section for closed and flat Universes increases rapidly at smaller values of " H" and becomes constant for higher values of " H". However in the case of open Universe, the production cross section has been encountered a singularity. Before this singularity, as the H parameter increases, the cross section increases, for smaller H, ( H Universe happens before this singularity, it can't achieve to higher values of Hubble parameter after singularity. More over if the production cross section of Universe situates after the singularity, it won't get access to values of Hubble parameter less than the singularity. After that the thermal distribution for particles inside the FRW Universes are obtained. It is found that a large amount of particles are produced near apparent horizon due to their variety in their energy and their probabilities. Finally, comparing the particle production cross sections for flat, closed and open Universes, it is concluded that as the value of k increases, the cross section decreases.

  19. Finite-width effects in unstable-particle production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falgari, P. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Spinoza Inst.; Papanastasiou, A.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Signer, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-03-15

    We present a general formalism for the calculation of finite-width contributions to the differential production cross sections of unstable particles at hadron colliders. In this formalism, which employs an effective-theory description of unstable-particle production and decay, the matrix element computation is organized as a gauge-invariant expansion in powers of {Gamma}{sub X}/m{sub X}, with {Gamma}{sub X} and m{sub X} the width and mass of the unstable particle. This framework allows for a systematic inclusion of off-shell and non-factorizable effects whilst at the same time keeping the computational effort minimal compared to a full calculation in the complex-mass scheme. As a proof-of-concept example, we give results for an NLO calculation of top-antitop production in the q anti q partonic channel. As already found in a similar calculation of single-top production, the finite-width effects are small for the total cross section, as expected from the naive counting {proportional_to}{Gamma}{sub t}/m{sub t}{proportional_to}1%. However, they can be sizeable, in excess of 10%, close to edges of certain kinematical distributions. The dependence of the results on the mass renormalization scheme, and its implication for a precise extraction of the top-quark mass, is also discussed.

  20. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  1. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-06-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  2. Fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in the production of hepatitis B virus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hitomi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nio, Yasunori, E-mail: yasunori.nio@takeda.com [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Pharmaceutical Research Division, 26-1, Muraoka-Higashi 2-Chome, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 251-8555 (Japan); Akahori, Yuichi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kim, Sulyi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Sciences, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto, E-mail: mhijikat@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2016-06-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) proliferates in hepatocytes after infection, but the host factors that contribute to the HBV lifecycle are poorly understood at the molecular level. We investigated whether fatty acid biosynthesis (FABS), which was recently reported to contribute to the genomic replication of hepatitis C virus, plays a role in HBV proliferation. We examined the effects of inhibitors of the enzymes in the FABS pathway on the HBV lifecycle by using recombinant HBV-producing cultured cells and found that the extracellular HBV DNA level, reflecting HBV particle production, was decreased by treatment with inhibitors suppressed the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids with little cytotoxicity. The reduced HBV DNA level was reversed when palmitic acid, which is the product of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during FABS, was used simultaneously with the inhibitor. We also observed that the amount of intracellular HBV DNA in the cells was increased by FAS inhibitor treatment, suggesting that FABS is associated with HBV particle production but not its genome replication. This suggests that FABS might be a potent target for anti-HBV drug with a mode of action different from current HBV therapy. -- Highlights: •Inhibitors of ACC1 and FAS but not SCD1 decreased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •Products of FABS, long chain fatty acids, increased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •FAS inhibitor increased intracellular levels of HBV DNA and HBcAg. •FABS was suggested to contribute to HBV particle production without significant relation with secretory pathway of the cells.

  3. Chemical treatment of banana tree pseudostem particles aiming the production of particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Ribeiro Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major banana producers in the world, and consequently generates a great amount of residues from this crop, which could be utilized in particleboard production. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of different chemical treatments of the particles of Musa sp. pseudostem, on their chemical and physical properties (basic density, and on the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards produced with the same material. Five treatments were applied to the particles: 1 without treatment (control; 2 2% acetic acid; 3 0.5% NaOH; 4 acetone (1/1 in volume/volume; and 5 water. Panels with medium density were produced (0.70 g/cm³, bonded with 12% (in relation to the particle mass of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The pressing cycle was conducted at 160º C, under 4 MPa, during 8 min. The results obtained indicated that the chemical treatments performed in the particles of banana tree pseudostem affected their chemical composition. The basic density of the particles was 0.10 g/cm³, and only the NaOH treatment led to its increase for values around 0.13 g/cm3. The panels produced with particles without treatment (control and particles treated with acetic acid presented the lowest values of water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 h of immersion. Mechanical properties of all the panels produced were below the minimum recommended by the standard CS 236-66 (COMMERCIAL STANDARD - CS, 1968.

  4. Production profiles of nuclides by galactic-cosmic-ray particles in small meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.

    Many of the meteorites found in cold and hot deserts are small, and many were small bodies in space. Production of cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) nuclides in small meteoroids is expected to be different than that in the larger meteoroids typically studied, with lower levels of nuclide production by galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles and possibly significant production by solar-cosmic-ray (SCR) protons. Motivated by the cosmogenic-nuclide measurements for the very small Salem meteorite and for cosmic spherules, which show high levels of SCR production, we have reported earlier nuclide production rates by SCR protons in small objects in space. The GCR production rates reported for small meteoroids have not been tested and were expected to be poor for meteoroids with radii less than 40 g/cm2 because of the very simple nature of that semi-empirical model (only one free parameter) and because the mix of neutrons and protons is different (relatively more protons) than that in the model, which was based on larger objects. Thus we have calculated produciton rates for nuclides mad by GCR particles in small objects with a physical model that is much better suited for unusual targets.

  5. Study of strange particle production in jets with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082140; Kuhn, Christian

    Quark–gluon plasma is a state of matter existing under extreme energy densities and temperatures where quarks and gluons are deconfined. Complex phenomena occurring in the plasma emerge from the strong interaction of its constituents. This hot and dense strongly interacting matter can be created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and its properties can be studied by measuring particles produced in the collisions. Partons produced in hard scatterings interact with the medium which modifies the production of particles in jets. Measurements of spectra of identified particles produced in jets represent an important tool for understanding the interplay of various hadronization mechanisms which contribute to the particle production in the medium created in heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, we present the measurement of the $p_\\text{T}$ spectra of Λ baryons and $\\text{K}^{\\text{0}}_{\\text{S}}$ mesons produced in charged jets in central Pb–Pb collisions at the energy $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}} = 2.76\\ \\te...

  6. Spectral representation of the particle production out of equilibrium - Schwinger mechanism in pulsed electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We develop a formalism to describe the particle production out of equilibrium in terms of dynamical spectral functions, i.e. Wigner transformed Pauli-Jordan's and Hadamard's functions. We take an explicit example of a spatially homogeneous scalar theory under pulsed electric fields and investigate the time evolution of the spectral functions. In the out-state we find an oscillatory peak in Hadamard's function as a result of the mixing between positive- and negative-energy waves. The strength of this peak is of the linear order of the Bogoliubov mixing coefficient, whereas the peak corresponding to the Schwinger mechanism is of the quadratic order. Between the in- and the out-states we observe a continuous flow of the spectral peaks together with two transient oscillatory peaks. We also discuss the medium effect at finite temperature and density. We emphasise that the entire structure of the spectral functions conveys rich information on real-time dynamics including the particle production.

  7. A particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, J. W.; Deutchman, P. A.; Townsend, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A differential cross section for pi-meson production in peripheral heavy-ion collisions is formulated within the context of a particle-hole model in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. This is the first attempt at a fully quantum-mechanical particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The particular reaction studied is an O-16 projectile colliding with a C-12 target at rest. In the projectile a linear combination of isobar-hole states is formed, with the possibility of a coherent isobar giant resonance. The target can be excited to its giant M1 resonance (J-pi = 1(+), T = 1) at 15.11 MeV, or to its isobar analog neighbors, B-12 at 13.4 MeV and N-12 at 17.5 MeV. The theory is compared to recent experimental results.

