Casillo, Angela; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Filomena, Sannino; Lindner, Buko; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Corsaro, Maria Michela
Psychrophilic microorganisms have successfully colonized all permanently cold environments from the deep sea to mountain and polar regions. The ability of an organism to survive and grow in cryoenviroments depends on a number of adaptive strategies aimed at maintaining vital cellular functions at subzero temperatures, which include the structural modifications of the membrane. To understand the role of the membrane in the adaptation, it is necessary to characterize the cell-wall components, such as the lipopolysaccharides, that represent the major constituent of the outer membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) isolated from the cold-adapted Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4. The strain, isolated from a 20,000-to-30,000-year-old continuously frozen permafrost in Siberia, was cultivated at 4 °C. The LOS was isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical methods. In particular, it was degraded either by mild acid hydrolysis or by hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and by ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharide was characterized by the substitution of the heptose residue, usually linked to Kdo in the inner core, with a glucose, and for the unusual presence of N-acetylmuramic acid.
Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-13-0007 ref|YP_264072.1| possible competence protein, ComEC [Psychrobacte...r arcticus 273-4] gb|AAZ18638.1| possible competence protein, ComEC [Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4] YP_264072.1 2.2 24% ...
Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0930 ref|YP_264072.1| competence protein, ComEC [Psychrobacter arcticu...s 273-4] gb|AAZ18638.1| possible competence protein, ComEC [Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4] YP_264072.1 2.8 24% ...
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Chang, Xulu; Zheng, Jiangli; Jiang, Fan; Liu, Ping; Kan, Wenjing; Qu, Zhihao; Fang, Chengxiang; Peng, Fang
A novel, red-pink-pigmented strain, designated R2-4(T), was isolated from a till sample near Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C (optimum, 20-22 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with 0-1% NaCl added to R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R2-4(T) belonged to the genus Hymenobacter. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain R2-4(T) and the type strains of related species of the genus ranged from 94.51 to 96.05%. Strain R2-4(T) contained iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c), summed feature 4 (C(17 : 1) anteiso B and/or iso I) and C(16 : 1)ω5c as the major cellular fatty acids, MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids as the main polar lipids. The polyamine was sym-homospermidine. The DNA G+C content of strain R2-4(T) was 61.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain R2-4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R2-4(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012104(T) = KACC 16881(T)). © 2014 IUMS.
Full Text Available To date, the genus Psychrobacter consists of 37 recognized species isolated from different sources, however they are more frequently found in cold and other non-polar environments of low water activity. Some strains belonging to the genus have shown different enzymatic activities with potential applications in bioremediation or food industry. In the present study, the whole genome sequences of three Psychrobacter-like strains (C 20.9, Cmf 22.2 and Rd 27.2 isolated from reared clams in Galicia (Spain are described. The sequenced genomes resulted in an assembly size of 3,143,782 bp for C 20.9 isolate, 3,168,467 bp for Cmf 22.2 isolate and 3,028,386 bp for Rd 27.2 isolate. Among the identified coding sequences of the genomes, mercury detoxification and biogeochemistry genes were found, as well as genes related to heavy metals and antibiotic resistance. Also virulence-related features were identified such as the siderophore vibrioferrin or an aerobactin-like siderophore. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene suggested that these strains may represent novel species of the Psychrobacter genus. The genome sequences of the Psychrobacter sp. strains have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession numbers MRYA00000000 (Cmf 22.2, MRYB00000000 (Rd 27.2 and MRYC00000000 (C 20.9, and the sequences could be found at the site https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA353858.
Moghadam, Morteza Shojaei; Albersmeier, Andreas; Winkler, Anika; Cimmino, Lorenzo; Rise, Kjersti; Hohmann-Marriott, Martin Frank; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wentzel, Alexander; Lale, Rahmi
Marine cold-temperature environments are an invaluable source of psychrophilic microbial life for new biodiscoveries. An Arctic marine bacterial strain collection was established consisting of 1448 individual isolates originating from biota, water and sediment samples taken at a various depth in the Barents Sea, North of mainland Norway, with an all year round seawater temperature of 4 °C. The entire collection was subjected to high-throughput screening for detection of extracellular laccase activity with guaiacol as a substrate. In total, 13 laccase-positive isolates were identified, all belonging to the Psychrobacter genus. From the most diverse four strains, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all originating from the same Botryllus sp. colonial ascidian tunicate sample, genomic DNA was isolated and genome sequenced using a combined approach of whole genome shotgun and 8 kb mate-pair library sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform. The genomes were assembled and revealed genome sizes between 3.29 and 3.52 Mbp with an average G + C content of around 42%, with one to seven plasmids present in the four strains. Bioinformatics based genome mining was performed to describe the metabolic potential of these four strains and to identify gene candidates potentially responsible for the observed laccase-positive phenotype. Up to two different laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) encoding gene candidates were identified in each of the four strains. Heterologous expression of P11F6-LMCO and P11G5-LMCO2 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) resulted in recombinant proteins exhibiting 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and guaiacol oxidizing activity. Thirteen Psychrobacter species with laccase-positive phenotype were isolated from a collection of Arctic marine bacteria. Four of the isolates were genome sequenced. The overall genome features were similar to other publicly available Psychrobacter genome sequences except for P11G5 harboring seven
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a
Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao
A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purif...
Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei
A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Ashengroph, Morahem; Nahvi, Iraj; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Hamid; Momenbeik, Fariborz
To screen strains of halotolerant or halophile bacteria which are able to convert isoeugenol to vanillin, 36 different strains of bacteria isolated from the salty environments in Iran were investigated. During growth on isoeugenol, a moderately halotolerant Gram-negative coccobacil showed capability of converting isoeugenol to vanillin. Based on morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic studies, strain CSW4 was classified as a bacterium belonging to the genus Psychrobacter. The bioconversion products were confirmed by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and spectral data obtained from UV/Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, and mass-spectroscopy. Using growing cells, vanillin reached its maximum level of 88.18 mg L(-1) after 24 h of reaction time in the presence of 1 g L(-1) isoeugenol, resulting in a molar yield of 10.2%. The use of resting cells led to the optimal yield of vanillin (16.4%) which was obtained after 18-h reaction using 1 g L(-1) isoeugenol and 3.1 g of dry weight of cells per liter harvested at the end of the exponential growth phase. To improve vanillin yield, the effect of substrate concentration on vanillin production under resting cells conditions was also investigated. Using 10 g L(-1) isoeugenol, the maximal vanillin concentration (1.28 g L(-1)) was achieved after a 48-h reaction, without further optimization. The present study brings the first evidence for biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin in the genus Psychrobacter.
Basova, I N; Iagodina, O V
Study of the substrate-inhibitory specificity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) of hepatopancreas of the octopus Bathypolypus arcticus revealed distinctive peculiarities of catalytic properties of this enzyme. The studied enzyme, on one hand, like the classic MAO of homoiothermal animals, is able to deaminate tyramine, serotonin, benzylamine, tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine, while, on the other hand, deaminates histamine and does not deaminate putrescine--classic substrates of diamine oxidase (DAO). Results of the substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of chlorgiline and deprenyl are indirect proofs of the existence in the octopus hepatopancreas of one molecular MAO form. Semicarbazide and pyronine G turned out to be weak irreversible inhibitors, four derivatives of acridine--irreversible inhibitors of the intermediate effectiveness with respect to the octopus hepatopancreas MAO; specificity of action of inhibitors at deamination of different substrates was equal.
Charles R. Sweet
Full Text Available Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2- units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.
Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao
A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2) under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA) at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA) at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2. PMID:22408420
Pedersen, Simen [Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lierhagen, Syverin [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, N-7485 Trondheim (Norway)
Accumulation of cadmium, mercury, lead, copper and zinc was studied in muscle, liver and kidney of 9 adult and 7 juvenile arctic hares (Lepus arcticus), collected in 2003 in the southwestern part of Nunavut, Canada. Our objective was to determine the level of heavy metal accumulation, and distribution among age groups and tissue. Concentrations of all metals varied among tissues, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn were higher in adults compared to juveniles. We found correlations in metal content among tissues, and among metals in kidneys. We also found the hares to have low concentration of most heavy metals except cadmium. We suggest that the high cadmium levels might be caused by the local geology, and the hares being adapted to these levels. The low levels of the other metals are probably due to low input of atmospheric contaminants. Only one of the individuals had Cd content slightly above the maximum contaminant levels recommended for human consumption of meat. There were no levels in meat above the recommended maximum for the rest of the metals surveyed. However the Cd levels in liver and kidney are orders of magnitude higher than the recommended maximum, and consumption of these organs should be avoided.
Hukkanen, Anne; Kostamo, Katri; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Kokko, Harri
The main arctic bramble ( Rubus arcticus) cultivars are susceptible to downy mildew ( Peronospora sparsa), which seriously threatens the cultivation. The efficiency of Aliette, Euparen M, phosphite-containing Phosfik, Phostrol, Farm-Fos-44, and Kaliumfosfiet, as well as Bion was evaluated in the greenhouse. Fewer symptoms and less Peronospora DNA were found in plants treated with Euparen M and Bion, whereas Aliette, Phosfik, and Phostrol gave moderate protection. Three arctic bramble cultivars showed varying susceptibility to P. sparsa. An inexpensive and fast in vitro plate test gave results parallel with those obtained in the greenhouse. Quantitative differences were found in the phenolic profiles of the leaves of different cultivars and in different treatments. Several phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in arctic bramble for the first time, for example, monomeric and oligomeric ellagitannins and galloylglucoses. Negative correlation was found between the amount of P. sparsa DNA and flavonol glycosides and some ellagitannins in the leaves 8 days after inoculation, suggesting a possible role for these phenolics in the defense.
Junior A. Tremblay
Full Text Available We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two birds were tracked using radiotelemetry, and reliable estimates of home-range size were obtained for seven breeding individuals (six males and one female. The average home-range size was 151.5 ± 18.8 ha (range: 100.4-256.4 ha. Our results indicate that this species establishes home ranges in areas where both open and forested habitats are available. However, during foraging activities, individuals preferentially selected areas dominated by old coniferous stands. The study also showed that the spatial distribution of preferred foraging habitat patches influenced space use, with home-range area increasing with the median distance between old coniferous habitat patches available within the landscape. Finally, these data show that Black-backed Woodpeckers may successfully breed in an unburned forest with at least 35 m3 ha-1 of dead wood, of which 42% (15 m3 ha-1 is represented by dead wood at the early decay stage.
Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Chadwick P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler
Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are a disturbance-dependent species that occupy recently burned forest and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestations. Forest management practices that reduce the amount of disturbed forest may lead to habitat loss for Black-backed Woodpeckers, which have recently been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We...
Ashengroph, Morahem; Nahvi, Iraj; Amini, Jahanshir
For all industrial processes, modelling, optimisation and control are the keys to enhance productivity and ensure product quality. In the current study, the optimization of process parameters for improving the conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. CSW4 was investigated by means of Taguchi approach and Box-Behnken statistical design under resting cell conditions. Taguchi design was employed for screening the significant variables in the bioconversion medium. Sequentially, B...
Jeppesen, E.; Christoffersen, K.; Landkildehus, F.
We studied the trophic structure in the pelagial and crustacean remains in the surface 1 cm of the sediment of 13 shallow, high arctic lakes in northeast Greenland (74 N). Seven lakes were fishless, while the remaining six hosted a dwarf form of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). In fishless lakes...... sp. in lakes with Lepidurus, while they were abundant in lakes with fish. The low abundance in fishless lakes could not be explained by damage of crustacean remains caused by Lepidurus feeding in the sediment, because remains of the more soft-shelled, pelagic-living Daphnia were abundant...... in the sediment of these lakes. No significant differences between lakes with and without fish were found in chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, conductivity or temperature, suggesting that the observed link between Lepidurus arcticus and the benthic crustacean community is causal. Consequently...
Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie; Lehnert, Kristina; Leifsson, Páll S.
For the first time in > 30 years of routine sampling under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, a parasite was found in the liver of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected near Qaanaaq (Thule), Northwest Greenland, in 2008 and 2014. Concerns regarding changes to parasite occurrence......, possibly related to climate change and bioaccumulation of immunomodulating anthropogenic pollutants, spurred further investigations into parasite characterization, and implications for wildlife health and seal hunters. Microscopic, molecular, and morphometric analyses are presented herein. Of 40 seals, 6...... (15%) were infected, and 5 of 6 of these seals had severe infections. The parasite was identified morphologically as Orthosplanchnus arcticus Odhner, 1905 (Trematoda; Digenea: Brachycladiidae). Macro- and microscopic pathologic study indicated mild-to-severe biliary hyperplasia associated, stasis...
Larvas de Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 y Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793, entre el seno Reloncaví y Boca del Guafo, sur de Chile Larvae of Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837, and Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793 between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo, southern Chile
Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución de los estados de desarrollo de las larvas de Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata y Munida gregaria, capturadas entre el seno Reloncaví y la Boca del Guafo, durante noviembre de 2004. Se distinguieron tres zonas oceanógraficas, de acuerdo a los antecedentes relacionados con el grado de participación de aguas continentales y oceánicas. La distribución de las larvas de estas especies y sus estados de desarrollo, permitieron establecer diferencias significativas entre ellas respecto de las características oceanógraficas, lo que estaría relacionado con los lugares de desove y habitat de las poblaciones desovantes en el área de estudio.The distribution of developmental stages of Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata and Munida gregaria larvae caught between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo in November 2004 was analyzed. Three oceanographic zones were distinguished according to records showing the degree of participation of continental and oceanic waters. Significant differences were determined between larval distribution and development stages for these species with respect to oceanographic characteristics; said differences might be related to the spawning sites and the habitat of the spawning stock in the study area.
Ashengroph, Morahem; Nahvi, Iraj; Amini, Jahanshir
For all industrial processes, modelling, optimisation and control are the keys to enhance productivity and ensure product quality. In the current study, the optimization of process parameters for improving the conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. CSW4 was investigated by means of Taguchi approach and Box-Behnken statistical design under resting cell conditions. Taguchi design was employed for screening the significant variables in the bioconversion medium. Sequentially, Box-Behnken design experiments under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for further optimization. Four factors (isoeugenol, NaCl, biomass and tween 80 initial concentrations), which have significant effects on vanillin yield, were selected from ten variables by Taguchi experimental design. With the regression coefficient analysis in the Box-Behnken design, a relationship between vanillin production and four significant variables was obtained, and the optimum levels of the four variables were as follows: initial isoeugenol concentration 6.5 g/L, initial tween 80 concentration 0.89 g/L, initial NaCl concentration 113.2 g/L and initial biomass concentration 6.27 g/L. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum predicted concentration of vanillin was 2.25 g/L. These optimized values of the factors were validated in a triplicate shaking flask study and an average of 2.19 g/L for vanillin, which corresponded to a molar yield 36.3%, after a 24 h bioconversion was obtained. The present work is the first one reporting the application of Taguchi design and Response surface methodology for optimizing bioconversion of isoeugenol into vanillin under resting cell conditions.
Full Text Available Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, an essential polymer made by enzymes in the Mur pathway. These proteins are specific to bacteria, which make them targets for drug discovery. MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF catalyze the synthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine by the sequential addition of amino acids onto UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc. MurC-F enzymes have been extensively studied by biochemistry and X-ray crystallography. In gram-negative bacteria, ∼30-60% of the bacterial cell wall is recycled during each generation. Part of this recycling process involves the murein peptide ligase (Mpl, which attaches the breakdown product, the tripeptide L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate, to UDP-MurNAc. We present the crystal structure at 1.65 Å resolution of a full-length Mpl from the permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 (PaMpl. Although the Mpl structure has similarities to Mur enzymes, it has unique sequence and structure features that are likely related to its role in cell wall recycling, a function that differentiates it from the MurC-F enzymes. We have analyzed the sequence-structure relationships that are unique to Mpl proteins and compared them to MurC-F ligases. We have also characterized the biochemical properties of this enzyme (optimal temperature, pH and magnesium binding profiles and kinetic parameters. Although the structure does not contain any bound substrates, we have identified ∼30 residues that are likely to be important for recognition of the tripeptide and UDP-MurNAc substrates, as well as features that are unique to Psychrobacter Mpl proteins. These results provide the basis for future mutational studies for more extensive function characterization of the Mpl sequence-structure relationships.
Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Feuerhelm, Julie; Farr, Carol L; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Elsliger, Marc-André; Knuth, Mark W; Klock, Heath E; Miller, Mitchell D; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Deacon, Ashley M; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Wilson, Ian A
Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, an essential polymer made by enzymes in the Mur pathway. These proteins are specific to bacteria, which make them targets for drug discovery. MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF catalyze the synthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine by the sequential addition of amino acids onto UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc). MurC-F enzymes have been extensively studied by biochemistry and X-ray crystallography. In gram-negative bacteria, ∼30-60% of the bacterial cell wall is recycled during each generation. Part of this recycling process involves the murein peptide ligase (Mpl), which attaches the breakdown product, the tripeptide L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate, to UDP-MurNAc. We present the crystal structure at 1.65 Å resolution of a full-length Mpl from the permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 (PaMpl). Although the Mpl structure has similarities to Mur enzymes, it has unique sequence and structure features that are likely related to its role in cell wall recycling, a function that differentiates it from the MurC-F enzymes. We have analyzed the sequence-structure relationships that are unique to Mpl proteins and compared them to MurC-F ligases. We have also characterized the biochemical properties of this enzyme (optimal temperature, pH and magnesium binding profiles and kinetic parameters). Although the structure does not contain any bound substrates, we have identified ∼30 residues that are likely to be important for recognition of the tripeptide and UDP-MurNAc substrates, as well as features that are unique to Psychrobacter Mpl proteins. These results provide the basis for future mutational studies for more extensive function characterization of the Mpl sequence-structure relationships.
... the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b(e)) which is recognized as... verification. Until the alien provides information or verification necessary to carry out the provisions of... cooperate in providing information or verification, other adult members of the alien's household are...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax ester synthases (WSs can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial applications. The products of WSs include fatty acid ethyl esters, which can be directly used as biodiesel. Results Here, heterologous WSs derived from five different organisms were successfully expressed and evaluated for their substrate preference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We investigated the potential of the different WSs for biodiesel (that is, fatty acid ethyl esters production in S. cerevisiae. All investigated WSs, from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798, Rhodococcus opacus PD630, Mus musculus C57BL/6 and Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, have different substrate specificities, but they can all lead to the formation of biodiesel. The best biodiesel producing strain was found to be the one expressing WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 that resulted in a biodiesel titer of 6.3 mg/L. To further enhance biodiesel production, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase was up-regulated, which resulted in a 30% increase in biodiesel production. Conclusions Five WSs from different species were functionally expressed and their substrate preference characterized in S. cerevisiae, thus constructing cell factories for the production of specific kinds of wax ester. WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus showed the highest preference for ethanol compared to the other WSs, and could permit the engineered S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesel.
Hukkanen, Anne; Kokko, Harri; Buchala, Antony; Häyrinen, Jukka; Kärenlampi, Sirpa
Benzothiadiazole (BTH) induces resistance to the downy mildew pathogen, Peronospora sparsa, in arctic bramble, but the basis for the BTH-induced resistance is unknown. Arctic bramble cv. Mespi was treated with BTH to study the changes in leaf proteome and to identify proteins with a putative role in disease resistance. First, BTH induced strong expression of one PR-1 protein isoform, which was also induced by salicylic acid (SA). The PR-1 was responsive to BTH and exogenous SA despite a high endogenous SA content (20-25 microg/g fresh weight), which increased to an even higher level after treatment with BTH. Secondly, a total of 792 protein spots were detected in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, eight proteins being detected solely in the BTH-treated plants. BTH caused up- or down-regulation of 72 and 31 proteins, respectively, of which 18 were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry. The up-regulation of flavanone-3-hydroxylase, alanine aminotransferase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, PR-1 and PR-10 proteins may partly explain the BTH-induced resistance against P. sparsa. Other proteins with changes in intensity appear to be involved in, for example, energy metabolism and protein processing. The decline in ATP synthase, triosephosphate isomerase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase and glutamine synthetase suggests that BTH causes significant changes in primary metabolism, which provides one possible explanation for the decreased vegetative growth of foliage and rhizome observed in BTH-treated plants.
Full Text Available Imelysin-like proteins define a superfamily of bacterial proteins that are likely involved in iron uptake. Members of this superfamily were previously thought to be peptidases and were included in the MEROPS family M75. We determined the first crystal structures of two remotely related, imelysin-like proteins. The Psychrobacter arcticus structure was determined at 2.15 Å resolution and contains the canonical imelysin fold, while higher resolution structures from the gut bacteria Bacteroides ovatus, in two crystal forms (at 1.25 Å and 1.44 Å resolution, have a circularly permuted topology. Both structures are highly similar to each other despite low sequence similarity and circular permutation. The all-helical structure can be divided into two similar four-helix bundle domains. The overall structure and the GxHxxE motif region differ from known HxxE metallopeptidases, suggesting that imelysin-like proteins are not peptidases. A putative functional site is located at the domain interface. We have now organized the known homologous proteins into a superfamily, which can be separated into four families. These families share a similar functional site, but each has family-specific structural and sequence features. These results indicate that imelysin-like proteins have evolved from a common ancestor, and likely have a conserved function.
Hansen, Mie Johanne; Strøm Braaten, Mira; Bojesen, Anders Miki
A total of 32 suspected Pasteurellaceae strains isolated from polar and brown bears were characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed two closely related monophyletic groups. Based...... on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison Bibersteinia trehalosi was the closest related validly published species, with 95.4 % similarity to the polar bear group and 94.4 % similarity to the brown bear group. Otariodibacter oris was the closest related species based on rpoB sequence comparison with an rpo......B similarity at 89.8% with the polar bear group and 90% similarity with the brown bear group. Members of the bear genera could be separated from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by three to ten phenotypic characters and the two novel species could be separated from each other by two phenotypic characters...
Induction of phase I biotransformation enzymes is recognized as a hallmark response in fish exposed to coplanar PCBs. Depletions of vitamins A and E and disrupted thyroid hormone and glandular structure secondary to this induction have not yet been examined in an arctic fish spec...
Juncus arequipensis andJ. breviculmis are described as new species, andJ. ramboi subsp.colombianus as a new subspecies.Juncus arcticus Willd. var.mexicanus (Willd.), var.montanus (Engelm.), and var.andicola (Hook.) are proposed as new combinations.......Juncus arequipensis andJ. breviculmis are described as new species, andJ. ramboi subsp.colombianus as a new subspecies.Juncus arcticus Willd. var.mexicanus (Willd.), var.montanus (Engelm.), and var.andicola (Hook.) are proposed as new combinations....
K. J. Carim; J. C. S. Dysthe; Michael Young; Kevin McKelvey; Michael Schwartz
The upper Missouri River basin in the northwestern US contains disjunct Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) populations of conservation concern. To assist efforts aimed at understanding Artic grayling distribution, we developed a quantitative PCR assay to detect the presence of Arctic grayling DNA in environmental samples. The assay amplified low...
Christopher T. Rota; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler
Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic...
Jeppesen, Erik; Lauridsen, Torben L.; Christoffersen, Kirsten S.
largest between fishless lakes and lakes hosting only sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), while lakes with both Arctic charr (Salvelinus arcticus) and stickleback revealed a more modest response, indicating that presence of charr modulates the predation effect of sticklebacks. It is predicted that more...
Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jay J. Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley
Accurate estimates of Black-backed (Picoides arcticus) and Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus) nests and nest survival rates in post-fire landscapes provide land managers with information on the relative importance of burned forests to nesting woodpeckers. We conducted multiple-observer surveys in burned and unburned mixed coniferous forests in Oregon to identify important...
Jennifer Pierson; Fred W. Allendorf; Vicki Saab; Pierre Drapeau; Michael K. Schwartz
We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define...
Petursdottir, H.; Gislason, A.; Falk-Petersen, S.; Hop, H.; Svavarsson, J.
Trophic relationships of the important oceanic crustacean species Calanus finmarchicus, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Sergestes arcticus, as well as the mesopelagic fishes Maurolicus muelleri, Benthosema glaciale and Sebastes mentella, were investigated over the Reykjanes Ridge in June 2003 and in June 2004. Measurements were performed of length, wet weight, dry weight, total lipid, lipid class, fatty acid and fatty alcohol profiles and stable isotopes (δ 13C and δ 15N). High amounts of the Calanus lipid markers, 20:1(n-9) and 22:1(n-11) in these species confirm the importance of Calanus spp. in this ecosystem. Comparisons of fatty acid/alcohol profiles by multivariate analysis revealed two main trophic pathways over the Reykjanes Ridge. In one pathway, Calanus spp. was an important part of the diet for the small mesopelagic fish species M. muelleri and B. glaciale and the shrimp S. arcticus, whereas in the other pathway, the euphausiid M. norvegica was the dominant food for the redfish S. mentella, and Calanus spp. were of less importance. M. muelleri and the smaller B. glaciale feed on C. finmarchicus, whereas the larger B. glaciale and S. arcticus select the larger, deeper-living C. hyperboreus. All investigated species are true pelagic species except for the shrimp S. arcticus, which seems to have a benthic feeding habit as well. The δ 15N levels show that of the species investigated, C. finmarchicus occupies the lowest trophic level (2.0) and the redfish, S. mentella, the highest (4.2). All the species were lipid rich, typical for subarctic pelagic ecosystem. Calanus finmarchicus, S. arcticus and B. glaciale store wax esters as their lipid stores, while M. norvegica, M. muelleri and S. mentella store triacylglycerols.
Petrovskaya, Lada E; Novototskaya-Vlasova, Ksenia A; Gapizov, Sultan Sh; Spirina, Elena V; Durdenko, Ekaterina V; Rivkina, Elizaveta M
Siberian permafrost is a unique environment inhabited with diverse groups of microorganisms. Among them, there are numerous producers of biotechnologically relevant enzymes including lipases and esterases. Recently, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a permafrost sample and identified in it several genes coding for potential lipolytic enzymes. In the current work, properties of the recombinant esterases obtained from this library are compared with the previously characterized lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis and other representatives of the hormone-sensitive lipase family.
Shcherbakova, V.; Rivkina, E.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Pecheritsina, S.; Gilichinsky, D.
In the Arctic there are lenses of overcooled water brines (cryopegs) sandwiched within permafrost marine sediments 100 120 thousand years old. We have investigated the physiological properties of the pure cultures of anaerobic Clostridium sp. strain 14D1 and two strains of aerobic bacteria Psychrobacter sp. isolated from these cryopegs. The structural and physiological characteristics of new bacteria from water brines have shown their ability to survive and develop under harsh conditions, such as subzero temperatures and high salinity.
Salas-Leiva, Joan; Opazo, Rafael; Remond, Camille; Uribe, Eduardo; Velez, Antonio; Romero, Jaime
A comparative analysis of the cultivable intestinal microbiota of farmed (AF) and wild-caught (WF) Paralichthys adspersus was performed. The 16S rRNA gene was used for taxa identification, and the ITS region for strain differentiation. We detected the presence of Vibrio, Bacillus, Photobacterium, Staphylococcus and Carnobacterium in AF, and Exiguobacterium, Klebsiella, Arthrobacter, Raoultella, Kluyvera, Myroides, Streptococcus, Vagococcus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, Lactob...
Fossen, Erlend I.; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N.; Bergsten, Johannes
Abstract The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular
from P. halotolerans and a novel siderophore-like compound from V. nigripulchritudo were isolated. All three compounds interfere with quorum sensing in S. aureus. During LOMROG-II further seventeen strains with antagonistic activity were isolated, affiliating with the Actinobacteria (8 strains......), Pseudoalteromonas (4 strains), the Vibrionaceae (3 strains), and Psychrobacter (2 strains). Seven of the eight bioactive Actinobacteria, being isolated from different sources throughout the Arctic Ocean, were related to Arthrobacter davidanieli. Its broad antibiotic spectrum was likely based on production...... demonstrated that marine Vibrionaceae and polar Actinobacteria are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential for future natural product discovery....
Full Text Available Earlier phylogenetic analyses of the marine Rhodobacteraceae (class Alphaproteobacteria genera Leisingera and Phaeobacter indicated that neither genus might be monophyletic. We here used phylogenetic reconstruction from genome-scale data, MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry analysis and a re-assessment of the phenotypic data from the literature to settle this matter, aiming at a reclassification of the two genera. Neither Phaeobacter nor Leisingera formed a clade in any of the phylogenetic analyses conducted. Rather, smaller monophyletic assemblages emerged, which were phenotypically more homogeneous, too. We thus propose the reclassification of Leisingera nanhaiensis as the type species of a new genus as Sedimentitalea nanhaiensis gen. nov., comb. nov., the reclassification of Phaeobacter arcticus and Phaeobacter leonis as Pseudophaeobacter arcticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Pseudophaeobacter leonis comb. nov., and the reclassification of Phaeobacter aquaemixtae, Phaeobacter caeruleus and Phaeobacter daeponensis as Leisingera aquaemixtae comb. nov., Leisingera caerulea comb. nov. and Leisingera daeponensis comb. nov. The genera Phaeobacter and Leisingera are accordingly emended.
Singh, Purnima; Singh, Shiv M; Singh, Ram N; Naik, Simantini; Roy, Utpal; Srivastava, Alok; Bölter, Manfred
Permafrost soils are unique habitats in polar environment and are of great ecological relevance. The present study focuses on the characterization of bacterial communities from permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic. Counts of culturable bacteria range from 1.50 × 10 3 to 2.22 × 10 5 CFU g -1 , total bacterial numbers range from 1.14 × 10 5 to 5.52 × 10 5 cells g -1 soil. Bacterial isolates are identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas are the most dominant genera, and A. sulfonivorans, A. bergeri, P. mandelii, and P. jessenii as the dominant species. Other species belong to genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Rhodococcus, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus. To the best of our knowledge, genera Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus are the first northernmost records from Arctic permafrost. The present study fills the knowledge gap of culturable bacterial communities and their chronological characterization from permafrost soils of Ny-Ålesund (79°N), Arctic. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bekaert, Karen; Devriese, Lisa; Maes, Sara; Robbens, Johan
The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial quality of whole Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and Norway lobster tails to optimize handling conditions. This was done by assessing the total viable count (TVC) and characterizing the dominant microbiota. The cultivable microorganisms were quantified via classical microbiological plating methods. To characterize as many bacterial species present as possible, we performed advanced molecular identification techniques (PCR-DGGE). The initial TVC of fresh Norway lobster meat was high (3.0 log cfu/g) as compared to fish. No significant difference between whole Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails could be found during the storage period. From day 6 of storage, a significant difference between Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Marine Agar (MA) was observed. The microbiota of Norway lobster was dominated by members of the Gram-negative genera such as Psychrobacter spp., Pseudoalteromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Luteimonas spp., and Aliivibrio spp. From these bacteria, mainly Psychrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. remained present until the end of the storage period. These are known spoilage organisms in fishery products. Other known spoilage organisms of crustaceans such as Photobacterium spp. could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iverson, S L; Turner, B N
The small mammals in the area around the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in southeastern Manitoba were sampled by approximately 110,000 snap- trap nights in a 5 year period. Habitats trapped were divided into major types on the basis of the tree species present, and occurrences of the different species of shrubs and herbs in each habitat type were noted. The major habitats were mixed deciduous, aspen, ash, mixed coniferous, The small mammal component of the mixed deciduous forest was dominated by Peromyscus maniculatus and Clethrionomys gapperi but all of the other species included in this study were also present. In both aspen and ash forests, Microtus pennsylvanicus and C. gapperi were the most numerous species, with Sorex arcticus reaching its greatest abundance in the latter. In the open field, M. pennsylvanicus was most abundant, followed by Zapus hudsonius, C. gapperi, M. pennsylvanicus and Sorex cinereus were the most numerous mammals in the black spruce bog community, and also extended into the black spruce forest. All of the species studied, except Napaeozapus insignis and S. arcticus, were present in the mixed coniferous forest. S. arcticus and S. cinereus, although captured in habitats ranging from heavy forest to open field, appeared to be most numerous in young forests and other intermediate habitats. Blarina brevicauda was most numerous in older forests. P. maniculatus and N. insignis were most common in the mixed deciduous forest, but P. maniculatus occurred more frequently than N. insignis in the younger forests. P. maniculatus showed a significant positive relationship with large tree diameter and low percentages of ground cover. C. gapperi was captured in highest numbers in the mixed deciduous and coniferous forests, but was also found in the other types of forest in greater numbers than P. maniculaius. M. pennsylvanicus and Zapus hudsonius were most common in the open field, but both species were present in the forests. Analysis of data
Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne
The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos...... moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition...... in barnacle goose droppings was relatively uniform over samples, with a high abundance of the nutritious bulbils of Polygonum viviparum (Bistorta vivipara), suggesting that geese have a narrow habitat preference and feed selectively. Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among...
