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Sample records for psychotherapy attachment organization

  1. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  2. Attachment-Focused Psychotherapy and the Wounded Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example.

  3. Personality disorders, attachment and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lissa; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Siever, Larry

    2014-01-01

    While attachment has been a fruitful and critical concept in understanding enduring individual templates for interpersonal relationships, it does not have a well-understood relationship to personality disorders, where impairment of interpersonal functioning is paramount. Despite the recognition that attachment disturbances do not simply reflect nonoptimal caretaking environments, the relationship of underlying temperamental factors to these environmental insults has not been fully explored. In this paper we provide an alternate model for the role of neurobiological temperamental factors, including brain circuitry and neuropeptide modulation, in mediating social cognition and the internalization and maintenance of attachment patterns. The implications of these altered attachment patterns on personality disorders and their neurobiological and environmental roots for psychoanalytically based treatment models designed to ameliorate difficulties in interpersonal functioning through the medium of increased access to mature forms of mentalization is discussed.

  4. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy: Validation of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I F

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioural, cognitive-behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis by monitoring clients' verbal activity. These results also provide information regarding the ways in which differences in attachment status play out in therapy sessions and further the study of attachment in psychotherapy from a pre-treatment client factor to a process variable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...

  6. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  7. Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy Research - Editor's Introduction to a Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B M

    2000-12-01

    This article introduces the special section dealing with research on attachment and psychotherapy. Although John Bowlby conceptualized his theory as a tool for clinicians to acquire a better understanding of the development of psychopathology and emotional distress, it took a long time until clinical researchers started to make use of Bowlby's theory. During the last decade, a large number of studies have been published showing that attachment theory could be very useful within different fields of psychotherapy research, such as differentiating psychopathology, therapist characteristics, and aspects of the therapeutic alliance. These fields are briefly stressed and related to the articles in the special section emphasizing some future directions of attachment response within psychotherapy.

  8. The Secure-Base Hypothesis: Global Attachment, Attachment to Counselor, and Session Exploration in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vera; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Janzen, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study explored J. Bowlby's (1988) secure-base hypothesis, which predicts that a client's secure attachment to the therapist, as well as the client's and the therapist's global attachment security, will facilitate in-session exploration. Volunteer clients (N = 59) and trainee counselors (N = 59) in short-term therapy completed the Experiences…

  9. Roots and routes to resilience and its role in psychotherapy: a selective, attachment-informed review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeremy

    2017-08-01

    Developmental research on resilience is summarised and illustrated with a case example. Self-reflection, positive relationships, and agency foster resilience in the face of adversity. Attachment and resilience are related categories. The different patterns of attachment - secure, insecure-organised and insecure-disorganised - are manifest in different patterns of resilience, depending on prevailing environmental conditions. However, the greater the environmental adversity, the less will the resilience factors emerge. Clients tend to present for psychotherapy when resilience strategies have failed. The therapeutic relationship has neurochemical and relational characteristic mirroring the secure mother-infant bond. These foster mentalising, stress innoculation, affect co-regulation, self-esteem, and agency, forming the basis for enduring and more flexible resilience strategies.

  10. Adult attachment insecurity and narrative processes in psychotherapy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sarah I F

    2011-01-01

    Different types of client attachment insecurity may affect the psychotherapeutic process in distinct ways. This exploratory study compared the in-session discourse of clients with dismissing and preoccupied attachment states of mind on Adult Attachment Interviews conducted prior to therapy in the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. In a subsample of six sessions from each of eight therapy dyads, preoccupied clients were found to talk more and have longer speaking turns than dismissing clients, who in turn generated more pauses. Using the Narrative Processes Coding System, preoccupied clients were found to show more narrative initiative; whereas, differences in terms of narrative process modes were not as clearly interpretable. Contrary to expectations, the two insecure states of mind were equally different in the relationship-focused psychoanalytic therapy and in the symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy. Suggestions for further investigations of the in-session discourse of clients with different attachment states of mind are given. 

  11. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  12. Phobias of attachment-related inner states in the psychotherapy of adult survivors of childhood complex trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    The clinical case described in this article illustrates the value of taking into account the dynamics of disorganized attachment in the assessment of attachment-related phobias (phobia of attachment and phobia of attachment loss) during the psychotherapy of chronically traumatized patients. These seemingly opposite phobias typically coexist in the same patient, appear as phobias of both inner states (affect phobias) and relational experiences, and are linked to dissociated representations of self-with-other. Theory and research on attachment disorganization provide a clinician-friendly conceptual framework for capturing both the intrapsychic (e.g., intrusive and nonintegrated mental states) and the relational (e.g., dramatic unsolvable dilemmas in interpersonal exchanges) aspects of the attachment-related phobias. The therapeutic strategy and the key interventions that logically follow from a case formulation based on this conceptual framework are examined.

  13. The relationship between adult attachment style and therapeutic alliance in individual psychotherapy: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Marc J; Monroe, Joel M

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and therapeutic alliance in individual psychotherapy. Search procedures yielded 17 independent samples (total N = 886, average n = 52, standard deviation = 24) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that greater attachment security was associated with stronger therapeutic alliances, whereas greater attachment insecurity was associated with weaker therapeutic alliances, with an overall weighted effect size of r = .17, p .10) with the exception of the source of alliance ratings; results indicated that patient-rated alliance demonstrated a significantly larger relationship with attachment compared with therapist-rated alliance (Qbetween = 3.95, df = 1, p = .047). Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention.

  15. Use of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with a Severely Traumatized Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol eGeorge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George & West, 2012. The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention.

  16. Attachment-Focused Hypnosis in Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma: Attunement, Representation, and Mentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    The relational and psychological functions of attunement, representation, and mentalization are essential components of a secure attachment experience. Psychotherapeutic approaches informed by attachment theory have gained significant empirical and clinical support, particularly in the area of complex trauma. Despite these advances, attachment-informed trauma treatment could benefit greatly from the experiential wealth that clinical hypnosis has to offer. In its utilization of shared attention, tone of voice, pacing, representational imagery, and hypnotic language, clinical hypnosis as a state, relationship, and technique offers psychotherapists a way of introducing a healthy attachment experience and renewing appropriate developmental functioning in patients who are survivors of complex trauma. In this article, attunement, representation, and mentalization are reviewed from a hypnotherapeutic perspective.

  17. Client attachment in a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa: Outcome moderation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2016-06-01

    In the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN), this study performed secondary analyses of (a) the relation between attachment and pretreatment symptom levels, (b) whether client pretreatment attachment moderated treatment outcome, (c) whether change in client attachment was associated with symptomatic change, and (d) whether client attachment changed differently in the 2 treatments. Sixty-nine women and 1 man of a mean age of 25.8 years diagnosed with BN were randomly assigned to either 2 years of weekly PPT or 5 months of CBT. Assessments at intake, after 5 months, and after 2 years included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess eating disorder symptoms, the Adult Attachment Interview to assess client attachment, and the Symptom Checklist 90-R to assess general psychiatric distress. Repeated measures were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Higher scores on attachment insecurity and attachment preoccupation were associated with more frequent binging pretreatment. Pretreatment attachment did not predict treatment outcome. In PPT, but not in CBT, reduction of binging was associated with an increase in attachment security. The 2 treatment types were not associated with significantly different patterns of attachment-related change. Degree and type of attachment insecurity is related to the frequency of binging in BN. Increase in attachment security may be a treatment-specific mechanism of change in PPT for BN. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Adult separation anxiety in treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders: delineation of the syndrome and exploration of attachment-based psychotherapy and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin

    2016-04-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (pattachment-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, potentially supporting the clinical relevance of attachment dysfunction in this sample. The large

  19. Psychotherapy for Delinquents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ian; Sullivan, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of a psychotherapy consultation service for delinquents (n=47). Based on data obtained from this program and a review of relevant literature, a working model of individual psychotherapy related to attachment theory as it applies to this population is presented. Discusses difficulties that warrant resolution. (JPS)

  20. The Insecure Attachment of the Organization Theorist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    In this paper I present a dramatic health care system collapse and scandal in the UK. I analyse the story about appalling suffering of a large amount of patients at Mid Staffordshire NHS foundation trust between 2005 and 2008, and the subsequent public inquiry in 2013 of the Stafford hospital and...... and approach the activities and relations of organisations. To conclude, I argue that classical organization theory in the early Tavistock tradition provides us with old-new ways of thinking about and acting upon contemporary scandals in the NHS....... that organization studies and work that critically reflect upon the context in which clinical malpractice occurs have been largely absent from this discussion. This is peculiar since the scandal seems to be an open invitation to organization theory and organization concepts to take on a life and role...... in the discussion. In addition to this, I argue, the scandal invites organization theorists to contribute to a discussion of how we choose to organize treatment and care of vulnerable citizens in our society. To follow this line of thought, I revisit the work of Isabel Menzies Lyth (1959, 1988) and central analyses...

  1. Attaching substances to micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Leenhouts, Cornelis Johannes; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to surface display of proteins on micro-organisms via the targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins to the outer surface of cells such as yeast, fungi, mammalian and plant cells, and bacteria. The invention provides a proteinaceous substance comprising a reactive group a

  2. Mentalization-based treatment for psychosis: linking an attachment-based model to the psychotherapy for impaired mental state understanding in people with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Benjamin K; Holt, Daphne J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Fonagy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of mentalization have been increasingly associated with the symptoms and functional impairment of people with psychotic disorders. it has been proposed that psychotherapy designed to foster self and other understanding, such as mentalization-based treatment (mBt), may play an important part in facilitating recovery from psychosis. Here, we present an attachment-based understanding of mentalization impairments. We then outline a neuropsychological model that links disruptions of mentalization associated with disturbances in the caregiving environment to the pathophysiology of psychosis in genetically at-risk individuals. this is followed by an illustration of some of the core mBt techniques for the rehabilitation of the capacity to mentalize as applied to the treatment of a patient with a psychotic disorder.

  3. Self-Organization in Psychotherapy - Testing the Synergetic Model of Change Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Karl Schiepek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, models have been developed that conceive psychotherapy as a self-organizing process of bio-psycho-social systems. These models originate from the theory of self-organization (Synergetics, from the theory of deterministic chaos, or from the approach of self-organized criticality. This process-outcome study examines several hypotheses mainly derived from Synergetics, including the assumption of discontinuous changes in psychotherapy (instead of linear incremental gains, the occurrence of critical instabilities in temporal proximity of pattern transitions, the hypothesis of necessary stable boundary conditions during destabilization processes, and of motivation to change playing the role of a control parameter for psychotherapeutic self-organization. Our study was realized at a day treatment center; 23 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD were included. Client self-assessment was performed by an Internet-based process monitoring (referred to as the Synergetic Navigation System, whereby daily ratings were recorded through administering the Therapy Process Questionnaire (TPQ. The process measures of the study were extracted from the subscale dynamics (including the dynamic complexity of their time series of the TPQ. The outcome criterion was measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS which was completed pre-post and on a bi-weekly schedule by all patients. A second outcome criterion was based on the symptom severity subscale of the TPQ. Results supported the hypothesis of discontinuous changes (pattern transitions, the occurrence of critical instabilities preparing pattern transitions, and of stable boundary conditions as prerequisites for such transitions, but not the assumption of motivation to change as a control parameter.

  4. Self-organization in psychotherapy: testing the synergetic model of change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K; Tominschek, Igor; Heinzel, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, models have been developed that conceive psychotherapy as a self-organizing process of bio-psycho-social systems. These models originate from the theory of self-organization (Synergetics), from the theory of deterministic chaos, or from the approach of self-organized criticality. This process-outcome study examines several hypotheses mainly derived from Synergetics, including the assumption of discontinuous changes in psychotherapy (instead of linear incremental gains), the occurrence of critical instabilities in temporal proximity of pattern transitions, the hypothesis of necessary stable boundary conditions during destabilization processes, and of motivation to change playing the role of a control parameter for psychotherapeutic self-organization. Our study was realized at a day treatment center; 23 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were included. Client self-assessment was performed by an Internet-based process monitoring (referred to as the Synergetic Navigation System), whereby daily ratings were recorded through administering the Therapy Process Questionnaire (TPQ). The process measures of the study were extracted from the subscale dynamics (including the dynamic complexity of their time series) of the TPQ. The outcome criterion was measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) which was completed pre-post and on a bi-weekly schedule by all patients. A second outcome criterion was based on the symptom severity subscale of the TPQ. Results supported the hypothesis of discontinuous changes (pattern transitions), the occurrence of critical instabilities preparing pattern transitions, and of stable boundary conditions as prerequisites for such transitions, but not the assumption of motivation to change as a control parameter.

  5. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  6. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  7. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  8. Forensic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  9. Quantified effects of chromosome-nuclear envelope attachments on 3D organization of chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Nicholas Allen; Onufriev, Alexey V; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    We use a combined experimental and computational approach to study the effects of chromosome-nuclear envelope (Chr-NE) attachments on the 3D genome organization of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) salivary gland nuclei. We consider 3 distinct models: a Null model - without specific Chr-NE attachments, a 15-attachment model - with 15 previously known Chr-NE attachments, and a 48-attachment model - with 15 original and 33 recently identified Chr-NE attachments. The radial densities of chromosomes in the models are compared to the densities observed in 100 experimental images of optically sectioned salivary gland nuclei forming "z-stacks." Most of the experimental z-stacks support the Chr-NE 48-attachment model suggesting that as many as 48 chromosome loci with appreciable affinity for the NE are necessary to reproduce the experimentally observed distribution of chromosome density in fruit fly nuclei. Next, we investigate if and how the presence and the number of Chr-NE attachments affect several key characteristics of 3D genome organization: chromosome territories and gene-gene contacts. This analysis leads to novel insight about the possible role of Chr-NE attachments in regulating the genome architecture. Specifically, we find that model nuclei with more numerous Chr-NE attachments form more distinct chromosome territories and their chromosomes intertwine less frequently. Intra-chromosome and intra-arm contacts are more common in model nuclei with Chr-NE attachments compared to the Null model (no specific attachments), while inter-chromosome and inter-arm contacts are less common in nuclei with Chr-NE attachments. We demonstrate that Chr-NE attachments increase the specificity of long-range inter-chromosome and inter-arm contacts. The predicted effects of Chr-NE attachments are rationalized by intuitive volume vs. surface accessibility arguments.

  10. 对强迫障碍的依恋取向心理治疗2例%Psychotherapy Based on Attachment Orientation in Two Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 曹思聪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨并验证依恋取向的心理治疗对强迫障碍的治疗效果。方法:阅读有关精神分析及依恋理论的文章及书籍,通过2个强迫障碍的临床案例为论据进行论证。结果:对于强迫障碍的心理治疗,从依恋理论出发,治疗中构建安全的依恋关系,给来访者提供被承认、被理解的体验,让来访者能够去联接那些内心冰封已久的情感世界。逐渐,抽象机械的强迫症状转变为具形和现实的生活事件冲突,这些体验和转变本身就是治愈性的。结论:精神分析提供一个视角,去理解强迫症状代表的心理意义;依恋理论则提供一种治疗态度和思路,让心理治疗更有效进行。%Objective: To discuss the effect of psychotherapy based on attachment orientation for obsessive-com-pulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: Two OCD cases were treated and analyzed . Results: In the psychotherapy based on attachment orientation, the therapists created a safe attachment relationship for the patients of OCD, offered them experience of being recognized and understood, helped them to connect the inner long frozen emotional world. Gradually, the abstract and stiff symptoms transformed to the concrete and realistic conflicts of life events. These experiences and transformations were curative. Conclusion: For OCD, psychoanalysis develops a way of un-derstanding, while attachment theory provides a clue and guidance for clinical psychotherapy.

  11. Covalently bound organic monolayers on silicon surfaces : visible light attachment, charaterization, and electrical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    The full control over surface properties is a 'Holy Grail' in material science. A significant step forward in this area includes the modification of silicon surfaces, by the covalent attachment of organic monolayers. In this way receptors than can specifically bind with ions or molecules be attached

  12. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  13. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  14. Transpersonal psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorstein, S

    2000-01-01

    The history, theory, and practice of Transpersonal (or Spiritual) Psychotherapy are presented. The author describes his own evolution from a traditional psychoanalyst to a psychotherapist who uses the tools and wisdom from spiritual traditions to enhance traditional psychotherapy while, at the same time, improving the self system of the therapist. Dangers as well as benefits of the spiritual approach are outlined. The creation and holding of a spiritual or transpersonal context is described and ways to ascertain, in the clinical situation, the appropriateness of such an approach are explained. The use of bibliotherapy to help transform and expand the worldview of the patient is outlined. Prayer and meditational systems also have a healing role in this approach. To illustrate the uses of Transpersonal Psychotherapy in practice, four cases are presented: 1) a paranoid schizophrenic man, 2) a well-functioning borderline person, 3) a very poorly functioning borderline person, and 4) a high-functioning neurotic man who had been in psychoanalysis.

  15. [General psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymetal, J

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a theoretical psychotherapeutical thinking develops from the eclectic practice and uses particularly the research of the effective factors of the therapy. Best they can be characterized as differentiate, synthetic, integrative and exceeding other approaches. The development in question goes on with attempts of creating a general model of the psychotherapy that could be a basis for models of special psychotherapies. The aim of such a model is to describe all that is present as important factor for inducing a desirable change of a human in all psychotherapeutical approaches. Among general models we can mention the generic model of D. E. Orlinski and K. I. Howard, Grawe's cube (the author is K. Grawe) and the equation of the psychotherapy.

  16. Positive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  17. Quantifying Attachment and Antibiotic Resistance of from Conventional and Organic Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwonitzer, Martha R; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Smith, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often administered to swine, contributing to the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in their manure. During land application, the bacteria in swine manure preferentially attach to particles in the soil, affecting their transport in overland flow. However, a quantitative understanding of these attachment mechanisms is lacking, and their relationship to antibiotic resistance is unknown. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between antibiotic resistance and attachment to very fine silica sand in collected from swine manure. A total of 556 isolates were collected from six farms, two organic and four conventional (antibiotics fed prophylactically). Antibiotic resistance was quantified using 13 antibiotics at three minimum inhibitory concentrations: resistant, intermediate, and susceptible. Of the 556 isolates used in the antibiotic resistance assays, 491 were subjected to an attachment assay. Results show that isolates from conventional systems were significantly more resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chlortetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and tylosin ( < 0.001). Results also indicate that isolated from conventional systems attached to very fine silica sand at significantly higher levels than those from organic systems ( < 0.001). Statistical analysis showed that a significant relationship did not exist between antibiotic resistance levels and attachment in from conventional systems but did for organic systems ( < 0.001). Better quantification of these relationships is critical to understanding the behavior of in the environment and preventing exposure of human populations to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  18. Piaget and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, T L

    1978-04-01

    It is difficult to apply Piaget's theory to psychotherapy because the place of affect in it is ambiguous. When the alternatives are considered, it seems most consistent with Piaget's ideas to regard both cognitive and affective phenomena as problem-solving organizations. Piaget's remarkable discoveries in the cognitive sphere are a consequence of the easy access in that sphere to the kind of problems that need solving, and the phasic development of solutions. But the nature of the problems to be solved or the values to be guarded by a patient in psychotherapy are not knowable independently of the patient's actual behavior. In one respect all that is left from Piaget's approach for psychotherapy generally is the truism that therapy fosters differentiation and integration. However, even if we cannot frame a peculiarly Piagetian paradigm of psychotherapy, Piaget is valuable in posing a subsidiary question, namely, what in therapy fosters problem-solving activity. A reading of Piaget suggests that a patient learns by acting on his therapist and tacitly interpreting the results of his actions, that difficulties in therapy are the material from which therapy proceeds, and that in order to grasp the situation of the patient, the therapist himself may need to act on him and not just think about him. An implied lesson for training would be that supervision should instill a professional identity that is reinforced rather than challenged by therapy difficulties, and does not rely solely on theoretical categorizing.

  19. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking Care of Yourself Questions About ...

  2. Level of importance attached to competitive intelligence at a mass import retail organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the level of importance attached to competitive intelligence (CI at a mass import retail organization in South Africa. The rationale of CI is to alert an organization about the current situation as it relates to its business environment and competitors, and how these aspects affect the competitive situation. In this article, the value and significance that CI presents to organizations upon implementation are discussed by focusing upon the need for a competitive strategy, the significance of institutionalizing CI, various organizational structure options and the establishment of a CI culture. A survey was conducted at a mass import retail organization to determine the level of importance attached to CI. A total of 107 employees were randomly selected to participate in the completion of a questionnaire. Based on the results, it was found that this organization practised CI, albeit in an informal manner, and it was concluded that there was a relatively high level of importance attached to CI within this organization. However, areas for improvement were identified and a recommendation was made of implementing a formal CI function within the organization.