  8. Surface acoustic waves for on-demand production of picoliter droplets and particle encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Alan, Tuncay; Helmerson, Kristian; Neild, Adrian

    2013-08-21

    Microscopic water-in-oil droplets are a versatile chemical and biological platform whose dimensions result in short reaction times and require minuscule amounts of reagent. Methods exist for the production of droplets, though the vast majority are only able to do so in continuous flows, restricting the ability to independently control reactions of individual droplets, a prerequisite for programmable digital microfluidics. Here we present a novel method to produce individual picoliter-scale droplets on-demand using surface acoustic waves (SAW). Acoustic forces arising from SAW act on the oil-water interface, creating a droplet whose volume is defined by the applied power, duration of the force and system geometry. Additionally, this method is able to pre-concentrate particles simultaneously with droplet production, meaning that particles and cells, even if in a dilute mixture, can be easily encapsulated. Our method is expected to be applicable to high-throughput screening, bioreactor creation and other microfluidic processes.

  9. Production of neutrinos and neutrino-like particles in proton-nucleus interactions. [400 GeV, cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishaw, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    An experimental search was performed to look for the direct production of neutrinos or neutrino-like particles, i.e., neutral particles which interact weakly with hadrons, in proton-nucleus interactions at 400 GeV incident proton energy. Possible sources of such particles include the semi-leptonic decay of new heavy particles such as charm, and the direct production of a light neutral Higgs particle such as the axion. The production of these particles has been inferred in this experiment by energy nonconservation in the collision of a proton with an iron nucleus. The total visible energy of the interaction was measured using a sampling ionization calorimeter. After correcting for beam intensity effects and cutting the data to eliminate systematic effects in the measurement, the final resolution of the calorimeter was 3.51% and increased with decreasing incident beam energy with a square root dependence on the beam energy. Energy nonconservation in the data is manifest as a non-Gaussian distribution on the low side of the calorimeter measured energy. Model calculations yield the fraction of events expected in this non-Gaussian behavior for the various sources of neutrinos or neutrino-like particles. A maximum likelihood fit to the data with the theoretical fraction of events expected yields the 95% confidence level production cross section upper limit values. The upper limits for general production of neutrino-like particles for various parameterizations of the production cross section are presented. The following specific upper limits have been established: charm particle production < 670 ..mu..barns, supersymmetric particle production carrying an additional quantum number R < 33 ..mu..barns (mass of 1 GeV), 8 ..mu..barns (mass of 3 GeV); axion production < 10/sup -3/ times the ..pi../sup 0/ production cross section. 144 references.

  10. Particle production during inflation and gravitational waves detectable by ground-based interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Jessica L.; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Inflation typically predicts a quasi scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves. In models of slow-roll inflation, the amplitude of such a background is too small to allow direct detection without a dedicated space-based experiment such as the proposed BBO or DECIGO. In this paper we note that particle production during inflation can generate a feature in the spectrum of primordial gravitational waves. We discuss the possibility that such a feature might be detected by ground-based laser...

  11. Collision geometry and particle production in high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-Ping; ZHOU Dai-Mei; HUANG Rui-Dian; CAI Xu

    2008-01-01

    An overview of research status of soft physics in high energy heavy-ion collision experiments and recent experimental results are presented.This paper includes four parts:1)Theoretical predictions of quarkgluon plasma and introduction for high energy heavy ion collision experiments.2)Experimental status on collision geometry.3)Experimental status on particle production.4)Conclusion and outlook for research status of soft physics in LHC/ALICE.

  12. Production of neutral strange particles in muon-nucleon scattering at 490 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.; Aderholz, M.; Aid, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Baker, M.D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A.A.; Braun, H.M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J.M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M.C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jaffe, D.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Kadija, K.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D.G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O' Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.J.; Salgado, C.W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Seyerlein, H.J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Stein; Fermilab E665 Collaboration

    1994-03-01

    The production of K[sup 0], [Lambda] and anti [Lambda] particles is studied in the E665 muon-nucleon experiment at Fermilag. The average multiplicities and squared transverse momenta are measured as a function of x[sub F] and W[sup 2]. Most features of the data can be well described by the Lund model. Within this model, the data on the K[sup 0]/[pi][sup [+-

  13. An experiment to observe strange particle production in ion collisions at the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisemen, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K. (City Coll., New York, NY (United States)); Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a measurement of neutral vee production with 14.6 {times} A GeV/c Si beams on Au and Cu targets. The {Lambda} and K{sub s}{sup 0} yields were measured as a function of negative particle multiplicity. Effective temperatures were determined from an exponential fit to the transverse mass distribution. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ion-irradiation induced chemical ordering of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetala, Naidu V.; Harrell, J. W.; Lawson, Jeremy; Nikles, David E.; Williams, John R.; Isaacs-Smith, Tamara

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the effect of ion-beam irradiation on reducing the ordering temperature of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles. FePt and FePt(Au14%) 4 nm particles dispersed on a Si-substrate were irradiated by 300 keV Al-ions with a dose of 1 × 1016 ions/cm2 at 43 °C using a water-cooled flange in order to minimize the vacancy migration and voids formation within the collision cascades. Partial chemical ordering has been observed in as-irradiated particles with coercivity of 60-130 Oe. Post-irradiation annealing at 220 °C enhanced chemical ordering in FePt nanoparticles with coercivity of 3500 Oe, magnetic anisotropy of 1.5 × 107 erg/cc, and thermal stability factor of 130. A much higher 375 °C post-irradiation annealing was required in FePtAu, presumably because Au atoms were trapped at Fe/Pt lattice sites at lower temperatures. As the annealing temperature increased, anomalous features in the magnetization reversal curves were observed that disappeared at higher annealing temperatures.

  15. Ion-irradiation induced chemical ordering of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala, Naidu V. [Department of Physics, Grambling State University, RWE Jones Drive, Carver Hall 81, Grambling, LA 71245 (United States)]. E-mail: naidusv@gram.edu; Harrell, J.W. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lawson, Jeremy [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Nikles, David E. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Williams, John R. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We have studied the effect of ion-beam irradiation on reducing the ordering temperature of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles. FePt and FePt(Au14%) 4 nm particles dispersed on a Si-substrate were irradiated by 300 keV Al-ions with a dose of 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at 43 {sup o}C using a water-cooled flange in order to minimize the vacancy migration and voids formation within the collision cascades. Partial chemical ordering has been observed in as-irradiated particles with coercivity of 60-130 Oe. Post-irradiation annealing at 220 {sup o}C enhanced chemical ordering in FePt nanoparticles with coercivity of 3500 Oe, magnetic anisotropy of 1.5 x 10{sup 7} erg/cc, and thermal stability factor of 130. A much higher 375 {sup o}C post-irradiation annealing was required in FePtAu, presumably because Au atoms were trapped at Fe/Pt lattice sites at lower temperatures. As the annealing temperature increased, anomalous features in the magnetization reversal curves were observed that disappeared at higher annealing temperatures.

  16. Multiplicity dependence of identified particle production in pp collisions with ALICE arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00510339

    The study of identified particle production as a function of proton-proton (pp) collision energy and multiplicity is a key tool for understanding similarities and differences between small and large collision systems. We report on the production of $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, $K^{0}_{S}$, $p (\\bar{p})$, $\\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda})$, $\\Xi^{\\pm}$ and $\\Omega^{\\pm}$ measured in pp collisions for $\\sqrt{s}$ ranging from 0.9 to~13~TeV with ALICE. The multiplicity dependence of identified particle spectra and yields is presented for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 and 13~TeV and compared to results obtained in proton-lead (p-Pb) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, unveiling remarkable and intriguing similarities. The production rates of strange hadrons are observed to increase more than those of non-strange particles, showing an enhancement pattern with multiplicity which does not depend on the collision energy. Even if the multiplicity dependence of spectral shapes can be qualitatively described by commonly-used Monte Carlo (MC) event gene...

  17. Measurements of event shapes and particle production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078815; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of event shapes, particle production and their correlations with the ATLAS detector The evolution of the event shape variables, such as the transverse thrust, thrust minor and transverse sphericity have been studied for minimum bias events as a function of momentum scale. In addition the high-energy pp collisions at the LHC provide unique opportunity to study particle flow and event shapes of the hadronic final state particles. The measurements of production properties of mesons and baryons at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using pp collision data collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are presented and compared to predictions. The measurement of the differential production cross section of the $\\phi$(1020)-meson as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity is presented. In addition the measurement of transverse polarization of $\\Lambda$ and${\\bar \\Lambda}$ hyperons produced in minimum bias events is presented. The polarization is measured in bins of the transverse momentum and Feynman-x varia...