Full Text Available verselong Onychiurus arcticus d... 38 0.010 2 ( CF439672 ) EST676017 normalized cDNA library of ...ornis cDN... 68 8e-07 1 ( BU884919 ) R017H10 Populus root cDNA library Populus tremula... 68 8e-07 1 ( ...us dormant bud cDNA library Populus ... 60 2e-04 1 ( CK110478 ) N067A08 Populus bark cDNA library Populus tremul...04 1 ( BU887484 ) R062A08 Populus root cDNA library Populus tremula... 60 2e-04 1 ( BU880608 ) UM52TC12 Populus flower cDNA library...us tremula cambium cDNA library Po... 60 2e-04 1 ( BU819297 ) UA42BPA08 Populus tremula cambium cDNA library
Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Golden, H.; McIvor, C.C.; Miller, M.C.
This study examined the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down controls of an arctic stream food web by simultaneous manipulation of the top predator and nutrient availability. We created a two-step trophic system (algae to insects) by removal of the top predator (Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus) in fertilized and control stream reaches. Fish abundance was also increased 10 times to examine the effect of high fish density on stream ecosystem dynamics and fish. We measured the response of epilithic algae, benthic and drifting insects, and fish to nutrient enrichment and to changes in fish density. Insect grazers had little effect on algae and fish had little effect on insects. In both the control and fertilized reaches, fish growth, energy storage, and reproductive response of females declined with increased fish density. Fish growth and energy storage were more closely correlated with per capita insect availability than with per capita algal standing stock
Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T
In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated.
Bøcher, Jens Jensenius
Sediments from the last interglacial (Eemian) in Jameson Land, East Greenland, and the Thule area, NW Greenland, have revealed a number of insect fragments of both arctic and more or less warmth-demanding species. Altogether, the interglacial fauna of Coleoptera (beetles) indicates boreal...... beetle species such as Amara alpina and Isochnus arcticus did not survive the last glacial stage in Greenland. Two factors that have not been sufficiently considered when discussing survival contra extinction are the importance of microclimate and the number of sun-hours during the Arctic summer. Even...... among the Coleoptera, which as a group fares quite badly in the Arctic, there might be survivors, at least among those found both during the interglacial and as fossils during the early Holocene. First of all, glacial survival applies to the seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which was widespread during...
Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie
Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the
Gusti Ayu Dianti Violentina
Full Text Available Ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinis merupakan ikan konsumsi yang disukai masyarakat.Pengetahuan tentang bakteri yang ditemukan pada tubuh ikan ini sangat penting untuk tujuan kesehatan masyarakat dan kajian biologi ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan ikan tersebut.Bakteri dari usus ikan diambil secara aseptis dan ditumbuhkan pada Blood Agar dan Nutrient Broth. DNA total dari kultur agar cair diisolasi dengan chelax, gen 16S RNA diamplifikasi dengan PCR menggunakan primer universal dengan produk sekitar 1300 bp. Produk PCR dirunut dengan metode Big-Dye termination. Hasilnya disepadankan dan dianalisis dengan MEGA 6.0. Pada penelitian ini, 14 spesies bakteri yang memiliki > 99% kesamaan dengan data GenBankteridentifikasi, yaitu Photobacterium leiognathi, Uruburuella testudinis, Aeromonas molluscorum, Psychrobacter celer, Psychrobacer faecalis, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Vibrio gallicus, Bacillus megaterium, Vagococcus fessus, Shewanella baltica, Shewanella algae, Rothia nasimurium, Myroides phaeus dan Yersinia ruckeri. Peran bakteribakteri tersebut dalam biologi ikan dan kesehatan masyarakat perlu dikaji lebih lanjut.
Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva
The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Hsiao, Sung-Yun; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Chang, Fi-John
Drinking highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease in Taiwan, but microorganisms that potentially control arsenic mobility in the subsurface remain unstudied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevant arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing microbial community that exists in highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Taiwan. We cultured and identified arsenic-transforming bacteria, analyzed arsenic resistance and transformation, and determined the presence of genetic markers for arsenic transformation. In total, 11 arsenic-transforming bacterial strains with different colony morphologies and varying arsenic transformation abilities were isolated, including 10 facultative anaerobic arsenate-reducing bacteria and one strictly aerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium. All of the isolates exhibited high levels of arsenic resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations of arsenic ranging from 2 to 200 mM. Strain AR-11 was able to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate at concentrations relevant to environmental groundwater samples without the addition of any electron donors or acceptors. We provide evidence that arsenic-reduction activity may be conferred by the ars operon(s) that were not amplified by the designed primers currently in use. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis grouped the isolates into the following genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Psychrobacter, Vibrio, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Bosea. Among these genera, we present the first report of the genus Psychrobacter being involved in arsenic reduction. Our results further support the hypothesis that bacteria capable of either oxidizing arsenite or reducing arsenate coexist and are ubiquitous in arsenic-contaminated groundwater.
Schirmer, B C T; Heir, E; Møretrø, T; Skaar, I; Langsrud, S
The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 American
Maria Vismara Missiroli
Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Problemi interpretativi dell’art. 27.3 del Concordato Lateranense - 2. L'Istruzione della Congregazione del Concilio del 1930. - 3. La qualificazione di una chiesa come Santuario - 4. Requisiti per l’applicazione ai santuari dell’art. 27.3 - 4.1. Amministrazione civile - 4.2. Personalità giuridica - 5. La questione dei santuari di proprietà di persone fisiche o giuridiche - 6. Il Santuario della Beata Vergine delle Grazie di Brescia. Brevi cenni storici - 7. L’applicazione dell’art. 27.3 del Concordato lateranense al Santuario di S. Maria delle Grazie - 8. Conclusione.
Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D'Andreano, Sara; Ceciliani, Fabrizio
The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical
McFarland, Jason J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.
Beaded streams are prominent across the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, yet prey flow and food web dynamics supporting fish inhabiting these streams are poorly understood. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are a widely distributed upper-level consumer on the ACP and migrate into beaded streams to forage during the short 3-month open-water season. We investigated energy pathways and key prey resources that support grayling in a representative beaded stream, Crea Creek. We measured terrestrial invertebrates entering the stream from predominant riparian vegetation types, prey types supporting a range of fish size classes, and how riparian plants and fish size influenced foraging habits. We found that riparian plants influenced the quantity of terrestrial invertebrates entering Crea Creek; however, these differences were not reflected in fish diets. Prey type and size ingested varied with grayling size and season. Small grayling (15 cm FL) foraged most heavily on ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) throughout the summer, indicating that grayling can be insectivorous and piscivorous, depending on size. These findings underscore the potential importance of small streams in Arctic ecosystems as key summer foraging habitats for fish. Understanding trophic pathways supporting stream fishes in these systems will help interpret whether and how petroleum development and climate change may affect energy flow and stream productivity, terrestrial–aquatic linkages and fishes in Arctic ecosystems.
Steed, Amber C.; Zale, Alexander V.; Koel, Todd M.; Kalinowski, Steven T.
The fluvial Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus is restricted to less than 5% of its native range in the contiguous United States and was relisted as a category 3 candidate species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2010. Although fluvial Arctic grayling of the lower Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were considered to have been extirpated by 1935, anglers and biologists have continued to report catching low numbers of Arctic grayling in the river. Our goal was to determine whether a viable population of fluvial Arctic grayling persisted in the Gibbon River or whether the fish caught in the river were downstream emigrants from lacustrine populations in headwater lakes. We addressed this goal by determining relative abundances, sources, and evidence for successful spawning of Arctic grayling in the Gibbon River. During 2005 and 2006, Arctic grayling comprised between 0% and 3% of the salmonid catch in riverwide electrofishing (mean Back-calculated lengths at most ages were similar among all fish, and successful spawning within the Gibbon River below the headwater lakes was not documented. Few Arctic grayling adults and no fry were detected in the Gibbon River, implying that a reproducing fluvial population does not exist there. These findings have implications for future Endangered Species Act considerations and management of fluvial Arctic grayling within and outside of Yellowstone National Park. Our comprehensive approach is broadly applicable to the management of sparsely detected aquatic species worldwide.
Hutto, Richard L
Many scientists and forest land managers concur that past fire suppression, grazing, and timber harvesting practices have created unnatural and unhealthy conditions in the dry, ponderosa pine forests of the western United States. Specifically, such forests are said to carry higher fuel loads and experience fires that are more severe than those that occurred historically. It remains unclear, however, how far these generalizations can be extrapolated in time and space, and how well they apply to the more mesic ponderosa pine systems and to other forest systems within the western United States. I use data on the pattern of distribution of one bird species (Black-backed Woodpecker, Picoides arcticus) as derived from 16465 sample locations to show that, in western Montana, this bird species is extremely specialized on severely burned forests. Such specialization has profound implications because it suggests that the severe fires we see burning in many forests in the Intermountain West are not entirely "unnatural" or "unhealthy." Instead, severely burned forest conditions have probably occurred naturally across a broad range of forest types for millennia. These findings highlight the fact that severe fire provides an important ecological backdrop for fire specialists like the Black-backed Woodpecker, and that the presence and importance of severe fire may be much broader than commonly appreciated.
Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos
To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR.
Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zhang, Qin
The effects of Bacillus subtilis 2-1 from the intestine of healthy sea cucumber on the growth, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microbiota of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were determined in the present study. Sea cucumber was fed with Sargassum thunbergii powder supplemented with B. subtilis 2-1 at different concentrations varying among 0 (control), 105, 107, and 109 CFU g-1 for 8 weeks. Results showed that the growth performance and intestinal amylase and trypsin activities were significantly increased by dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 ( P subtilis 2-1 had no significant influence on the lipase activity in sea cucumber ( P > 0.05). The polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 105 and 107 CFU g-1 inhibited most of the Proteobacteria including those in genus Vibrio. Dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 not only decreased the abundance and species of genus Vibrio, but also increased the intensity of genera Psychrobacter and Bacillus. A specific dosage of dietary B. subtilis 2-1 could increase the growth and modulate the intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber; thus it might be a novel probiotic for keeping the health of sea cucumber.
Li, Ping; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Zhou; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wang, Yanxin; Dong, Hailiang
A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater) and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes) in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-), SO4(2-)/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+) were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.
Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-, SO4(2-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.
Bibi, F; Ullah, I; Alvi, S A; Bakhsh, S A; Yasir, M; Al-Ghamdi, A A K; Azhar, E I
Marine bacteria have been exceptional sources of halotolerant enzymes since decades. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria producing hydrolytic enzymes from seven different mangroves collected from the coastal area of Thuwal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to further screen them for other enzymatic and antifungal activities. We have isolated 46 different rhizo- and endophytic bacteria from the soil, roots, and leaves of the mangroves using different enzymatic media. These bacterial strains were capable of producing industrially important enzymes (cellulase, protease, lipase, and amylase). The bacteria were screened further for antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens. Finally, these bacterial strains were identified on the basis of the16S rDNA sequence. Taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed 95.9-100% sequence identity to type strains of related species. The dominant phylum was Gammaproteobacteria (γ-Proteobacteria), which comprised 10 different genera - Erwinia, Vibrio, Psychrobacter, Aidingimonas, Marinobacter, Chromohalobacter, Halomonas, Microbulbifer, and Alteromonas. Firmicutes was the second dominant phylum, which contained only the genus Bacillus. Similarly, only Isoptericola belonged to Actinobacteria. Further these enzyme-producing bacteria were tested for the production of other enzymes. Most of the active strains showed cellulytic and lipolytic activities. Several were also active against fungal pathogens. Our results demonstrated that the mangroves represent an important source of potentially active bacteria producing enzymes and antifungal metabolites (bioactive products). These bacteria are a source of novel halophilic enzymes and antibiotics that can find industrial and medicinal use.
Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Mi
The determination of relative abundances and distribution of different bacterial groups is a critical step toward understanding the functions of various bacteria and its surrounding environment. Few studies focus on the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of microbial communities in Drake Passage. In this study, marine bacterioplankton communities from surface seawaters at five locations in Drake Passage were examined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The results indicated that psychrophilic bacteria were the most abundant group in Drake Passage, and mainly made up of Bacillus, Aeromonas, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas and Halomonas. Diversity analysis showed that surface seawater communities had no significant correlation with latitudinal gradient. Additionally, a clear difference among five surface seawater communities was evident, with 1.8% OTUs (only two) belonged to Bacillus consistent across five locations and 71% OTUs (80) existed in only one location. However, the few cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that the dominant bacterial groups appear to be analogous between geographical sites, but significant differences may be detected among rare bacterial groups. The microbial diversity of surface seawaters would be liable to be affected by environmental factors. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Prachasitthisak, Y.; Ito, H.
The impact of gamma irradiation with doses between 0 and 8 kGy on microbiological quality of chicken meat produced in Japan and micro flora change of irradiated chicken meat were studied. Radiation at the dose 2 kGy resulted in 4 log cycles reduction of total aerobic bacteria, 5 - 6 log cycles reduction of lactic acid bacteria and 2 log cycles reduction of fungi and yeasts. For the coliforms, it could be eliminated below detectable level by irradiation dose of 1 kGy. For the chicken flora-analysis, it was found that chicken of each area had their own specific microbial community structure. Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were found to be dominant organisms in the microflora of Japanese chicken meat. Irradiation with dose 2 kGy resulted in disappearance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. The microorganisms which dominated in irradiated chickens with doses of 2 kGy and higher were Psychrobacter and yeast. These studies support the view that radiation improves the microbiological quality of chicken meat and substantiate that radiation does not present hazard resulting from a change in the microflora of irradiated chicken
Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Jae; Kim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Sang Ho
Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) is a popular seafood source in Asia, including South Korea, and its consumption has recently increased with recognition of its medicinal properties. However, because raw sea cucumber contains various microbes, its ingestion can cause foodborne illness. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota in the whole body of sea cucumber can extend our understanding of foodborne illness caused by microorganisms and help to better manage products. We collected 40 sea cucumbers from four different sites in August and November, which are known as the maximum production areas in Korea. The microbiota was analyzed by an Illumina MiSeq system, and bacterial amounts were quantified by real-time PCR. The diversity and bacterial amounts in sea cucumber were higher in August than in November. Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria were common dominant classes in all samples. However, the microbiota composition differed according to sampling time and site. Staphylococcus warneri and Propionibacterium acnes were commonly detected potential pathogens in August and November samples, respectively. The effect of experimental Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on the indigenous microbiota of sea cucumber was analyzed at different temperatures, revealing clear alterations of Psychrobacter and Moraxella ; thus, these shifts can be used as indicators for monitoring infection of sea cucumber. Although further studies are needed to clarify and understand the virulence and mechanisms of the identified pathogens of sea cucumber, our study provides a valuable reference for determining the potential of foodborne illness caused by sea cucumber ingestion and to develop monitoring strategies of products using microbiota information.