  3. Level of importance attached to competitive intelligence at a mass import retail organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begg

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the level of importance attached to competitive intelligence (CI at a mass import retail organization in South Africa. The rationale of CI is to alert an organization about the current situation as it relates to its business environment and competitors, and how these aspects affect the competitive situation. In this article, the value and significance that CI presents to organizations upon implementation are discussed by focusing upon the need for a competitive strategy, the significance of institutionalizing CI, various organizational structure options and the establishment of a CI culture. A survey was conducted at a mass import retail organization to determine the level of importance attached to CI. A total of 107 employees were randomly selected to participate in the completion of a questionnaire. Based on the results, it was found that this organization practised CI, albeit in an informal manner, and it was concluded that there was a relatively high level of importance attached to CI within this organization. However, areas for improvement were identified and a recommendation was made of implementing a formal CI function within the organization.

  4. Female domestic violence offenders: their attachment security, trauma symptoms, and personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Julie; Geffner, Robert; Foster, Sharon L; Clipson, Clark R

    2007-01-01

    Unlike male domestic violence offenders, female domestic violence offenders have traditionally been overlooked in research and theory, despite the fact that females also have high rates of domestic violence perpetration. Towards the aim of extending extant research on male and female pepetrators of domestic violence, we examined attachment style, trauma symptoms, and personality organization in 33 female offenders receiving mandated treatment for domestic violence. These offenders were compared to 32 nonoffending women receiving psychological treatment. The Experiences in Close Relationships Revised (ECR-Revised) was used to examine adult attachment, the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) was used to examine trauma symptomology, and finally, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) was used to examine cluster B personality traits. Analyses indicated that female domestic violence offenders reported less attachment security, more trauma-related symptoms, and more personality psychopathology (Antisocial, Borderline, and Dependent Subscales) than did nonoffender clinical comparison women.

  5. Exploring the Influence of the Attachment Organizations of Novice Therapists on Their Delivery of Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians' own internal resources for understanding relationships--that is, their attachment organizations--have been found to influence the process and outcome of treatment. The current study addressed whether the attachment organizations of novice couple and family therapists were associated with couples' experiences of their therapists,…

  6. DNA extraction procedure affects organic-aggregate-attached bacterial community profiles from a shallow eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangming; Gao, Guang; Zhu, Liping; Chao, Jianying; Qin, Boqiang

    2009-06-01

    Organic aggregates (OA) in aquatic ecosystems harbour diverse microbial communities. The colonization and growth of OA-attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. The development of efficient and comparative DNA extraction methods is one of the most critical steps in the study of the composition and diversity of OA-attached bacterial communities. To evaluate whether different DNA extraction procedures affect the measurement of bacterial community composition, we compared four in situ lysis procedures using OA from three locations in a shallow eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu, China). The extracted DNA was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles. We found that the choice of DNA extraction protocol had a significant influence on the fingerprints of the OA-attached bacterial community. This was shown not only in the number of bands but also in their relative representation of certain DNA bands. Using the bead-beating DNA extraction method in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, we found that crude microbial DNA could be extracted efficiently from different OA types. This protocol is reproducible and gives very pure DNA of relatively high molecular mass. More importantly, the protocol provided more representative and informative data on the diversity of OA-attached bacterial communities.

  7. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  8. Research and exploration of individualized and self-organized psychotherapy*%个性化自组织心理治疗的研究与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雅嫱; 杨军

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨个性化自组织心理治疗方法。方法该方法以“感觉体验”为初始切入点,通过诱发机体组织的自律性运动,来激活人体自身潜在的、系统化的调节机制,从而实现心理疾病的治疗作用。结果可以对各种功能性疾病进行有效治疗,例如内分泌失调、抑郁症和癌症等疾病。结论“感觉体验”被表达为“去心理化”作用的路径选择,与众多的、建立在感知基础上的心理治疗方法截然不同。这种不同,不仅仅带来了一种心理治疗方法上的创新,还带来了更为深刻的哲学思考。%Objective This article discussed individualized and self-organized psychotherapy .Methods This therapy utilized the“sensory experience”as the entry point ,the systematic regulating mechanism underlying the human body was activated by stimula-ted the automaticity movement of organisms ,so as to realized the treatment of mental illness .Results It could effectively cured va-rious functional diseases such as endocrine disorder ,depression and cancer ,etc .Conclusion As a“de-psychologized”method ,“Sen-sory experience” is distinct from other psychological methods that are based on cognitive psychology .This difference brings about not only an innovation in psychotherapy ,but also profound philosophic considerations .

  9. Change in attachment states of mind of women with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Hilary; Tasca, Giorgio A; Grenon, Renee; Ritchie, Kerri; Bissada, Hany; Balfour, Louise

    2017-06-21

    and interpersonal group psychotherapies, like Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy, may help those with binge-eating disorder to process and organize their attachment memories which may lead to improved affect regulation and interpersonal functioning Psychological theories and treatment for binge-eating disorder and overweight may benefit from considering the current impact of insecure and unresolved/disorganized attachment states of mind. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The prediction of the level of personality organization on reduction of psychiatric symptoms and improvement of work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies during a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Keinänen, Matti; Heinonen, Erkki; Virtala, Esa; Härkänen, Tommi

    2017-09-01

    How level of personality organization (LPO) predicts psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies is poorly known. We investigated the importance of the LPO on the benefits of short-term versus long-term psychotherapies. A cohort study based on 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder was allocated to long-term (LPP) and short-term (SPP) psychodynamic psychotherapy, and solution-focused therapy (SFT). The LPO was assessed by interview at baseline and categorized into neuroses and higher level borderline. Outcome was assessed at baseline and 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up, using self-report and interview-based measures of symptoms and work ability. For patients receiving SPP, improvement in work ability, symptom reduction, and the remission rate were more considerable in patients with neuroses than in higher level borderline patients, whereas LPP or SFT showed no notable differences in effectiveness in the two LPO groups. In patients with neuroses, improvement was more considerable in the short-term therapy groups during the first year of follow-up, and in higher level borderline patients LPP was more effective after 3 years of follow-up. The remission rate, defined as both symptom reduction and lack of auxiliary treatment, was higher in LPP than in SPP for both the LPO groups considered. In neuroses, short-term psychotherapy was associated with a more rapid reduction of symptoms and increase in work ability, whereas LPP was more effective for longer follow-ups in both LPO groups. Further large-scale studies are needed. Level of personality organization is relevant for selection between short- and long-term psychotherapies. Short-term therapy gives faster benefits for neurotic patients but not for patients with higher level borderline personality organization. Sustained remission from symptoms is more probable after long-term than short-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Influence of Natural Organic Matter on Attachment Kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, I.; Zorlu, O.; Hill, J. E.; Walker, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common and virulent bacterial pathogens, usually found in food and water. This waterborne pathogen has been attributed to causing gastroenteritis and typhoid fever, leading to 16 million cases and over half a million deaths worldwide each year. Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in environment and previous work has shown NOM to enhance the stability and transport of bacteria cells; hence NOM will certainly interact with Salmonella and affect its transport in environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of NOM (Suwannee River humic acid standard II, SRHA) on the attachment kinetics of a model Salmonella (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SA5983) to glass. The transport study was conducted in a parallel plate flow chamber using fluorescent microscope to visualize the bacterial cells, which were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). The solution pH was unadjusted, and the flow rate through parallel plate channel was 0.1 mL/min to simulate groundwater conditions. Parameters varied in this study were NOM presence, ion valence (K+, Ca2+) as well as cell growth phase (mid-exponential and late-exponential growth phases). These parameters were chosen because ion valence may alter the NOM conformation and capacity for bridging, as well growth phase impacts the cellular surface chemistry. Extensive characterization of the bacterial cells was conducted including measurements of electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity, acidity, surface charge density and extracellular polymeric substance content. Additionally, electrokintic characterization was conducted for the glass. Preliminary results demonstrated the sensitivity of cell attachment to ionic valence and cell growth phase. Also the addition of NOM reduced the attachment of the Salmonella cells significantly under all of these conditions. Without NOM, attachment efficiencies (α) in KCl were similar at both growth

  12. First report of antennular attachment organs in a barnacle nauplius larva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, H.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, B.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Larvae released from Newmaniverruca albatrossiana were cultured in the laboratory until the cypris stage. The brood size of individuals was low, about 60 larvae per brood. The exact number of instars was not determined. Early instars had the morphology normally seen in lecithotrophic nauplii...... was typical except in the structure of antennules. The head shield was enlarged but not flexed down, the antennae and mandibles were virtually unchanged from earlier instars, and the ventral thoracic process was well developed but without any external appendages. In contrast, the antennules had the complex...... shape and segmentation otherwise seen only in cypris larvae, where they are used for bipedal walking on the substratum in search of a settlement site. The similarity included the specialized shape of the first two antennular segments and the specialization of the third as an attachment organ. Nauplii...

  13. Growth of organic crystals via attachment and transformation of nanoscopic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kellermeier, Matthias; Gebaue, Denis; Lu, Zihao; Rosenberg, Rose; Moise, Adrian; Przybylski, Michael; Cölfen, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    A key requirement for the understanding of crystal growth is to detect how new layers form and grow at the nanoscale. Multistage crystallization pathways involving liquid-like, amorphous or metastable crystalline precursors have been predicted by theoretical work and have been observed experimentally. Nevertheless, there is no clear evidence that any of these precursors can also be relevant for the growth of crystals of organic compounds. Herein, we present a new growth mode for crystals of DL-glutamic acid monohydrate that proceeds through the attachment of preformed nanoscopic species from solution, their subsequent decrease in height at the surface and final transformation into crystalline 2D nuclei that eventually build new molecular layers by further monomer incorporation. This alternative mechanism provides a direct proof for the existence of multistage pathways in the crystallization of molecular compounds and the relevance of precursor units larger than the monomeric constituents in the actual stage of growth.

  14. John Bowlby and couple psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    The centenary of John Bowlby's birth provides a context for considering the policy, research and practice legacies that he left for practitioners working in many different fields supporting couples and families. Part historical, and part forwardlooking, this paper considers the links between attachment in the infant-parent dyad that was at the heart of Bowlby's concern and the nature of the affective ties that bind couples together in adult romantic relationships. An overview of the influence of his theory on family policy and adult attachment research is followed by an appreciation of its significance for the practice of couple psychotherapy. The paper concludes with a comment on the implications of current neuroscience knowledge for therapeutic technique.

  15. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  16. Mechanistic Insights to the Influence of Adsorbed Organic Macromolecules on Nanoparticle Attachment Efficiency in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, T.; Song, J.; Cisneros, C. M.; Schoenfelder, D. P.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Tilton, R. D.; Lowry, G. V.

    2009-12-01

    Assessing the potential risks of natural or engineered nanoparticles to the environment and human health requires the ability to predict their mobility in porous media such as groundwater aquifers or sand filters used in water treatment. Semi-empirical correlations to predict the collision efficiency of electrostatically stabilized nanoparticles are available; however, they are not applicable to nanoparticles coated with natural organic matter (NOM) or polymeric surface coatings because the existing correlations do not account the electrosteric repulsions and lubrication afforded by coatings that inhibit or reverse nanoparticle attachment to surfaces. Regression analysis of published data on the collision efficiency of NOM-coated latex and hematite particles, and on new data collected for poly(styrene sulfonate)-, carboxy methyl cellulose, and polyaspartate-coated hematite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles was used to develop an empirical correlation of the collision efficiency of NOM- and polymer-coated nanomaterials and dimensionless parameters including the adsorbed layer-electrokinetic parameter (NLEK) representing electrosteric repulsions and lubrication afforded by adsorbed NOM or polyelectrolyte. An empirical correlation with three dimensionless parameters can predict the measured collision efficiency on coated metal oxide nanoparticles over a wide dynamic range in particle type, coating type, and solution conditions (~80 data points). This study indicates that including the adsorbed NOM and polymer layer properties of the properties is essential for understanding the transport and fate of NOM- and polymer-coated natural and manufactured nanomaterials in porous media.

  17. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  18. Estimating attachment of nano- and submicrometer-particles coated with organic macromolecules in porous media: development of an empirical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Song, Jee Eun; Cisneros, Charlotte M; Schoenfelder, Daniel P; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2010-06-15

    Assessing the environmental transport and fate of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) and potential exposure risks requires models for predicting attachment of NPs coated with organic macromolecules in porous media. The objective of this study was to determine the properties of coated nanoparticles that control their attachment behavior. Deposition data for a variety of nanoparticles with different types of anionic organic coatings, including natural organic matter (NOM)-coated latex and hematite nanoparticles, and poly(styrenesulfonate)-, carboxymethylcellulose-, and polyaspartate-coated hematite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (80 data points), were used to develop an empirical correlation between measurable NP properties and their sticking coefficient (alpha) under a variety of electrolyte conditions and flow velocities. Available semiempirical correlations used to predict the attachment efficiency of electrostatically stabilized (uncoated) NPs overestimate the attachment efficiency of nanoparticles coated with NOM or synthetic polyelectrolytes because the correlations neglect electrosteric repulsions and the decreased friction afforded by such coatings that can inhibit attachment to surfaces. Adding a dimensionless parameter (N(LEK)) representing steric repulsions and the decreased friction force afforded by adsorbed NOM or anionic polyelectrolytes in the correlation significantly improves the correlation. This establishes the importance of including the adsorbed NOM- or polyelectrolyte layer properties for estimating the attachment efficiency of NPs in the environment. The form of N(LEK) suggests that limiting unintended transport and exposure to NPs could be achieved by using coatings with the smallest adsorbed mass and polymer density, shortest extended layer thickness, and largest molecular weight that would still afford the desired functionality of the coating.

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD include: ... than acting out these emotions impulsively. Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) This type of therapy focuses on reframing “ ...

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychotherapy (TFP) This form of therapy is rooted in the patient’s confused and contradictory sense of identity ... person to another person, such as the therapist. In that moment, the therapist talks with the patient ...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD ... STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of ...

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people learn tools, exercises, and concrete things they can do to manage their emotions when certain challenging ... treatment (such as medications or individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve ...

  3. Values in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... identify and verbally express their emotions, describe their interactions with other people, and talk about themselves and ... stress (particularly the stress of rejection or disappointing interactions with other people). Supportive Psychotherapy A form of ...

  5. Introduction: Psychotherapy for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with Paul Federn--a contemporary of Sigmund Freud--every generation of psychotherapists for the past hundred years has included a small number of determined clinicians who have worked psychotherapeutically with psychotic patients, and written about their work. This special issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy contains seven papers by clinicians in this generation who are using psychotherapy in the treatment of psychosis.

  6. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacologica...

  7. A dynamic systems approach to psychotherapy: A meta-theoretical framework for explaining psychotherapy change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia: trends and developments in the wake of the recovery movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jay A; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H

    2013-01-01

    Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered.

  9. A child's nightmare. Mum comes and comforts her child. Attachment evaluation as a guide in the assessment and treatment in a clinical case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eSalcuni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a gap between proposed theoretical attachment theory frameworks, measures of attachment in the assessment phase and their relationship with changes in outcome after a psychodynamic oriented psychotherapy. Based on a clinical case study of a young woman with Panic Attack Disorder, this paper examined psychotherapy outcome findings comparing initial and post-treatment assessments, according to the mental functioning in S and M-axis of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM. Treatment planning and post-treatment changes were described with the main aim to illustrate from a clinical point of view why a psycho-dynamic approach, with specific attention to an attachment theory stance, was considered the treatment of choice for this patient. The Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP–200 were administered to detect patient’s symptomatic perception and clinician’s diagnostic points of view, respectively; the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP were also administered as to pay attention to patient’s unconscious internal organization and changes in defense processes. A qualitative description of how the treatment unfolded was included. Findings highlight the important contribution of attachment theory in a 22-month psychodynamic psychotherapy framework, promoting resolution of patient’s symptoms and adjustment.

  10. Organic Solar Cells with Controlled Nanostructures Based on Microphase Separation of Fullerene-Attached Thiophene-Selenophene Heteroblock Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peihong; Nakano, Kyohei; Suzuki, Kaori; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Kikitsu, Tomoka; Hashizume, Daisuke; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Tajima, Keisuke

    2017-02-08

    Heteroblock copolymers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene-attached poly(3-alkylselenophene) (T-b-Se-PCBP) were synthesized for organic photovoltaic applications by quasi-living catalyst transfer polycondensation and subsequent conversion reactions. Characterization of the polymers confirmed the formation of well-defined diblock structures with high loading of the fullerene at the side chain (∼40 wt %). Heteroblock copolymer cast as a thin film showed a clear microphase-separated nanostructure approximately 30 nm in repeating unit after thermal annealing, which is identical to the microphase-separated nanostructure of diblock copolymer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene-attached poly(3-alkylthiophene) (T-b-T-PCBP). These heteroblock copolymers provide an ideal platform for investigating the effects of nanostructures and interfacial energetics on the performance of organic photovoltaic devices.

  11. Attachment organization in Arabic-speaking refugees with post traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing clinical study of refugees with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the primary objective of the current study was to examine and describe the distribution of adult attachment patterns as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in Arabic-speaking refugees. A total of 43 adult male and female refugees with Iraqi and Palestinian backgrounds completed the AAI. Sixty-seven percent of the sample was classified as Unresolved with respect to loss or trauma and a substantial proportion of insecure attachment representations (14% Secure-Autonomous, 39% Dismissing, 42% Preoccupied, 5% Cannot Classify) was found, in addition to high intake levels of post traumatic stress symptoms and comorbidity. Findings are compared with AAI studies of other PTSD or trauma samples, and the paper elaborates upon the methodological challenges in administering the AAI in a context of simultaneous translation.

  12. Attachment organization in Arabic-speaking refugees with post traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing clinical study of refugees with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the primary objective of the current study was to examine and describe the distribution of adult attachment patterns as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in Arabic-speaking refugees......, 42% Preoccupied, 5% Cannot Classify) was found, in addition to high intake levels of post traumatic stress symptoms and comorbidity. Findings are compared with AAI studies of other PTSD or trauma samples, and the paper elaborates upon the methodological challenges in administering the AAI...

  13. Some neurobiological aspects of psychotherapy. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggan, D Y; Kay, J

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the idea was accepted that memory is associated with alterations in synaptic strength, studies on the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the plastic changes in neurons have attracted wide interest in the scientific community. This article explores the process of memory consolidation leading to persistent modifications in synaptic plasticity as a mechanism by which psychotherapy facilitates changes in the permanent storage of information acquired throughout the individual's life. The psychobiological interrelationships of affect, attachment, and memory offer a perspective regarding the etiology and treatment of clinical disturbances of affect. Analogies between brain physiology and modes of psychotherapy provide the foundation for a review of psychiatric disorders involving the inability to control fear, obsessions, compulsions, and delusions, all of which respond to psychotherapeutic interventions.

  14. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  15. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  16. Quantifying attachment and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from conventional and organic swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad spectrum antibiotics, used to treat infections in livestock, are often administered at sub-therapeutic levels in feed rations to promote growth and for prophylaxis. Previous studies have shown that bacteria preferentially attach to sediments affecting their transport in overland flow; however...

  17. Early Attachment Organization with Both Parents and Future Behavior Problems: From Infancy to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2013-01-01

    Links between children's attachment security with mothers and fathers, assessed in Strange Situation with each parent at 15 months ("N" = 101), and their future behavior problems were examined. Mothers and fathers rated children's behavior problems, and children reported their own behavior problems at age 8 ("N" = 86). Teachers rated behavior…

  18. Early Attachment Organization Moderates the Parent-Child Mutually Coercive Pathway to Children's Antisocial Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Stellern, Sarah A.; O'Bleness, Jessica J.

    2009-01-01

    This multimethod study of 101 mothers, fathers, and children elucidates poorly understood role of children's attachment security as "moderating" a common maladaptive trajectory: from parental power assertion, to child resentful opposition, to child antisocial conduct. Children's security was assessed at 15 months, parents' power assertion observed…

  19. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  20. Psychotherapy: A 40-Year Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L.

    1981-01-01

    Appraises selected issues and developments in the field of psychotherapy since 1940. Discusses increased participation of clinical psychologists in the area of psychotherapy, increased popularity of psychotherapy, declining influence of psychoanalysis and related views, emergence of behavioral and cognitive therapies, and recent emphasis on…

  1. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Moyano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy

  2. An Integrative Psychotherapy of Postpartum Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merle-Fishman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a mother is a time of transition, transformation and sometimes trauma. The immediacy of meeting the needs of an infant, combined with the immediacy of becoming a mother, often collide to produce depression, anxiety and stress. Shame, confusion, isolation and cultural expectations often prevent women from seeking the postpartum support they need, which may result in long lasting depression, anxiety and unresolved trauma. Integrative Psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis and Attachment Theory offer ways to understand postpartum adjustment as well as methodologies for addressing this unique developmental event in the life of women.