  18. Improvement in retention of solid fission products in HTGR fuel particles by ceramic kernel additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerthmann, R.; Groos, E.; Gruebmeier, H.

    1975-08-15

    Increased requirements concerning the retention of long-lived solid fission products in fuel elements for use in advanced High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors led to the development of coated particles with improved fission product retention which represent an alternative to silicon carbide-coated fuel particles. Two irradiation experiments have shown that the release of strontium, barium, and caesium from pyrocarbon-coated particles can be reduced by orders of magnitude if the oxide kernel contains alumina-silica additives. It was detected by electron microprobe analysis that the improved retention of the mentioned fission products in the fuel kernel is caused by formation of the stable aluminosilicates SrAl2Si2O8, BaAl2Si2O8and CsAlSi2O6 in the additional alumina-silica phase of the kernel.

  19. Particle number conservation in quantum many-body simulations with matrix product operators

    CERN Document Server

    Muth, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating conservation laws explicitly into Matrix product states (MPS) has proven to make numerical simulations of quantum many-body systems much less resources consuming. We will discuss here, to what extent this concept can be used in matrix product operators (MPO). Quite counter-intuitively the expectation of gaining in speed by sacrificing information about all but a single symmetry sector is not in all cases fulfilled. It turns out that often the entanglement imposed by the global constraint of fixed particle number is the limiting factor in the canonical ensemble.

  20. Hydrogen production by a hyperthermophilic membrane-bound hydrogenase in water-soluble nanolipoprotein particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah E; Hopkins, Robert C; Blanchette, Craig D; Walsworth, Vicki L; Sumbad, Rhoda; Fischer, Nicholas O; Kuhn, Edward A; Coleman, Matt; Chromy, Brett A; Létant, Sonia E; Hoeprich, Paul D; Adams, Michael W W; Henderson, Paul T

    2009-06-10

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBHs), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids offer a novel means of incorporating MBHs into a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity, and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen-production devices.

  1. Hydrogen Production by a Hyperthermophilic Membrane-Bound Hydrogenase in Soluble Nanolipoprotein Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S E; Hopkins, R C; Blanchette, C; Walsworth, V; Sumbad, R; Fischer, N; Kuhn, E; Coleman, M; Chromy, B; Letant, S; Hoeprich, P; Adams, M W; Henderson, P T

    2008-10-22

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids, offer a novel means to incorporate MBH into in a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen production devices.

  2. Analysis of Charged Particle/Photon Correlations in Hadronic Multiparticle Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, James

    2003-05-23

    In order to analyze data on joint charged-particle/photon distributions from an experimental search (T-864, MiniMax) for disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we have identified robust observables, ratios of normalized bivariate factorial moments, with many desirable properties. These include insensitivity to many efficiency corrections and the details of the modeling of the primary pion production, and sensitivity to the production of DCC, as opposed to the generic, binomial-distribution partition of pions into charged and neutral species. The relevant formalism is developed and tested in Monte-Carlo simulations of the MiniMax experimental conditions.

  3. Invisibility and PT symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    MOSTAFAZADEH, Ali

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012103 (2013) Invisibility and PT symmetry Ali Mostafazadeh* Department of Mathematics, Koc¸ University, Sarıyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey (Received 9 July 2012; published 3 January 2013) For a general complex scattering potential defined on a real line, we show that the equations governing invisibility of the potential are invariant under the combined action of parity and time-reversal (PT ) transformation. We determine the PT -symmetric as well as no...

  4. Free energy and entropy production rate for a Brownian particle that walks on overdamped medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Mesfin Asfaw

    2016-09-01

    We derive general expressions for the free energy, entropy production, and entropy extraction rates for a Brownian particle that walks in a viscous medium where the dynamics of its motion is governed by the Langevin equation. It is shown that, when the system is out of equilibrium, it constantly produces entropy and at the same time extracts entropy out of the system. Its entropy production and extraction rates decrease in time and saturate to a constant value. In the long-time limit, the rate of entropy production balances the rate of entropy extraction and, at equilibrium, both entropy production and extraction rates become zero. Moreover, considering different model systems, not only do we investigate how various thermodynamic quantities behave in time but also we discuss the fluctuation theorem in detail.

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide production facility particles in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Melissa A.; Fix, Natalie R.; Orandle, Marlene S.; Barger, Mark W.; Dunnick, Katherine M.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Leonard, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. Occupational exposures to potentially toxic particles generated during ITO production have increased in recent years as the demand for consumer electronics continues to rise. Previous studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity in vitro and animal models have shown pulmonary inflammation and injury in response to various indium-containing particles. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which indium materials or specific processes in the workplace may be the most toxic to workers is unknown. Here we examined the pulmonary toxicity of three different particle samples that represent real-life worker exposures, as they were collected at various production stages throughout an ITO facility. Indium oxide (In2O3), sintered ITO (SITO) and ventilation dust (VD) particles each caused pulmonary inflammation and damage in rats over a time course (1, 7 and 90 days post-intratracheal instillation), but SITO and VD appeared to induce greater toxicity in rat lungs than In2O3 at a dose of 1 mg per rat. Downstream pathological changes such as PAP and fibrosis were observed in response to all three particles 90 days after treatment, with a trend towards greatest severity in animals exposed to VD when comparing animals that received the same dose. These findings may inform workplace exposure reduction efforts and provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of an emerging occupational health issue. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26472246

  6. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and product identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl• radicals with submicron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapours and introduced into the reactor, where chlorine atoms were produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analysis has shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2, which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids were identified by GC/MS. The formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids is also suspected. A reaction pathway for the main products and more functionalized species is proposed. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  7. Large coercivity FePt nanoparticles prepared via a one-step method without post-annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwei; Xiong, Fang; Jiang, Xiaohong; Hua, Zhenghe; Wang, Chunlei; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-12-01

    L10 FePt nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step sol-gel autocombustion method, using nontoxic ferric nitrate, hexachloroplatinic acid, and glycine as starting materials. In contrast to common syntheses, high-temperature post-annealing was not required to form the L10 FePt phase. The entire ignition and combustion process lasted no more than one minute. The L10 FePt phase could form in the presence of the high temperature caused by the exothermic combustion reaction. Adjusting the glycine-to-metal ion molar ratio from 0.5 to 6.0 allowed its effects on the phase transformation and magnetic properties of the products to be investigated. X-ray diffraction indicated that pure phase L10 FePt was obtained at a glycine-to-metal ion molar ratio of 1.5. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the monodisperse L10 FePt nanoparticles had an average particle size of about 20 nm. The reasons why the as-synthesized L10 FePt nanoparticles were not aggregated and sintered could be attributed to the large amount, a gas is being released and the short duration of heat treatment during this combustion. This finding constituted a significant improvement in the synthesis of L10 FePt nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements showed that the L10 FePt nanoparticles had a coercivity of 15.8 kOe at 300 K, and 23.2 kOe at 5 K. Thus, the L10 FePt nanoparticles had a very large coercivity.

  8. Decomposition of the Precursor [Pt(NH3)4](OH)2, Genesis and Structure of the Metal-Support Interface of Alumina Supported Platinum Particles: A Structural Study Using TPR, MS and XAFS Spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Muñoz-Paez, A.

    1995-01-01

    During the preparation of alumina supported platinum catalysts, the precursor [Pt(NH3)4](OH)2 decomposes to a neutral Pt(NH3)zO species during the drying process at 120 'C. Treatment in flowing hydrogen at 180 'C leads to partial reduction of the platinum ammine complex and formation of platinum met

  9. Preparation of carbon supported Pt-P catalysts and its electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Juan [Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Tang Yawen; Yang Gaixiu; Chen Yu [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Zhou Qun [Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Lu Tianhong [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zheng Junwei, E-mail: jwzheng@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The carbon supported PtP (PtP/C) catalysts were synthesized from Pt(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and phosphorus yellow at the room temperature. The content of P in the PtP/C catalysts prepared with this method is high and the average size of the PtP particles is decreased with increasing the content of P. The electrocatalytic performances of the PtP/C catalysts prepared with this method for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are better than that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The promotion action of P for enhancing the electrocatalytic performance of the PtP/C catalyst for ORR is mainly due to that Pt and P form the alloy and then the electron density of Pt is decreased.