Radwan, Samir; Mahmoud, Huda; Khanafer, Majida; Al-Habib, Aamar; Al-Hasan, Redha
Gravel particles from four sites along the Arabian Gulf coast in autumn, winter, and spring were naturally colonized with microbial consortia containing between 7 and 400 × 10(2) cm(-2) of cultivable oil-utilizing bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 70 representatives of oil-utilizing bacteria revealed that they were predominantly affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria and the Actinobacteria. The Gammaproteobacteria comprised among others, the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Marinobacter, Psychrobacter, Idiomarina, Alcanivorax, Cobetia, and others. Actinobacteria comprised the genera Dietzia, Kocuria, Isoptericola, Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, and others. In autumn, Firmicutes members were isolated from bay and nonbay stations while Alphaproteobacteria were detected only during winter from Anjefa bay station. Fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes of whole microbial consortia confirmed the culture-based bacterial diversities in the various epilithons in various sites and seasons. Most of the representative oil-utilizing bacteria isolated from the epilithons were diazotrophic and could attenuate oil also in nitrogen-rich (7.9-62%) and nitrogen-free (4-54%) cultures, which, makes the microbial consortia suitable for oil bioremediation in situ, without need for nitrogen supplementation. This was confirmed in bench-scale experiments in which unfertilized oily seawater was bioremediated by epilithon-coated gravel particles.
Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H
Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes. © 2014 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis is a common source of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Here, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG was administrated to weaned piglets for 1 week before S. Infantis challenge. S. Infantis caused decreased ileal mucosal microbiota diversity, a dramatic Lactobacillus amylovorus bloom, and decreased abundance of Arsenicicoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Devosia, Paracoccus, Psychrobacter, and Weissella. The beneficial effect of LGG correlated with the moderate expansion of L. amylovorus, L. agilis, and several members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. S. Infantis translocation to the liver was decreased in the LGG-pretreated piglets. An in vitro model of LGG and S. Infantis co-incubation (involving the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was established, and nalidixic acid was used to kill the extracellular S. Infantis. LGG suppressed the initial S. Infantis invasion in the IPEC-J2 cells and deceased the rate of cell death. LGG inhibited S. Infantis-induced autophagy and promoted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and Akt phosphorylation in both the ileum and IPEC-J2 cells. Our findings suggest that LGG inhibited S. Infantis-induced autophagy by promoting EGFR-mediated activation of the negative mediator Akt, which, in turn, suppressed intestinal epithelial cell death and thus restricted systemic S. Infantis infection. LGG can restore the gut microbiota balance and preserve the autophagy-related intestinal epithelial barrier, thereby controlling infections.
Lowrey, Liam; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Tacchi, Luca
The mucosal surfaces of wild and farmed aquatic vertebrates face the threat of many aquatic pathogens, including fungi. These surfaces are colonized by diverse symbiotic bacterial communities that may contribute to fight infection. Whereas the gut microbiome of teleosts has been extensively studied using pyrosequencing, this tool has rarely been employed to study the compositions of the bacterial communities present on other teleost mucosal surfaces. Here we provide a topographical map of the mucosal microbiome of an aquatic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we revealed novel bacterial diversity at each of the five body sites sampled and showed that body site is a strong predictor of community composition. The skin exhibited the highest diversity, followed by the olfactory organ, gills, and gut. Flectobacillus was highly represented within skin and gill communities. Principal coordinate analysis and plots revealed clustering of external sites apart from internal sites. A highly diverse community was present within the epithelium, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy and pyrosequencing. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that two Arthrobacter sp. skin isolates, a Psychrobacter sp. strain, and a combined skin aerobic bacterial sample inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia australis and Mucor hiemalis, two important aquatic fungal pathogens. These results underscore the importance of symbiotic bacterial communities of fish and their potential role for the control of aquatic fungal diseases. PMID:26209676
Byrne-Bailey, K G; Gaze, W H; Kay, P; Boxall, A B A; Hawkey, P M; Wellington, E M H
The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment.
Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.
The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment. PMID:19064898
Almeida, Mathieu; Hébert, Agnès; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Rasmussen, Simon; Monnet, Christophe; Pons, Nicolas; Delbès, Céline; Loux, Valentin; Batto, Jean-Michel; Leonard, Pierre; Kennedy, Sean; Ehrlich, Stanislas Dusko; Pop, Mihai; Montel, Marie-Christine; Irlinger, Françoise; Renault, Pierre
Microbial communities of traditional cheeses are complex and insufficiently characterized. The origin, safety and functional role in cheese making of these microbial communities are still not well understood. Metagenomic analysis of these communities by high throughput shotgun sequencing is a promising approach to characterize their genomic and functional profiles. Such analyses, however, critically depend on the availability of appropriate reference genome databases against which the sequencing reads can be aligned. We built a reference genome catalog suitable for short read metagenomic analysis using a low-cost sequencing strategy. We selected 142 bacteria isolated from dairy products belonging to 137 different species and 67 genera, and succeeded to reconstruct the draft genome of 117 of them at a standard or high quality level, including isolates from the genera Kluyvera, Luteococcus and Marinilactibacillus, still missing from public database. To demonstrate the potential of this catalog, we analysed the microbial composition of the surface of two smear cheeses and one blue-veined cheese, and showed that a significant part of the microbiota of these traditional cheeses was composed of microorganisms newly sequenced in our study. Our study provides data, which combined with publicly available genome references, represents the most expansive catalog to date of cheese-associated bacteria. Using this extended dairy catalog, we revealed the presence in traditional cheese of dominant microorganisms not deliberately inoculated, mainly Gram-negative genera such as Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis or Psychrobacter immobilis, that may contribute to the characteristics of cheese produced through traditional methods.
Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo
Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Mettte Kjaergaard; Friis, Rikke; Michaelsen, Maria Skjoldahl
-off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this study are important for investigating a possible link between arch height and arch movement and the development of injuries....... was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. METHODS: The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 +/- 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 +/- 4.7 kg/m2). Navicular...... height (NH), longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and Feiss line (FL) were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple...
Full Text Available The upper Selenge watershed in Mongolia is home to some of the world’s unique fish species. In this study we determined the feeding behaviour of selected fish species collected from the main stream of the Eroo River and two of its upstream tributaries, the Sharlan and Bar Chuluut rivers. Using stable isotope (carbon and nitrogen measurements combined with qualitative and literature information, we determined that taimen ( Hucho taimen and pike ( Esox luceus were the top predators in the Eroo River. They received a substantial amount of their energy from other fish species as well as terrestrial derived sources. Percent presence of biota in lenok ( Brachymystax lenok stomachs demonstrated they eat zoobenthos, invertebrates, fish, and terrestrial rodents. Siberian dace ( Leuciscus baicalensis , a small forage fish collected from the Sharlan and Bar Chuluut rivers demonstrate these fish eat periphyton, zoobenthos and terrestrial invertebrates. In the Bar Chuluut tributary, lenok eat a combination of foods including zoobenthos and other fish species, while arctic grayling ( Thymallus arcticus fed primarily on zoobenthos. Percent frequency analysis showed the two game fish species collected from the Bar Chuluut tributary fed primarily on zoobenthos (85 % for lenok and 80 % for grayling, with 28 families and 10 orders represented in their stomachs. Interviews with families suggested local people fish for a variety of species and that there has been a decline in the catch of taimen and sturgeon ( Acipenser baeri baicalensis over time. Since fishing was poor below highly disturbed areas (e.g. mine sites, local people fished above mine locations or in areas least impacted by these anthropogenic impacts.
Christopher T Rota
Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.
Matveyev, Arcadi N.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Samusenok, Vitali P.; Bronte, Charles R.
Taimen Hucho taimen historically inhabited most tributaries and littoral areas of Lake Baikal, in south central Siberia, where they supported subsistence and commercial fisheries. Logging, pollution, and overfishing have caused dramatic population declines or local extinction of most stocks. Most of what is known about this species has been published in eastern journals and therefore is not readily available to western scientists. New data collected during the 1980s and 1990s have been combined with other reports to provide an overview of the biology and life history of this species. Taimen are long-lived fish and can reach ages of 29 years and sizes up to 60 kg. Populations can either be strictly riverine or anadromous. Adults from both life histories ascend rivers in spring to spawn and feed, and less extensive migrations occur in fall to prey on spawning omul (Coregonus autumnalis migratorius). Principal food items for age 1 and 2 taimen are macroinvertebrates, but young taimen quickly become piscivorous at age 2 when they consume mainly black Baikal grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis), and sculpins (Taracottus kneri, Cottus kesslerij). Males reach sexual maturity at ages 7 to 8 and later for females at ages 8 to 9. Average egg production per female was about 22,000 eggs. Parasite burdens are heavy but composed of few species and mediated by prey items consumed. This fish is a highly-specialized predator and plays an indispensable role in the structure of fish communities in mountains and foothills. Taimen conservation in the Baikal region is impossible without adoption and implementation of a dedicated rehabilitation program that includes the protection of remaining populations and habitat, and possibly introduction of hatchery-reared fish in selected areas where habitat remains, but parental stocks are low.
Alissa M. Fogg
Full Text Available Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are a rare habitat specialist typically found in moderate and high severity burned forest throughout its range. It also inhabits green forest but little is known about occurrence and habitat use patterns outside of burned areas, especially in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. We used point count and playback surveys to detect Black-backed Woodpeckers during 2011 - 2013 on 460 transects on 10 national forest units. We defined green forest as areas that had not burned at moderate or high severity since 1991 and were more than 2 km from areas burned at moderate or high severity within the previous eight years (n = 386 transects. We used occupancy models to examine green forest habitat associations and found positive relationships with elevation, latitude, northern aspects, number of snags, tree diameter, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forest, and a negative relationship with slope. Estimated occupancy in green forest was higher than previously understood (0.21. In addition site colonization and extinction probability in green forest were low (0.05 and 0.19, respectively and suggest that many of the individuals detected in green forest were not just actively dispersing across the landscape in search of burned areas, but were occupying relatively stable home ranges. The association with high elevation and lodgepole pine forest may increase their exposure to climate change as these elevation forest types are predicted to decrease in extent over the next century. Although density is high in burned forest, green forest covers significantly more area in the Sierra Nevada and should be considered in efforts to conserve this rare species.
Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C
Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.
Weber, Florence R.; Hamilton, Thomas D.; Hopkins, David M.; Repenning, Charles A.; Haas, Herbert
The Canyon Creek vertebrate-fossil locality is an extensive road cut near Fairbanks that exposes sediments that range in age from early Wisconsin to late Holocene. Tanana River gravel at the base of the section evidently formed during the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range. Younger layers and lenses of fluvial sand are interbedded with arkosic gravel from Canyon Creek that contains tephra as well as fossil bones of an interstadial fauna about 40,000 years old. Solifluction deposits containing ventifacts, wedge casts, and rodent burrows formed during a subsequent period of periglacial activity that took place during the maximum phase of Donnelly Glaciation about 25,000-17,000 years ago. Overlying sheets of eolian sand are separated by a 9500-year-old paleosol that may correlate with a phase of early Holocene spruce expansion through central Alaska. The Pleistocene fauna from Canyon Creek consists of rodents (indicated by burrows), Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth), Equus lambei (Yukon wild ass), Camelops hesternus (western camel), Bison sp. cf. B. crassicornis (large-horned bison), Ovis sp. cf. O. dalli (mountain sheep), Canis sp. cf. C. lupus (wolf), Lepus sp. cf. L. othus or L. arcticus (tundra hare), and Rangifer sp. (caribou). This assemblage suggests an open landscape in which trees and tall shrubs were either absent or confined to sheltered and moist sites. Camelops evidently was present in eastern Beringia during the middle Wisconsin interstadial interval but may have disappeared during the following glacial episode. The stratigraphic section at Canyon Creek appears to demonstrate that the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range is at least in part of early Wisconsin age and was separated from the succeeding Donnelly Glaciation by an interstadial rather than interglacial episode.
Wedemeyer, G.A.; Wydoski, R.S.
Catch-and-release fishing regulations are widely used by fishery resource managers to maintain both the quantity and quality of sport fish populations. We evaluated blood chemistry disturbances in wild brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus that had been hooked and played for 1-5 min in waters of the intermountain western United States. A hatchery stock of brown trout was included for comparison. To assess time needed for recovery, additional test groups were played for 5 min and then released into net-pens, where they were held for up to 72 h. The osmoregulatory and metabolic disturbances associated with catch-and-release fishing under the conditions we tested were minimal and judged to be well within normal physiological tolerance limits. In fish that were held for recovery, the blood chemistry alterations that did occur appeared to be related to stress from confinement in the net-pens. Our results confirm the results of previous studies, showing that prerelease air exposure and handling cause more physiological stress than does either hooking per se or playing time. Fishery managers must be aware of the differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and values of different societal groups, some of which feel that catch-and-release fishing should be banned because it is cruel to the animals. On the basis of brain anatomy, it seems highly unlikely that fish experience pain in the same manner as humans experience it, because fish lack a neocortex, the brain structure that enables the sensation of pain in higher vertebrates. However, independent of the neurobiological argument, our results indicate that under conditions similar to those tested, fish subjected to catch and release are neither suffering nor particularly stressed. Improved education programs about the relatively benign physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing as a fishery management practice would
Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae. Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species
Cornelis van Achterberg
Full Text Available Seven new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 (Braconidae: Rogadinae are described and illustrated: A. abraxanae sp. n., A. angustipterus sp. n., A. artesiariae sp. n., A. carminatus sp. n., A. diarsianae sp. n., A. leptofemur sp. n., and A. ryrholmi sp. n. A neotype is designated for each of Aleiodes circumscriptus (Nees, 1834 and A. pictus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, and both species are redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes ochraceus Hellén, 1927 (not A. ochraceus (Curtis, 1834 is renamed as A. curticornis nom. n. & stat. rev., and redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman, 1917, A. nigriceps Wesmael, 1838, and A. reticulatus (Noskiewicz, 1956, are re-instated as valid species. A lectotype is designated for Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman. An illustrated key is given to some distinctive species and the residual species groups along which further parts of an entire revision of western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes and Heterogamus will be organised. Biology, host associations and phenology are discussed for the keyed species (in addition to the above, A. albitibia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, A. apiculatus (Fahringer, 1932, A. arcticus (Thomson, 1892, A. cantherius (Lyle, 1919, A. esenbeckii (Hartig, 1834, A. jakowlewi (Kokujev, 1898, A. modestus (Reinhard, 1863, A. nigricornis Wesmael, 1838, A. pallidator (Thunberg, 1822, A. praetor (Reinhard, 1863, A. seriatus (Herrich- Schäffer, 1838 sensu lato, A. testaceus (Telenga, 1941, A. ungularis (Thomson, 1892, and A. varius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 which are dealt with in full here (with the exception of A. seriatus s.l. which is, however, included in the key. The experimental methodology covering the revision as a whole, which involves some behavioural investigation, is outlined.
Russell, R.E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Saab, V.A.; Lehmkuhl, J.F.; Block, W.M.; Sauer, J.R.
Prescribed fire is a management tool used to reduce fuel loads on public lands in forested areas in the western United States. Identifying the impacts of prescribed fire on bird communities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests is necessary for providing land management agencies with information regarding the effects of fuel reduction on sensitive, threatened, and migratory bird species. Recent developments in occupancy modeling have established a framework for quantifying the impacts of management practices on wildlife community dynamics. We describe a Bayesian hierarchical model of multi-species occupancy accounting for detection probability, and we demonstrate the model's usefulness for identifying effects of habitat disturbances on wildlife communities. Advantages to using the model include the ability to estimate the effects of environmental impacts on rare or elusive species, the intuitive nature of the modeling, the incorporation of detection probability, the estimation of parameter uncertainty, the flexibility of the model to suit a variety of experimental designs, and the composite estimate of the response that applies to the collection of observed species as opposed to merely a small subset of common species. Our modeling of the impacts of prescribed fire on avian communities in a ponderosa pine forest in Washington indicate that prescribed fire treatments result in increased occupancy rates for several bark-insectivore, cavity-nesting species including a management species of interest, Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus). Three aerial insectivore species, and the ground insectivore, American Robin (Turdus migratorius), also responded positively to prescribed fire, whereas three foliage insectivores and two seed specialists, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) and the Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus), declined following treatments. Land management agencies interested in determining the effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife
Naik, Onkar A; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Rath, Devashish; Bandekar, Jayant R; Rath, Archana
Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g -1 . Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Most of these pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, bacitracin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.54-0.77. The fish microflora showed high prevalence of AR genes like bla TEM , Class I integron, tetA, aph(3')-IIIa, ermB, aadA, and sul1. Nineteen of 26 AR isolates harbored Class I integrons showing high co-resistance to trimethoprim, kanamycin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime. Mobile R-plasmids from 6 of the 12 AR pathogens were transferred to recipient E. coli after conjugation. The transconjugants harbored the same R-plasmid carrying bla CTX-M , dfr1, tetA, bla TEM , and cat genes. This study confirms that fish is a potential carrier of AR pathogens which can enter the human gut via food chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian subcontinent reporting a direct evidence of spread of AR pathogens to humans from specific marine fish consumption.