  3. Improving Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Devices by Attaching Nanostructures with Self-Assembled Photonic Crystal Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yu Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-monolayered hexagonal self-assembled photonic crystal (PC pattern fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET films by using simple nanosphere lithography (NSL method has been demonstrated in this research work. The patterned nanostructures acted as a scattering medium to extract the trapped photons from substrate mode of optical-electronic device for improving the overall external quantum efficiency of the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. With an optimum latex concentration, the distribution of self-assembled polystyrene (PS nanosphere patterns on PET films can be easily controlled by adjusting the rotation speed of spin-coater. After attaching the PS nanosphere array brightness enhancement film (BEF sheet as a photonic crystal pattern onto the device, the luminous intensity of OLEDs in the normal viewing direction is 161% higher than the one without any BEF attachment. The electroluminescent (EL spectrum of OLEDs with PS patterned BEF attachment also showed minor color offset and superior color stabilization characteristics, and thus it possessed the potential applications in all kinds of display technology and solid-state optical-electronic devices.

  4. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when people with BPD realize others understand their experience and treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) ... self-image – possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences – that affects how people react to their environment, ...

  6. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  7. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  8. Psychotherapy, Postmodernism, and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwood, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a postmodern ethics based on mutual respect and trust, derived from psychotherapy, and recognizing the primacy of individual subjectivity. Develops the concept of free attention to one another creating moral space. Stresses affect over reason and practice over theory. Sees moral space as fundamental to the social fabric. (CH)

  9. Medikamentengabe und Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Psychopharmakotherapie ist ein möglicher Baustein in der multimodalen Behandlung kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer Störungsbilder. Diese simple Aussage ist unumstritten. Dennoch haben im klinischen Alltag sowohl Eltern als auch Psychotherapeuten häufig erhebliche Bedenken, einem Kind ein Psychopharmakon zu verabreichen. Neben angemessenen Bedenken zu potenziellen Wechselwirkungen zwischen psychopharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie oder Unsicherheiten zu Wirkungen und Nebenwirkungen eines Psych...

  10. On the morphology of antennular sensory and attachment organs in cypris larvae of the deep-sea vent/seep barnacles, Ashinkailepas and Neoverruca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorisue, Takefumi; Chan, Benny K K; Kado, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Hiromi; Inoue, Koji; Kojima, Shigeaki; Høeg, Jens T

    2016-05-01

    Barnacle cypris larvae show high morphological variation in the organs used in search of and attaching to a substratum. This variation may represent adaptation to the habitat of the species. Here, we studied SEM level morphologies of cypris antennular sensory and attachment organs in a deep-sea vent endemic species (Neoverruca sp.) and a vent/seep inhabiting species (Ashinkailepas seepiophila). We compare them with three species from other environments. The antennular morphologies of Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila were similar, which is consistent with recent molecular studies showing a close relationship of the two species. The setation pattern of the antennules was very conservative among species from various environments. In contrast, striking differences were observed in the structure of the attachment organ (the third antennular segment). Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila had no velum or a skirt surrounding the attachment disc on the third segment, while other cirripede cyprids almost always have either of these structures. In addition, both cyprids of A. seepiophila and Neoverruca sp. had the attachment disc angled toward the substratum, whereas it faces distally in cyprids from hard bottom inhabiting barnacles. We suggest that both velum/skirt and the angle of the attachment disc play an important role, when the antennules are contacting the substratum during surface exploration. Differences in attachment organ structures may be highly adaptive, enabling cirripede species to enter new habitats during evolution.

  11. Changing What You Know and Do: The Parent-Child Psychotherapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Betty Ann; Venza, James

    2011-01-01

    The Parent-Child Psychotherapy Program (PPP) is a multifamily group therapy intervention for parents and young children at high risk for intergenerational patterns of neglect, abuse, and disorganized attachment. A "developmental and experiential model" that incorporates principles of attachment theory, the PPP addresses parent and child needs…

  12. Adult attachment in the context of refugee traumatisation: the impact of organized violence and forced separation on parental states of mind regarding attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haene, Lucia; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine

    2010-05-01

    Starting from an outline of the refugee experience as a process of cumulative traumatisation, we review research literature on mental health outcomes in refugees. Next, an integration of findings on relational processes in refugee families documents the role of the family unit as a key interactive context patterning the impact of sequential traumatisation. Relating these trauma- and migration-specific family processes to their central dimension of provision or disruption of emotional availability in a context of chronic adversity, we aim to explore the development of unresolved and insecure parental states of mind regarding attachment during forced migration. Starting the research report, a method discussion on the administration of 11 Adult Attachment Interviews with adult refugees as part of an explorative multiple case study integrates deontological and technical reflections on the use of the Adult Attachment Interview in a context of ongoing traumatisation. The paper then presents findings on adult attachment in refugees and highlights representational processes involved in the potential disruption of caregiver availability during refugee traumatisation.

  13. Quantum change and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Thomas H

    2004-05-01

    Deep change in psychotherapy more typically comes slowly rather than suddenly, but this difference between therapeutic change and quantum change may be one of perspective rather than substance. Psychotherapy may be understood as a kind of mindfulness practice similar to working with koans in that the client presents a life dilemma incapable of rational solution. While quantum change cannot be engineered, the psychotherapist can create an environment conducive to such transformation by producing true presence and modeling calm, concerned, sustained attention to the dilemma that precipitated treatment. Psychotherapists who also maintain a sense of their work as a high art and a way of being, and who in consequence cultivate their own emotional and spiritual development, may be more likely to create such an environment.

  14. Mind, brain and psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth Hitesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be. However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.

  15. Constructivism and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J; Granvold, Donald K

    2005-06-01

    Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop.

  16. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  17. Individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia: trends and developments in the wake of the recovery movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamm JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jay A Hamm,1 Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon,2 Marina Kukla,3 Paul H Lysaker11Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Bar-Ilan University, Department of Psychology, Ramat Gan, Israel; 3Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence on Implementing Evidence-Based Practice, Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered.Keywords: schizophrenia, psychotherapy, recovery, metacognition, psychosis, integrative psychotherapy

  18. Maya chemistry of organic inorganic hybrid materials: isomerization, cyclicization and redox tuning of organic dyes attached to porous silicates

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIO DOMÉNECH CARBÓ; Valle-Algarra, Francisco M.; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; Osete Cortina, Laura; Domine ., Marcelo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Association of indigo and lapachol dyes to aluminosilicate clays yields polyfunctional organic – inorganic hybrid materials forming Maya Blue-like systems. Upon partial removing of clay's zeolitic water by moderate thermal treatment, abundant isomerization, cyclicization and oxidation reactions occur defining a‘ Maya chemistry whose complexity could explain the versatile use of such materials in the pre-Columbian cultures and permits the...

  19. Power Politics of Family Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.

    It is postulated that the standard framework for psychotherapy, a cooperative transference neurosis, does not validly carry over to the successful psychotherapy of a two-generation family group. In many disturbed families, the necessary and sufficient dynamics for change must be initiated, controlled, and augmented by a group dynamic power-play,…

  20. Electrical transport of SiNWs array after covalent attachment of new organic functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ambrico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the electrical transport of a random network of silicon nanowires assembled on n‐ silicon support, after silicon nanowires functionalization by chlorination/alkylation procedure , is here described and discussed. We show that the organic functionalities induce charge transfer at single SiNW and produce doping‐like effect that is kept in the random network too. The\tSiNWs\tnetwork\talso\tpresents\ta\tsurface recombination velocity lower than that of bulk silicon. Interestingly, the functionalized silicon nanowires/n‐Si junctions display photo‐yield and open circuit voltages higher than those including oxidized silicon nanowire networks. Electrical properties stability in time of junctions embedding propenyl terminated silicon nanowires network and transport modification after secondary functionalization is also shown. These results suggest a possible route for the integration of functionalized\tSi\tnanowires,\talthough\trandomly distributed, in stable large area photovoltaic or molecule sensitive based devices.

  1. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  2. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  3. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  4. Of God and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T Byram

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  5. Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2005-07-01

    Contrary to some recent claims, the placebo effect is real and in some cases very substantial. Placebo effects can be produced or enhanced by classical conditioning, but consistent with virtually all contemporary conditioning theories, these effects are generally mediated by expectancy. Expectancy can also produce placebo effects that are inconsistent with conditioning history. Although expectancy also plays an important role in psychotherapy outcome, the logic of placebo-controlled trials does not map well onto psychotherapy research. The idea of evaluating the efficacy of psychotherapy by controlling for nonspecific or placebo factors is based on a flawed analogy and should be abandoned.

  6. Grundprinzipien der existenziellen Psychotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Längle A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Die existenzielle Psychotherapie hat mit der humanistischen Psychotherapie zentrale Themen gemeinsam: personale Freiheit, Verantwortung, Sinnsuche, Authentizität. Die therapeutische Vorgangsweise ist primär phänomenologisch, d. h. auf den Einzelnen und die Einmaligkeit der Situation ausgerichtet. Begegnung der Person und Interesse an dem, was sie bewegt, steht vor der Anwendung von allgemeinen Techniken. Damit kommt die Person mit ihrer zentralen Fähigkeit, das für sie Wesentliche zu erfassen und der Entscheidung zuzuführen, in den Mittelpunkt des Geschehens. Das Auffinden der inneren Zustimmung zu dem, was man tut oder unterlässt, gilt als zentral in der Vorgangsweise der existenziellen Psychotherapie. So liegt das Interesse weniger in der Symptomfreiheit als im Erreichen persönlicher Erfüllung im Leben. Die Therapie beginnt darum meist mit der Arbeit an der Annahme, am Verstehen und an der Stellungnahme zu den Problemen und Erfahrungen, die das Leid verursachen. Diese dialogische Haltung ist auch bei chronischen Krankheiten von grundlegender Bedeutung. Psychische Störungen bzw. Krankheiten wirken sich hemmend auf den Vollzug dieser Fähigkeiten der authentischen Person aus, mit Auswirkungen vor allem auf die Qualität des (inneren und äußeren Dialogs. Dadurch entsteht neben dem spezifischen Leiden, das Bezug auf die jeweils gestörte existenzielle Struktur nimmt, ein Mangel an innerer Erfüllung im Leben, der als existenzielles Hauptsymptom gilt. Dem erfüllenden Dialog geht eine Offenheit des Menschen voraus, in der er sich vom Leben und von der Lebenssituation befragen lässt hinsichtlich dessen, was seine geeignete Antwort auf die Situation wäre. Nicht ausreichend gelebte Pflege und Sorge um die Grundstrukturen der Existenz wirken sich hemmend auf die Voraussetzungen für erfüllendes Leben aus: auf die personalen Fähigkeiten der Wahrnehmung, des Fühlens, Entscheidens und sich mit den Kontexten Abstimmens. Ein verminderter

  7. The right brain is dominant in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses how recent studies of the right brain, which is dominant for the implicit, nonverbal, intuitive, holistic processing of emotional information and social interactions, can elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the relational foundations of psychotherapy. Utilizing the interpersonal neurobiological perspective of regulation theory, I describe the fundamental role of the early developing right brain in relational processes, throughout the life span. I present interdisciplinary evidence documenting right brain functions in early attachment processes, in emotional communications within the therapeutic alliance, in mutual therapeutic enactments, and in therapeutic change processes. This work highlights the fact that the current emphasis on relational processes is shared by, cross-fertilizing, and indeed transforming both psychology and neuroscience, with important consequences for clinical psychological models of psychotherapeutic change.

  8. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  10. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  11. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  12. Big ideas for psychotherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, James; Gates, Sarah; Vinca, Maria Ann; Boles, Shawna; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2007-12-01

    Research indicates that traditional psychotherapy training practices are ineffective in durably improving the effectiveness of psychotherapists. In addition, the quantity and quality of psychotherapy training research has also been limited in several ways. Thus, based on extant scholarship and personal experience, we offer several suggestions for improving on this state of affairs. Specifically, we propose that future psychotherapy trainings focus on a few "big ideas," target psychotherapist meta-cognitive skills, and attend more closely to the organizational/treatment context in which the training takes place. In terms of future training research, we recommend that researchers include a wider range of intermediate outcomes in their studies, examine the nature of trainee skill development, and investigate the role that organizational/treatment culture plays in terms of the retention of changes elicited by psychotherapy training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  14. Nonverbal communication in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Gretchen N; Gentile, Julie P

    2010-06-01

    The mental status examination is the objective portion of any comprehensive psychiatric assessment and has key diagnostic and treatment implications. This includes elements such as a patient's baseline general appearance and behavior, affect, eye contact, and psychomotor functioning. Changes in these parameters from session to session allow the psychiatrist to gather important information about the patient. In psychiatry, much emphasis is placed on not only listening to what patients communicate verbally but also observing their interactions with the environment and the psychiatrist. In a complimentary fashion, psychiatrists must be aware of their own nonverbal behaviors and communication, as these can serve to either facilitate or hinder the patient-physician interaction. In this article, clinical vignettes will be used to illustrate various aspects of nonverbal communication that may occur within the setting of psychotherapy. Being aware of these unspoken subtleties can offer a psychiatrist valuable information that a patient may be unwilling or unable to put into words.

  15. Should psychotherapy consider reincarnation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Julio F P

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints.

  16. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacological actions in order to increase the level of maximum healing. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. [The various facets of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing importance in the field of psychiatric treatment. Notably, disorder-specific and evidence-based psychotherapeutic strategies now dominate the field as compared to traditional schools of psychotherapy. It should not be neglected that patients, besides being offered a specifically tailored psychological therapy for their disorder, are also in need of reliable moral support and help. Therapeutic creativity frequently is an important skill to gain access to patients.

  18. The (dramatic) process of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeig, Jeffrey K

    2008-07-01

    Psychotherapy can be conceived as a symbolic drama in which patients can experientially realize their capacity to change. Methods derived from hypnosis can empower therapy without the use of formal trance. A case conducted by Milton Erickson is presented and deconstructed in order to illuminate Erickson's therapeutic patterns. A model is offered for adding drama to therapy, and the model is placed into a larger model of choice points in psychotherapy.

  19. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  20. Advanced Psychotherapy Training: Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and the Apprenticeship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…

  1. [Psychotherapy: Legally recognized in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Jean-Bernard; Desjardins, Pierre; Dion, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, Quebec was the first to have regulated the practice of psychotherapy through law adopted in 2009. The law emerged following 30 years of efforts and inter-professional discussions that led to a consensus by an expert committee presided by Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau in 2005. In this essay, Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau, general practitioner, and two psychiatrist and psychologist colleagues, who have participated to the expert committee or have been involved more recently in the implementation of law no 21 in Quebec, relate the main landmarks and moments in the regulation of the practice in psychotherapy following this inter-professional consensus that was translated in the law 21. They relate particularly the last ten years that have led to the adoption of law 21 in 2009, following two parliamentary commission after the Trudeau report. They underline how the practice of psychotherapy is integrated in the professional system and submitted to strict regulation. It includes regulations for obtaining the license of psychotherapist and for maintaining competence. Guidelines emerging from continuous inter-professional discussions for the application of the law and of its regulation in the public and private sectors are produced by the Quebec Professions Office. The definition of psychotherapy that was reached by consensus is not limited to the treatment of mental disorders and is distinguished from other intervention in the area of human relations. Continuous training is mandatory and is implemented on one hand by the Order of the psychologists for the psychologists and other professionals practicing psychotherapy and on the other hand the College of physicians for physician practicing psychotherapy. The authors finally described the interdisciplinary advisory council for the practice of psychotherapy that the legislator has foreseen as an external mechanism to insure the conformity of regulation with the spirit of the law and to give opinions to the various

  2. Cross-Cultural Counseling and Cross-Cultural Meanings: An Exploration of Morita Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Jane L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes theoretical framework and techniques of Morita psychotherapy. Western research indicates that Asian American clients prefer active-directive, logical, rational, and structured approaches. Suggests that ethnocentric counseling approaches may be imposed upon clients of Asian origin because meanings attached to terms describing counseling…

  3. Alliance in individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Adam O; Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Symonds, Dianne

    2011-03-01

    This article reports on a research synthesis of the relation between alliance and the outcomes of individual psychotherapy. Included were over 200 research reports based on 190 independent data sources, covering more than 14,000 treatments. Research involving 5 or more adult participants receiving genuine (as opposed to analogue) treatments, where the author(s) referred to one of the independent variables as "alliance," "therapeutic alliance," "helping alliance," or "working alliance" were the inclusion criteria. All analyses were done using the assumptions of a random model. The overall aggregate relation between the alliance and treatment outcome (adjusted for sample size and non independence of outcome measures) was r = .275 (k = 190); the 95% confidence interval for this value was .25-.30. The statistical probability associated with the aggregated relation between alliance and outcome is p < .0001. The data collected for this meta-analysis were quite variable (heterogeneous). Potential variables such as assessment perspectives (client, therapist, observer), publication source, types of assessment methods and time of assessment were explored.

  4. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  5. The Talking Cure of Avoidant Personality Disorder: Remission through Earned-Secure Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey

    The concept of earned security is important and has significant implications for psychotherapy. Understanding how individuals with insecure attachment styles can develop secure attachment styles through reparative relationships, such as the therapeutic relationship, can assist psychotherapists in helping patients to overcome the effects of early negative life experiences. Personality disorders are commonly associated with negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, and other empathic failures. These disorders are particularly difficult to treat because of their pervasive nature and the resultant defense mechanisms that often thwart psychotherapy. However, an understanding of the role that attachment can play in the etiology, symptomatology, and treatment of psychopathology can greatly enhance the therapeutic process. This case report describes the long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy of a woman with a history of childhood trauma, avoidant attachment style, and avoidant personality disorder. Through the therapeutic relationship, she developed a secure attachment, and her symptoms remitted, and her life drastically improved.

  6. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  7. Applying a traditional individual psychotherapy model to Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP): theory and method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a unique, innovative, and effective method of psychotherapy using horses to aid in the therapeutic process (Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy or EFP). The remarkable elements of the horse--power, grace, vulnerability, and a willingness to bear another--combine to form a fertile stage for psychotherapeutic exploration. Therapeutic programs using horses to work with various psychiatric presentations in children and adolescents have begun to receive attention over the past 10 years. However, few EFP programs utilize the expertise of masters and doctoral-level psychologists, clinical social workers, or psychiatrists. In contrast, the psychological practice described in this article, written and practiced by a doctoral-level clinician, applies the breadth and depth of psychological theory and practice developed over the last century to a distinctly compelling milieu. The method relies not only on the therapeutic relationship with the clinician, but is also fueled by the client's compelling attachment to the therapeutic horse. As both of these relationships progress, the child's inner world and interpersonal style come to the forefront and the EFP theater allows the clinician to explore the client's intrapersonal and interpersonal worlds on preverbal, nonverbal and verbal levels of experience.

  8. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  9. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederer, L

    1975-10-01

    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  10. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Change in attachment to the therapy group generalizes to change in individual attachment among women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Gick, Mary; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Attachment to groups is analogous to attachment to individuals, and may play an important role in group functioning and in group psychotherapy outcomes. This study examined whether attachment to the therapy group can change during treatment, and whether such change predicts improvements in treatment outcomes, including individual attachment, up to 1 year posttreatment. Eighty-seven women with binge eating disorder (BED) attended Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). Participants were assigned to one of two conditions in which groups were homogeneously composed of women with either higher or lower individual attachment anxiety. Outcomes were assessed pre, post, 6 months, and 1 year posttreatment. Attachment to the group was assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of GPIP. Group attachment insecurity decreased significantly during treatment. Reductions in group attachment avoidance predicted decreases in individual attachment insecurity at 1 year posttreatment. Study condition did not moderate these associations. These results indicate that women with BED who receive GPIP are able to generalize improvements in group attachment security to their individual attachment relationships outside of therapy up to 1 year post group treatment.