  10. Simple preparation of Pd-Pt nanoalloy catalysts for methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Liu, Juanying; Qiao, Yongjin; Zou, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Akins, Daniel L.; Yang, Hui

    Carbon-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles of different atomic ratios (Pd-Pt/C) have been prepared by a simple procedure involving the complexing of Pd and Pt species with sodium citrate followed by ethylene glycol reduction. As-prepared Pd-Pt alloy nanoparticles evidence a single-phase fcc disordered structure, and the degree of alloying is found to increase with Pd content. Both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterizations indicate that all the Pd-Pt/C catalysts possess a similar mean particle size of ca. 2.8 nm. The highest mass and specific activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using the Pd-Pt/C catalysts are found with a Pd:Pt atomic ratio of 1:2. Moreover, all Pd-Pt alloy catalysts exhibit significantly enhanced methanol tolerance during the ORR than the Pt/C catalyst, ensuring a higher ORR performance while diminishing Pt utilization.

  11. Reduction of Pt Usage in Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Using Carbon Nanotubes and Non-Pt Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Nakamura; Y. Nagashima; T. Yamazaki; T. Matsumoto; E. Yoo

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The high-priced and limited Pt constitutes a high barrier to commercialization of fuel cells. Pt is essential for the electrode catalyst of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). A reduction in Pt usage is one of the key requirements for the commercialization of fuel cells for use in everyday life, because of its high price and limited availability, and the difficulty of finding suitable substitutes. Non-Pt fuel cell catalysts will decrease the demand for Pt by PEFCs, enabling more Pt to be available for use in other essential products, and make fuel cells more popular[1]. The cheaper Mo2C is known to possess similar catalytic activities and electronic structures to Pt[2]. Carbon black (CB) is widely used as the support for Pt nanoparticles. However, we found that when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rather than CB are used as the support, the performance is improved, especially below 600 mA/cm2[3,4]. Here, we show that a combination of Mo2C catalyst and carbon nanotubes in the anode provides performance as high as half that of the current PEFCs with Pt catalysts below 600mA/cm2.

  12. Production and detection of axion-like particles at the VUV-FEL. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetz, U.; Ringwald, A.; Tschentscher, T.

    2006-06-15

    Recently, the PVLAS collaboration has reported evidence for an anomalously large rotation of the polarization of light generated in vacuum in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. This may be explained through the production of a new light spin-zero particle coupled to two photons. In this Letter of Intent, we propose to test this hypothesis by setting up a photon regeneration experiment which exploits the photon beam of the Vacuum-UltraViolet Free-Electron Laser VUV-FEL, sent along the transverse magnetic field of a linear arrangement of dipole magnets of size B L {approx} 30 Tm. The high photon energies available at the VUV-FEL increase substantially the expected photon regeneration rate in the mass range implied by the PVLAS anomaly, in comparison to the rate expected at visible lasers of similar power. We find that the particle interpretation of the PVLAS result can be tested within a short running period. The pseudoscalar vs. scalar nature can be determined by varying the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the laser polarization. The mass of the particle can be measured by running at different photon energies. The proposed experiment offers a window of opportunity for a firm establishment or exclusion of the particle interpretation of the PVLAS anomaly before other experiments can compete. (Orig.)

  13. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-09-30

    In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

  14. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  15. Non-factorizable photonic corrections to resonant production and decay of many unstable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmaier, Stefan; Schwan, Christopher [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Electroweak radiative corrections to the production of high-multiplicity final states with several intermediate resonances in most cases can be sufficiently well described by the leading contribution of an expansion about the resonance poles. In this approach, also known as pole approximation, corrections are classified into separately gauge-invariant factorizable and non-factorizable corrections, where the former can be attributed to the production and decay of the unstable particles on their mass shell. The remaining non-factorizable corrections are induced by the exchange of soft photons between different production and decay subprocesses. We give explicit analytical results for the non-factorizable photonic virtual corrections to the production of an arbitrary number of unstable particles at the one-loop level and, thus, present an essential building block in the calculation of next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections in pole approximation. The remaining virtual factorizable corrections can be obtained with modern automated one-loop matrix-element generators, while the evaluation of the corresponding real photonic corrections can be evaluated with full matrix elements by multi-purpose Monte Carlo generators. Our results can be easily modified to non-factorizable QCD corrections, which are induced by soft-gluon exchange. (orig.)

  16. Charmed particles production in pA-interactions at 70 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The results of the SERP-E-184 experiment at the U-70 accelerator (IHEP, Protvino) are presented. Interactions of the 70 GeV proton beam with carbon, silicon and lead targets were studied to detect decays of charmed $D^0$, $\\bar D^0$, $D^+$, $D^-$ mesons and $\\Lambda_c^+$ baryon near their production threshold. Measurements of lifetimes and masses have shown a good agreement with PDG data. The inclusive cross sections of charm production and their A-dependencies have been obtained. The yields of these particles are compared with the theoretical predictions and the data of other experiments. The measured cross section of the total open charm production $\\sigma(c\\bar c) = 7.1 \\pm 2.3(stat) \\pm 1.4(syst)$ $\\mu$b/nucleon at the collision c.m. energy $\\surd s$ = 11.8 GeV is well above the QCD model predictions. The contributions of different kinds of charmed particles to the total cross section of the open charm production in proton-nucleus interactions vary with energy.

  17. Determination of nanoscale particles in the air of working zone at the metallurgical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.S. Ulanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the air of working zone at the metallurgical production on the example of Avisma OJSC (Berezniki, the Perm Territory for the content of nanoscale particles are specified. The maximum nanoparticles concentration in the range of 13523–28609 mln./m3 is determined at the working place of the titanium production smelter with the maximum size of particles of 10–15 nm. At the working place in the administrative building (reference working place the maximum concentration is determined within the range of 524–1000 mln./m3; the maximum size of nanoparticles is 20 nm. It was established that the number concentration of nanoparticles at the reference working places (administration of Avisma OJSC is significantly lower than at the working places of main production processes. The presented studies can be used as the additional factors in the assessment of labor conditions and occupational risk during the manufacture and use of materials containing nanoparticles as well as the production processes with the nanoparticles formation.

  18. Radon decay products and 10–1100 nm aerosol particles in Postojna Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bezek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available At the lowest point along the tourist route in Postojna Cave, the activity concentration of radon (222Rn decay products and the number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles in the size range of 10–1100 nm were monitored, with the focus on the unattached fraction (fun of radon decay products (RnDPs, a key parameter in radon dosimetry. The total number concentration of aerosols during visits in summer was lower (700 cm−3 than in winter (2800 cm−3, and was dominated by 50 nm particles (related to the attached RnDPs in winter. This explains the higher fun values in summer (0.75 and the lower winter measurement (0.04 and, consequently, DCFD values of 43.6 and 13.1 mSv WLM−1 respectively for the calculated dose conversion factors. The difference is caused by an enhanced inflow of fresh outside air, driven in winter by the higher air temperature in the cave compared to outside, resulting in the introduction of outside aerosol particles into the cave.

  19. Light Induced Degradation of Eight Commonly Used Pesticides Adsorbed on Atmospheric Particles: Kinetics and Product Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; Durand, A.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.; Quivet, E.