Highlights: • Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated from Persian Gulf. • There is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in the Persian Gulf. • These bacteria are very useful for management of oil pollution in the sea. - Abstract: Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted
Full Text Available Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina Miseq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and TOC. Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 OTUs were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing As-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high As groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate analysis and co-inertia analysis. Other geochemical
Full Text Available Microbes are now well regarded for their important role in mammalian health. The microbiology of skin--a unique interface between the host and environment--is a major research focus in human health and skin disorders, but is less explored in other mammals. Here, we report on a cross-population study of the skin-associated bacterial community of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, and examine the potential for a core bacterial community and its variability with host (endogenous or geographic/environmental (exogenous specific factors. Skin biopsies or freshly sloughed skin from 56 individuals were sampled from populations in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and South Pacific oceans and bacteria were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses revealed the ubiquity and abundance of bacteria belonging to the Flavobacteria genus Tenacibaculum and the Gammaproteobacteria genus Psychrobacter across the whale populations. Scanning electron microscopy of skin indicated that microbial cells colonize the skin surface. Despite the ubiquity of Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp., the relative composition of the skin-bacterial community differed significantly by geographic area as well as metabolic state of the animals (feeding versus starving during migration and breeding, suggesting that both exogenous and endogenous factors may play a role in influencing the skin-bacteria. Further, characteristics of the skin bacterial community from these free-swimming individuals were assembled and compared to two entangled and three dead individuals, revealing a decrease in the central or core bacterial community members (Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp., as well as the emergence of potential pathogens in the latter cases. This is the first discovery of a cross-population, shared skin bacterial community. This research suggests that the skin bacteria may be connected to humpback health and immunity and could
Parlapani, Foteini F; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Boziaris, Ioannis S
Sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. In this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 days respectively, while under MAP it was 20 and 8 days respectively. Initial microbiota were dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life, different phylotypes of Pseudomonas closely related to Pseudomonas fragi were found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored under various conditions, thus providing valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Torralba, Manolito G; Franks, James S; Gomez, Andres; Yooseph, Shibu; Nelson, Karen E; Grimes, D Jay
The environmental impact of major oil spills on marine microorganisms has yet to be thoroughly investigated using molecular biology techniques. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig explosion of 2010 affected an approximately 176,000 km 2 surface area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) when an estimated 210 million gallons of oil from the Macondo Prospect spilled into the environment. Pelagic Sargassum, a complex of two surface drifting species (Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans) of marine brown macroalgae and a critically important habitat in the GOM ecosystem, was suffused by Macondo Prospect 252 oil released during the DWH event. Using 16S rRNA PCR and Roche 454 pyrosequencing, the effect of the oil on the bacterial population associated with pelagic Sargassum and contiguous waters was examined by comparing sequence data generated from samples collected from oiled and non-oiled locations in the northern GOM. Sequence data showed similar microbial composition in Sargassum regardless of exposure to oil primarily dominated by five phyla; Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. The microbial composition in water samples was significantly less diverse than for Sargassum and consisted primarily of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Due to the evenly distributed abundance of microbial species on oiled and non-oiled pelagic Sargassum, study findings indicate that DWH spilled oil had minimal effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community associated with Sargassum and contiguous waters. However, higher abundances of Sulfitobacter and one species of Psychrobacter were found in oiled water samples when compared to non-oiled water samples indicating some effect of DHW oil in the microbial composition of seawater. Though there are a number of marine studies using molecular biology approaches, this is the first molecular examination of the impact of the DWH oil spill on bacterial communities
Ismail, Mona Mohamed; Ibrahim, Hassan Abd Allah
Phytoplankton and bacteria diversity were studied before, during and after red tide phenomena during spring season 2015 in the Eastern Harbour (E.H.) of Alexandria, Egypt. Fifty five species of phytoplankton were identified and represented different distinct classes "Bacillariophyceae; Dinophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Eugelenophyceae". Also, Diatom formed the most dominant group. The average number of the phytoplankton density varied from 4.8 × 104 to 1.1 × 106 cell l-1 during the study period and Skeletonema costatum was the agent causing the red tide. The existence percentages of bacteria ranged from 2.6 to 17.9% on all media tested. The bacterial isolates on the nutrient agar medium represented the highest existence with a total percentage of 43.6%, followed by MSA medium (25.7%), while the lowest percentage was for the AA medium at 7.8%. However, twelve isolates were selected as representative for bacterial community during study interval. Based on the morphological, biochemical, physiological and enzymatic characteristics, the bacterial strains were described. Depending on the 16S rDNA gene sequence, three common antagonists were aligned as: Vibrio toranzoniae strain Vb 10.8, Ruegeria pelagia strain NBRC 102038 and Psychrobacter adeliensis strain DSM 15333. The interaction between these bacteria and S. costatum was studied. The growth of S. costatum was significantly lower whenever each bacterium was present as compared to axenic culture. More specifically, 30% (v/v) of the all tested bacteria showed the strongest algicidal activities, as all S. costatum cells were killed after two days. 10% of R. pelagia and P. adeliensis also showed significant algicidal activities within six days.
Reynisson, E; Thornór Marteinsson, V; Jónsdóttir, R; Magnússon, S H; Hreggvidsson, G O
To study the succession of cultivated and uncultivated microbes during the traditional curing process of skate. The microbial diversity was evaluated by sequencing 16Sr RNA clone libraries and cultivation in variety of media from skate samples taken periodically during a 9-day curing process. A pH shift was observed (pH 6·64-9·27) with increasing trimethylamine (2·6 up to 75·6 mg N per 100 g) and total volatile nitrogen (TVN) (from 58·5 to 705·8 mg N per 100 g) but with relatively slow bacterial growth. Uncured skate was dominated by Oceanisphaera and Pseudoalteromonas genera but was substituted after curing by Photobacterium and Aliivibrio in the flesh and Pseudomonas on the skin. Almost 50% of the clone library is derived from putative undiscovered species. Cultivation and enrichment strategies resulted in isolation of putatively new species belonging to the genera Idiomarina, Rheinheimera, Oceanisphaera, Providencia and Pseudomonas. The most abundant genera able to hydrolyse urea to ammonia were Oceanisphaera, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and isolates within the Pseudomonas genus. The curing process of skate is controlled and achieved by a dynamic bacterial community where the key players belong to Oceanisphaera, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacterium, Aliivibrio and Pseudomonas. For the first time, the bacterial population developments in the curing process of skate are presented and demonstrate a reservoir of many yet undiscovered bacterial species. No Claim to Norwegian Government works Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Tang, Meizhen; Li, Zhengtao; Yang, Yuewei; Chen, Junfeng; Jiang, Jie
Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used globally in wastewater treatment for years. CWs represent an efficient ecological system which is both energy-saving and low in investment for construction and operational cost. In addition, CWs also have the advantage of being easy to operate and maintain. However, the operation of CWs at northern latitudes (both mid and high) is sometimes quite demanding, due to the inhibitory effect of low temperatures that often occur in winter. To evaluate the wastewater treatment performance of a culture of mixed Psychrotrophic bacteria strains in an integrated vertical-flow CW, the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite nitrogen [Formula: see text], nitrate nitrogen [Formula: see text] and total phosphorus (TP) were quantified at different bacterial dosages to determine the best bacterial dosage and establish kinetic degradation models of the mixed strains. The bacterial culture was made up of Psychrobacter TM-1, Sphingobacterium TM-2 and Pseudomonas TM-3, mixed together at a volume/volume ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 (at bacterial suspension concentrations of 4.4 × 10 9 ml -1 ). Results showed that the organic pollutants (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the sewage could be efficiently removed by the culture of mixed Psychrotrophic bacteria. The optimal dosage of this mixed bacteria strain was 2.5%, and the treatment efficiency of COD, NH 3 -N, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], total nitrogen and TP were stable at 91.8%, 91.1%, 88.0%, 93.8%, 94.8% and 95.2%, respectively, which were 1.5, 2.0, 2.1, 1.5, 2.2 and 1.3 times those of the control group. In addition, a pseudo-first-order degradation model was a good fit for the degradation pattern observed for each of these pollutants.
Full Text Available Axenic gametes of the marine green macroalga Ulva mutabilis Føyn (Ria Formosa, locus typicus exhibit abnormal development into slow-growing callus-like colonies with aberrant cell walls. Under laboratory conditions, it was previously demonstrated that all defects in growth and thallus development can be completely abolished when axenic gametes are inoculated with a combination of two specific bacterial strains originally identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6. These bacteria release diffusible morphogenetic compounds (= morphogens, which act similar to cytokinin and auxin. To investigate the ecological relevance of the waterborne bacterial morphogens, seawater samples were collected in the Ria Formosa lagoon (Algarve, Southern Portugal at 20 sampling sites and tidal pools to assess their morphogenetic effects on the axenic gametes of U. mutabilis. Specifically the survey revealed that sterile-filtered seawater samples can completely recover growth and morphogenesis of U. mutabilis under axenic conditions. Morphogenetic activities of free-living and epiphytic bacteria isolated from the locally very abundant Ulva species (i.e., U. rigida were screened using a multiwell-based testing system. The most represented genera isolated from U. rigida were Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Sulfitobacter followed by Psychrobacter and Polaribacter. Several naturally occurring bacterial species could emulate MS2 activity (= induction of cell divisions regardless of taxonomic affiliation, whereas the MS6 activity (= induction of cell differentiation and cell wall formation was species-specific and is probably a feature of difficult-to-culture bacteria. Interestingly, isolated bacteroidetes such as Algoriphagus sp. and Polaribacter sp. could individually trigger complete Ulva morphogenesis and thus provide a novel mode of action for bacterial-induced algal development. This study also highlights that the accumulation of algal
Romoli, Riccardo; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; de Pascale, Donatella; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Michaud, Luigi; LoGiudice, Angelina; Fani, Renato; Bartolucci, Gianluca
Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are significant pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients and are resistant to a plethora of antibiotics. In this context, microorganisms from Antarctica are interesting because they produce antimicrobial compounds inhibiting the growth of other bacteria. This is particularly true for bacteria isolated from Antarctic sponges. The aim of this work was to characterize a set of Antarctic bacteria for their ability to produce new natural drugs that could be exploited in the control of infections in CF patients by Bcc bacteria. Hence, 11 bacterial strains allocated to different genera (e.g., Pseudoalteromonas, Arthrobacter and Psychrobacter) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of 21 Bcc strains and some other human pathogens. All these bacteria completely inhibited the growth of most, if not all, Bcc strains, suggesting a highly specific activity toward Bcc strains. Experimental evidences showed that the antimicrobial compounds are small volatile organic compounds, and are constitutively produced via an unknown pathway. The microbial volatile profile was obtained by SPME-GC-MS within the m/z interval of 40-450. Solid phase micro extraction technique affords the possibility to extract the volatile compounds in head space with a minimal sample perturbation. Principal component analysis and successive cluster discriminant analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships among the volatile organic compounds with the aim of classifying the microorganisms by their volatile profile. These data highlight the potentiality of Antarctic bacteria as novel sources of antibacterial substances to face Bcc infections in CF patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules
Francesca De Filippis
Full Text Available Microbial growth on meat to unacceptable levels contributes significantly to change meat structure, color and flavor and to cause meat spoilage. The types of microorganisms initially present in meat depend on several factors and multiple sources of contamination can be identified. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbial diversity in beefsteaks before and after aerobic storage at 4°C and to investigate the sources of microbial contamination by examining the microbiota of carcasses wherefrom the steaks originated and of the processing environment where the beef was handled. Carcass, environmental (processing plant and meat samples were analyzed by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The microbiota of carcass swabs was very complex, including more than 600 operational taxonomic units (OTUs belonging to 15 different phyla. A significant association was found between beef microbiota and specific beef cuts (P<0.01 indicating that different cuts of the same carcass can influence the microbial contamination of beef. Despite the initially high complexity of the carcass microbiota, the steaks after aerobic storage at 4°C showed a dramatic decrease in microbial complexity. Pseudomonas sp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta were the main contaminants, and Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae were also found. Comparing the relative abundance of OTUs in the different samples it was shown that abundant OTUs in beefsteaks after storage occurred in the corresponding carcass. However, the abundance of these same OTUs clearly increased in environmental samples taken in the processing plant suggesting that spoilage-associated microbial species originate from carcasses, they are carried to the processing environment where the meat is handled and there they become a resident microbiota. Such microbiota is then further spread on meat when it is handled and it represents the starting microbial association
Full Text Available Drones or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have huge potential to improve the safety and efficiency of sample collection from wild animals under logistically challenging circumstances. Here we present a method for surveying population health that uses UAVs to sample respiratory vapor, ‘whale blow,' exhaled by free-swimming humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, and coupled this with amplification and sequencing of respiratory tract microbiota. We developed a low-cost multirotor UAV incorporating a sterile petri dish with a remotely operated ‘blow' to sample whale blow with minimal disturbance to the whales. This design addressed several sampling challenges: accessibility; safety; cost, and critically, minimized the collection of atmospheric and seawater microbiota and other potential sources of sample contamination. We collected 59 samples of blow from northward migrating humpback whales off Sydney, Australia and used high throughput sequencing of bacterial ribosomal gene markers to identify putative respiratory tract microbiota. Model-based comparisons with seawater and drone-captured air demonstrated that our system minimized external sources of contamination and successfully captured sufficient material to identify whale blow-specific microbial taxa. Whale-specific taxa included species and genera previously associated with the respiratory tracts or oral cavities of mammals (e.g., Pseudomonas, Clostridia, Cardiobacterium, as well as species previously isolated from dolphin or killer whale blowholes (Corynebacteria, others. Many examples of exogenous marine species were identified, including Tenacibaculum and Psychrobacter spp. that have been associated with the skin microbiota of marine mammals and fish and may include pathogens. This information provides a baseline of respiratory tract microbiota profiles of contemporary whale health. Customized UAVs are a promising new tool for marine megafauna research and may have broad application in
Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R.; Price, David T.; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as “drivers of change”) were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and
O'Donnell, J. A.; Carey, M.; Xu, X.; Koch, J. C.; Walker, J. C.; Zimmerman, C. E.