  12. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  13. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  14. Vibrational sensitivity of the subgenual organ complex in female Sipyloidea sipylus stick insects in different experimental paradigms of stimulus direction, leg attachment, and ablation of a connective tibial sense organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    We document the sensitivity to sinusoidal vibrations for chordotonal organs in the stick insect tibia (Sipyloidea sipylus). In the tibia, the scolopidial subgenual organ (~40 scolopidial sensilla), distal organ (~20 scolopidial sensilla), and distal tibial chordotonal organ (~7 scolopidial sensilla) are present. We study the sensitivity of tibial sensory organs in all leg pairs to vibration stimuli as sensory thresholds by recording summed action potentials from Nervus cruris in the femur. The tibia was stimulated with a minishaker delivering vibrational stimuli. Because different experimental procedures may affect the vibration sensitivity, we here analysed possible effects of different experimental conditions: (1) the stimulus direction delivered in either horizontal or vertical direction to the leg; (2) recording responses only from the subgenual organ complex after ablation of the distal tibial chordotonal organ, and (3) the attachment of the leg to the minishaker by plastilin, beeswax-colophony, or freely standing legs. The tibial scolopidial organs give summed responses to vibration stimuli with highest sensitivity between 500 and 1000Hz for all leg pairs. In the different experimental series, we find that (1) thresholds were influenced by stimulation direction with lower thresholds in response to vertical vibrations, (2) ablating the distal tibial chordotonal organ by cutting the distal-most tibia did not change the summed sensory thresholds significantly, and (3) the attachment material between legs and the minishaker (plastilin or beeswax-colophony mixture) did not significant influence the sensory thresholds against free-standing tarsi. The distal tibial chordotonal organ is a connective chordotonal organ attached to a tendon and is likely a proprioceptive organ. These results emphasise that vibrational thresholds are mainly direction-sensitive. Thus, the direction of stimulus delivery during electrophysiological recordings is relevant for comparisons of

  15. Psychotherapy via Videoconferencing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Research into the use of videoconferencing for clinical purposes, in particular psychotherapy, is gradually expanding. A number of case studies and case series have suggested that videoconferencing can be clinically effective and acceptable to patients. Nevertheless, there is a lack of methodologically rigorous studies with adequate sample sizes…

  16. Palmistry, tarot cards, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Nicholas G

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes his experience with palm and Tarot card readers in New Orleans. The history, practice, and psychodynamics of palmistry and Tarot are explored. It's postulated that these practices are forms of archaic psychotherapy, which employ supportive treatment and placebo. These tactics are used to elicit hope for its clients.

  17. Beyond Psychobabble: Careers in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    Describes the five largest psychotherapy occupations (psychiatrist, clinical/counseling psychologist, clinical social worker, marriage and family therapist, clinical mental health counselor) and looks at training requirements, types of practices, trends, and related occupations. Lists professional associations and references for further…

  18. The current status of psychotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is as old as human culture'. However, the latter is now ... evolved to three main types as a result of these influ- .... tive by demonstrating a mean effect size for psychotherapy of 0.85 (that ... therapy that makes a difference changes brain function.

  19. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  20. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Barber, Larry B.; Aiken, George R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  1. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W; Metge, David W; Barber, L B; Aiken, George R

    2010-02-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength=5x10(-3)M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 microg/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only approximately 3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  2. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. Copyright

  3. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P

    2013-01-01

    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  4. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  5. [Real-time monitoring in psychotherapy - methodology and casuistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Leeb, Wilfried; Matschi, Brigitte; Schiepek, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Real-Time Monitoring in psychotherapy is a new method to increase quality and efficacy in psychotherapy. This internet-based information technology offers an online collection of psychotherapy-related data and allows insights into therapeutic patterns of change without any time-delay. The classical pre-post-evaluation is completed by an assessment of therapeutic processes. Besides an internet-based data collection the Synergetic Navigation System (SNS) integrates different methods of nonlinear time series analysis and provides a visualization of results. SNS is a new internet-based technology of data collection and data analysis. For illustration we present a single case study (avoidant personality disorder (DSM IV 301.82) with recurrent major depressive episodes) where SNS was applied in clinical practice (in-patient treatment). SNS results are used for therapy planning by repeated feedback interviews with the patients. Critical phases and nonlinearities of the ongoing self-organization processes can be identified. In addition to the practical impact of real-time monitoring SNS allows for continuous process-outcome-research in naturalistic settings. Models of change processes (e.g. sudden gains) can be tested but also used as a interpretation frame of idiographic results. In every day practice SNS enhances transparency, self-efficacy of patients, and supports the motivation to change. Compliance of patients is high, and the data show high validity. Therefore as a future perspective SNS should become routine in clinical practice and be integrated in professional psychotherapy training.

  6. Therapists' group attachments and their expectations of patients' attitudes about group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L; Franz, Victoria A; Koloi, Mosetsanagape; Majors, Rebekah C; Rahimi, Amanda M; Ronquillo, Jonne G; Somberg, Rachel J; Swope, Jessica S; Zimmer, Katherine

    2006-07-01

    A large body of literature has supported the application of attachment theory to the understanding of psychotherapy. In addition, a more recent social psychological literature is exploring the application of attachment theory to the area of group dynamics and group process. The current study is designed to integrate these two distinct bodies of literature. In a preliminary fashion, we examined the relationship between group therapists' group attachment styles and their assumptions and expectations of their patients' attitudes about group psychotherapy. Seventy-six therapists completed the Smith, Murphy & Coats (1999) measure of group attachment style. They also completed the Revised Group Therapy Survey (Carter, Mitchell, & Krautheim, 2001) from the viewpoint of a typical patient they treat. As hypothesized, therapists with more group attachment anxiety assumed that patients would hold more negative myths and misconceptions about group treatment than therapists with less group attachment anxiety. The utility of a group attachment construct in future research and practice is discussed.

  7. Psychotherapy is an ethical endeavor: Balancing science and humanism in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jon G

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes that psychotherapy is best grounded in scienceinformed humanism and, more specifically, that psychotherapists at least implicitly promote ethical, moral--and indeed, virtuous--behavior. In doing so, therapists are challenged continually to engage in making evaluative moral judgments without being judgmental. He contends that psychotherapists, and psychologists especially, are overly reliant on science and might benefit from being more explicit in their ethical endeavors by being better informed about the illuminating philosophical literature on ethics. He highlights the concept of mentalizing, that is, attentiveness to mental states in self and others, such as needs, feelings, and thoughts. He proposes that mentalizing in the context of attachment relationships is common to all psychotherapies, and that this common process is best understood conjointly from the perspectives of developmental psychology and ethics. The author defends the thesis that employing psychotherapy to promote ethical, moral, and virtuous functioning can be justified on scientific grounds insofar as this functioning is conducive to health.

  8. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  9. Integrating self-help books into psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P

    2003-02-01

    This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined.

  10. Psychotherapy of the dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedeford, A

    1979-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  11. [Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, S; Müller, C

    1978-01-01

    The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.

  12. Emotional Control in Psychotherapy Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi

    2016-01-01

    Emotional control may be observed to be (1) too excessive as in avoidant behaviors during psychotherapy, (2) suitable to a frank expression of feelings, or (3) lacking in regulation causing too intense affective experiences. This article offers a theory that may help clinicians make observations about this range of possible states, formulate the patient's defensive processes, and choose if, how, and when to act. The observations and formulations presented focus on specific and present moment situations rather than habitual defense mechanisms.

  13. Videoconferencing psychotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Autumn; Agha, Zia; Maglione, Melissa L; Repp, Andrea; Ross, Bridgett; Zuest, Danielle; Rice-Thorp, Natalie M; Lohr, James; Thorp, Steven R

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems may face barriers to accessing effective psychotherapies. Videoconferencing technology, which allows audio and video information to be shared concurrently across geographical distances, offers an alternative that may improve access. We conducted a systematic literature review of the use of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP), designed to address 10 specific questions, including therapeutic types/formats that have been implemented, the populations with which VCP is being used, the number and types of publications related to VCP, and available satisfaction, feasibility, and outcome data related to VCP. After electronic searches and reviews of reference lists, 821 potential articles were identified, and 65 were selected for inclusion. The results indicate that VCP is feasible, has been used in a variety of therapeutic formats and with diverse populations, is generally associated with good user satisfaction, and is found to have similar clinical outcomes to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Although the number of articles being published on VCP has increased in recent years, there remains a need for additional large-scale clinical trials to further assess the efficacy and effectiveness of VCP.

  14. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathology is mental illness that has often suffered by human being. There are several factors that causes this illness, some of which are modern life characterized by materialistic, hedonistic and egoistic lives. In Islam, psychopathology which is described as a form of deviation from norms or moral values, spiritual and religion. Psychopathology is divided into three parts, namely those associated with faith, humanity and psychopathology which is associated with combination of faith and human being.Meanwhile psychotherapy is an effort to cure mental and psychiatric disorders suffered by individuals. Psychotherapy is a solution to cure various problems of mental disorders. Al-Qur’an, as the principles of Islamic teachings, contain information about psychotherapy for those who suffer from mental disorders. Religious approach is completely needed for therapy and it helps the psychopath recover from his/her mental disorders.TheQur’an could be used as a treatment as well as a preventive step, so that all human being will not suffer from mental disorders, and religious approach can bring the psychopaths closer to God, theAlmighty.

  15. [Psychotherapy with the unwilling patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madert, K K

    1984-05-01

    By means of the residential motivation therapy of addicts we discuss ways of dealing with the specific problems, that arise in psychotherapy of character disordered, who are not suffering psychically. The - in the view of the addict patient - often unvoluntary referral to the hospital provokes the patient's refusal of cooperation. The greatest therapeutic challenge is the ego-syntonicity of the character disorder and the rigid defense structure of overcompensation, projection and denial, covered up by rationalizations. This defense system serves to avoid closeness and contact with the original emotions. In our group setting we use mini-contracts, reality-oriented confrontation of behavioral issues in order to make the addict aware of his desperation and lack of fullfilment in life, and offer attractive models of living and the experience of warmth and bondedness in the group. Our main techniques are non-verbal. Body experience and full-body-expression of emotions mediate self-experience which is then integrated verbally. The goal of this psychoanalytically based psychotherapy is to bring about by working through resistances, the attitudes which are a precondition for continuing with a personality-changing psychotherapy.

  16. Attachment Patterns and Reflective Functioning in traumatised refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Traumatized refugees have often suffered severe, prolonged, repeated traumas and pose a challenge to treatment. Attachment patterns and level of mentalizing seem to work as protection mechanisms in traumatizing events and to be important for positively utilizing the therapeutic alliance which...... psychotherapy research has shown is central to change and effect. Aims: 1) To examine attachment patterns and reflective functioning in traumatised refugees with PTSD, and 2) shed light on their significance to therapeutic alliance and treatment effect. Methods: All Arabic speaking patients in the study...... described above were offered to participate. With approximately 50% Arabic speaking participants, there was an estimated N=50 after 25% dropout. Besides the above mentioned ratings, the Adult Attachment Interview was conducted before the start of psychotherapy, and the quality of the therapeutic alliance...

  17. Benefits of Child-Parent Psychotherapy for Recovery from Traumatic Loss: An Example of One Family's Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michelle B.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2014-01-01

    Child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) can strengthen the relationship and attachment between caregivers and children. Young children who have experienced multiple traumas, such as the destruction caused by a natural disaster and the sudden, traumatic loss of parents, depend on support of other caregivers for recovery and resilience. The case…

  18. Examining Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy as a Treatment for Adopted and Foster Children: A Review of Research and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP) is a mental health intervention intended primarily for children with problematic attachment histories. It has received increased attention in the United Kingdom and the United States in the last few years. DDP has been publicized as a research-supported treatment, but a review of research shows that it does…

  19. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  20. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry, Denmark. June 2011-March 2012 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria entered the trial. The present sample consisted of those of the 135 patients who were Arabic-speaking (N=67). Measures involved the Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale......, Working Alliance Inventory, and Feeling Word Checklist-58. Symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety were rated at pre-treatment assessment, beginning of psychotherapy, end of treatment, 6 and 18 months follow-up. Results and Discussion: Preliminary results will be presented. Attachment patterns...

  1. Individual psychotherapy as an adjunct to group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, E A; Bender, S S

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a form of combined psychotherapy in which the individual sessions are used as an adjunct to group therapy. Each group member is seen regularly in individual sessions to focus primarily on the member's ongoing group work. The individual sessions are scheduled on a rotating basis. Typically, each group member is seen in an individual session once every four weeks. Additional individual sessions are available only when immediate attention is appropriate and necessary. The group is viewed as the primary therapeutic component. A cost-effective therapeutic approach that uses both individual and group methods, this modality lends itself well to a clinic and to a private practice setting.

  2. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  3. Consequences of Psychotherapy Clients' Mental Health Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Len; Kirsch, Irving

    Current theoretical approaches to understanding emotional difficulties are dominated by the medical model of mental illness, which assumes that emotional dysfunction can be viewed the same way as physical dysfunction. To examine the relationship between psychotherapy clients' beliefs about the medical model of psychotherapy and their behavior…

  4. Patterns of Symptomatic Recovery in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used psychotherapy dosage model in which effect was probability of recovery to compare treatment response rates for psychological symptoms. Administered symptom checklists to 854 psychotherapy outpatients at intake and during treatment. Chronic distress symptoms demonstrated fastest average response rate, whereas characterological symptoms…

  5. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  6. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  7. Form and structure and their function in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    1992-07-01

    Psychotherapy is a creative process with the same types of effects and determinants as other creative activities in fields such as literature, visual arts, and science. In all of these activities, a focus on form and structure serves to generate new and valuable resultants or creations. As shown in the example of the poet Richard Wilbur's creation of a poem, his focus on rhyme and other formal features generated a new and valuable emotional tension in the poem. In psychotherapy, the creation consists of new and valuable aspects or structural features of personality. This creative result in therapy is produced in part by therapists' focus on form in terms of sequences, style of verbal and non-verbal presentation, and the phases of encounter, growth, and separation. As shown in the psychotherapy session excerpted, the therapist's lack of attention to the critical theme initiated by the patient at the beginning of the session (encounter) as well as to the meanings of connections between sequences in the following interactions (growth) led to a non-creative or destructive suicidal threat at the end (separation). The overall creative result arises also from therapists' attention to patients' approaches to the overall structure of psychotherapy as a regularly occurring timed experience in which the therapist does not directly intervene in the patient's life. This structural organization provides a trial domain for the patient in which creative growth and personal welfare can be facilitated. Both patient and therapist need to focus on any attempts to undermine the structural organization and its meaning. Similarly, in creative activities in other fields, writers, artists, and scientists characteristically focus on form, in a detailed as well as general way, in order to facilitate both aesthetic and social growth and welfare.

  8. Sterbenlassen. Vom Ende einer Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Ranefeld, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Reflexionen zum Ende einer psychoanalytischen Psychotherapie; ein Ende, an das es sich nur zögernd und ausweichend annähern läßt. Sterben ist letztendlich ein einsames Geschäft, wir halten den Tod für ansteckend und verfahren nach der Regel: "Man darf nicht zulassen, daß er einem ins Gesicht atmet" (Michael Connelly 1996, The Poet). Dennoch wird ver­sucht, beschreibend ein Konzept der Annäherungen zu skizzieren.

  9. The Relationship between the level of attachment in romantic relations, affective commitment and continuance commitment towards organization: A field research

    OpenAIRE

    Çakı, Neşe; Asfuroğlu, Ledya; Erbaş, Oytun

    2015-01-01

    4th World Conference on Business, Economics and Management, 30 April – 02 May 2015, Efes Surmeli Hotel Convention Center, Ephesus, Aydın – Turkey Romantic relationship/love is the expression of the intensive desire of being an entity with someone else, in a cognitive, behavioral and emotional aspect. Organizational commitment is clarified by the acceptance of organizational aims and values, employees’ willingness to stay in their own organization and their intention to display more efforts...

  10. Defining and Assessing Individual Differences in Attachment Relationships: Q-Methodology and the Organization of Behavior in Infancy and Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Everett; Deane, Kathleen E.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that none of the conventional methods for assessing attachment meet all criteria. Describes development of a 100-item sort for assessing secure attachment in toddlers, closely tied to Bowlby's control systems model of attachment. Evaluates the Q-sort in terms of criteria for valid thoery-based assessments that have applicability beyond this…

  11. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  12. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  13. [Body-centered psychotherapy IKP (Institute of Body-Centered Psychotherapy): holistic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Groeli, Y

    1996-03-01

    Body centered Psychotherapy IKP is treated in this article under the aspect of a holistic approach. First the theory and the system of science are summarised and shown as to which amount they are changing concerning knowledge of details and wholeness. It is pointed out that the actual paradigma "to the depth" has to be completed by that of "wideness". The way of holistic-multirelational thinking, stating a diagnosis and doing therapy is demonstrated along a case study going on at the background of a therapeutic encounter-relationship which is emotionally warm (Gestalt-approach).

  14. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  15. "The times they are a-changin'"*: 25 years of psychotherapy research--a European and Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Bernhard M; Shapiro, David A; Barkham, Michael; Parry, Glenys; Machado, Paulo P P

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the 25th anniversary of the journal Psychotherapy research from a European perspective. Based upon the reflections of one of the founding editors of the journal (David A. Shapiro), together with overviews from SPR colleagues, this article focuses on the major developments in the field of psychotherapy research in the U.K., Germany, as well as and other European countries, as well as Portugal, Spain, and Latin America. The Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR), which founded the journal as its official organ, underwent a metamorphosis from a purely North American to an international scientific organization during the 1980s. The move towards a greater international audience has been mirrored in the journal, where articles from North America are increasingly balanced with articles from other, especially European, countries. The journal Psychotherapy Research has become an important journal and its development allows thoughts about the future direction of the journal as well as the research field as a whole.

  16. Surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) to attach a tethered organic corona onto CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-10-01

    Core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are useful as tunable photostable fluorophores for multiple applications in industry, biology, and medicine. However, to achieve the optimum optical properties, the surface of the QDs must be passivated to remove charged sites that might bind extraneous substances and allow aggregation. Here we describe a method of growing an organic polymer corona onto the QD surface using the bottom-up approach of surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) with Grubbs catalyst. CdSe/ZnS QDs were first coated with mercaptopropionic acid by displacing the original tri-octylphosphine oxide layer, and then reacted with 7-octenyl dimethyl chlorosilane. The resulting octenyl double bonds allowed the attachment of ruthenium alkylidene groups as a catalyst. A subsequent metathesis reaction with strained bicyclic monomers (norbornene-dicarbonyl chloride (NDC), and a mixture of NDC and norbornenylethylisobutyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (norbornoPOSS)) allowed the construction of tethered organic homo-polymer or co-polymer layers onto the QD. Compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy showed that the coated QDs were separate and non-aggregated with a range of diameter of 48-53 nm.

  17. Storage and stability of organic carbon in soils as related to depth, occlusion within aggregates, and attachment to minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrumpf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models suggest that stability of organic carbon (OC in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Density fractionation is a useful tool to study the relevance of OC stabilization in aggregates and in association with minerals, but it has rarely been applied to full soil profiles. We aim to determine factors shaping the depth profiles of physically unprotected and mineral associated OC and test their relevance for OC stability across a range of European soils that vary in vegetation, soil types, parent material, and land use. At each of the 12 study sites, 10 soil cores were sampled to 60 cm depth and subjected to density separation. Bulk soil samples and density fractions (free light fractions – fLF, occluded light fractions – oLF, heavy fractions – HF were analysed for OC, total nitrogen (TN, δ14C, and Δ14C. Bulk samples were also incubated to determine CO2 evolution per g OC in the samples (specific mineralization rates as an indicator for OC stability. Depth profiles of OC in the light fraction (LF-OC matched those of roots for undisturbed grassland and forest sites, suggesting that roots are shaping the depth distribution of LF-OC. Organic C in the HF declined less with soil depth than LF-OC and roots, especially at grassland sites. The decrease in Δ14C (increase in age of HF-OC with soil depth was related to soil pH as well as to dissolved OC fluxes. This indicates that dissolved OC translocation contributes to the formation of subsoil HF-OC and shapes the Δ14C profiles. The LF at three sites were rather depleted in 14C, indicating the presence of fossil material such as coal and lignite, probably inherited from the parent material. At the other sites, modern Δ14C signatures and positive correlations between specific mineralization rates and fLF-OC indicate the fLF is a potentially available energy and

  18. [SOPHO-NET - a research network on psychotherapy for social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone; Beutel, Manfred E; von Consbruch, Katrin; Herpertz, Stephan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Jürgen; Hüsing, Johannes; Irle, Eva; Joraschky, Peter; Konnopka, Alexander; König, Hans-Helmut; de Liz, Therese; Nolting, Björn; Pöhlmann, Karin; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Schauenburg, Henning; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vormfelde, Stefan V; Weniger, Godehard; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wiltink, Jörg; Leibing, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Social Phobia Psychotherapy Research Network (SOPHO-NET). SOPHO-NET is among the five research networks on psychotherapy funded by "Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung". The research program encompasses a coordinated group of studies of social phobia. In the central project (Study A), a multi-center randomized controlled trial, refined models of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) are compared in the treatment of social phobia. A sample of n=512 outpatients will be randomized to either CBT, STPP or wait list. For quality assurance and treatment integrity, a specific project has been established (Project Q). Study A is complemented by four interrelated projects focusing on attachment style (Study B1), cost-effectiveness (Study B2), polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (Study C1) and on structural and functional deviations of hippocampus and amygdala (Study C2). Thus, the SOPHO-NET program allows for a highly interdisciplinary research of psychotherapy in social phobia.

  19. Psychotherapy: from exorcism to cognitive theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Mazzei Nogueira Filho

    Full Text Available The author discusses aspects of psychotherapeutic action. He defends the rationality of the procedure, comments on the splintering of the field of psychotherapy and discusses the usefulness of applying the scientific methodology to this field of knowledge.