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used all over the world whether in agricultural production or in non-agricultural settings. They may pose a potential human health effects and environmental risks due to their physico-chemical properties and their extensive use which is growing every year. Pesticides are found in the atmosphere removed from the target area by volatilization or wind erosion, and carried over long distances. These compounds are partitioned between the gaseous and particulate atmospheric phases. The increasingly used pesticides are semi-volatile compounds which are usually adsorbed on the surface of the atmospheric particles. These pesticides may undergo chemical and photo-chemical transformation. New compounds may then be formed that could be more hazardous than the primary pesticides. The atmospheric fate and lifetime of adsorbed pesticides on particles are controlled by the these (photo)chemical processes. However, there is a lack of kinetic data regarding the pesticides in the particle phase. This current work focuses on the photolytic degradation of commonly used pesticides in particulate phase. It aims at estimating the photolytic rates and thus the lifetimes of pesticides adsorbed on silica particles as a proxy of atmospheric particles. The following eight commonly used pesticides, cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin, tetraconazole, were chosen because of their physico-chemical properties. The photolysis rates of tetraconazole and permethrin were extremely slow ≤ 1.2 · 10-6 s-1. The photolysis rates for the other pesticides were determined in the range of: (5.9 ± 0.3) · 10-6 fipronil. Finally, the identification of the surface products upon light irradiation was performed, using GC-(QqQ)-MS/MS and LC-(Q-IMS-ToF)-MS/MS. The potentially formed gas-phase products during these photolysis processes were followed continuously and on-line by PTR-ToF-MS. We hope that the obtained results from this study

  20. Pt- and FePt- nanoparticles on the basis of emulsion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzke, Achim; Wiedemann, Stefan; Enderle, Fabian; Plettl, Alfred; Ziemann, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Schreiber, Eyk; Ziener, Ulrich [Institut fuer Organische Chemie III, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Vogel, Nicolas; Landfester, Katharina [MPI fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute [Materialwissenschaftliche Elektronenmikroskopie, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Metal-precursor loaded colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles in aqueous solution are produced by an emulsion and miniemulsion technique, respectively. We report on colloids loaded with Pt- as well as with Fe- and Pt-complexes. After deposition of a hexagonally ordered monolayer of PS spheres on top of a silicon substrate, optimized plasma and temper sequences are applied to obtain metallic nanoparticles which still exhibit the original lateral order. The metal content within a colloid defines the size of the final particle, which could be varied between 6 and 14 nm, so far. The interparticle distance is determined by the diameter of the starting PS-particles and was varied between 80 and 250 nm. Different process steps are investigated by HRSEM, HRTEM and XPS giving insight in the plasma- and annealing process and demonstrating e.g. the crystalline structure of the Pt- nanoparticles.

  1. Experiment Anti-Helium (Production of Nuclei and Anti-Nuclei. Limits for "exotic" particles of long lifetime)

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Data are recalled on the relative yields of charged pions,charged kaons,protons,antiprotons,tritiun nuclei, anti-tritium, He3 nuclei and anti-He3 antinuclei produced at 0 degrees by 200-240 GeV/c protons on Beryllium and Aluminium targets. A search for the production of long-lived particles with charges 2/3, 1, 4/3, is described; for negative particle production the upper limits obtained at the 95% Confidence Level were at the level of 10-11 with respect to the production of known particles.

  2. Scaling of particle production with number of participants in high-energy A + A collisions in the parton-cascade model

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar; Geiger, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    In view of the recent WA98 data of $\\pi^0$ spectra from central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS, we analyze the production of neutral pions for A+A collisions across the periodic table at $\\sqrt{s}=17$ AGeV and 200 AGeV within the framework of the parton-cascade model for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The multiplicity of the pions (having $p_T > 0.5$ GeV) in the central rapidity region, is seen to scale as $\\sim (N_{part})^{\\alpha}$, where $N_{part}$ is the number of participating nucleons, which we have approximated as 2A for central collisions of identical nuclei. We argue that the deviation of $\\alpha$ ($\\simeq 1.2$) from unity may have its origin in the multiple scattering suffered by the partons. We also find that the constant of proportionality in the above scaling relation increases substantially in going from SPS to RHIC energies. This would imply that the (semi)hard partonic activity becomes a much cleaner signal above the soft particle production at the higher energy of RHIC, and thus much les...

  3. Scaling of particle production with number of participants in high-energy A + A collisions in the parton-cascade model

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Geiger, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In view of the recent WA98 data of pi0 spectra from central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS, we analyze the production of neutral pions for A+$ collisions across the periodic table at sqrt(s)=17 AGeV and 200 AGeV within the framework of the parton-cascade model for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The multiplicity of the pions (having pT > 0.5 GeV/c) in the central rapidity region, is seen to scale as \\sim (N_part)^alpha, where N_part$ is the number of participating nucleons, which we have approximated as 2A for central collisions of identical nuclei. We argue that the deviation of \\alpha (\\simeq 1.2) from unity may have its origin in the multiple scattering suffered by the partons. We also find that the constant of proportionality in the above scaling relation increases substantially in going from SPS to RHIC energies. This would imply that the (semi)hard partonic activity becomes a much cleaner signal above the soft particle production at the higher energy of RHIC, and thus much less dependent on the (la...

  4. Cis- and cell-type-dependent trans-requirements for Lassa virus-like particle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro

    2015-07-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) small zinc-finger protein (Z), which contains two L-domain motifs, plays a central role in virus budding. Here, we report that co-expression of glycoprotein (GPC) altered the requirements for cholesterol but not the L-domains and host factor, Tsg101, for Z-induced virus-like particle (VLP) production. In particular, the cholesterol requirement for VLP production was cell-type-dependent. In addition, GPC was found to be important for co-localization of Z with CD63, a late endosomal marker. We also found that the N-terminal region (aa 3-10) of Z was critical for its myristoylation and VLP production. These findings will contribute to our understanding of LASV assembly and budding.

  5. Forward particle production in the CGC formalism: average transverse momentum and τ scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, F. O.; Giannini, A. V.; Navarra, F. S.; Gonçalves, V. P. B.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we have used the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) formalism of forward particle production to describe the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton-lead collisions at the LHC. We have also investigated the rapidity dependence of the average transverse momentum, , and the so called scaling variable, , where Qs represents the saturation scale of these processes. We have computed the ratios of the first quantity at a given rapidity y to the value at y = 0 (going from y = 0 towards the proton fragmentation region) at the LHC energies. The ratios of the second quantity have been computed to the normalized τ distributions. Our analysis, based on gluon saturation and geometrical scaling, shows that these ratios decrease strongly with y above midrapidities and increase slightly with the energy. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and present predictions for the forthcoming LHC data.

  6. Neutral strange particle production at top SPS energy measured by the CERES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radomski, S.

    2006-07-05

    Systematics of strange particle production in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei provides an insight into the properties of the strongly interacting matter. Hadrochemistry, the study of the relative yields, provides information about chemical freeze-out and the position of the system in the phase diagram. Strangeness production at Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is not fully explained by the thermal model of hadron gas. Data reported by one experiment show sharp structures as a function of energy which are interpreted as a signature for a phase transition, but due to discrepancies in the results between two different experiments, a conclusion can not be drawn. This thesis is part of an effort to build a database of the strangeness production at SPS energy. The particular subject of this work is a precise measurement of the production of K{sub S}{sup 0}. The results are compared with two other experiments and the prediction of the thermal model. The high precision data shed light on the systematics of strangeness production and allow clarification of the experimental status. The study of transverse momentum spectra provides information about the temperature and the radial expansion of the system. Here, as in the case of particle yields, interesting structures are visible as a function of energy. A rapid increase in the number of degrees of freedom is visible in the SPS region. A large part of the strangeness is carried by the neutral strange baryon {lambda}. Here the experimental situation is even more complicated because the reconstruction of the {lambda} yield requires large extrapolation to low transverse momentum. In this work first results on {lambda} production will be presented. (orig.)

  7. Applications of SCET to the pair production of supersymmetric particles at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broggio, Alessandro

    2013-02-04

    In this thesis we investigate the phenomenology of supersymmetric particles at hadron colliders beyond next-to-leading order (NLO) in perturbation theory. We discuss the foundations of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and, in particular, we explicitly construct the SCET Lagrangian for QCD. As an example, we discuss factorization and resummation for the Drell-Yan process in SCET. We use techniques from SCET to improve existing calculations of the production cross sections for slepton-pair production and top-squark-pair production at hadron colliders. As a first application, we implement soft-gluon resummation at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order (NNNLL) for slepton-pair production in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). This approach resums large logarithmic corrections arising from the dynamical enhancement of the partonic threshold region caused by steeply falling parton luminosities. We evaluate the resummed invariant-mass distribution and total cross section for slepton-pair production at the Tevatron and LHC and we match these results, in the threshold region, onto NLO fixed-order calculations. As a second application we present the most precise predictions available for top-squark-pair production total cross sections at the LHC. These results are based on approximate NNLO formulas in fixed-order perturbation theory, which completely determine the coefficients multiplying the singular plus distributions. The analysis of the threshold region is carried out in pair invariant mass (PIM) kinematics and in single-particle inclusive (1PI) kinematics. We then match our results in the threshold region onto the exact fixed-order NLO results and perform a detailed numerical analysis of the total cross section.