Permafrost thaw in arctic and sub-arctic region is mobilizing old carbon (C) from perennially frozen soils, driving the release of old C to the atmosphere and to aquatic ecosystems. Much research has focused on the transport and lability of old dissolved organic C (DOC) as a possible feedback to the climate system following thaw. However, little is known about the role of old C as a source to aquatic food webs in watersheds underlain by thawing permafrost. To quantify the contributions of old C to Arctic stream food-webs, we measured the radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) contents of periphyton, macroinvertebrates, and resident fish species (Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma)). We also characterized the isotopic composition of possible C sources, including DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and soil organic matter. Samples were collected across 10 streams in Arctic Alaska, draining watersheds underlain by varying parent material and ground-ice content, from ice-poor bedrock to ice-rich loess (i.e. Yedoma). Fraction modern (FM) values for Arctic Grayling and Dolly Varden ranged from 0.6720 to 1.0101 (3195 years BP to modern) across all streams, and closely tracked spatial variation in Δ14C content of periphyton. Parent material and ground-ice content appear to govern the age and form of dissolved C sources to stream biota. For instance, in watersheds underlain by ice-poor bedrock, old DIC (< 5000 years BP) was the dominant C source to stream biota, reflecting contributions from carbonate weathering and soil respiration. In streams draining ice-rich Yedoma, high concentrations of younger DOC were the primary C source to stream biota, reflecting leaching of DOC from saturated, peaty soils of the active layer. These findings highlight the importance of permafrost characteristics as a control on subsurface hydrology and the delivery of aged C to surface waters. Given the large stores Pleistocene-aged organic
Tremblay, Junior A; Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R; Price, David T; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change") were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and
Edmund J. Zlonis
Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of
Deegan, L.; MacKenzie, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Fishscape Project
Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is an important circumpolar species that provide a model system for understanding the impacts of changing seasonality on arctic ecosystem function. Grayling serve as food for other biota, including lake trout, birds and humans, and act as top-down controls in stream ecosystems. In Arctic tundra streams, grayling spend their summers in streams but are obligated to move back into deep overwintering lakes in the fall. Climatic change that affects the seasonality of river hydrology could have a significant impact on grayling populations: grayling may leave overwintering lakes sooner in the spring and return later in the fall due to a longer open water season, but the migration could be disrupted by drought due to increased variability in discharge. In turn, a shorter overwintering season may impact lake trout dynamics in the lakes, which may rely on the seasonal inputs of stream nutrients in the form of migrating grayling into these oligotrophic lakes. To assess how shifting seasonality of Arctic river hydrology may disrupt key trophic linkages within and between lake and stream components of watersheds on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range, Alaska, we have undertaken new work on grayling and lake trout population and food web dynamics. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags coupled with stream-width antenna units to monitor grayling movement across Arctic tundra watersheds during the summer, and into overwintering habitat in the fall. Results indicate that day length may prime grayling migration readiness, but that flooding events are likely the cue grayling use to initiate migration in to overwintering lakes. Many fish used high discharge events in the stream as an opportunity to move into lakes. Stream and lake derived stable isotopes also indicate that lake trout rely on these seasonally transported inputs of stream nutrients for growth. Thus, changes in the seasonality of river hydrology may have broader
Junior A Tremblay
Full Text Available Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change" were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus, a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5. However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of
Rivkina, Elizaveta; Spirina, Elena; Demidov, Nikita; Shcherbakova, Viktoria; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Gilichinsky, David
The lenses of perennially overcooled water brines (cryopegs) derived from ancient marine sedi-ments and sandwiched within permafrost 10 to 120,000 years ago after the placeArctic Ocean regressions. In these lenses freezing is prevented by freezing-point depression due to the dis-solved salt and they remain liquid at the in situ temperatures down to -11oC as a result of their high sodium-chloride concentration (3-5 mol/l). Cryopegs make up the only habitat on Earth that is characterized by permanently subzero temperatures, high salinity, and isolation from the influence of external factors during geological time. During last years the biodiversity of cryopeg's indigenous microbial community along the Arctic coast of placePlaceNamePolar PlaceTypeOcean (Kara and placeEast Siberian Sea, placePla-ceNameJamal PlaceTypePeninsula and placePlaceTypeCape PlaceNameBarrow) were studied and the new species representing the different genera have been isolated and described. There were found both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms: Psychrobacters, Sulfate-reducers, Clostridia, etc. The isolated bacteria grew at subzero temperatures, and were also tolerant to salt concentra-tions up to metricconverterProductID3 M3 M NaCl. The microorganisms detected in cryopegs are halophilic and psychrophilic organisms at the same time. The microbial activity detected in cryopegs (14C-labeled glucose consumption) at temperatures as low as metricconverterProductID-15?C-15C-15° C documents the fact that subzero temper-atures themselves do not exclude biochemical reactions. In situ microbial activity and survival of microorganisms in a low-temperature high-salt aquatic environment on a geological time scale indicates the special type of microbial adaptation. From the astrobiological perspective, mineral-enriched brines provide the only opportunity for free water within the Martian subsurface permafrost, formed when Mars became dry and cold. These brines, just as terrestrial cryopegs, may contain
Holden, Todd; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Cheung, E.; Subramaniam, R.; Sullivan, R.; Schneider, P.; Flamholz, A.; Marchese, P.; Hiciano, O.; Yao, H.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.
Cultures of the methane-producing archaea Methanosarcina, have recently been isolated from Alaskan sediments. It has been proposed that methanogens are strong candidates for exobiological life in extreme conditions. The spatial environmental gradients, such as those associated with the polygons on Mars' surface, could have been produced by past methanogenesis activity. The 16S rRNA gene has been used routinely to classify phenotypes. Using the fractal dimension of nucleotide fluctuation, a comparative study of the 16S rRNA nucleotide fluctuation in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A, Deinococcus radiodurans, and E. coli was conducted. The results suggest that Methanosarcina acetivorans has the lowest fractal dimension, consistent with its ancestral position in evolution. Variation in fluctuation complexity was also detected in the transcription factors. The transcription factor B (TFB) was found to have a higher fractal dimension as compared to transcription factor E (TFE), consistent with the fact that a single TFB in Methanosarcina acetivorans can code three different TATA box proteins. The average nucleotide pair-wise free energy of the DNA repair genes was found to be highest for Methanosarcina acetivorans, suggesting a relatively weak bonding, which is consistent with its low prevalence in pathology. Multitasking capacity comparison of type-I and type-II topoisomerases has been shown to correlate with fractal dimension using the methicillin-resistant strain MRSA 252. The analysis suggests that gene adaptation in a changing chemical environment can be measured in terms of bioinformatics. Given that the radiation resistant Deinococcus radiodurans is a strong candidate for an extraterrestrial origin and that the cold temperature Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 can function in Siberian permafrost, the fractal dimension comparison in this study suggests that a chemical resistant methanogen could exist in extremely cold conditions (such as that which existed on early
Full Text Available In this study we report the formation of marine oil snow (MOS, its associated microbial community, the factors influencing its formation, and the microbial response to crude oil in surface waters of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC. The FSC is a subarctic region that is hydrodynamically complex located in the northeast Atlantic where oil extraction is currently occurring and where exploration is likely to expand into its deeper waters (>500 m. A major oil spill in this region may mirror the aftermath that ensued following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, where the massive influx of Macondo crude oil triggered the formation of copious quantities of rapidly sinking MOS and successional blooms of opportunistic oil-degrading bacteria. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions in sea surface waters of the FSC using water collected from this site during the winter of 2015. We demonstrated that the presence of dispersant triggers the formation of MOS, and that nutrient amendments magnify this. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed the enrichment on MOS of associated oil-degrading (Cycloclasticus, Thalassolituus, Marinobacter and EPS-producing (Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas bacteria, and included major representation by Psychrobacter and Cobetia with putative oil-degrading/EPS-producing qualities. The formation of marine snow, in the absence of crude oil and dispersant, in seawater amended with nutrients alone indicated that the de novo synthesis of bacterial EPS is a key factor in MOS formation, and the glycoprotein composition of the MOS aggregates confirmed that its amorphous biopolymeric matrix was of microbial (likely bacterial origin. The presence of dispersants and crude oil with/without nutrients resulted in distinct microbial responses marked by intermittent, and in some cases short-lived, blooms of opportunistic heterotrophs, principally obligate hydrocarbonoclastic (Alcanivorax
Full Text Available Abstract Background The autoinducer-2 (AI-2 group of signalling molecules are produced by both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as the by-product of a metabolic transformation carried out by the LuxS enzyme. They are the only non species-specific quorum sensing compounds presently known in bacteria. The luxS gene coding for the AI-2 synthase enzyme was found in many important pathogens. Here, we surveyed its occurrence in a collection of 165 marine isolates belonging to abundant marine phyla using conserved degenerated PCR primers and sequencing of selected positive bands to determine if the presence of the luxS gene is phylogenetically conserved or dependent on the habitat. Results The luxS gene was not present in any of the Alphaproteobacteria (n = 71 and Bacteroidetes strains (n = 29 tested; by contrast, these bacteria harboured the sahH gene, coding for an alternative enzyme for the detoxification of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH in the activated methyl cycle. Within the Gammaproteobacteria (n = 76, luxS was found in all Shewanella, Vibrio and Alteromonas isolates and some Pseudoalteromonas and Halomonas species, while sahH was detected in Psychrobacter strains. A number of Gammaproteobacteria (n = 27 appeared to have neither the luxS nor the sahH gene. We then studied the production of AI-2 in the genus Shewanella using the Vibrio harveyi bioassay. All ten species of Shewanella tested produced a pronounced peak of AI-2 towards the end of the exponential growth phase in several media investigated. The maximum of AI-2 activity was different in each Shewanella species, ranging from 4% to 46% of the positive control. Conclusion The data are consistent with those of fully sequenced bacterial genomes and show that the potential for luxS related signalling is dependent on phylogenetic affiliation rather than ecological niche and is largest in certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria in the marine environment. This is the first report on AI-2
Ferrocino, Ilario; Bellio, Alberto; Romano, Angelo; Macori, Guerrino; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Decastelli, Lucia; Cocolin, Luca
Valle d'Aosta Lard d'Arnad is a protected designation of origin (PDO) product produced from fat of the shoulder and back of heavy pigs. Its manufacturing process can be very diverse, especially regarding the maturation temperature and the NaCl concentration used for the brine; thereby, the main goal of this study was to investigate the impact of those parameters on the microbiota developed during curing and ripening. Three farms producing Lard d'Arnad were selected. Two plants, reflecting the industrial process characterized either by low maturation temperature (plant A [10% NaCl, 2°C]) or by using a low NaCl concentration (plant B [2.5% NaCl, 4°C]), were selected, while the third was characterized by an artisanal process (plant C [30% NaCl, 8°C]). Lard samples were obtained at time 0 and after 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days of maturation. From each plant, 3 independent lots were analyzed. The diversity of live microbiota was evaluated by using classical plate counts and amplicon target sequencing of small subunit (SSU) rRNA. The main taxa identified by sequencing were Acinetobacter johnsonii , Psychrobacter , Staphylococcus equorum , Staphylococcus sciuri , Pseudomonas fragi , Brochothrix , Halomonas , and Vibrio , and differences in their relative abundances distinguished samples from the individual plants. The composition of the microbiota was more similar among plants A and B, and it was characterized by the higher presence of taxa recognized as undesired bacteria in food-processing environments. Oligotype analysis of Halomonas and Acinetobacter revealed the presence of several characteristic oligotypes associated with A and B samples. IMPORTANCE Changes in the food production process can drastically affect the microbial community structure, with a possible impact on the final characteristics of the products. The industrial processes of Lard d'Arnad production are characterized by a reduction in the salt concentration in the brines to address a consumer demand
Full Text Available Isosteviol has been found to have potential preventive or therapeutic effects against hypertension, ischemia reperfusion injury, diabetes and cancer, but little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK of the compound. The aim of this study was to develop a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS method for determination of isosteviol in rat plasma and to assess in a preliminary manner the PK of isosteviol after intravenous bolus injection.Ions of analytes were generated using electro-spray ionization and detected in the positive-ion mode in LC-MS/MS. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed, using the precursor product ion combination for isosteviol m/z 319.4→273.4. Progesterone was used as an internal standard. Nitrogen was used as the nebulising gas and unit resolution was set for Q1 and Q3. Isosteviol solution was injected through the penile vein of rats at a dose of 8 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein cannula. The PK parameters were calculated using a two - compartment PK model.The LC-MS/MS assay for isosteviol in rat plasma was linear over the range of 0.5-80 μg/ml. The terminal half life of isosteviol (t 1/2 was 406 ± 31.7 min and clearance (CL was 2.9 ± 0.3 ml/min/kg. A sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for isosteviol in plasma has been successfully established and used in a preliminary PK evaluation of isosteviol in rats.
Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Riis, Anne Lene; Møller, Niels; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl
Studies have documented an altered body composition in Turner syndrome (TS). Body fat is increased and muscle mass is decreased. Ovarian failure necessitates substitution with female hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and HRT induces favourable changes in body composition. It is unknown how HRT affects protein metabolism. To test whether alterations in body composition before and after HRT in TS are a result of altered protein metabolism. We performed a randomized crossover study with active treatment (HRT in TS and oral contraceptives in controls) or no treatment. We studied eight women (age 29.7 +/- 5.6 (mean +/- SD) years) with TS, verified by karyotype, and eight age-matched controls (age 27.3 +/- 4.9 years). All subjects underwent a 3-h study in the postabsorptive state. Protein dynamics of the whole body and of the forearm muscles were measured by an amino acid tracer dilution technique using [(15)N]phenylalanine and [(2)H(4)]tyrosine. Substrate metabolism was examined by indirect calorimetry. Energy expenditure was comparable among TS and controls, and did not change during active treatment. Whole-body phenylalanine and tyrosine fluxes were similar in the untreated situations, and did not change during active treatment. Amino acid degradation and protein synthesis were similar in all situations. Muscle protein breakdown was similar among groups, and was not affected by treatment. Muscle protein synthesis rate and forearm blood flow did not differ among groups or due to treatment. Protein metabolism in TS is comparable to controls, and is not affected by HRT.
Gabbe, Belinda J; Lyons, Ronan A; Sutherland, Ann M; Hart, Melissa J; Cameron, Peter A
Health-related quality of life represents a patient's experiences and expectations and should be collected from the patient. In trauma, collection of information from the patient can be challenging, particularly for subgroups where cognitive impairment is prevalent, increasing reliance on proxy reporting. This study assessed the agreement between patient and proxy reporting of health-related quality of life 12 months after injury. The Victorian State Trauma Registry and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry collect EQ-5D data at 12 months after injury. Cases where data were collected from the patient and proxy were extracted. Agreement between patient and proxy responses was compared using kappa (K) coefficients for the individual EQ-5D items, and Bland-Altman plots and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for the EQ-5D summary score and visual analog scale (VAS). Agreement between patient and proxy respondents was substantial for the mobility (K = 0.61) and personal care items (K = 0.67) and moderate for the usual activities (K = 0.50), pain/discomfort (K = 0.42), and anxiety/depression items (K = 0.47). The mean difference between proxy and patient-reported scores for the VAS (0.74, 95% confidence interval: -2.73, 4.21) and the EQ-5D summary score (-0.02, 95% confidence interval: -0.07, 0.03) was small, but the limits of agreement were wide (-34.22 to 35.71 for VAS and -0.55 to 0.51 for summary score), suggesting no systematic bias. Although proxy and patient responses for the EQ-5D VAS may differ, the differences show random variability rather than systematic bias. Group comparisons using proxy responses are unlikely to be biased, but proxy responses should be used with caution when assessing individual patient recovery.
MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.
Blazars exhibit flares across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Many γ-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at longer wavelengths; however, a small subset appears to occur in isolation, with little or no correlated variability at longer wavelengths. These “orphan” γ-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. MacDonald et al. have developed the Ring of Fire model to explain the origin of orphan γ-ray flares from within blazar jets. In this model, electrons contained within a blob of plasma moving relativistically along the spine of the jet inverse-Compton scatter synchrotron photons emanating off of a ring of shocked sheath plasma that enshrouds the jet spine. As the blob propagates through the ring, the scattering of the ring photons by the blob electrons creates an orphan γ-ray flare. This model was successfully applied to modeling a prominent orphan γ-ray flare observed in the blazar PKS 1510-089. To further support the plausibility of this model, MacDonald et al. presented a stacked radio map of PKS 1510-089 containing the polarimetric signature of a sheath of plasma surrounding the spine of the jet. In this paper, we extend our modeling and stacking techniques to a larger sample of blazars: 3C 273, 4C 71.01, 3C 279, 1055+018, CTA 102, and 3C 345, the majority of which have exhibited orphan γ-ray flares. We find that the model can successfully reproduce these flares, while our stacked maps reveal the existence of jet sheaths within these blazars.