  20. Psychotherapy and distributive justice: a Rawlsian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    In this paper I outline an approach to the distribution of resources between psychotherapy modalities in the context of the UK's health care system, using recent discussions of Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy as a way of highlighting resourcing issues. My main goal is to offer an approach that is just, and that accommodates the diversity of different schools of psychotherapy. In order to do this I draw extensively on the theories of Justice and of Political Liberalism developed by the late John Rawls, and adapt these to the particular requirements of psychotherapy resourcing. I explore some of the implications of this particular analysis, and consider how the principles of Rawlsian justice might translate into ground rules for deliberation and decision-making.

  1. PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH THE PARENT EGO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruša Zaletel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In their article, the authors present the findings of the study in which they conceptualized the method of psychotherapy with the Parent ego state. Their aim was to explore whether this method could be divided into individual, content-wise separate chronological phases which can be observed with the majority of clients. By using a modified method of content analysis of five psychotherapy transcripts and a video recording of a psychotherapy session, nine chronological phases were identified. In order to illustrate the individual phases, excerpts from the transcripts and the video recording of psychotherapy have been included. The article proposes under what conditions can this method be used, and presents some of its limitations.

  2. Psychotherapy - insights from bhagavad gita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M S

    2012-01-01

    Spoken and written commentary on Bhagavad Gita, the distilled spiritual essence of Vedas and Upanishads, is aplenty. Mahatma Gandhi was quoted as saying that whenever he had a problem Bhagavad Gita offered an answer and the solution. For a student of psychology Bhagavad Gita offers a valuable case study for lessons in psychotherapy - resolution of conflict and successful resumption of action from a state of acute anxiety and guilt laden depression that precipitated inaction. This presentation makes a humble attempt to discuss the therapy process involved in Bhagavad Gita in which Lord Krishna helped the grief-stricken Arjuna through dialogue and discussion. The focus would be on the conflict and diagnosis of patient, the background setting of the situation, personality of patient, technique of therapy, underlying psychological concepts/ principles/theories, the Guru - Sishya concept, etc.

  3. Psychotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... persistent irritability, or a sense of discouragement or hopelessness that won’t go away. A health professional may suspect or have diagnosed a condition such as depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress or other disorder ...

  4. Psychotherapy with physically disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui Aragao; Milliner, Eric K; Page, Richard

    2004-01-01

    With the last decades, health care interventions have been more productively attuned to actualizing the potential for optimal recuperation of every patient. Unique and important contributions of psychotherapy to this effort include: 1) A formulation which synthesizes an understanding of clinical behaviors, reality-based physical limitations and risks with an appreciation of the patient's mechanisms of defense, ego strengths and weaknesses, and transference expectations which impact the treatment process; 2) The utilization of individual psychotherapy (focused on "insight") in combination with supportive individual and group experiences. For children and adolescents struggling with age-appropriate physical-developmental and social issues or learning disabilities, psychoeducational approach for disabled youngsters has proven very beneficial. 3) Occasional crises occur which involve the spouse or relatives more than the index patient. Working to provide supportive Couple or Family System intervention is sometimes as essential as caring for the disabled individual. 4) Numerous Group Therapy approaches have proven efficacious. Treatment in a group setting is attractive to those who are concerned about cost-containment. Unfortunately, groups for disabled are often "didactic" and utilize a format that provides factual information about disabilities, medical procedures, and sometimes an intellectual discussion of "emotional answers" for certain types of problems or conditions. Groups that facilitate self-disclosure and emotional interactions among the members accomplish more meaningful results. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the importance of developing rigorous scientific research in the area of disabilities which will match the excellence of clinical work already being done in the field. Gaining an accurate and more thorough understanding of the psychological reality of a disabled person's internal world may be a key to facilitating his or her self-esteem and

  5. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: toward an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T B

    1982-09-01

    The author reviews historical trends, hypotheses, and problems in the application of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and uses research findings to develop an integrative model. He portrays a chronology of models over three decades; an "additive" relationship represents the decade of 1970 to 1980. He presents factors that must be considered in determining the effects of pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy and recommends refinement of these variables in future research.

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy with Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Bob G.; Satre, Derek

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy is readily adaptable to use with older adults. This review integrates discussion of cognitive and behavioral intervention techniques with recent research and clinical observations in the field of gerontology. Cognitive changes with aging, personality and emotional development, cohort effects, and the social environment of older adults are discussed in relation to psychotherapy. Applications of cognitive behaivor therapy to specific late life problems such as...

  7. Interpretive psychotherapy with chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, R

    1983-12-01

    Patients for whom medical and surgical management has failed to relieve chronic pain were treated in a multimodal programme which included interpretive psychotherapy. Dynamic conflicts were identified in all cases and utilized in the psychotherapy and programme design. Examined in the light of ego functioning, pain that was previously considered intractible, yielded to psychological treatment. Further research is planned to identify the parts played by the different modalities and to study outcome.

  8. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a relational psychotherapy.

  9. Storage and stability of organic carbon in soils as related to depth, occlusion within aggregates, and attachment to minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrumpf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models suggest that stability and age of organic carbon (OC in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Various tools like density fractionation, mineralization experiments, and radiocarbon analyses have been used to study the importance of these mechanisms. We systematically apply them to a range of European soils to test whether general controls emerge even for soils that vary in vegetation, soil types, parent material, and land use. At each of the 12 study sites, 10 soil cores were sampled in 10 cm depth intervals to 60 cm depth and subjected to density separation. Bulk soil samples and density fractions (free light fractions – fLF, occluded light fractions – oLF, heavy fractions – HF were analysed for OC, total nitrogen (TN, δ13C, and Δ14C. Bulk samples were also incubated to determine mineralizable OC.

    Declining OC-normalized CO2 release and increasing age with soil depth confirm greater stability of OC in subsoils across sites. Depth profiles of LF-OC matched those of roots, which in turn reflect plant functional types in soil profiles not subject to ploughing. Modern Δ14C signatures and positive correlation between mineralizable C and fLF-OC indicate the fLF is an easily available energy and nutrient source for subsurface microbes. Fossil C derived from the geogenic parent material affected the age of OC especially in the LF at three study sites. The overall importance of OC stabilization by binding to minerals was demonstrated by declining OC-normalized CO2 release rates with increasing contributions of HF-OC to bulk soil OC and the low Δ14C values of HF-OC. The stability of HF-OC was greater in subsoils than in topsoils; nevertheless, a portion of HF-OC was active throughout the profile. The decrease in Δ14C (increase

  10. A manifesto of community-focused psychotherapy for the social participation: Does individual and group psychotherapy still meet the care needs of the society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bruschetta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical, on a social-political level, of development of psychotherapy, seen as the health discipline, especially in that part of the world called West, scientifically established itself through the evaluation of the effectiveness of its two most common types of setting: Individual and Group- Psychotherapy. Through a social-anthropological interpretation of mental processes which it underpins, and a group analytical analysis of organizational and institutional dynamics that led to its evolution, the authors highlight the significant impasse in which psychotherapy finds itself today compared to new and more pervasive forms of mental suffering. Following on of the latest scientific research on the functioning of the mind and of new policy proposals from the World Health Organization, it is suggested so a form of basic psychotherapy, focused on the quality of the mental health of human contexts, defined Community-Focused Psychotherapy. This new form of psychotherapy is wrong simply understood as a new setting, alongside the classic individual, group, or family setting, but as a political-cultural background and a theoretical-methodological framework, so for different psychotherapeutic treatment (individual, group , family put in place in cases of specific psychopathological symptoms, as for a number of other clinical and social programs, carried out by professionals, workers and (formerly users, who support the empowerment of people, with serious psychological disorders or severe mental illness, in their own social contexts of belonging, and in their own recovery, through the active participation of all those therapeutic processes that support their care. 

  11. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  12. Attachment Patterns and Reflective Functioning in traumatised refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Traumatized refugees have often suffered severe, prolonged, repeated traumas and pose a challenge to treatment. Attachment patterns and level of mentalizing seem to work as protection mechanisms in traumatizing events and to be important for positively utilizing the therapeutic alliance which...... psychotherapy research has shown is central to change and effect. Aims: 1) To examine attachment patterns and reflective functioning in traumatised refugees with PTSD, and 2) shed light on their significance to therapeutic alliance and treatment effect. Methods: All Arabic speaking patients in the study...

  13. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  14. The Effects of Polyvictimization and Quality of Caregiver Attachment on Disclosure of Illegal Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Megan E; Alexander, Apryl A; Morais, Hugo B; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined the relationship among self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors and two conceptually relevant constructs in psychotherapy: childhood polyvictimization (i.e., cumulative types of victimization experienced during childhood) and caregiver attachment. Participants consisted of 63 adolescent males participating in mandated treatment for illegal sexual behavior. Childhood polyvictimization and caregiver attachment were expected to predict self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors. Quality of caregiver attachment was also expected to mediate the relationship between polyvictimization and disclosure. Consistent with our main hypothesis, results indicate that quality of caregiver attachment mediated the relationship between childhood polyvictimization and self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors in psychotherapy. The current findings highlight the impact of polyvictimization on important therapeutic processes as well as the importance of assessing for multiple types of victimization in adolescents who engage in illegal sexual behavior. Further clinical implications regarding the use of trauma-informed approaches during sex offender treatment are discussed.

  15. The Impact of Attachment Style on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Postdeployed Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy. 2009;46:82-96. Bowlby J. 8. A Secure Base: Parent-child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York, NY: Basic Books; 1988...is also an Assistant Professor, Adjunct, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore

  16. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, O

    1995-01-01

    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  17. PERSONALITY THEORY IN INTEGRATIVE PERSONALITY-ORIENTED RECONSTRUCTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kurpatov

    2010-01-01

    approaches. V.N. Myasishchev's theory of personality relations in association with its universality, as well as pathogenetic psychotherapy may be the basis for the integration of other methods of psychotherapy

  18. Use of Psychotherapy for Depression in Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Wenhui; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Olfson, Mark; Walkup, James T; Crystal, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examine national patterns in psychotherapy for older adults with a diagnosis of depression and analyze correlates of psychotherapy use that is consistent with Agency for Health Care...

  19. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  20. Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned from the 400 randomized trials on psychotherapies for adult depression that have been conducted, but much is also still unknown. In this study some recent attempts to further reduce the disease burden of depression through psychotherapies are reviewed. In the past, many new psychotherapies have promised to be more effective than existing treatments, usually without success. We describe recent research on two new therapies, acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive bias modification, and conclude that both have also not shown to be more effective than existing therapies. A growing number of studies have also focused on therapies that may be successful in further reducing the disease burden, such as treatments for chronic depression and relapse prevention. Other studies are aimed at scaling up psychological services, such as the training of lay health counselors in low-income and middle-income countries, telephone-based, and internet-based therapies. Psychotherapies are essential tools in the treatment of adult depression. Randomized trials have shown that these treatments are effective, and by focusing on key issues, such as chronic depression, relapse, and scaling them up, psychotherapies contribute more and more to the reduction of the disease burden of depression.

  1. The real relationship in psychotherapy supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2011-01-01

    While the real relationship has long been addressed in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, the matter of the real relationship in psychotherapy supervision has yet to receive any attention. Ample supervisory focus has indeed been given to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration (including parallel processes), but after a century of psychotherapy supervision, any mention whatsoever of real relationship phenomena is absent. In this paper, the following hypotheses are proposed: The real relationship (1) is a crucial component of the supervision relationship that has transtheoretical implications; (2) exists from the moment supervision begins until its end; (3) is the forever silent yet forever substantive contributor to supervisory process and outcome; (4) exerts a significant impact on (a) the development and establishment of the supervisory working alliance and (b) the unfolding and eventual utilization of the transference-countertransference experience in the supervisory situation; (5) consists of at least two dimensions in supervision--realism and genuineness--that vary along valence and magnitude continua (building on the works of Greenson and Gelso), and (6) deserves a place of eminence equal to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration if supervision theory, practice, and research are to be most fully informed. The possibility of using recent real relationship research in psychotherapy as a prototype to inform future research in supervision is presented, and two case examples are provided to illustrate the seeming power of real relationship phenomena in psychotherapy supervision.

  2. [Summary: Scientific evaluation of EMDR psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour, F; de Beaurepaire, C

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of psychotherapy methods is made difficult by their practical and theoretical diversities as well as the increasing number of available therapies. Evaluation based on scientific criteria in randomized control trials is providing the highest level of proof and recognition by Health Agencies. A recently described integrative psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), developed by F. Shapiro since 1989, has been confronted with the validation procedure used in pharmacological treatment. It was of interest to review the scientific validation steps carried out for this EMDR psychotherapy and for its mechanisms of action. The practical and methodological protocol of the EMDR psychotherapy for trauma integration is reviewed as well as clinical results and mechanisms. This EMDR therapy, focused on the resolutions of traumas, was started by treating patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The integrative EMDR protocol obtained the highest level of efficiency, for PTSD treatment, twenty years after its first publication. The efficiency of the protocol is now under study and scientific evaluation for troubles in which the trauma experiences are triggers or factors of maintenance of the troubles: anxiety, depression, phobia, sexual troubles, schizophrenia, etc. This new integrative psychotherapy follows the pathways and the timing observed for the evaluation and the validation of other therapies. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  4. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  5. 依恋理论在组织研究中的应用与启示%An Analysis of Researches on Attachment Theory in Organization and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 乐国林; 王利敏

    2015-01-01

    依恋理论是发展心理学经典研究领域之一, 依恋源于亲子联结, 影响成人依恋与探索. 近年来, 许多学者借鉴依恋理论研究组织中的一些问题. 这些研究集中在: 组织层面的工作绩效和工作满意度; 个体层面的工作情绪、 职业生涯发展和工作家庭平衡; 人际之间的领导行为和信任. 再者, 组织依恋是体现员工与组织的情感联结关系的构念. 未来的研究可在以下几个方向拓展: 组织中依恋类型的变化、 调节效应、 跨文化研究、 实践应用等.%Attachment theory is an important research field of developmental psychology. People's social nature deter-mines the attachment must be studied from parent-child bonding to adult's social attachment and exploration. Recently, researchers used at tachment theory to explain some problems in the organization. This paper summa-rizes the studies about attachment theory in organization from three aspects: the job performance and job satis-faction of organizational level, the emotion, career development and work-family balance of individual level, the leader behavior and trust of interpersonal level. The organizational attachment is a construct that reflects the e-motional connection between employees and organization. Finally, the paper discusses possible directions in the future of attachment theory in the organization study. The possible directions in the future: the attachment style change in the organization, moderating effect, cross-cultural research and practical application.

  6. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  7. Mind the gap: In-session silences are associated with client attachment insecurity, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Folke, Sofie; Lunn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The association between in-session silences and client attachment, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome was investigated in two treatments for bulimia nervosa. Method: 69 women and one man were randomized to two years of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) or 20 sessions of cogni......Objective: The association between in-session silences and client attachment, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome was investigated in two treatments for bulimia nervosa. Method: 69 women and one man were randomized to two years of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) or 20 sessions...

  8. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  9. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

  11. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  12. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications...

  13. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-03-01

    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  14. Psychotherapies in Acute and Transient Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González de Chávez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a comprehensive and global view -psychological, biological and social - acute and transient psychoses could be considered identity breakdowns with fragmentation of its structure, paranoid mechanism and cognitive regression. Psychotherapies favour evolution of psychotic identity through disorder awareness and knowledge of aspects of patients that make them more vulnerable to psychotic experiences. We underline the key role of group psychotherapy to improve therapeutic relationships and best use of patient’s coping strategies in the chronology of therapeutic interventions and recovery process of these patients.

  15. Teaching focus in psychotherapy: a training essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard F; Xuan, Yan; Tavakoli, Donald N

    2013-03-01

    Practical application of psychodynamic therapy technique requires that the therapist focus the treatment. The authors review the current evidence about focus in psychotherapy, which suggests that it has a beneficial impact on outcome and patient satisfaction. The core psychodynamic problem is proposed as a valuable conceptual model for providing focus for patient, psychotherapist, and supervisor. The authors narrate a case history from the perspective of both the psychotherapist and the supervisor to demonstrate the opportunities and challenges in using this concept. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on focus is desirable in residency psychotherapy training programs, and they make suggestions for educational methods that enhance resident training in this area.

  16. Intensive psychotherapy for the psychiatrist's family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1977-10-01

    A series of intensive psychotherapy cases of wives and children of psychiatrists reveals that the special problems they present may be divided into those at the onset of treatment, those in the process of the treatment, and special countertransference problems. Paradoxically, early recognition and acceptance of psychotherapy are a foremost problem involving the psychiatrist as father or spouse. During therapy, narcissistic injuries to the psychiatrist father or spouse and loyalty problems in the patient emerge as special problems. Countertransference revolves around peer relationships and "psychopolitics," as well as referrals of other patients.

  17. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  18. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  19. Anxious attachment as a determinant of adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Rose, M S; Sheldon, A

    1993-07-01

    Traditionally, an excess of interpersonal dependency has been used to characterize disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults. This approach stands in sharp contrast to that of attachment theorists who conceptualize attachment as functionally distinct from dependency. Attachment theory focuses on anxious attachment in the definition and dynamics of disturbed adult interpersonal relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychiatric outpatients from nonpatients. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking, and separation protest) measure the components of anxious attachment as defined by Bowlby. The scales were administered to two research samples. Sample 1 was composed of 136 respondents to a survey within the Calgary community. Sample 2 consisted of 110 psychiatric outpatients drawn from the psychotherapy clinic of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that the three components of anxious attachment offer a clinically relevant system for differentiating between psychiatric outpatients and nonpatients. Of these three components, feared loss has the predominant effect. The implications of this finding for the delineation of disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults is discussed.

  20. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Viviani, Roberto; Kessler, Henrik; Kächele, Horst; Cierpka, Manfred; Roth, Gerhard; George, Carol; Kernberg, Otto F; Bruns, Georg; Taubner, Svenja

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV) unmedicated outpatients (N = 16) and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17) before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  1. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchheim

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV unmedicated outpatients (N = 16 and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17 before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  2. Meaning-centered psychotherapy: a form of psychotherapy for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lori P Montross; Meier, Emily A; Irwin, Scott A

    2014-10-01

    Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed "meaning-centered psychotherapy." In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas.

  3. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed.

  4. A clinical case study of a psychoanalytic psychotherapy monitored with functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBuchheim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes one year of the psychoanalytic psychotherapy using clinical data, a standardized instrument of the psychotherapeutic process (Psychotherapy process Q-Set, PQS, and functional neuroimaging (fMRI. A female dysthymic patient with narcissistic traits was assessed at monthly intervals (12 sessions. In the fMRI scans, which took place immediately after therapy hours, the patient looked at pictures of attachment-relevant scenes (from the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, AAP divided into two groups: those accompanied by a neutral description, and those accompanied by a description tailored to core conflicts of the patient as assessed in the AAP.Clinically, this patient presented defense mechanisms that influenced the relationship with the therapist and that was characterized by fluctuations of mood that lasted whole days, following a pattern that remained stable during the year of the study. The two modes of functioning associated with the mood shifts strongly affected the interaction with the therapist, whose quality varied accordingly (‘easy’ and ‘difficult’ hours. The PQS analysis showed the association of 'easy' hours with the topic of the involvement in significant relationships and of 'difficult hours' with self-distancing, a defensive manoeuvre common in narcissistic personality structures. In the fMRI data, the modes of functioning visible in the therapy hours were significantly associated with modulation of the signal elicited by personalized attachment-related scenes in the posterior cingulate (p=0.017 cluster-level, whole-volume corrected. This region has been associated in previous studies to self-distancing from negatively valenced pictures presented during the scan.The present study may provide evidence of the possible involvement of this brain area in spontaneously enacted self-distancing defensive strategies, which may be of relevance in resistant patient reactions in the course of a

  5. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  6. Facts and values in psychotherapy-A critique of the empirical reduction of psychotherapy within evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Henrik; Slaattelid, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses an implicit presupposition in research-supported psychological treatments and evidence-based practice in psychology. It argues that the notion of research-supported psychological treatments is based on a reductive conceptualisation of psychotherapy. Research-supported psychological treatments hinge upon an empirical reduction where psychotherapy schools become conceptualized as mere collections of empirical propositions. However, this paper argues that the different psychotherapy schools have distinct ethoses that are constituted by normative claims. Consequently, the evaluation of the different psychotherapy schools and the practice of psychotherapy should include the underlying normative claims of these ethoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Innovative uses of psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchele, B J

    1994-01-01

    Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is gaining renewed attention as an effective form of treatment, due in part to increasing economic constraints that make other forms of treatment less accessible. The author highlights some innovative applications of both extended and time-limited groups. She also describes specific issues that can be addressed effectively in homogeneous time-limited group therapy.