  8. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  9. Insight into particle production mechanisms via angular correlations of identified particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    ALICE Collaboration, CERN; The ALICE collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Two-particle angular correlations were measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The analysis was carried out for pions, kaons, protons, and lambdas, for all particle/anti-particle combinations in the pair. Data for mesons exhibit an expected peak dominated by effects associated with mini-jets and are well reproduced by general purpose Monte Carlo generators. However, for baryon–baryon and anti-baryon–anti-baryon pairs, where both particles have the same baryon number, a near-side anti-correlation structure is observed instead of a peak. This effect is interpreted in the context of baryon production mechanisms in the fragmentation process. It currently presents a challenge to Monte Carlo models and its origin remains an open question.

  10. Insight into particle production mechanisms via angular correlations of identified particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; An, Mangmang; Andrei, Cristian; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; 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    Two-particle angular correlations were measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The analysis was carried out for pions, kaons, protons, and lambdas, for all particle/anti-particle combinations in the pair. Data for mesons exhibit an expected peak dominated by effects associated with mini-jets and are well reproduced by general purpose Monte Carlo generators. However, for baryon--baryon and anti-baryon--anti-baryon pairs, where both particles have the same baryon number, a near-side anti-correlation structure is observed instead of a peak. This effect is interpreted in the context of baryon production mechanisms in the fragmentation process. It currently presents a challenge to Monte Carlo models and its origin remains an open question.

  11. Electrochemical properties of mixed WC and Pt-black powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA D. OBRADOVIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical characteristics of a mixture of Pt-black and WC powders and its catalytic activity for methanol and formic acid oxidation were investigated in acid solution. XRD and AFM measurements revealed that the WC powder employed for the investigation was a single-phase material consisting of crystallites/spherical particles of average size of about 50 nm, which were agglomerated into much larger particles. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the WC underwent electrochemical oxidation, producing tungstate species. In the case of the mixed Pt + WC powders, the tungstate species were deposited on the Pt as a thin film of hydrous tungsten oxide. Enhanced hydrogen intercalation in the hydrous tungsten oxide was observed and it was proposed to be promoted in mixed powders by the presence of hydrogen adatoms on bare Pt sites. The determination of Pt surface area in the Pt + WC layer by stripping of underpotentially deposited Cu revealed that the entire Pt surface was accessible for underpotential deposition of Cu. Investigation of the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid on Pt + WC and pure Pt layers did not indicate electrocatalytic promotion due to the presence of WC.

  12. Production of α-particle emitting 211At using 45 MeV α-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-01

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, 211At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of 211At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm-1, which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce 211At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions 209Bi(α,2n)211At. Production of the radionuclide 211At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an Eα, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of 210At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of 211At isotope.

  13. Gas- and particle-phase products from the photooxidation of acenaphthene and acenaphthylene by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Matthieu; Healy, Robert M.; Flaud, Pierre-Marie; Perraudin, Emilie; Wenger, John C.; Villenave, Eric

    2017-02-01

    This work is focused on the gas-phase oxidation of acenaphthylene and acenaphthene by OH radicals and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation under low and high-NOx conditions. Experiments were carried out in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and an aerosol time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) to chemically characterize the gas- and particle-phase products, respectively. Due to the structures of these two aromatic compounds, the proposed chemical mechanisms exhibit some differences. In the case of acenaphthene, H-atom abstraction from the saturated cyclopenta-fused ring was found to be competitive with the OH-addition to the aromatic rings. During the photooxidation of acenaphthene using nitrous acid (HONO), aromatic ring-opening products such as indanone and indanone carbaldehyde, generated through OH addition to the aromatic ring, were formed in higher yields compared to low-NOx conditions. In the case of acenaphthylene, OH addition to the unsaturated cyclopenta-fused ring was strongly favored. Hence, ring-retaining species such as acenaphthenone and acenaphthenequinone, were identified as the main reaction products in both gas- and particle-phases, especially under high-NOx conditions. Subsequent SOA formation was observed in all experiments and SOA yields were determined under low/high-NOx conditions to be 0.61/0.46 and 0.68/0.55 from the OH-initiated oxidation of acenaphthylene and acenaphthene, respectively.

  14. Production of Mesons and Baryons at High Rapidity and High Pt in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Arsene, I; Beavis, D; Bekele, S; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Dalsgaard, H H; Debbe, R; Gaardhøje, J J; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Johnson, E B; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lindal, S; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Nielsen, B S; Nygård, C; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Renault, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yang, H; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We present particle spectra for charged hadrons $\\pi^\\pm, K^\\pm, p$ and $\\bar{p}$ from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=200$ GeV measured for the first time at forward rapidities (2.95 and 3.3). The kinematics of these measurements are skewed in a way that probes the small momentum fraction in one of the protons and large fractions in the other. Large proton to pion ratios are observed at values of transverse momentum that extend up to 4 GeV/c, where protons have momenta up to 35 GeV. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations describe the production of pions and kaons well at these rapidities, but fail to account for the large proton yields and small $\\bar{p}/p$ ratios associated with baryon transport.

  15. Searches for electroweak production of supersymmetry, supersymmetry in resonance production, R-parity violating signatures and events with long-lived particles with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This talk summarises the latest ATLAS results in the context of searches for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles, R-Parity violating/conserving SUSY scenarios, and long-lived supersymmetric particles using the full 2012 data corresponding to 20.3~fb^{-1} at \\sqrt{s} = 8~TeV of p-p collisions collected by the ATLAS.

  16. Acquisition and Active Navigation of Knowledge Particles throughout Product Variation Design Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuyou; XU Jinghua

    2009-01-01

    The variation design of complex products has such features as multivariate association, weak theory coupling and implicit knowledge iteration. However, present CAD soft wares are still restricted to making decisions only according to current design status in dynamic navigation which leads to the huge drain of the knowledge hidden in design process. In this paper, a method of acquisition and active navigation of knowledge particles throughout product variation design process is put forward. The multi-objective decision information model of the variation design is established via the definition of condition attribute set and decision attribute set in finite universe. The addition and retrieval of the variation semantics is achieved through bidirectional association between the transplantable structures and variation design semantics. The mapping relationships between the topology lapping geometry elements set and constraint relations set family is built by means of geometry feature analysis. The acquisition of knowledge particles is implemented by attribute reduction based on rough set theory to make multi-objective decision of variation design. The topology lapping status of transplantable substructures is known from DOF reduction. The active navigation of knowledge particles is realized through embedded event-condition-action(ECA) rules. The independent prototype system taking Alan, Charles, Ian's system(ACIS) as kernel has been developed to verify the proposed method by applying variation design of complex mechanical products. The test results demonstrate that the navigation decision basis can be successfully extended from static isolated design status to dynamic continuous design process so that it more flexibly adapts to the different designers and various variation design steps. It is of profound significance for enhancing system intelligence as well as improving design quality and efficiency.

  17. MINING PROCESS AND PRODUCT INFORMATION FROM PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS WITHIN A FUEL PARTICLE COATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas W. Marshall; Charles M. Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Fuel Development and Qualification Program included the design, installation, and testing of a 6-inch diameter nuclear fuel particle coater to demonstrate quality TRISO fuel production on a small industrial scale. Scale-up from the laboratory-scale coater faced challenges associated with an increase in the kernel charge mass, kernel diameter, and a redesign of the gas distributor to achieve adequate fluidization throughout the deposition of the four TRISO coating layers. TRISO coatings are applied at very high temperatures in atmospheres of dense particulate clouds, corrosive gases, and hydrogen concentrations over 45% by volume. The severe environment, stringent product and process requirements, and the fragility of partially-formed coatings limit the insertion of probes or instruments into the coater vessel during operation. Pressure instrumentation were installed on the gas inlet line and exhaust line of the 6-inch coater to monitor the bed differential pressure and internal pressure fluctuations emanating from the fuel bed as a result of bed and gas “bubble” movement. These instruments are external to the particle bed and provide a glimpse into the dynamics of fuel particle bed during the coating process and data that could be used to help ascertain the adequacy of fluidization and, potentially, the dominant fluidization regimes. Pressure fluctuation and differential pressure data are not presently useful as process control instruments, but data suggest a link between the pressure signal structure and some measurable product attributes that could be exploited to get an early estimate of the attribute values.

  18. Localized Pd overgrowth on cubic Pt nanocrystals for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo; Habas, Susan E; Somorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2008-04-23

    Binary Pt/Pd nanoparticles were synthesized by localized overgrowth of Pd on cubic Pt seeds for the investigation of electrocatalytic formic acid oxidation. The binary particles exhibited much less self-poisoning and a lower activation energy relative to Pt nanocubes, consistent with the single crystal study.