Passive gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analyses (NAA) were applied in investigating an alabaster ore sample. In the passive measurement 273.4 g of standard monazite sand (with uranium and thorium concentrations of 2860 and 39400 mg/kg, respectively) was used in finding the energy dependence on the efficiency of the used HPGe detection system. An alabaster ore sample weighing 172.9g of identical volume and geometry as the monazite sample was used in the passive measurement. The concentration of the radioactive series parent in mg/kg of the sample and dose rate in mSv/hr at 1 meter was calculated. In the long time irradiation NAA, a thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 77.68 and a cadmium ratio of 5.94 for gold were measured by the cadmium difference method using thin gold foils. This was done by locating 269.1 mg of the alabaster sample wrapped in a thin aluminum foil together with a bare and cadmium covered thin gold foils weighing 5.4 and 6.4 mg respectively, in the same irradiation can. The can was irradiated in one of the vertical wet channels of the ETRR-1 for 48 h. at power 1,6 MW. In the short irradiation NAA, 373.5 mg alabaster sample and 295.0 mg standard geological sample (JB-1) as a comparator were irradiated separately for 50 sec. by using the pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) in the vertical tangential thermal column of the ETRR-2. The power was 18 MW and the thermal neutron flux was of the order of 10 1 ''1 n/ cm''2. s
Yang, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zhou, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha 410083 (China); Yuan, Yuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lei, Qian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China)
Highlights: • Minor Ce addition can deprive harmful elements and purify the Cu–Mg alloy. • Decrease of Mg content can effectively enhance the conductivity of Cu–Mg alloy. • Ultrafine-grained Cu–Mg–Ce alloy was successfully gained by 8 passes of ECAP. • The strength of Cu–Mg–Ce alloy can be significantly improved by ECAP. • Better comprehensive properties than the commercial Cu–Mg alloy are gained. - Abstract: A Cu–0.3 wt.%Mg–0.05 wt.%Ce alloy was designed and prepared by melting and casting. After hot rolled, the ingot was cut into rod-shape samples for equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with different passes at room temperature. The microstructure evolutions were investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The severe plastic deformation (SPD) caused by ECAP made the grains elongated significantly. With the increase of ECAP passes, the fraction of high-angle boundaries (HABs) (θ ⩾ 15°) increased and the microstructure was refined. Tension testing results indicated that the tensile strength was remarkably improved from 273.4 MPa before ECAP to 587.5 MPa after 8 passes of ECAP, maintaining an appropriate elongation of 11.4% and good electrical conductivity of 73.1%IACS. After annealing treatment at 300 °C for 2 h, the ECAP samples still maintained excellent comprehensive properties: tensile strength was 558.2 MPa, electrical conductivity was 74.7%IACS, and elongation was 13.2%, which showed bright prospect in high-speed railway as a contact wire material.
Dupont, Herbert L; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Ericsson, Charles D; Ke, Shi; Huang, David B; Dupont, Margaret W; Adachi, Javier A; De La Cabada, F Javier; Taylor, David N; Jaini, Sridvya; Martinez Sandoval, Francisco
Antimotility agents provide rapid temporary relief of acute diarrhea, whereas antibiotics slowly cure the illness. Thus, the combination of an antimotility agent and an antibiotic may provide greater therapeutic benefit than either drug alone. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of rifaximin-loperamide in the treatment of travelers' diarrhea. Consenting adults with acute diarrhea (> or =3 unformed stools in 24 hours with > or =1 symptom of enteric infection) were randomized to receive rifaximin 200 mg 3 times daily for 3 days; loperamide 4 mg initially followed by 2 mg after each unformed stool; or a combination of both drugs using the same dosing regimen. The primary end point was the median time from beginning therapy until passing the last unformed stool. A total of 310 patients completed treatment with rifaximin (n = 102), loperamide (n = 104), or rifaximin-loperamide combination therapy (n = 104). The groups showed demographic similarity. Rifaximin and rifaximin-loperamide significantly reduced the median time until passage of the last unformed stool (32.5 +/- 4.14 h and 27.3 +/- 4.13 h, respectively) vs loperamide (69 +/- 4.11 h; P = .0019). The mean number of unformed stools passed during illness was lower with rifaximin-loperamide (3.99 +/- 4.28) compared with rifaximin (6.23 +/- 6.90; P = .004) or loperamide alone (6.72 +/- 6.93; P = .002). All treatments were well tolerated with a low incidence of adverse events. Rifaximin-loperamide therapy provided rapid symptomatic improvement and greater overall wellness compared with either agent alone.
Hanan A. Merey
Full Text Available Four precise, accurate, selective, and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of Oxytetracycline HCl (OXY and Flunixin Meglumine (FLU. The first method, dual wavelength (DW, depends on measuring the difference in absorbance (ΔA 273.4–327 nm for the determination of OXY where FLU is zero while FLU is determined at ΔA 251.7–275.7 nm. The second method, first-derivative spectrophotometric method (1D, depends on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative selectively at 377 and 266.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The third method, ratio difference method, depends on the difference in amplitudes of the ratio spectra at ΔP 286.5–324.8 nm and ΔP 249.6–286.3 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The fourth method, first derivative of ratio spectra method (1DD, depends on measuring the amplitude peak to peak of the first derivative of ratio spectra at 296.7 to 369 nm and 259.1 to 304.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. Different factors affecting the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed methods are compared favourably with the official ones.
Blanco, Lyzette; Nydegger, Liesl A; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Tong, Elisa K; White, Martha M; Trinidad, Dennis R
Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States and are more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (LITS) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). LITS experience adverse health effects related to smoking. Previous research has aggregated Asian American ethnic groups, masking important differences between groups. We sought to compare LITS rates among Asian American subgroups before and after the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with NHWs in California utilizing data from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). We combined 1990, 1992, and 1996 CTS (pre-MSA) and the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 CTS (post-MSA) to examine changes in LITS (Filipino, Japanese, and Korean ethnic groups were compared with NHWs. Pre-MSA logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education level, language spoken at home, and use of other tobacco products found that Chinese (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19, 5.21), Filipinos (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.73, 4.63), Japanese (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.22, 3.27), and Koreans (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.06, 5.03) were significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Post-MSA, all Asian American subgroups experienced an increase in LITS (11.7%-37.8%); however, only Chinese (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16, 4.13) and Filipinos (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.26, 4.91) remained significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Our results highlight the need for tobacco control efforts that address the growing group of LITS among Asian Americans and NHWs.
Bolsunovsky, Alexander; Medvedeva, Marina [Institute of Biophysics SB Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)
The Yenisei River is one of the largest rivers in the world, which had been subjected to radioactive contamination for over 50 years, due to operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) of Rosatom at Zheleznogorsk, which had been producing weapons-grade plutonium. Bottom sediments and flood plain of the Yenisei River are contaminated by artificial radionuclides, including transuranium ones, both close to the MCC and at a considerable distance downstream. The MCC is also a source of uranium isotopes in the Yenisei. Thus, the Yenisei River basin is a unique environment for studying the mobility of both uranium isotopes and artificial radionuclides in all components of the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to compare the mobility of uranium and artificial radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River. Samples of water, sediments, and aquatic organisms were used as study material. Aquatic organisms were represented by submerged plants, benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos. The submerged plants (macrophytes) analyzed were of five species: Fontinalis antipyretica, Potamogeton lucens, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Elodea canadensis. Grayling (Timalus arcticus) represented benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos species were represented by Philolimnogammarus viridis, which forms the major part of the grayling's diet. Samples were collected at positions in the vicinity of the MCC discharge point, at a distance of 110 km downstream of Krasnoyarsk, and upstream of the MCC, during sampling campaigns in 2008-2012. Radionuclide measurements were performed using a wide range of instrumental methods: gamma-spectrometry with a 'Canberra' spectrometer (U.S.), mass spectrometry with an 'Agilent' spectrometer (U.S.), neutron activation analysis, and beta-alpha radiometry. The results obtained in this study suggest that the part of the Yenisei River ecosystem contaminated due to MCC radioactive discharges contains
Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David
were introduced on the first day (less than 1 hour). All Samples were mixed into Mars regolith simulant for this test. Biological samples consisting of Cyanobacteria: Anabena sp., Chroococcidiopsis CCMEE171, Plectonema boryanum; Eubacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Eukaryota: Chlorella ellipsoidia were maintained in the simulator under the above-described conditions. The exposed specimens were tested for intracellular esterase activity (fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), chlorophyll content (where appropriate) and reproductive survival (colony formation on nutrient plates). These tests all yielded low-level positive results indicating some survival in all cases. Three control populations of each species were simultaneously exposed to -80 C dark storage, +4 C dark storage, and +25 C diurnal cycles in the same Mars regolith simulant (Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI). The survival hierarchy based on intracellular esterase assay, in decreasing order of survival was Anabena > Chroococcidiopsis > Pseudomonas > Bacillus subtilis > Chlorella > Plectonema, and the range of survival based on this test was 8% - 50%. The survival hierarchy based on post-exposure colony growth was Plectonema > Chroococcidiopsis = Chlorella > Anabena, and Pseudomonas exhibited higher survival than Bacillus subtilis. These results indicate a need for longer-term high-fidelity planetary simulation studies of a wider variety of microbial species including extremophiles, such as psychrophilic strains like Psychrobacter spp., Planococcus halocryophilus, Rhodococcus sp. and the yeast Rhodotorula sp. that could be found in human environments. This research was supported by NASA NIAC Phase I Grant "Mars Ecopoiesis Testbed" NNX14AM97G.
Full Text Available Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor. To evaluate if cryptococcal and human melanins have antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species they both were assayed for their antifungal properties and physico-chemical characters. Melanin extracts from human hair and different strains of C. neoformans (n = 4 and C. gattii (n = 4 were investigated. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for different melanins against C. neoformans and C. gattii were (average/range: 13.7/(7.8–15.6 and 19.5/(15.6–31.2 μg/mL, respectively, for human melanin; 273.4/(125–>500 and 367.2/(125.5–>500 μg/mL for C. neoformans melanin and 125/(62.5–250 and 156.2/(62–250 μg/mL for C. gattii melanin. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we observed that human melanin showed a compact conformation and cryptococcal melanins exposed an amorphous conformation. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR showed some differences in the signals related to C-C bonds of the aromatic ring of the melanin monomers. High Performance Liquid Chromatography established differences in the chromatograms of fungal melanins extracts in comparison with human and synthetic melanin, particularly in the retention time of the main compound of fungal melanin extracts and also in the presence of minor unknown compounds. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed slight differences in the spectra, specifically the presence of a minor intensity ion in synthetic and human melanin, as well as in some fungal
Correa, Néstor; Covarrubias, Cristian; Rodas, Paula I; Hermosilla, Germán; Olate, Verónica R; Valdés, Cristián; Meyer, Wieland; Magne, Fabien; Tapia, Cecilia V
Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor. To evaluate if cryptococcal and human melanins have antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species they both were assayed for their antifungal properties and physico-chemical characters. Melanin extracts from human hair and different strains of C. neoformans ( n = 4) and C. gattii ( n = 4) were investigated. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for different melanins against C. neoformans and C. gattii were (average/range): 13.7/(7.8-15.6) and 19.5/(15.6-31.2) μg/mL, respectively, for human melanin; 273.4/(125->500) and 367.2/(125.5->500) μg/mL for C. neoformans melanin and 125/(62.5-250) and 156.2/(62-250) μg/mL for C. gattii melanin. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we observed that human melanin showed a compact conformation and cryptococcal melanins exposed an amorphous conformation. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed some differences in the signals related to C-C bonds of the aromatic ring of the melanin monomers. High Performance Liquid Chromatography established differences in the chromatograms of fungal melanins extracts in comparison with human and synthetic melanin, particularly in the retention time of the main compound of fungal melanin extracts and also in the presence of minor unknown compounds. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed slight differences in the spectra, specifically the presence of a minor intensity ion in synthetic and human melanin, as well as in some fungal melanin extracts. We
Full Text Available Richard Williams,1 Ranjith Chandrasena,2 Linda Beauclair,3 Doanh Luong,4 Annette Lam4 On behalf of the e-STAR study group 1Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, ON, Canada; 3Allan Memorial Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI and participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Materials and methods: Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled from 24 sites after an independent decision to initiate RLAI. Subsequent patient management was based on usual clinical practice at each site and was not protocol-driven. Relevant data were collected retrospectively by chart review for 12 months prior to RLAI and prospectively for 24 months following RLAI initiation. Results: Patients (n=188 had a mean age of 39.2 years, were 66.3% male, and 27.7% were inpatients at baseline. Twenty-four months after initiating therapy (initial dose =28.7 mg, 34.1% (95% confidence interval 27.2%–42.2% of patients had discontinued RLAI with a mean time to discontinuation of 273.4±196 days. Over the treatment period, there were significant (P<0.001 changes from baseline in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; 3.48 versus [vs] 4.31 at baseline, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; 56.1 vs 48.1, and Personal and Social Performance (PSP; 59.1 vs 46.9 scale scores. In addition, after 12 months, there were significant (P<0.001 decreases in the percentage of patients hospitalized (23.9% vs 58.5% pre-RLAI, mean length of stay (11.4 vs 30.4 days, and number of hospitalizations (0.32 vs 0.87 compared to the 12-month pre-RLAI period. Reductions in hospitalization continued into the second 12 months of therapy, when only 9% of patients were hospitalized and mean length of stay was 2.0 days
Tuberculose em indígenas da Amazônia brasileira: estudo epidemiológico na região do Alto Rio Negro Tuberculosis in indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon: an epidemiological study in the Upper Rio Negro region
Diana Patrícia Giraldo Rios
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características sociodemográficas e clínico-epidemiológicas dos casos de tuberculose notificados na população indígena do Município de São Gabriel de Cachoeira, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, e identificar fatores associados ao óbito durante o tratamento; e estimar a prevalência de infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB e fatores associados e obter informações sobre o itinerário terapêutico e a percepção acerca do adoecimento dos indígenas do Distrito de Iauaretê. MÉTODOS: Primeiramente, realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo (1997 a 2007 com base nos dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Posteriormente, realizou-se um estudo transversal (2010 em sintomáticos respiratórios e contatos no Distrito Indígena de Iauaretê. RESULTADOS: Registraram-se 723 casos novos, com incidência de 273,4/100 000 e mortalidade de 13,2/100 000. Houve predomínio em homens (57%, idade > 45 anos (37,6%, pessoas sem escolaridade (42,7% e na área rural (76,9%. Doentes de 0 a 20 anos apresentaram menor chance de óbito quando comparados à idade > 45 anos (OR = 0,3; IC95%: 0,1 a 0,9. Em Iauaretê, que concentrou 15,3% das notificações, foram entrevistados 184 indígenas. Revelou-se prevalência de ILTB de 76,1%. Prova tuberculínica > 5 mm associou-se com idade > 15 anos, história de tuberculose ativa e alterações radiológicas. Tuberculose anterior foi citada por 54 indígenas (29,3%. A principal explicação para o adoecimento foi sopro/envenenamento (24,1%. O itinerário terapêutico incluiu medicamentos industrializados (42,6%, plantas medicinais/raízes, pajelança/xamanismo e reza (42,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção tuberculosa e doença ativa nessa população foi elevada. As estratégias de controle tiveram resultados positivos, com redução na incidência em tempos recentes. Entretanto, para controlar a tuberculose é necessário intensificar a vigilância dos
Ludolph, Ramona; Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter J