  8. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for the depressive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P M

    1989-06-01

    Historical approaches of psychotherapy for depression are contrasted with current psychotherapeutic strategies. Now more strategies are focused, structured, time-limited, observable, testable, researchable and data based. The following depressive syndromes are reviewed in terms of the literature that demonstrates the effectiveness of psychotherapy: major depressive disorder, bipolar depressive disorder, depression associated with medical illness such as cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke, resistant depression post-traumatic stress disorder, grief reactions and depression during adolescence, mid-life and the geriatric period of the life cycle. A conceptual model favoring tripartite focus of intervention is recommended. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression must consider intrapsychic, interpersonal and family dynamics as well as social supports. A model for each population needs to be studied and developed further. Recommendations for current research are suggested. In the individual modification of psychotherapeutic approaches we must consider the varying maturity of ego defenses and the ego strength of the individual patient. Forty well-designed studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the depressive syndromes are quoted in this paper.

  9. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    3.0.CO;2-F 5. McCullough JP. Psychotherapy for dysthymia: a naturalistic study of ten patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(12):734–740. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005053-199112000-00004 6. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, et al. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of

  10. Toward a Neurobiology of Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jerald

    2009-01-01

    Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy alters brain structure and function. Learning and memory, both implicit and explicit, play central roles in this process through the creation of new genetic material that leads to increased synaptic efficiency through the creation of new neuronal connections. Although there is substantial…

  11. Attrition in Psychotherapy: A Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseborough, David John; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Wright, Florence I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attrition is a common problem in psychotherapy and can be defined as clients ending treatment before achieving an optimal response. Method: This longitudinal, archival study utilized data for 3,728 clients, using the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2. A Cox regression proportional hazards (hazard ratios) model was used in order to better…

  12. Play and the Art of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Terry Marks-Tarlow is a clinical and consulting psychologist and psychotherapist and a member of the teaching faculty at the Reiss Davis Child Study Center in Los Angeles. She is the author of "Awakening Clinical Intuition: An Experiential Workbook for Psychotherapists"; "Psyche's Veil: Psychotherapy, Fractals, and…

  13. Recent Studies in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael Ferro

    2008-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), based on the principles of radical behaviorism, emphasizes the impact of eventualities that occur during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence between environments, natural reinforcement and shaping by the therapist. This paper reviews recent studies of FAP…

  14. Existential psychotherapy of students as learning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  15. Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.

  16. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  17. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  18. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    3.0.CO;2-F 5. McCullough JP. Psychotherapy for dysthymia: a naturalistic study of ten patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(12):734–740. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005053-199112000-00004 6. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, et al. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psy

  19. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  20. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  1. Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M.; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil

    2011-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The…

  2. Psychotherapy and Its Role in Psychiatric Practice: A Position Paper. II. Objective, Subjective, and Intersubjective Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Yakov; John, Nicholas; Scott, Rowan; Tomy, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    In the first article in this 2-part series, we outlined a psychobiological model of psychiatric treatment and reviewed the evidence showing psychotherapy to be a form of biological intervention that induces lasting alterations in brain structure and function. In this second article, we focus on the adaptive model of psychopathology, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions, the synergistic effects of combined psychotherapy and psychopharmacology treatments, and attention to the patient's subjective experience and the doctor-patient alliance to complement an "objective" case formulation. The evidence strongly suggests the need for an integrated treatment approach based on the objective, subjective, and intersubjective science that forms the foundation of psychiatry as a clinical discipline, in which psychotherapy and psychopharmacology are seen as complementary treatments within a systemic approach to psychiatric care and training. What emerges is the integrated psychobiological model of care with a complex treatment matrix unique to each patient-provider pair and comprised of biological, experiential, and relational domains of treatment which form the foundation of psychiatry as a science of attachment and meaning.

  3. Implications of attachment theory and research for the assessment and treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we review the research literature on attachment and eating disorders and suggest a framework for assessing and treating attachment functioning in patients with an eating disorder. Treatment outcomes for individuals with eating disorders tend to be moderate. Those with attachment-associated insecurities are likely to be the least to benefit from current symptom-focused therapies. We describe the common attachment categories (secure, avoidant, anxious), and then describe domains of attachment functioning within each category: affect regulation, interpersonal style, coherence of mind, and reflective functioning. We also note the impact of disorganized mental states related to loss or trauma. Assessing these domains of attachment functioning can guide focused interventions in the psychotherapy of eating disorders. Case examples are presented to illustrate assessment, case formulation, and group psychotherapy of eating disorders that are informed by attachment theory. Tailoring treatments to improve attachment functioning for patients with an eating disorder will likely result in better outcomes for those suffering from these particularly burdensome disorders.

  4. Psychotherapy, a concept for the nonpsychiatric physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAHN, J P

    1962-05-01

    Patients tend to repeat with their physician, as with other significant people in their lives, their earlier previous patterns of behavior. The physician as well as the patient is involved in the physician-patient relationship. He will tend to respond to his patients in accordance with his earlier life experiences and his characteristic repetitive behavioral pattern. For both physician and patient, the relationship between them extends beyond the immediate reality situation. Psychotherapy is the utilization of psychological measures in the treatment of sick persons and the deliberate utilization by the physician of the physician-patient relationship for the benefit of the patient. The kind of psychotherapy that is practical and utilizable by the nonpsychiatric physician is that which uses education, reassurance, support and the management of the patient's problems either directly or indirectly or through the intermediary of other people or agencies. The symbolic aspect of the physician-patient relationship is based essentially on the fact that a sick person, because of his anxiety and because of the threat to his physical and psychic integrity, is more dependent and more anxious than he would be if he were well, and therefore he has a correspondingly greater need for the authoritative and protective figure he finds in the physician. Psychotherapy is not directed exclusively to the treatment of flagrantly or obviously neurotic or psychotic patients. It should be and is directed to all sick persons. Limitations in psychotherapy are set by various determinants, among which are the nature of the precipitating factor in the illness, the nature of the sick person, the skill, knowledge and abilities of the physician, and the nature of the physician-patient relationship. In psychotherapy, as in all medicine, the physician should not do anything which may disturb the patient if the disturbance is of no value or if it cannot be followed through with special skills.

  5. Covalently attached organic monolayers on SiC and SixN4 surfaces: Formation using UV light at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosso, M.; Giesbers, M.; Arafat, A.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the formation of alkyl monolayers on silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4) surfaces, using UV irradiation in the presence of alkenes. Both the surface preparation and the monolayer attachment were carried out under ambient conditions. The stable coatings obtained

  6. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  7. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  8. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  9. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  10. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H

    2005-01-01

    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude

  11. Attachment in integrative neuroscientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Radovan; Hasto, Jozef; Minarik, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory is a very influential general concept of human social and emotional development, which emphasizes the role of early mother-infant interactions for infant's adaptive behavioural and stress copying strategies, personality organization and mental health. Individuals with disrupted development of secure attachment to mother/primary caregiver are at higher risk of developing mental disorders. This theory consists of the complex developmental psycho-neurobiological model of attachment and emerges from principles of psychoanalysis, evolutionary biology, cognitive-developmental psychology, ethology, physiology and control systems theory. The progress of modern neuroscience enables interpretation of neurobiological aspects of the theory as multi-level neural interactions and functional development of important neural structures, effects of neuromediattors, hormones and essential neurobiological processes including emotional, cognitive, social interactions and the special key role of mentalizing. It has multiple neurobiological, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, ethological, genetic, developmental, psychological, psychotherapeutic and neuropsychiatric consequences and is a prototype of complex neuroscientific concept as interpretation of modern integrated neuroscience.

  12. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  13. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  14. INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY AND MINDFULNESS: THE CASE OF SARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Černetič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness on a theoretical as well as practical level. Although mindfulness is not an explicit constituent of Integrative Psychotherapy, the two are arguably a natural fit. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance internal and external contact, a central concept in Integrative Psychotherapy, as well as strengthen a client’s Adult ego state. This article presents a case study whereby Integrative Psychotherapy is analysed from the perspective of mindfulness. Within the course of therapy, parallels were observed between the client's increased mindfulness, improved internal and external contact, strengthened Adult ego state, mastery of introjections, as well as diminished feelings of guilt, improved mood, self care and ability to engage in appropriate separation and individuation. These gains support the conclusion that Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness are inherently related and that explicit incorporation of mindfulness may enhance the therapeutic process of Integrative Psychotherapy.

  15. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to psychiatric residents: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Emily; Douglas, Carolyn J; Cabaniss, Deborah L

    2013-03-01

    There is enduring controversy in our field regarding the place for supportive interventions in psychodynamic psychotherapy. This controversy is reflected in the differing ways in which psychodynamic psychotherapy has been conceptualized and taught in psychiatric residency training programs. The authors propose an "integrated" approach for teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to trainees. In the integrated model, psychodynamic psychotherapy is conceptualized as a form of therapy designed to (a) uncover unconscious elements that influence thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and (b) support weakened psychological function. Using this model, residents learning psychodynamic psychotherapy are taught both uncovering and supporting techniques side by side in one course with specific guidelines for assessing when to use one set of interventions or the other. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to residents in this integrated way prepares them to become skilled clinicians who are able to move fluidly from supporting to uncovering in a pragmatic and flexible manner, matched to the particular moment-to-moment needs of the individual patient.

  16. The mind-body relationship in psychotherapy: Grounded cognition as an explanatory framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuwan Dominic Leitan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind-body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice. The paper briefly explores various psychotherapeutic approaches to help explicate relationships between mind and body from these perspectives. Themes arising from this analysis include a tendency toward dualism (separation of mind and body from the conceptualization of human functioning, exclusivism (elimination of either mind or body from the conceptualization of human functioning, or mind-body monism (conceptualization of mind and body as a single, holistic system. We conclude that the literature, as a whole, does not demonstrate consensus, regarding the relationship between mind and body in psychotherapy. We then introduce a contemporary, holistic, psychological conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body, and argue for its potential utility as an organizing framework for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. The holistic approach we explore, grounded cognition, arises from a long philosophical tradition, is influential in current cognitive science, and presents a coherent empirically testable framework integrating subjective and objective perspectives. Finally, we demonstrate how this grounded cognition perspective might lead to advances in the theory and practice of psychotherapy.

  17. The mind-body relationship in psychotherapy: grounded cognition as an explanatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitan, Nuwan D; Murray, Greg

    2014-01-01

    As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind-body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice. The paper briefly explores various psychotherapeutic approaches to help explicate relationships between mind and body from these perspectives. Themes arising from this analysis include a tendency toward dualism (separation of mind and body from the conceptualization of human functioning), exclusivism (elimination of either mind or body from the conceptualization of human functioning), or mind-body monism (conceptualization of mind and body as a single, holistic system). We conclude that the literature, as a whole, does not demonstrate consensus, regarding the relationship between mind and body in psychotherapy. We then introduce a contemporary, holistic, psychological conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body, and argue for its potential utility as an organizing framework for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. The holistic approach we explore, "grounded cognition," arises from a long philosophical tradition, is influential in current cognitive science, and presents a coherent empirically testable framework integrating subjective and objective perspectives. Finally, we demonstrate how this "grounded cognition" perspective might lead to advances in the theory and practice of psychotherapy.

  18. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  19. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  20. The Dodo Bird and Common Factors in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trancas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception, the theoretical exploration of psychotherapy has originated diverse ideas on the mechanisms underlying its effectiveness. The authors focus on one of the founding moments of the theory of common factors in psychotherapy and subsequently explore its theoretical grounds and conceptual evolution. Criticism to the construct and exposure of its fragilities are also approached. Some consequences of this knowledge relating to the practice and training of psychotherapy are put forward.

  1. Remote psychotherapy for terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Jeffrey S; Schuyler, Dean; Frueh, B Christopher; Brescia, Frank; Arana, George W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a feasibility study of remote psychotherapy in 10 terminally ill cancer patients with diagnoses of adjustment disorder or major depression. Subjects received six sessions of individual cognitive therapy with the same therapist. Sessions alternated between face-to-face sessions and remote sessions delivered by analogue videophone. After each therapy session, a brief questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjects' level of satisfaction with the session, sense of connectedness to the therapist and overall progress being made in the therapy. Nine patients completed the study. Of 53 completed therapy sessions, 21 were by videophone and 32 were conducted face to face. Participants reported strong positive perceptions and acceptance after almost all therapy sessions, regardless of service delivery mode. The study suggests that there may be a role for the delivery of psychotherapy using low-bandwidth videophones.

  2. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: a contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Larry S; Busch, Fredric N

    2012-09-01

    A contemporary perspective on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy views both treatments as somatic in nature. Abandoning Cartesian dualism frees the clinician to consider therapeutic options based on the best available evidence rather than falsely dichotomizing approaches as biological or psychological. Evidence-based medicine is a helpful though limited paradigm upon which to base treatment decisions. Instead, clinicians should strive for an evidence-informed approach that is patient centered. This approach is illustrated in relation to depressive illness where moderators of outcome are examined (illness severity, history of trauma, personality disorders, patient preference) that will influence clinical recommendations on combining treatment. Psychotherapy is increasingly proving to be a valuable therapeutic modality across the severity spectrum, a finding at odds with current treatment practices.

  3. A semiotic approach to suitability for psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, J D

    1978-11-01

    At the beginning of my career as a psychotherapist I interviewed a number of patients in an effort to find one who seemed to be a good prospect for long-term psychotherapy. While interviewing with this purpose in mind, I was struck by the fact that a number of the people I spoke with gave me a sense of being extremely suitable for this sort of therapy, but that others seemed quite unsuitable. An informal survey among my peers as well as among more senior therapists revealed that they were not unfamiliar with the phenomenon. The present empirical study of the semiotic aspects of suitability for psychotherapy grew out of this early experience.

  4. Self and its anxieties in existential psychotherapy

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    Marica Mircea Adrian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a self and the imperative of knowing it have gone through philosophy from its beginning until today. Existentialism, starting with Kierkegaard and continuing with Heidegger, relate the scope of the authentic self to that of anxiety. Once the scope of the anxiety of self has been formulated, it entered the sphere of psychological theories. The prolific encounter between existentialism and psychology materializes into the influent contemporary psychological school, named existential psychotherapy. Our analysis wishes to describe the nodal points of this encounter, having as reference points the scope of self and its anxieties. In the first part of the analysis we look into the philosophical premises, referring to the two above mentioned names, while in the second part we present the taking-ups and the applicative adjustments brought up by existential psychotherapy.

  5. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment.

  6. The outcome problem in psychotherapy: a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, H J

    2013-03-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 1964(MONTH), 1(3), 97-100. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1966-01631-001). Comments on the original article by H. H. Strupp (see record 1965-15636-001). In his recent article in this journal, Strupp (1963) has this to say in relation to the outcome problem in psychotherapy: "A brief review of Eysenck's (1952) widely quoted survey, which capitalized upon and added considerably to the existing confusion may be instructive." In reply I would like to suggest that Strupp's review is, in the lawyer's phrase, irrelevant, incompetent and immaterial. Fortunately, the points I wish to make are so simple that they will not take up much space.

  7. DFP: Psychotherapie der Angststörungen

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    Doering S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Psychotherapie stellt eine wirksame Behandlung für alle Angststörungen dar. Die Kombination mit einer (antidepressiven Pharmakotherapie dürfte oft sinnvoll sein, ist jedoch nur bei der Panikstörung empirisch untermauert. Bei allen Angststörungen sind verhaltenstherapeutische Ansätze am besten in ihrer Wirksamkeit belegt. Inzwischen sind – außer für die spezifischen Phobien – auch psychodynamische Ansätze manualisiert und empirisch evaluiert. Entspannungsverfahren werden bei der sozialen Phobie und der Panikstörung empfohlen und sind oft Bestandteil umfassender Behandlungsprogramme. Komorbide Störungen – insbesondere Persönlichkeitsstörungen – verschlechtern den Outcome der Angstbehandlung. Für die Zukunft sind weitere Untersuchungen zur langfristigen Wirksamkeit der Psychotherapie sowie zur Behandlung von Angstpatienten mit komorbiden Störungen notwendig.

  8. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  9. Applied philosophy and psychotherapy: Heraclitus as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a recent attempt to apply philosophy within the discipline of psychotherapy and to investigate the somewhat undefined realm of philosophical counselling. After introducing the claims of this interdisciplinary exercise and after addressing the problems involved in crossing the boundaries between philosophy and psychotherapy, the article elaborates on  Alex Howard’s (2000 [Philosophy for counselling and psychotherapy: Pythagoras to post-modernism. London: Macmillan] attempt to make explicit use of philosophy in psychotherapy, using his interpretation and application of Heraclitus’ philosophy as case study.

  10. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-01-01

    Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a re...

  11. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  12. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...... and the four time points as repeated measures. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated that improvement were significant on all measures (P treated with Group A or Group S treatment...

  13. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  14. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...... found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment...

  15. The Arts, Crafts, and Sciences of Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lorna Smith

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary training and practice of psychotherapy and the research that supports it is the subject of this review. I discuss it in the light of what I value most from my own professional training, which was, in my opinion, highly privileged by comparison with what is offered today. A minimal hoped-for outcome is that younger readers will find valuable tidbits here and there that will be useful in their own versions of psychotherapy. A maximal hope is that a few individuals who choose to maintain clinical skills as well as emphasize psychotherapy research might be encouraged to follow their instincts toward excellence. They would allow their curiosity to bloom and their work to be creative and more adherent to the rules of natural science than time allows in these days of dashboards that count funding associated with numbers of publications, grants, teaching, and service hours. Admittedly, that path less well traveled would be risky, because what truly is new takes time to develop and implement and the outcomes when research truly can disconfirm hypotheses (as distinct from fail to confirm them) are, well, uncertain.

  16. Removing pathogenic memories: a neurobiology of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2005-10-01

    Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and aberrant synaptic plasticity. This article describes the neurobiological bases of pathogenic memory disruption to provide some insight into how psychotherapy works. At least two mechanisms of unwanted memory erasing appear to be implicated in the effects of psychotherapy: inhibition of memory consolidation/reconsolidation and extinction. Behavioral evidence demonstrated that these two ways to forget are profoundly distinct in nature, and it is increasingly clear that their cellular, synaptic, and molecular underpinnings are different. Accordingly, the blockade of consolidation/reconsolidation erases memories by reversing the plasticity associated with memory maintenance, whereas extinction is a totally new form of plasticity that, similar to the plasticity underlying the old memory, requires protein synthesis-dependent synaptic remodeling.

  17. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  18. Iatrogenic symptoms associated with a therapy cult: examination of an extinct "new psychotherapy" with respect to psychiatric deterioration and "brainwashing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, J

    1984-11-01

    In 1982, the first and only discussion of psychotherapy cults appeared in the literature. Temerlin and Temerlin (1982) studied five "bizarre" groups which were formed when five practitioners of psychotherapy simultaneously served as friends, lovers, relatives, employers, colleagues, and teachers, all to patients who were themselves mental health professionals. In choosing the term "psychotherapy cult," the authors have noted similarities of the groups they reviewed to some religious cults, citing the three definitions of the "cult" in Webster's 1966 Third New International Dictionary: (1) a system for the cure of disease based on the dogma, tenets or principles set forth by its promulgator to the exclusion of scientific experience or demonstration, (2) great or excessive dedication to some person, idea or organization, (3) a religion or mystic regarded as mysterious or unorthodox. The psychotherapy cults studied by Temerlin and Temerlin varied from 15 to 75 mental health professionals held together by their idealization of a shared therapist and the activities which they conducted jointly: workshops, seminars, courses, businesses, professional ventures, and social life. As patients became more involved in the social and personal life of their therapists, they gradually withdrew from all friends and family, becoming increasingly dependent on the therapist and their new "siblings." Upon joining the group, many patients felt a sense of being loved and belongingness. The authors described the "cognitive pathology" of idiosyncratic group jargon which served to maintain an illusion of knowledge, sophistication, and personal growth, while removing all ambivalence and uncertainty. The authors concluded that psychotherapy cult membership is an iatrogenically determined negative effect of psychotherapy. Of the former cult members they interviewed, most had perceived themselves as deteriorating or at an impasse, or had experienced disillusionment with their therapists

  19. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  20. Pet in the therapy room: an attachment perspective on Animal-Assisted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

    2011-11-01

    John Bowlby's ( 1973, 1980, 1982) attachment theory is one of the most influential theories in personality and developmental psychology and provides insights into adjustment and psychopathology across the lifespan. The theory is also helpful in defining the target of change in psychotherapy, understanding the processes by which change occurs, and conceptualizing cases and planning treatment (Daniel, 2006; Obegi & Berant, 2008; Sable, 2004 ; Wallin, 2007). Here, we propose a model of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) based on attachment theory and on the unique characteristics of human-pet relationships. The model includes clients' unmet attachment needs, individual differences in attachment insecurity, coping, and responsiveness to therapy. It also suggests ways to foster the development of more adaptive patterns of attachment and healthier modes of relating to others.