  19. Measurement of charged particle production in p-p collisions at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Gerhard [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In late November 2009 the LHC produced first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}s=900 GeV. Before Christmas 2009 a statistically meaningful sample of events was recorded by the experiments. An essential early measurement possible with these data is the analysis of minimum bias events. They can be used to understand the detectors and confirm results from from earlier experiments. This talk gives an overview over the analysis within the ATLAS collaboration. First results on charged particle production in inelastic minimum bias events at LHC are shown.

  20. Newtonian black holes: Particle production, "Hawking" temperature, entropies and entropy field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Ryan, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Newtonian gravitation with some slight modifications, along with some highly simplified ideas from quantum field theory allow us to reproduce, at least at the level of back-of-the-envelope calculations, many results of black hole physics. We consider particle production by a black hole, the Newtonian equivalent of the Hawking temperature, and the Bekenstein entropy. Also, we are able to deduce Newtonian field equations from entropy. We finally study higher-order Newtonian theories under the same assumptions used for ordinary Newtonian theory. In a companion article we will look at entropic forces for various entropies and make contact with our analysis of higher-order Newtonian theories.

  1. Measurement of the inclusive production of neutral pions and charged particles on the Z0 resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva, B.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Akbari, H.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelov, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barone, L.; Bay, A.; Becker, U.; Behrens, J.; Beingessner, S.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biland, A.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Blömeke, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocciolini, M.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Bruyant, F.; Buisson, C.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burq, J. P.; Busenitz, J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Carbonara, F.; Cardenal, P.; Carminati, F.; Cartacci, A. M.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Chollet, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Conforto, G.; Contin, A.; Crijns, F.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Diez-Hedo, F.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Diviá, R.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Driever, T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Faber, G.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, Q.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Fehlmann, J.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Glaubman, M.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzales, E.; Gordeev, A.; Göttlicher, P.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Grinnell, C.; Gruenewald, M.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Haan, H.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Herten, U.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hsu, L. S.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Isiksal, E.; Janssen, H.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Khoze, V.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kinnison, W.; Kirkby, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Krammer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krizmanic, J.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumar, V.; Kunin, A.; Lalieu, V.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D.; Leedom, I.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leistam, L.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lettry, J.; Levchenko, P. M.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, J. F.; Li, L.; Li, P. J.; Li, Q.; Lli, X. G.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Linnhofer, D.; Liu, R.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Lue, X.; Luminari, L.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Magahiz, R.; Maire, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Manña, C.; Mao, D. N.; Mao, Y. F.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marchionni, A.; Martin, B.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Matsuda, T.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Meinholz, Th.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, G.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Niessen, L.; Nowak, H.; Pandoulas, D.; Plasil, F.; Passaleva, G.; Paternoster, G.; Patricelli, S.; Pei, Y. J.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Produit, N.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Rind, O.; Rippich, C.; Rizvi, H. A.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Röhner, S.; Roeser, U.; Romero, L.; Rose, J.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rubio, M.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Sanders, G.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauvage, G.; Savin, A.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmiemann, K.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schütte, J.; Schwenke, J.

    1991-04-01

    We present a study of the inclusive production of neutral pions and charged particles from 112 000 hadronic Z0 decays. The measured inclusive momentum distributions can be reproduced by parton shower Monte Carlo programs and also by an analytical QCD calculation. Comparing our results to e+e- data between √s = 9 and 91 GeV, we findfind that the evolution of the spectra with center of mass energy is consistent with the QCD predictions. Supported by the German Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie.

  2. Variable production of transparent exopolymeric particles by haploid and diploid life stages of coccolithophores grown under different CO2 concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrotti, M.L.; Fiorini, S.; Kerros, M.E.; Middelburg, J.J.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The production of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) by the coccolithophores, Emiliania huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Syracosphaera pulchra was investigated in batch cultures. The abundance, size spectra and carbon content of TEP were examined during the exponential growth phase of both

  3. Variable production of transparent exopolymeric particles by haploid and diploid life stages of coccolithophores grown under different CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrotti, M.L.; Fiorini, S.; Kerros, M.E.; Middelburg, J.J.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The production of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) by the coccolithophores, Emiliania huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Syracosphaera pulchra was investigated in batch cultures. The abundance, size spectra and carbon content of TEP were examined during the exponential growth phase of both

  4. An evaluation of Pt sulfite acid (PSA) as precursor for supported Pt catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regalbuto, J.R.; Ansel, O.; Miller, J.T. (BP Res. Cntr.); (UIC)

    2010-11-12

    As a catalyst precursor, platinum sulfite acid (PSA) is easy to use and not relatively expensive, and is a potentially attractive precursor for many types of supported catalysts. The ultimate usefulness for many catalyst applications will depend on the extent that Pt can be dispersed and sulfur eliminated. To our knowledge, there exists no detailed characterization in the catalysis literature of PSA and the nanoparticulate Pt phases derived from it during catalyst pretreatment. To this end a series of supports including alumina, silica, magnesia, niobia, titania, magnesia and carbon were contacted with PSA solutions and subsequently analyzed with extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the Pt species formed upon impregnation, calcination, and reduction. While all catalysts show retention of some S, reasonably small particle sizes with relatively little Pt-S can in some instances be produced using PSA. The amount of retained sulfur appears to decrease with decreasing surface acidity, although even the most acidic supports (niobia and silica) display some storage of S even while only Pt-O bands are observed after calcination or reoxidation. More sulfur was eliminated by high temperature calcinations followed by reduction in hydrogen, at the expense of increasing Pt particle size.

  5. Charged particle production ratios at the CERN ISR for a transverse momentum of 0.4 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Capiluppi, P; D'Agostino-Bruno, M; Ellis, R J; Giacomelli, G; Poe, R T; Rossi, A M; Vannini, G

    1972-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the production ratios of charged particles in inclusive reactions at ISR energies. The data have been taken at a fixed transverse momentum of 0.4 GeV/c. At ISR energies and for 0.1production of all charged particles seems to be energy independent, suggesting that limiting distributions have been reached. (7 refs).

  6. Search for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles with photonic final states at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz; Lange, Johannes; Schulz, Johannes [1. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is a prominent extension of the standard model of particle physics, providing possible solutions to the hierarchy problem, unification of the coupling constants and the existence of dark matter. In the context of gauge mediated SUSY breaking the next-to-lightest SUSY particle (NLSP) is the lightest neutralino, while the gravitino is the lightest SUSY particle. For a bino-like mixture, the NLSP predominantly decays to a photon and a gravitino, the latter leaving the detector undetected. This analysis focuses on final states containing at least one photon, missing transverse energy and low hadronic activity, thus increasing the sensitivity to electroweak gaugino production and complementing searches requiring the presence of jets. The main background contributions are estimated using a template fit of the background simulations to the data in a control region. The search has already been carried out using a special parked data set recorded by the CMS detector at √(s)=8 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 7.4 fb{sup -1}. We present the current status of the analysis for the LHC RunII at √(s)=13 TeV.

  7. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU11 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use nuclear emulsions for the study of nuclear collisions of $^{207}$Pb, $^{197}$Au, and any other heavy-ion beams when they are available. We have, in the past, used $^{32}$S at 200A~GeV and $^{16}$O at 200A and 60A~GeV from CERN (Experiment EMU08) and at present the analysis is going on with $^{28}$Si beam from BNL at 14.5A~GeV. It will be important to compare the previous and the present investigations with the new $^{207}$Pb beam at 60-160A~GeV. We want to measure in nuclear emulsion, on an event by event basis, shower particle multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and density fluctuations of charged particles, charge multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments, production and interaction cross-sections of heavily ionizing particles emitted from the target fragmentation. Special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of events produced in the central collisions which are selected on the basis of low energy fragments emitted from the target excitation. It woul...

  8. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Josef C; Galeano, Carolina; Katsounaros, Ioannis; Witte, Jonathon; Bongard, Hans J; Topalov, Angel A; Baldizzone, Claudio; Mezzavilla, Stefano; Schüth, Ferdi; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2014-01-01

    Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3-4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1-2 nm and 3-4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS). All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  9. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  10. Characterization of biotechnological processes and products using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pt. 2. Analyses of potato starch hydrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gey, M.; Becker, U.