One of people's major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high. Therefore, biased information processing in this context can cause subsequent impaired judgment and decision making. A technological debiasing strategy could counter this by changing people's search environment. This study aims at testing a technological debiasing strategy to reduce the negative effects of biased information processing when using a general search engine on people's vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes. This strategy is to manipulate the content of Google's knowledge graph box, which is integrated in the search interface and provides basic information about the search topic. A full 3x2 factorial, posttest-only design was employed with availability of basic factual information (comprehensible vs hardly comprehensible vs not present) as the first factor and a warning message as the second factor of experimental manipulation. Outcome variables were the evaluation of the knowledge graph box, vaccination-related knowledge, as well as beliefs and attitudes toward vaccination, as represented by three latent variables emerged from an exploratory factor analysis. Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of availability of basic information in the knowledge graph box on participants' vaccination knowledge scores (F2,273=4.86, P=.01), skepticism/fear of vaccination side effects (F2,273=3.5, P=.03), and perceived information quality (F2
Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter J
Background One of people’s major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high. Therefore, biased information processing in this context can cause subsequent impaired judgment and decision making. A technological debiasing strategy could counter this by changing people’s search environment. Objective This study aims at testing a technological debiasing strategy to reduce the negative effects of biased information processing when using a general search engine on people’s vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes. This strategy is to manipulate the content of Google’s knowledge graph box, which is integrated in the search interface and provides basic information about the search topic. Methods A full 3x2 factorial, posttest-only design was employed with availability of basic factual information (comprehensible vs hardly comprehensible vs not present) as the first factor and a warning message as the second factor of experimental manipulation. Outcome variables were the evaluation of the knowledge graph box, vaccination-related knowledge, as well as beliefs and attitudes toward vaccination, as represented by three latent variables emerged from an exploratory factor analysis. Results Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of availability of basic information in the knowledge graph box on participants’ vaccination knowledge scores (F2,273=4.86, P=.01), skepticism/fear of vaccination side effects (F2,273=3.5, P=.03
Paulo Henrique Candini
Full Text Available Duzentas e cinqüenta e quatro matrizes Camborough 22 (PIC®, foram divididas em 3 tratamentos: T 1 (n=60 - 600 UI de eCG após desmama e 5 mg de LH, 72 h após eCG , com única inseminação artificial (IA (24 h após LH; T 2 (n=95 - mesmo tratamento hormonal do T1, com 2 IA (24 e 32 h após LH; T 3 (n=99 - grupo controle sem tratamento hormonal, com 3 IA. As médias de intervalo desmame-estro (IDE em T1, T2 e T3 foram de 87,4 ± 3,0 (87 a 111, 87 ± 0 (87 e 99,9 ± 13,6 (63 a 135 horas, respectivamente, sendo reduzidas (P < 0,0001 pelas gonadotrofinas. A duração do estro (DE foi de 44,3 ± 8,78 (12 a 60, 41,3 ± 9,77 (24 a 60 e 60,1 ± 10,22 (36 a 84 ;horas;, respectivamente para T1, T2 e T3, sendo menor (P < 0,0001 nas fêmeas tratadas. As diferenças no intervalo LH e ovulação (LH-OV entre o grupo controle (56,1 ± 15,91, variação de 21 a 93 horas e os grupos tratados (35,7 ± 6,07 em T1 e 35,5 ± 6,06 em T2, com variação de 30 a 42 horas foram significativas (P < 0,0001. O tamanho de leitegada (TL foi de 10,6 ± 3,25 (2 a 16 em T1, 11,3 ± 3,0 (4 a 20 em T2 e 11,6 ± 2,74 (4 a 18 leitões em T3, enquanto os mesmos demonstraram número de leitões nascidos vivos (NV de 9,6 ± 3,14 (2 a 16, 10,5 ± 2,83 (1 a 18 e 10,5 ± 2,73 (4 a 16 leitões. Tanto em TL (P = 0,11 quanto em NV (P = 0,06 não houve diferença. A significante taxa de parição (TP no T1, T2 e T3 foi, respectivamente, 76,67 %, 88,42 % e 91,92 %, diferindo entre T1 e T3 (P = 0,01. As gonadotrofinas foram efetivas na indução e sincronização das ovulações; o uso de 2 IAs manteve os índices reprodutivos e, embora a IA única não revele significância quanto ao menor valor de TL, há necessidade de serem realizados novos estudos nesta área.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of HAT and SEDAN score scales in predicting hemorrhagic transformation (HT following the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients and risk factors affecting HT. Methods A total of 143 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis within 4.50 h of onset and their clinical data were collected. According to head CT after thrombolysis, patients were divided into HT group (18 cases and non-HT group (125 cases. Single factor analysis was used to assess differences in HAT and SEDAN score scales and related risk factors of ischemic stroke in 2 groups, and further Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate independent predictors of HT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of HAT and SEDAN score scales in predicting HT. Results Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that history of atrial fibrillation (AF, admission systolic blood pressure (SBP, admission blood glucose level, early low density of head CT, thrombolytic time window, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, HAT and SEDAN scores were all risk factors for HT after thrombolysis (P < 0.05, for all. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that history of AF (OR = 1.677, 95% CI: 1.332-2.111; P = 0.000, admission SBP (OR = 1.102, 95% CI: 1.009-1.204; P = 0.031, admission blood glucose level (OR = 1.870, 95% CI: 1.119-3.125; P = 0.017, thrombolysis time window (OR = 1.030, 95%CI: 1.009-1.052; P = 0.005, NIHSS score (OR = 1.574, 95%CI: 1.186-2.090; P = 0.002, HAT score (OR = 2.515, 95%CI: 1.273-4.970;P = 0.008 and SEDAN score (OR = 2.413, 95%CI: 1.123-5.185; P = 0.024 were risk factors for HT after thrombolysis. ROC curve analysis showed that HAT score could predict HT with 94.40% sensitivity and 41.60% specificity, and area under curve (AUC was 0.70. SEDAN
Haak, A.L.; Williams, J.E.; Isaak, D.; Todd, A.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Kershner, J.L.; Gresswell, R.E.; Hostetler, S.W.; Neville, H.M.
future (Williams and others, 2009). Tools are needed to forecast where important changes may occur and how conservation efforts should be prioritized. In this Open-File Report, we document our initial efforts in this regard for 10 species and subspecies of inland trout and Montana Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) across the western United States.
West, S; Vähäsarja, M; Bloigu, A; Pouta, A; Franks, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Järvelin, M-R; Corbett, S; Vääräsmäki, M; Morin-Papunen, L
To what extent do self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism affect reproductive performance (childlessness, age at first delivery, family size and miscarriage rates)? At the age of 44, among women with both self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism the prevalence of childlessness was not significantly different from non-symptomatic women but they had a smaller family size than non-symptomatic women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by oligo-amenorrhea or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and hirsutism and it is the most frequent cause of anovulatory infertility, but there are few studies on the reproductive capacity of women with PCOS. In our previous population-based cohort study the women with self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism were found to have more infertility problems and smaller family size than non-symptomatic women at the age of 31. A prospective population-based cohort study. The population of the study is derived from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966), comprising all expected births from the year 1966 in the two northernmost provinces of Finland (n = 12 058). Of them, 5889 were females. Enrollment in this database begun at the 24th gestational week and so far data have been collected from the subjects at the ages of 1, 14 and 31 years. A postal questionnaire including questions about oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism was sent to all women at the age of 31 (n = 5608, response rate 81%, n = 4535) and a clinical examination was performed (attendance rate 76.5%). Those who reported both hirsutism and oligo-amenorrhea were defined as women with both symptoms (n = 153). Data on pregnancies/deliveries were obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) in 2010 when the women were 44 years old. Women with both symptoms had delivered at least one child as often as non-symptomatic women [75.2 versus 79.0%, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.57-1.30], were of similar age [mean (SD)] at first delivery [27.7 (4.81) versus 27.3 (4.71)] and had similar incidence of miscarriages. However, non-symptomatic women had more often ≥2 deliveries (61.6 versus 52.9%, adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-1.00, P = 0.048) and had larger family size [mean (SD)] [2.4 (1.4) versus 1.9 (0.8), P amenorrhea and hirsutism was based on a questionnaire, suggesting a risk of information bias in reporting the symptoms. However, we have previously shown that self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism can distinguish most women with the typical profile of PCOS. Only the women who had delivered at least once were recorded in the FMBR, thus excluding from the study those who had experienced miscarriages and/or infertility treatments but did not have a live birth. This feature could potentially decrease the differences in incidence of miscarriages and/or infertility treatment between symptomatic and non-symptomatic subjects. This is one of the few studies, in which the impact of self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism on lifetime reproductive success can be measured. Our results suggest that even at more advanced age, women with both symptoms do not quite match the parity of healthy non-symptomatic women, and that infertility treatment does not always restore normal reproductive capacity in these women. Obese women with both symptoms had the worst prognostic as regards reproduction, which emphasizes the importance of life intervention and preventive politics against obesity in this group of women. This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund, the Academy of Finland, University Hospital Oulu, Biocenter, University of Oulu, Finland, the European Commission and the Medical Research Council, UK, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.
Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III
their effort and support of our endeavour. References  Young T 1805 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 95 65  Lucas R 1918 Kolloidn. Zh. 23 15  Washburn E W 1921 Phys. Rev. 17 273  de Gennes P G 1985 Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 827  Ralston J, Popescu M and Sedev R 2008 Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.38 23  High Temperature Capillarity Focus Issue 2005 Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 9 149-254  Starov V M, Velarde M G and Radke C J 2007 Wetting and Spreading Dynamics (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press)  Golub J 2008 Phys. Today 61 8  Homsby G M (ed) 2008 Multimedia Fluid Mechanics 2nd edn (New York: Cambridge University Press) (Also see www.efluids.com)
Smith, Kirk P.
The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of the large amount of roadway in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply is affected by the usage of deicing compounds and by other constituents that are flushed from such impervious areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1998) through continuous monitoring and the collection of stream-flow samples.In a study conducted by the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Cambridge Water Department, concentrations and loads of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of specific conductance and streamflow for streams and tributaries at 10 continuous water-quality monitoring stations. These data were used to characterize current (2015) water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins. These data also were used to describe how stream-water quality is related to various basin characteristics and provide information to guide future management of the drinking-water source area.Water samples from 2009–15 were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, potassium (K), SO4, and total phosphorus (TP). Values of physical properties and constituent concentrations varied widely, particularly in composite samples of stormflow from tributaries that have high percentages of constructed impervious areas. Median concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and K in samples collected from the tributaries in the Cambridge Reservoir Basin (27.2, 273, 4.7, 154
Juana Mª Díaz Martínez
Full Text Available Introducción: Los pacientes sometidos a procedimientos quirúrgicos presentan un riesgo mayor de desarrollar úlceras por presión (UPP. Algunos estudios evidencian una elevada incidencia de úlceras por presión en pacientes tras intervenciones quirúrgicas ortopédicas. Se han propuesto diversos factores que aumentan el riesgo, aunque sobre este punto aún hay controversias. Objetivos: Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron: a obtener datos epidemiológicos sobre la frecuencia de UPP en pacientes sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas de reemplazo de cadera o de rodilla; b determinar si algunos factores propios del proceso quirúrgico se asocian con la aparición de UPP; y c valorar el grado de adecuación para estos pacientes del protocolo de prevención de UPP del hospital. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo longitudinal realizado en la unidad de reanimación postanéstesica y en dos unidades de traumatología de un hospital universitario traumatológico. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre enero y junio de 2008. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos intervenidos de prótesis de cadera, prótesis de rodilla o reparación de fractura de cadera. Se excluyeron a pacientes que tenían UPP antes de la intervención. Se realizó un muestreo no probabilístico con un tamaño de muestra estimado en 89 pacientes. La observación de los pacientes se inició tras el proceso quirúrgico, en la unidad de reanimación posquirúrgica y se continuó en las unidades de hospitalización. El tiempo de seguimiento fue hasta el alta hospitalaria o hasta una estancia de 10 días, con una reevaluación cada 48 horas. La variable de resultado principal fue la presencia de UPP y las variables independientes fueron diversos factores relacionados con la intervención quirúrgica. El riesgo de desarrollo de UPP se midió con la escala EMINA. Resultados: Fueron incluidos 91 pacientes en el estudio, de los cuales un 76,9% fueron mujeres. La edad media de los pacientes fue de 72,2 años (±8,4. Casi todos los pacientes presentaban riesgo de UPP, según la escala EMINA (riesgo medio: 19,8% o riesgo alto: 76,9%. Un total de 18 pacientes (19,8% desarrolló UPP durante su estancia hospitalaria tras la intervención. Catorce UPP (66,6% se detectaron en grado I, seis en grado 2 (28,6% y una úlcera (4,8% se detectó como no estadiable (escara necrótica. La media de tiempo hasta la aparición de UPP fue de 3,72 días (IC 95%: 2,73%-4,71%. El protocolo de prevención se aplicó de forma irregular: colchones visco-elásticos (100%, cambios posturales (0%, ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados (69,2%, protección en los talones (42,9%. Mediante análisis univariante no se encontró una asociación entre la presencia de UPP y los siguientes factores: sexo, unidad del hospital, tipo de anestesia, riesgo anestésico ASA, riesgo de UPP, edad, tiempo intraoperatorio, tiempo de isquemia de la extremidad e intensidad de dolor postoperatorio. El tipo de procedimiento quirúrgico estuvo en el límite de la significación estadística (p= 0,059, con una incidencia mayor entre pacientes con procedimientos quirúrgicos sobre la cadera. Conclusiones: Los pacientes sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas sobre cadera o rodilla (artroplastias o reparación de fracturas presentan un riesgo muy elevado, que se traduce en una incidencia alta de UPP en el postoperatorio. No se ha encontrado una asociación entre el desarrollo de UPP y varios factores relacionados con la intervención quirúrgica. Es posible que las intervenciones de reparación quirúrgica de fracturas de cadera se asocien con una mayor incidencia de UPP. Los cuatro primeros días tras la intervención son críticos ya que en ellos aparece hasta el 50% de las UPP. La utilización de medidas de prevención fue irregular, por lo que sería necesario mejorar su adaptación a estos pacientes y mejorar el grado de aplicación del protocolo.Introduction: Patients treated by surgical procedures have high risk for developing pressure ulcers. Some studies found a high incidence of pressure ulcers (PU in patients after surgical orthopaedic interventions. Several factors increasing risk have been proposed, although this is a controversial point. Aims: The aims of this research were: a To obtain epidemiological data about pressure ulcers frequency in patients treated by hip or knee replacement surgery; b To establish if some surgery-related factors are associated with pressure ulcers development; c To assess how appropriate is the pressure ulcers prevention protocol for these patients. Methods: Prospective and longitudinal research carried out in the Unit of Post-anaesthetic Reanimation and two Traumatologia wards in a University Hospital, between January and June in 2008. Inclusion: Adults patients treated by hip replacement, knee replacement or hip fracture surgical repair. Exclusion: Patients with PU previous to surgery. A convenience sample of patients was selected with a sample size estimated in 89 patients. The observation of the patients began in the Unit of Post-anaesthetic Reanimation, immediately after surgery and continued in the wards. The follow-up period was until discharge or 10 days, with re-assess-ment every 48 hours. The main outcome was pressure ulcer development and as independent variables were recorded several surgery-related factors. Pressure ulcer risk was measured by EMINA scale. Results: 91 patients were finally included in the research; a 76.9% of whom were female. Patient´s average age was 72.2 years (±8.4. Almost all the patients were in PU risk, according to EMINA scale (medium risk: 19.8%, high risk: 76.9%. 18 patients (19.8% developed PU in the hospital after surgery. PU grading was: fourteen ulcers (66.6% grade 1; six (28.6% grade 2 and one (4.8% was a non-gradable ulcer (necrotic scar. The average time until PU appearance was 3.72 days (CI95%: 2.73 - 4.71. Preventive measures application was irregular: visco-elastic mattresses (100%; turning out (0%; hyperoxigenated fatty acids (69.2%, heel protection (42.9%. By univariate analysis no association was found between PU and these factors: sex, hospital ward, type of anaesthesia, ASA anaesthetic risk, PU risk, age, surgery duration, lower extremity ischemia duration and post-surgery level of pain. Surgical procedure was in the limit of Statistical significance (p= 0.059, with higher PU incidence among patients with hip surgery. Conclusions: Patients treated by hip or knee surgery (replacement or fracture repair have high risk for PU, which results in a high postoperative PU incidence. There is not an association between PU development and surgery- related factors. Possibly, hip fracture surgical repair associates with higher PU frequency. The four days following surgery are critical, because fifty percent of the PU appear in this period. Preventive measures application was irregular, so a revision of the suitability of the protocol to these patients is needed and, also, to improve its implementation.