  1. Pharmacotherapy for the soul and psychotherapy for the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleger, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The "mind-body" dualism has shaped the development of psychiatry. At the very beginning psychiatry was related to the mind and the rest of the medicine to the body. The main reasons for such division were lack of biological evidence for psychiatric disorders and wrong beliefs about demonic origins of "lunacy". But although the development of science offered more than enough biological evidence to understand brain as an organ of origin for psychiatric disorders, the dualism of mind and body remained alive even in the modern classification systems. One of the consequences was another dualism that differ biological (e.g. pharmacotherapy) from psychological therapy (e.g. psychotherapy) as completely different approaches. The purpose of this article is to offer enough evidence to reframe the existing dualisms into a different paradigm. In every illness both mind and body can be affected to a different extent. Which part of an illness is body and which part is mind is often difficult to differentiate even when we compare a person with broken leg with a person with acute stress reaction. For that reason it might be an over-simplification to differentiate sharply between biological and psychological therapies. The evidence show that psychotherapy influences biology of the brain and that pharmacotherapy influences psychological, social and developmental dimensions of the diseased person as well as overall well-being and functionality. In the era where medicine discovered psychology and psychiatry discovered biology, the debates and divisions that steam out of past dualisms should end. Every practising physician regardless of the medical discipline uses in everyday practice both biological and psychological approaches to help the patient successfully.

  2. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  3. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  4. Characteristics of Patients Involved in Psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of Bosnian and Herzegovinian patients involved in psychotherapeutic treatments in order to explore the current situation of psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The study included 213 patients (154 women and 47 men undergoing diverse psychotherapeutic treatments. Data about demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Following characteristics were documented: age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, specific problem that got the client involved in psychotherapy, type of psychotherapy, and use of psychopharmacology.Results: Majority of the patients undergoing psychotherapy are age up to 40 and female. They are by vast majority holding a university degree and are employed. Nearly equal number of patients is living in partnership or marriage compared to single or never been married. Most frequent reasons for getting involved in the psychotherapy treatment are of the intrapersonal nature (depression, anxiety and panic attacks. Majority of the patients were involved in gestalt and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, and at the same time majority of those were not prescribed medicaments.Conclusions: We point out and overview some of the most prominent socio-demographic traits of patients undergoing psychotherapy, the ones that could be important in the future research with the higher degree of control. In the terms of personal initiative, psychotherapy stops being a taboo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, there is still a long path until it reaches integration in daily life of the people.

  5. Is There Room for Criticism of Studies of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Jewett, Lisa R.; Bassel, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler declared unequivocally that "empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy" (p. 98). He did not mention any specific criticisms that have been made of evidence on psychodynamic psychotherapies or address possible distinctions…

  6. Using Media to Teach How Not to Do Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen; Horowitz, Mardi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article describes how using media depictions of psychotherapy may help in teaching psychiatric residents. Methods: Using the HBO series "In Treatment" as a model, the authors suggest how boundary transgressions and technical errors may inform residents about optimal psychotherapeutic approaches. Results: The psychotherapy vignettes…

  7. Use of Psychotherapy by Rural and Urban Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Jameson, John P.; Phillips, Laura L.; Kunik, Mark E.; Fortney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether differences exist between rural and urban veterans in terms of initiation of psychotherapy, delay in time from diagnosis to treatment, and dose of psychotherapy sessions. Methods: Using a longitudinal cohort of veterans obtained from national Veterans Affairs databases (October 2003 through September 2004), we extracted…

  8. The Grandmaternal Transference in Parent-Infant/Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The psychic significance of the figure of the grandmother in psychodynamic psychotherapy has received scant attention. This paper develops the concept of the "grandmaternal transference" in parent-infant psychotherapy and explores its identification, its possible functions and its therapeutic significance. The grandmaternal transference has…

  9. Therapy 101: A Psychotherapy Curriculum for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Frieda; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This pilot project, designed and taught by a resident, created a curriculum to introduce medical students to the practice of psychotherapy. Medical students who are knowledgeable about psychotherapy can become physicians who are able to refer patients to psychotherapeutic treatments. A search of the literature did not identify a…

  10. The Psychotherapy Research Project of the Menninger Foundation: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Studied processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Followed 42 subjects over natural course of treatment, with 100 percent follow-up 2-3 years posttermination. Some follow-ups extended over 30-year study. Psychoanalysis achieved more limited outcomes than predicted; psychotherapies often achieved more than…

  11. Holism in Psychotherapy and Spiritual Direction: A Course Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len; Mansager, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The authors offer a course correction for understanding the term holism as used in spiritually oriented psychotherapy literature. This is done to allow the relationship between psychotherapy and spirituality to expand beyond limited dualistic conceptualizations, They first address numerous sources from which spiritually oriented psychotherapy…

  12. Rorschach and MMPI-2 Indices of Early Psychotherapy Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…

  13. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Schuurmans, J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depressi

  14. Psychiatric Residents' Views of Quality of Psychotherapy Training and Psychotherapy Competencies: A Multisite Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Christina; Sciolla, Andres; Zisook, Sidney; Bitner, Robin; Tuttle, Jeffrey; Dunn, Laura B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Few studies of residents' attitudes toward psychotherapy training exist. The authors examined residents' perceptions of the quality of their training, support for training, their own competence levels, and associations between self-perceived competence and perceptions of the training environment. Methods: An anonymous, web-based…

  15. Importance of Unattached Bacteria and Bacteria Attached to Sediment in Determining Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Contaminants in an Aerobic Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial abundance, distribution, and degradation potential (in terms of degradation versus lack of degradation) for four xenobiotic compounds in an aerobic aquifer sediment have been examined in laboratory and field experiments. The xenobiotic compounds studied were benzene, toluene, o......-xylene, and naphthalene (all at concentrations of approximately 120 pg/liter). The aerobic degradation experiments ran for approximately 90 days at 10°C, which corresponded to the groundwater temperature. At the end of the experiment, the major part of the microbial biomass, quantified as acridine orange direct counts......, was attached to the groundwater sediment (18 x 106 to 25 x 106 cells per g [dry weight]), and only a minor part was unattached in the groundwater (0.6 x 106 to 5.5 x 106 cells per ml). Experiments involving aquifer sediment suspensions showed identical degradation potentials in the laboratory and in the field...

  16. Morphological aspects and histological effects of the attachment organ of Parabrachiella sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) on the grey mullet, Mugil liza Valenciennes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaul, S E; Montes, M M; Barbeito, C G; Martorelli, S R

    2013-10-01

    The genus Parabrachiella Wilson, 1915 (Lernaeopodidae) is represented by copepods that are highly adapted to a parasitic way of life. In Argentina, only P. insidiosa var. lageniformis Heller, 1865, P. chevreuxii Van Beneden, 1891 and P. spinicephala Ringuelet, 1945 have been cited, but none of these have been reported on mugilids. Recently, other species of this genus were found attached to the nasal cavities of juvenile grey mullets, Mugil liza Valenciennes, from Samborombón bay, Buenos Aires province. In this study, the prevalence and mean intensity of the Parabrachiella sp. on grey mullet is investigated. In addition, the damage the parasite imposes on its hosts is examined through evaluation of histological sections and immunostaining for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The morphology of the parasite's bulla is described from light and scanning electron micrographs.

  17. Predictive Implications of Secure Mother-Infant Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Judith Lynn

    The general proposition of attachment theory is that attachment is grounded in an independent, biologically based system. The quality of primary attachment relationships strongly influences a child's early personality organization, particularly the concept of self and others. The theory emphasizes the primary status and biological function of…

  18. Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for severe music performance anxiety: assessment, process, and outcome of psychotherapy with a professional orchestral musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcome of therapy using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) with a professional musician who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire 30-year career. In this paper, we describe the nature of the therapy, the case history of the musician, the first assessment and trial therapy session, and the course and successful outcome of therapy. The patient underwent 10 sessions of ISTDP over a period of 4 months. This paper reports on the first 6 sessions, which were most relevant to the understanding and treatment of the patient's severe music performance anxiety. This case study is the first reported application of ISTDP to a professional musician. We believe that this case study provides initial support that moderate to severe performance anxiety, in at least some cases, has its origins in unresolved complex emotions and defences arising from ruptures to early attachment relationships.

  19. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  1. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  2. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  3. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic sym

  4. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  5. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  6. The supervisory needs of neophyte psychotherapy trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryee, J; Brymer, M; Gold, K

    1996-11-01

    This article focuses on the difficulties facing the neophyte trainee in the field of psychotherapy. Three areas of such difficulties are identified, defined, and discussed: feelings of inadequacy and incompetence, anxieties concerning supervisors, and confusion concerning multiple theoretical views of clinical work. Two vignettes from the early training of the paper's junior authors illustrate and discuss these problems and their resolution in applied contexts. A conclusion is offered which emphasizes the value of supervisory recognition of these dimensions of trainees' experience, as well as their potential for modeling processes of growth that are likely to help supervisees' patients as well.

  7. Class barriers to psychotherapy and counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the barriers to the uptake of counselling and psychotherapy from a social class perspective. It begins with a definition of class before discussing particular aspects that inhibit uptake. Barriers focused upon are those regarding travel, costs, child care, appointment times and location of actual therapists. Likewise barriers to the effective outcome, for example cognitive and verbal abilities of clients, are addressed and the way in which these barriers inhibit the referral rate from particular social groups. Finally the self-imposed barriers of certain social groups are explored regarding self exile from the counselling arena.

  8. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  9. Use of a horror film in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, J M; Derdeyn, A P

    1990-11-01

    Modern improvements in the technology of cinematic special effects have ushered in a new genre of vivid and graphic horror film. The numerous sequels of these films attest to their popularity among adolescents and young adults. Considerable concern has arisen on the part of parents, professionals, and policymakers regarding adverse effects of these films upon children. The authors discuss the meaning of a horror film to a troubled 13-year-old boy and describe the use of the film in his psychotherapy. The modern horror film serves many of the same functions for the adolescent that the traditional fairy tale serves for the younger child.

  10. Psychotherapy change process research: realizing the promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Change process research (CPR) is the study of the processes by which change occurs in psychotherapy and is a necessary complement to randomized clinical trials and other forms of efficacy research. In this article the author describes and evaluates four types of CPR. The first three are basic designs and include quantitative process-outcome, qualitative helpful factors, and microanalytic sequential process; the fourth, the significant events approach, refers to methods such as task analysis and comprehensive process analysis that integrate the first three. The strengths and weaknesses of each design are described and summarized using both causal and practical criteria as part of an overall argument for systematic methodological pluralism.

  11. Near-death experiences and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Psychiatrists are likely to come into contact with patients who have had near-death experiences, who may have a variety of reactions to the experience, and who may benefit from psychotherapy. We may also have opportunities to work with individuals who are reacting to others who have had such experiences. There is much a psychiatrist can offer to these people, including listening respectfully, being nonjudgemental, normalizing the experience, providing education, and assisting with integrating the experience into their lives to develop or maintain the best possible functioning.

  12. Rates and predictors of referral for individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and medications among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Juliette M; Barrera, Terri L; Hernandez, Caitlin; Graham, David P; Teng, Ellen J

    2014-04-01

    This study examined rates of referral for medication, individual psychotherapy, and group psychotherapy within a Veterans Affairs (VA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty mental health clinic. Participants were 388 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were referred for PTSD treatment following a mental health evaluation required for all new VA enrollees. The majority of the sample was referred for medication (79 %), with comparatively fewer referrals for individual (39 %) or group psychotherapy (24 %). Forty percent of participants were referred for combined medication and psychotherapy. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were examined to determine whether these variables predicted referral type. Female veterans and those with lower clinician ratings of overall functioning were more likely to be referred for individual therapy. Group psychotherapy referrals were more common in veterans who were older, unemployed, identified as an ethnic minority, and had a comorbid anxiety disorder. There were no significant predictors of medication referral.

  13. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  14. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  15. Metacognitive mastery dysfunctions in personality disorder psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Popolo, Raffaele; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Procacci, Michele; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-30

    Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.

  16. [New Developments in Video Games for Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.

  17. Religious Cognitive-Emotional Therapy :A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rajaei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nFrom the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role ,and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health ; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies . Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific ,comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested . Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis , depression , and anxiety ; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well . Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  18. Religious cognitive-emotional therapy: a new form of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Ali Reza

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  19. Religious Cognitive–Emotional Therapy: A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area. PMID:22952497

  20. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  1. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  2. Neuropsychologically informed strategic psychotherapy in teenagers and adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J

    2014-10-01

    Stimulants are the primary treatment for ADHD. Psychotherapy may augment pharmacologic treatment. In this article, we discuss strategies psychotherapists may use in working with teenagers and adults, including individuals who reject medications or take them suboptimally. Individuals with ADHD often have other psychiatric issues, including affective or cognitive comorbidities. Having ADHD does not protect people from the difficulties of life, and psychotherapy can help to disentangle "ADHD" from other issues. A psychotherapist knowledgeable about ADHD assessment can improve diagnostic precision. Psychotherapy can integrate forms of treatment in which the central goal is increasing mastery and competence of the individual.

  3. The application of Peplau's theory to group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lego, S

    1998-06-01

    This paper illustrates the application of Hildegard Peplau's Interpersonal Theory of Nursing to group psychotherapy. The phases of the nurse-patient relationship, including orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution, are described as they relate to group psychotherapy, and clinical examples are presented. The clinical examples also demonstrate the patient's movement in group therapy through the steps of the learning process: observation, description, analysis, formulation, validation, testing, integration and utilization. Finally, the roles of the nurse including stranger, resource person, teacher, leader, surrogate and counsellor are described as they occur in group psychotherapy.

  4. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  5. Impact of a CBT psychotherapy group on post-operative bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulac, Julie; Sandre, Daniella

    2015-01-01

    Psychological difficulties for patients seeking bariatric surgery are greater and in the post-operative phase, a significant minority go on to experience significant psychosocial difficulties, increasing their risk of poorer post-operative adjustment and associated weight regain. 17 post-operative patients participated in an eight-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) based psychotherapy group at the Ottawa Hospital. A pre-post design with a 3-month follow-up investigated the impact of the group on emotional eating, general as well as obesity-specific adjustment, psychological distress, and attachment. There were significant and meaningful improvements in patients' level of psychological distress, perceived difficulties in their lives, and weight-related adjustment that were maintained at a 3-month follow-up period. Although statistical change was not significant, there were also meaningful improvements in emotional overeating and relationship anxiety and avoidance. The intervention also appeared to be acceptable to patients in that attendance and satisfaction were good. Findings suggest that a short-term CBT psychotherapy group led to significant and meaningful benefits in psychological wellbeing for post-surgical bariatric patients.

  6. Do You Really Expect Me to Get MST Care in a VA Where Everyone is Male? Innovative Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy to Women with Military Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    sexual trauma (MST) are at heightened risk of developing psychiatric difficulties such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the Veterans...Based Psychotherapy to Women with Military Sexual Trauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald Acierno, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Medical University of...a VA Where Everyone is Male? Innovative Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy to Women with Military Sexual Trauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  7. Initial and last manifest dream reports of patients in psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2012-12-01

    The initial and last manifest dream reports (MDRs) of 30 patients who had either successfully terminated, or continued to make satisfactory progress at an advanced stage of psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy, were rated according to the following variables: Affect and Affect Valence; Affect Valence of Associations and Direction of Association Themes; Dream Narrative; Psychodynamic Formulation; Transference; and Dream Theme. Similar to previous studies, the initial MDRs contained more negative than positive affect. Conversely, the last MDRs contained more positive than negative affect. Associations to initial MDRs contained more negative affect; on the other hand, associations to last MDRs contained more positive affect. Direction of association themes were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Dream narratives were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Psychodynamic formulations were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Transference was more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Relational and injury dream themes occurred more frequently than others in both initial and last MDRs. Initial MDRs contained more injury dream themes than last MDRs. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is a correlation between MDR variables and clinical improvement during treatment. The patients in this study were selected by MG, the treating therapist, on the basis of satisfactory progress. The MDRs of patients who failed to progress or did poorly were not discussed in this report. The findings, therefore, must be taken as preliminary and indicate the need for further research on manifest dreams during psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

  8. Interpersonal learning is associated with improved self-esteem in group psychotherapy for women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group.

  9. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  10. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  11. The Psychotherapy Process with Adolescents: A First Pilot Study and Preliminary Comparisons between Different Therapeutic Modalities Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…

  12. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Improving psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa: Introduction to the special section on innovative treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2016-06-01

    The available forms of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa (AN) are helpful to many patients; however, a substantial proportion of adults with AN continues to show persistent symptoms and medical risks following treatment. Clinical investigators are therefore developing innovative adjunctive treatments for adults, to augment treatment effects. The 3 cases in this special section each demonstrate a creative, potent adjunctive treatment approach: Exposure and Response Prevention, Cognitive Remediation Therapy, and Unified Couples Therapy. In addition to demonstrating the treatment and response, the authors also discuss the important opportunities and struggles associated with the experience of providing each treatment for AN. Because adults with AN are often very attached to symptoms, and afraid of change, it is crucial to develop a basis for the therapeutic alliance and motivation to change. In these detailed, vivid, evidence-based case examples, the authors demonstrate highly distinct, innovative approaches to these issues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. The prospect of sensitizing organic dyes attached to the MoS2 surface: Physical insights from density functional theory investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung M.; Bui, Viet Q.; Hoang Tran, Phuong; Pham-Tran, Nguyen-Nguyen; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nguyen-Manh, Duc

    2017-01-01

    In this theoretical study, we employ first-principles calculations to explore the bonding nature of organic dyes on the semiconducting MoS2 surface. To achieve good bonding interaction and charge transfer, the sbnd COOrad residue needs to form ionic bonds with the defected MoS2 surface. In the cases of L0 and a newly synthesized dye named as TN1, we observe the manifestation of an in-gap state at -1 eV from the Fermi level, which might enhance photon trapping capability of the complex.

  15. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  16. Examining the Therapeutic Relationship and Confronting Resistances in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-01-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own. PMID:21686147

  17. Verbal Response Mode Use by Clients in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B.; Sultan, Faye E.

    1979-01-01

    Verbal behavior in transcripts of psychotherapy was coded according to Stile's taxonomy of verbal response modes. Therapists of different theoretical persuasions used different mixtures of verbal techniques. Common elements that make verbal interaction psychologically therapeutic lie in client behavior. (Author)

  18. Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of borderline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of Gestalt psychotherapy in the treatment of BPD patients. The authors ... psychological tests showed difficulties in social communication and adjustment, as .... impairments in reasoning, personality, movement, speech, social graces ...

  19. New medical psychotherapy CPT coding: the tail wagging the dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2013-03-01

    The implications of the 2013 revised current procedural terminology (CPT) system for coding psychotherapy with medical evaluation and management (E&M) are discussed. The author expresses concern about a potential devaluing of psychotherapy because of the required order of reporting combined codes, with E&M the primary code. Procedural and documentation requirements for using the standard medical E&M codes challenge psychiatrists to be systematic and efficient in order not to interfere with time and attention essential to an effective psychotherapy process. Insensitive use of computers when working with patients can damage rapport and progress. The trend toward sharing personal health information in large systems calls for heightened discretion. Using the psychotherapy notes protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) for highly sensitive personal information is essential to preserve patient privacy.

  20. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  1. Forgiveness in psychotherapy: the key to healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Sam; Love, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    The process of forgiveness in psychotherapy involves both letting go of resentment toward the offender and replacing the resentment with mindful awareness and empathy. By reconceptualizing past transgressions with a kinder, more equivocal outlook, clients attain a shift in perspective that is spiritual and cognitive in nature, thereby reducing symptomology and enhancing their quality of life. Such insights bring clients toward their inner Buddha nature, which transcends the suffering associated with clinging to past hurts and resentment. This process is facilitated by techniques such as concentrative meditation and identifying with transgressors through perspective taking. Forgiveness therapy improves clients' sense of well-being by promoting feelings of peacefullness toward oneself as well as others.

  2. Analysis of transference in Gestalt group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, J E

    1990-04-01

    In Gestalt therapy, transference is viewed as a contact boundary disturbance which impairs the patient's ability to accurately perceive the present therapy situation. The boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy most closely related to the analytic notion of transference are projection, introjection, and confluence. In Gestalt group psychotherapy, group members interfere with the process of need identification and satisfaction by distorting their contact with each other through projecting, introjecting, and being confluent. The Gestalt group therapist uses interventions directed to individuals and to the group to increase participants' awareness of these boundary disturbances and of the present contact opportunities available to them when these disturbances are resolved. In formulating interventions, the leader is mindful of the function of boundary disturbances to the group-as-a-whole as well as to individuals.