    1988-01-01

    Potato starch hydrolysis products were analyzed for glucose, maltose, higher oligomeric carbohydrates (to a degree of polymerization, dp 11) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using high-performance liquid chromatography. For quick qualitative and quantitative analyses short glass columns (12) of high efficiency were useful. The hydrolyses were carried out by means of enzymes (e.g. ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylase) or mineral acids. For the acid degradation procedures hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid of different concentrations (0.1...2.0 N) during times ranging from 5 to 60 min at temperatures ranging from 100 to 140/sup 0/C were used. Maximum glucose contents (163.4 g/l and 169.3 g/l) were found after 40 to 50 min of hydrolysis in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid heated to 120/sup 0/C. These values are equivalent to 78.9% or 81.7% glucose yield referred to the initial potato starch amount, respectively. The calculated HMF concentrations were 140 and 180 mg/l.

  11. Preparation and characterization of Pt-CeO2/C and Pt-TiO2/C electrocatalysts with improved electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, R. M. Abdel; Amin, R. S.; El-Khatib, K. M.; Fetohi, Amani E.

    2016-03-01

    Pt-TiO2/C and Pt-CeO2/C electrocatalysts were synthesized by solid state reaction of TiO2/C and CeO2/C powders using intermittent microwave heating, followed by chemical reduction of platinum ions using mixed reducing agents of ethylene glycol and sodium borohydride. The crystal structure, surface morphology and chemical composition of prepared electrocatalysts were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The phase angle values of different Pt diffraction planes in Pt-TiO2/C and Pt-CeO2/C were shifted in the positive direction relative to those in Pt/C. Pt particles with diameter values of 3.06 and 2.78 nm were formed in Pt-TiO2/C and Pt-CeO2/C, respectively. The electrochemical performance of prepared electrocatalysts was examined using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Pt-CeO2/C showed an enhanced oxidation current density when compared to Pt/C. Long time oxidation test at Pt-TiO2/C and Pt-CeO2/C revealed their improved stability. Lower charge transfer resistance values were estimated at Pt-metal oxide/C electrocatalysts.

  12. Surface Chemistry of Aromatic Reactants on Pt- and Mo-Modified Pt Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Allison M.; Mark, Lesli; Rasmussen, Mathew J.; Hensley, Jesse E.; Medlin, J. Will

    2016-11-01

    Supported catalysts containing an oxophilic metal such as Mo and a noble metal such as Pt have shown promising activity and selectivity for deoxygenation of biomass-derived compounds. Here, we report that PtMo catalysts also promote hydrogenolysis of the model compound benzyl alcohol, while decarbonylation is most prevalent over unmodified Pt. A combination of single crystal surface science studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and vapor phase upgrading experiments using supported catalysts was carried out to better understand the mechanism by which Mo promotes deoxygenation. Molybdenum was deposited in submonolayer quantities on a Pt(111) surface and reduced at high temperature. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments using benzyl alcohol as a reactant showed greatly enhanced yields of the deoxygenation product toluene at moderate Mo coverages. To understand how the interaction of the aromatic group with the surface influenced this reactivity, we investigated the adsorption of toluene as a probe molecule. We found that the addition of Mo to Pt(111) resulted in a significant decrease in toluene decomposition. DFT calculations indicated that this decrease was consistent with decreased aromatic adsorption strengths that accompany incorporation of Mo into the Pt subsurface. The weaker aromatic-surface interaction on Pt/Mo surfaces led to a tilted adsorption geometry for benzyl alcohol, which presumably promotes hydrogenolysis to produce toluene instead of decarbonylation to produce benzene and CO. Alumina-supported Pt and PtMo catalysts were also tested for benzyl alcohol deoxygenation. PtMo catalysts had a higher rate of toluene production and lower rates of benzene and benzaldehyde production. Additionally, when benzaldehyde was used as the reactant to measure decarbonylation activity the mass-normalized rate of benzene production was 2.5 times higher on Pt than PtMo. Overall, the results of TPD, DFT, and supported catalyst experiments

  13. Wear Resistances of CO2 Corrosion Product Films in the Presence of Sand Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinling; ZHU Shidong; LIU Luzhen; QU Chengtun; YAN Yongli; YANG Bo

    2015-01-01

    Wear resistances of CO2 corrosion product iflms formed on P110 carbon steel at different CO2 partial pressures were investigated in water sand two-phase lfow by weight loss method, and the microstructures and compositions of corrosion product iflms were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the wear rate of CO2 corrosion product iflms increased until a maximum and then decreased with the increasing of the film-forming pressure, and the maximum occurred at 2 MPa. However, the maximal corrosion rate and the loose and porous CO2 corrosion product iflms were obtained at 4 MPa. And the wear rate decreased and then went to be lfat with increasing test time. Furthermore, the microstructures and compositions of corrosion product iflms and the impact and wear of sand particles played an important role on wear resistances. In addition, the wear rate and corrosion rate were iftted by cubic polynomial, respectively, which were well in accordance with the measured results.

  14. Highly efficient enzymatic biodiesel production promoted by particle-induced emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas-Sánchez, Juan; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    At present, the conversion of oils to biodiesel is predominantly carried out using chemical catalysts. However, the corresponding lipase-catalysed process has important advantages, which include mild reaction conditions and the possibility of using cheap, low quality feedstocks with a high free fatty acid content. Further increases in the efficiency of the enzymatic process are desired to make it even more attractive and suitable for large-scale applications. Herein, we present a simple and efficient two-phase lipase-catalysed system for the preparation of biodiesel in which different parameters (biocatalyst composition, ethanol concentration and the presence of additives) were optimised in order to obtain the maximum productivity starting from triolein with a high free oleic acid content. In the two-phase system, the enzyme tolerated high-ethanol concentrations, which made it possible to reach high conversions. The addition of silica particles increased the reaction rate substantially. It was suggested that such particles can catalyse acyl migration as a step to the full conversion to glycerol and biodiesel. However, in the system studied here, the effect of the particles was shown to be due to the formation of smaller and more uniform emulsion droplets leading to better mass transfer between the two phases. Particles of widely different size had positive effects, and the highest rate was obtained with silica particles derivatised with phenyl groups. The optimal conditions were applied to the solvent-free ethanolysis of rapeseed oil, and a yield of 96% was reached in 5 h. Under the mild conditions used, chemical catalysts were inefficient. Triacylglycerol oils with a high free fatty acid content can be efficiently converted to ethyl esters using Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase as the catalyst in an aqueous/organic two-phase system. Fast mass transfer can be achieved using silica particles, which helped to decrease the size of the emulsion droplets and thus led to

  15. Characteristics of particle production in high energy nuclear collisions a model-based analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, D P

    2002-01-01

    The present work pertains to the production of some very important negatively charged secondaries in lead-lead and gold-gold collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. We would like to examine here the role of the particular version of sequential chain model (SCM), which was applied widely in the past in analysing data on various high-energy hadronic collisions, in explaining now the latest findings on the features of particle production in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The agreement between the model of our choice and the measured data is found to be modestly satisfactory in cases of the most prominent and abundantly produced varieties of the secondaries in the above-stated two nuclear collisions. (25 refs).

  16. Chloramphenicol Mediates Superoxide Production in Photosystem II and Enhances Its Photodamage in Isolated Membrane Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Ateeq Ur; Kodru, Sandeesha; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an inhibitor of protein synthesis, which is frequently used to decouple photodamage and protein synthesis dependent repair of Photosystem II during the process of photoinhibition. It has been reported earlier that CAP is able to mediate superoxide production by transferring electrons from the acceptor side of Photosystem I to oxygen. Here we investigated the interaction of CAP with Photosystem II electron transport processes by oxygen uptake and variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Our data show that CAP can accept electrons at the acceptor side of Photosystem II, most likely from Pheophytin, and deliver them to molecular oxygen leading to superoxide production. In addition, the presence of CAP enhances photodamage of Photosystem II electron transport in isolated membrane particles, which effect is reversible by superoxide dismutase. It is concluded that CAP acts as electron acceptor in Photosystem II and mediates its superoxide dependent photodamage. This effect has potential implications for the application of CAP in photoinhibitory studies in intact systems. PMID:27092170

  17. Search for pair-production of long-lived heavy charged particles in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Cavanaugh, R J; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Hühn, T; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Kno