  3. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  4. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  6. Psychotherapy as a rite of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beels, C Christian

    2007-12-01

    Some psychotherapies may work because they resemble rites of passage. To explore this idea, this article describes an "individual" case of depression in which drug, cognitive, and narrative approaches fell short of effectiveness, and change occurred in a series of experiences that resemble a rite of passage. This resemblance is illuminated by examining two apparently quite different healing processes--Alcoholics Anonymous and multifamily group therapy in schizophrenia--to explore the elements they have in common with the case described: the acceptance of what Victor Turner called a liminal experience, and the importance of witnesses to the ritual support for that acceptance. The discussion contributes to a loosening of the distinctions between the processes of individual, family, group, and other social therapies and leads to questions about the expert knowledge the therapist provides.

  7. The influence of organic-film morphology on the efficient electron transfer at passivated polymer-modified electrodes to which nanoparticles are attached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfidokht, Abbas; Ciampi, Simone; Luais, Erwann; Darwish, Nadim; Gooding, J Justin

    2013-07-22

    The impact of polymer-film morphology on the electron-transfer process at electrode/organic insulator/nanomaterial architectures is studied. The experimental data are discussed in the context of the most recent theory modelling the nanoparticle-mediated electron-transfer process at electrode/insulator/nanomaterial architectures proposed by Chazalviel and Allongue [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 762-764]. A previous report [Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 1073-1080] by us qualitatively verified the theory and demonstrates a transition from thickness-independent to thickness-dependent electron transfer as the layer thickness exceeds a certain threshold. This follow-up study explores a different polymer, poly(phenylenediamine), and focuses on the effect of the uniformity of organic film on electron transfer at these hybrid structures. Electron-transfer kinetics of modified surfaces, which were assessed using the redox species Ru(NH3)6(3+) in aqueous solution, showed that a thickness-dependent electron-transfer regime is achieved with poly(phenylenediamine). This is attributed to the sufficiently thin films never being fabricated with this polymer. Rather, it is suggested that thin poly(phenylenediamine) layers have a globular structure with poor film homogeneity and pinhole defects.

  8. [Brief psychotherapy in clinical medicine patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, M

    1992-01-01

    The criteria that "illness is biographical crisis od the individual" and that the only medicine is "personal medicine" is stressed. Clinical medicine, which covers medicine in its entirety, demands conceptual and doctrinal reaffirmations so that gradually the patient can come to be dealt with as a human being fron a holistic point of view, which commences with his complaint and consultation, continues with the interview and semiology, to finish with the diagnosis and therapy which, although in some cases it may be surgical, is still medical and integral. All the steps mentioned are bio-socio-cultural thus, whether in the practice of general clinical medicine or in the most specialized and technologically sophisticated clinical medicine, the animist component is not lacking and demands a minimum degree of "psychosomatic" Knowledge. The use of a psychotherapeutic technique is proposed which, while based on the psychoanalysis theory, is distanced technically from it as a "psychotherapy on limited time and goals", which abbreviates the disease, and is projected not as the "focus" of therapeutic work, but as a re-evaluation of the "life style" of each individual, and tends to help to develop a "project for life" suited to the possible personal, familiar and social well-being of the "patient". Technically speaking, this modality of brief psychotherapy is based on the nonuse of transferential interpretations, on impeding the regression od the patient, on facilitating a cognitice-affective development of his conflicts and thus obtain an internal object mutation which allows the transformation of the "past" into true history, and the "present" into vital perspectives. This technique is within reach of every health professional.

  9. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Škodlar, Borut

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a proce...

  10. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  11. INSECURE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR INTERMINGLING TRANSFERENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Doris K

    2017-06-01

    There are least two different but interrelated motivational systems in human beings both of which begin in infancy: the attachment system and the separate, but interacting, psychodynamic system. Each of these systems is the basis of transference. A major focus of the paper is the affect-regulating feature of the attachment system. Infants' emotional states can be well-regulated or dysregulated as they emerge in interactions with their primary caregiver. Aberrant interactions of dysregulation typically lead to the development of insecure or disorganized attachments. Rudimentary transference fantasies initially emerge as the child makes sense or meaning about such maladaptive interactions. Our complex minds comprise multi-determined, personally organized fantasies which include those derived from both the attachment system and the psychodynamic one. I present a clinical description of how these two transference fantasies intersect in the mental life of a patient. A clinical case is offered whose focus is on enactments, transferences, and countertransference.

  12. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  13. HELPFUL ASPECTS OF THE THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Urška Modic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative study of helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship in Integrative Psychotherapy. Participants of the study were sixteen clients who were in the process of Integrative Psychotherapy for at least a year. Participants were interviewed with the adapted version of the Change Interview (Elliott, 1999, which involves a semi-structured empathic exploration of the client's experience in therapy. The analysis of the clients’ experience of Integrative Psychotherapy revealed six categories of helpful aspects of therapeutic relationship: the therapist’s empathic attunement, the therapist’s acceptance, the match between the client and the therapist, feelings of trust and safety, feeling of connection, and experience of a new relational experience. Based on results of the research, we developed a model of the healing relationship in integrative psychotherapy. This model describes the interrelatedness of these six helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship. The categories of empathic attunement and acceptance proved to be the most important categories relating to the therapist’s contribution to the healing therapeutic relationship. Clients described that the therapist’s empathic attunement and acceptance influenced the development of safety and trust, feelings of connection and promotion of new relational experiences. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the theories of Integrative Psychotherapy and research regarding the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy.

  14. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  15. Persistence of psychological distress in surgical patients with interest in psychotherapy: results of a 6-month follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonie F Kerper

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This prospective observational study investigated whether self-reported psychological distress and alcohol use problems of surgical patients change between preoperative baseline assessment and postoperative 6-month follow-up examination. Patients with preoperative interest in psychotherapy were compared with patients without interest in psychotherapy. METHODS: A total of 1,157 consecutive patients from various surgical fields completed a set of psychiatric questionnaires preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, including Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, World Health Organization 5-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5, and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Additionally, patients were asked for their interest in psychotherapy. Repeated measure ANCOVA was used for primary data analysis. RESULTS: 16.7% of the patients were interested in psychotherapy. Compared to uninterested patients, they showed consistently higher distress at both baseline and month 6 regarding all of the assessed psychological measures (p's between <0.001 and 0.003. At 6-month follow-up, neither substantial changes over time nor large time x group interactions were found. Results of ANCOVA's controlling for demographic variables were confirmed by analyses of frequencies of clinically significant distress. CONCLUSION: In surgical patients with interest in psychotherapy, there is a remarkable persistence of elevated self-reported general psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder symptoms over 6 months. This suggests high and chronic psychiatric comorbidity and a clear need for psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment rather than transient worries posed by facing surgery.

  16. Change in attachment insecurity is related to improved outcomes 1-year post group therapy in women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Hilary; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    An interpersonal model of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) posits that difficulties with social functioning precipitate negative affect, which in turn causes binge eating as a means of coping. Thus, long-term decreases in attachment insecurity may be important for women with BED. No research has assessed if long-term change in attachment insecurity is associated with sustained change in other outcomes. In the current study, we hypothesized that changes in attachment anxiety and avoidance will decrease at posttreatment and will be maintained up to 12 months after Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). We further hypothesized that long-term stability of these changes in attachment insecurity will be related to other long-term outcomes. Women with BED (N = 102) attended 16 sessions of GPIP. Measures were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and the other outcome variables decreased significantly at 12 months posttreatment. Reductions in attachment anxiety and avoidance were significantly related to decreases in interpersonal problems up to 12 months posttreatment, and reduction in attachment anxiety was significantly related to decreases in depressive symptoms 12 months posttreatment. Further, the significant relationship between reduced attachment avoidance and decreased interpersonal problems strengthened over the long term. This is the first study to show an association between change in attachment insecurity and change in other outcomes in the long term, and to show an adaptive spiral in which greater reduction in attachment avoidance is increasingly associated with ongoing improvement of interpersonal problems.

  17. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Korstanje, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to jou...

  18. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  19. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  20. Day Care and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Fern C.; Simmons, Carolyn H.

    1978-01-01

    The attachment behavior of 35 white, middle-class 3 1/2- to 4-year-olds who had experienced different rearing histories was observed through a series of standardized episodes involving separations and reunions with the mother and a stranger. (Author/JMB)

  1. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  2. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  3. Clinical Thanatology and Psychotherapy: Some Reflections on Caring for the Dying Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenberg, Loma; Shneidman, Edwin S.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the relationship between psychotherapy and clinical thanatology relative to working with dying patients and their survivors. Eight special characteristics of thanatological exchanges are explained including comments on time, transference, aspirations, and empathy. Conversation, heirarchical exchange, psychotherapy, and thanatological…

  4. Outcomes in GroupPsychotherapy: Using Persuasion Theory to Increase Treatment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Some research suggests that improvement in psychotherapy is related to the degree that a patient adopts his therapist's evaluative attitudes. This article was designed to pursue the possibility of predicting the outcomes of group psychotherapy using attitude theory. (Author)

  5. Attachment mental states and inferred pathways of development in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina

    2011-09-01

    We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  6. Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Bolt, Olivia C; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Margraf, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2011-04-19

    Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with specific phobia for heights were treated with three sessions of exposure therapy using virtual reality exposure to heights. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was administered orally 1 h before each of the treatment sessions. Subjects returned for a posttreatment assessment 3-5 d after the last treatment session and for a follow-up assessment after 1 mo. Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire (AQ) both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo. Furthermore, subjects receiving cortisol showed a significantly greater reduction in acute anxiety during virtual exposure to a phobic situation at posttreatment and a significantly smaller exposure-induced increase in skin conductance level at follow-up. The present findings indicate that the administration of cortisol can enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

  7. Exorcism and possession in psychotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J

    1982-03-01

    There has been an evolution in the layman's concept of mental disorder. Medieval belief in possession by demons and witches gave way to a 19th century medical model and more recently classical psychoanalytic formulations. Concurrently professional helping endeavor has moved increasingly from a more traditionally medical to psychotherapeutic process, and from a classical psychotherapeutic process wherein the therapist remained to a degree unresponsive and detached to a more modern emphasis on such qualities as empathy, sensitivity, reliability, and optimism as ingredients of successful psychotherapeutic practice. Freud's account of Haizmann's demonological neurosis usefully formulates the possession concept in psychological terms. However, recent developments in psychotherapeutic practice argue for a validity in the possession model of psychological distress. The possessing forces of object relations psychology are of course not the possessing demons and witches of medieval times but the possessing good and bad objects of early intrapsychic life set up through processes of introjection and incorporation in response to frustration in the early infant-mother relationship. Points of similarity in this comparison should not obscure features of contrast--ther is no place for histrionic manipulation nor for a moralistic attitude in the practice of psychotherapy. A case is described to illustrate these points.

  8. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  9. Problems of process-efficiency studies in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A E

    1996-01-01

    Three areas of psychotherapy research can be delimited of which differential efficiency research promises to be the most fruitful, because it will eventually inform us which interventions with what kind of patient and what kind of problem will be the most constructive. One problem it can solve is the so-called equivalence paradox. This epitheton designates the fact, that in spite of the enormous differences in theory and interventions between the different kinds of psychotherapies, their results are not remarkably divergent. One quite popular hypothesis is that this is due to common factors, commun to any and every kind of psychotherapy. Our results indicate that this explanation is too simplistic because it uses a monosubstance-doses-effect-relationship model and disregards interaction. One other avenue is the relevant events approach. Our examples yield equivocal results. Nevertheless this remains a promising field of investigation. Finally there are time series analyses which are probably most germane to the field of psychotherapies. One illustration with a case of negative psychotherapy outcome is presented. Time series analysis is able to show that the patient changed to a negativistic attitude in the middle of session, whereas the psychoanalyst only changed at the beginning of session 10 respectively in its middle.

  10. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut ŠKODLAR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a process of limitless idealization, and the search for a panacea. This all flows with a tint of colonialism, presumptuously taking over ideas, concepts and techniques without a proper study of the primary sources, and with all the accompanying negative side-effects: profiteering, self-promotion, unethical conduct, empty promises of instant rewards, and so on. In the present paper, the development of interest in mindfulness in psychotherapy, as well as the research findings and dilemmas, and concepts and mechanisms of applying mindfulness in psychotherapy, will be reviewed. The main purpose of the paper is to contribute to the critical reflection in studying and applying mindfulness in psychotherapy.

  11. Plasticity-augmented psychotherapy for refractory depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-10-03

    Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been the mainstays of treatment for depression and anxiety disorders during the last century. However, treatment response has not improved in the last few decades, with only half of all patients responding satisfactorily to typical antidepressants. To fulfill the needs of the remaining patients, new treatments with better efficacy are in demand. The addition of psychotherapy to antidepressant treatment has been shown to be superior to pharmacotherapy alone. However, the time costs of psychotherapy limit its use for clinicians and patients. Advancements in neuroscience have contributed to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of depressive and anxiety disorders. In particular, recent advances in the field of fear conditioning have provided valuable insight into the treatment of refractory depressive and anxiety disorders. In this review, we studied the reconsolidation-updating paradigm and the concept of epigenetic modification, which has been shown to permanently attenuate remote fear memory. This has implications for drug-augmented, e.g. antidepressant and valproic acid, psychotherapy. Future research on more sophisticated psychotherapy techniques will increase the desirability of this treatment modality for both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  13. [E-mail in psychotherapy--an aftercare model via electronic mail for psychotherapy inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Markus; Maurer, Wolf-Jürgen; Dogs, Peter; Kordy, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We introduce an aftercare program for psychotherapy inpatients, which is based on regular communication via E-mail. The organizational and operational structure of the program are described within the context of computer mediated communication. First results on utilization and acceptance are reported. In comparison to patients who did not participate in either aftercare program of the clinic, the E-mail participants are younger and higher educated. Inpatient treatment of the participants was three days shorter in duration than that of non participants. Both groups were similar with regard to symptom distress at discharge from hospital. A low dropout rate of 8%, the high activity and satisfaction emphasize the positive acceptance of the program. Therapists' E-mail activity turned out to be important for the participants. Neither age, internet experience or symptom related variables nor the own E-mail activity were associated with participants' evaluation of the new service. Based on these first positive experiences the perspectives of using E-mail in psychotherapy will be discussed.

  14. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  15. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  16. Report of the Psychotherapy Task Force of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Ritvo, Rachel; Al-mateen, Cheryl; Ascherman, Lee; Beardslee, William; Hartmann, Lawrence; Lewis, Owen; Papilsky, Shirley; Sargent, John; Sperling, Eva; Stiener, Gregory; Szigethy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    In this task force report, the authors define the field of child and adolescent psychotherapy; review the state of the field with respect to advocacy, training, research, and clinical practice; and recommend steps to ensure that psychotherapy remains a core competence of child and adolescent psychiatrists. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:93–102)

  17. A dynamic look at narrative change in psychotherapy: a case study tracking innovative moments and protonarratives using state space grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, António P; Bento, Tiago; Salgado, João; Stiles, William B; Gonçalves, Miguel M

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to further the understanding of how innovative moments (IMs), which are exceptions to a client's problematic self-narrative in the therapy dialogue, progress to the construction of a new self-narrative, leading to successful psychotherapy. The authors' research strategy involved tracking IMs, and the themes expressed therein (or protonarratives), and analysing the dynamic relation between IMs and protonarratives within and across sessions using state space grids in a good-outcome case of constructivist psychotherapy. The concept of protonarrative helped explain how IMs transform a problematic self-narrative into a new, more flexible, self-narrative. The increased flexibility of the new self-narrative was manifested as an increase in the diversity of IM types and of protonarratives. Results suggest that new self-narratives may develop through the elaboration of protonarratives present in IMs, yielding an organizing framework that is more flexible than the problematic self-narrative.

  18. The use of empathy and transference as interventions in psychotherapy with attention deficit hyperactive disorder latency-aged boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Francine

    2014-03-01

    Psychodynamic-oriented therapies are uniquely positioned to address the internal experiences of a child whose external presentation is consistent with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, an area of treatment intervention that is conspicuously absent from common ADHD treatment modalities. This article presents two psychodynamic psychotherapy treatment interventions that demonstrate (1) the importance of empathy in the therapeutic relationship and (2) the use of transference in psychotherapy with ADHD children. Through the use of case examples, the use of empathy is demonstrated in developing the therapeutic alliance, facilitating the development of the child's reflective capacity on affective states, and organizing the child's affective experiences. The benefits of transference interventions with ADHD children are reviewed, and case examples are provided to demonstrate how the therapist worked with the idealized and mirroring transference. Interventions are presented in the context of Object Relations and Self-Psychology Theories.

  19. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists.

  20. Attachment in Middle Childhood: An Evolutionary-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Middle childhood is a key transitional stage in the development of attachment processes and representations. Here I discuss the middle childhood transition from an evolutionary-developmental perspective and show how this approach offers fresh insight into the function and organization of attachment in this life stage. I begin by presenting an…

  1. Psychotherapy training: Suggestions for core ingredients and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F; Castonguay, Louis G

    2007-12-01

    Despite our considerable depth and breadth of empirical knowledge on psychotherapy process and outcome, research on psychotherapy training is somewhat lacking. We would argue, however, that the scientist-practitioner model should not only guide practice, but also the way our field approaches training. In this paper we outline our perspective on the crucial elements of psychotherapy training based on available evidence, theory, and clinical experience, focusing specifically on the structure, key components, and important skills to be learned in a successful training program. In addition, we derive specific research directions based on the crucial elements of our proposed training perspective, and offer general considerations for research on training, including method and measurement issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The renewal of humanism in psychotherapy: summary and conclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes and discusses the main themes to emerge from this special section on the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. It is concluded that (1) despite some controversies, humanism is both a viable and growing influence among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy; (2) humanism is a foundational element of effectiveness among these specialty areas; and (3) humanistic training is essential to the development of trainees in the aforementioned specialty areas. The implications of these findings for each of the specialty areas, for the profession of psychotherapy, and for the public at large are elaborated, concluding with a call for a reassessment of priorities in the research, practice, and training of standardized mental health delivery. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Dream screen phenomenon in psychotherapy and artistic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Pirjo Irmeli

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a point on the meaning of the dream screen phenomenon in psychotherapy and artistic work. Some current theories of early ego development, the formation of the dream screen and dream imagery seem to match the theories of symbol formation, artistic and literary creativity. In actual dreaming, the dream screen can exist in the form of empty sheets of paper, but also in the form of a landscape, hills or mountains. The activation of the dream screen is presented in the light of the psychotherapy of two depressed patients. Dreams implying activation of the dream screen have been interpreted to signify a turning point during psychotherapy. Dream screen can be considered as a phenomenon with different elements. Examples of dream screen symbols in Aleksis Kivi's poems and in Paul Cézanne's paintings are presented.

  4. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  5. [Psychotherapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gisèle

    2002-11-15

    Alone or used with psychostimulants, psychotherapy is the keystone of the treatment in children attention deficit disorder hyperactivity (ADHD). This article explains in which matter psychotherapy is essential. To be well done, it's necessary before starting the treatment to analyze precisely the disorder and how it interferes with the child's environment. It describes how this functional analysis must be done in order to be more precise in the choice of the treatment objectives. This article explains why in children ADHD treatment, the individual therapy must be associated with a family training and describes briefly the more studied and recognized psychotherapy techniques in those children ADHD and how other partners (teacher, speech or motor therapist) are also useful.

  6. Psychotherapy with women who have worked in the "sex industry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anklesaria, Ariz; Gentile, Julie P

    2012-10-01

    Psychotherapy is effective for a myriad of mental health symptoms, with the clinical situation dictating the most applicable method. For episodes of severe stress including acute depression and anxiety, supportive mechanisms (crisis interventions and shoring up existing coping skills and strategies) may be the best fit. During periods of relatively milder symptomatology a psychodynamic approach may be utilized with the same patient (focusing on self-reflection and a more in-depth exploration). This article focuses on the use of psychotherapy with women working in the sex industry, whether indoor (such as strip clubs and cabarets) or outdoor (such as prostitution and escort services). These women frequently experience violence in various forms, and most report multiple traumatic experiences, both during their developmental years and while working in the industry. A composite case is included that illustrates some of the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be applied when treating these individuals.

  7. Learning how to ask in ethnography and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Inga-Britt

    2003-01-01

    To social anthropologists an affinity with psychotherapy lies in the view that this discipline is a social science. Increasingly, social anthropologists offer comments and analyse their own data using psychotherapeutic or psychoanalytic frames of reference. At the same time, a methodological crisis has developed in ethnography. This is a crisis of how to carry out an ethnographic enquiry in a disciplined manner without either claiming to be a detached observer on the one hand or explaining away the subjective experiences of informants or clients with too much interpretation on the other. The aim of this paper is to address this crisis and to suggest ways in which ethnographers can use techniques from one type of psychotherapy, namely systemic or family psychotherapy in order to access social and psychological aspects of the lives of their informants. The paper achieves this by describing systemic psychotherapy and its theoretical foundations in the ethnographic work of Gregory Bateson. It then reviews the mainly medical anthropology literature in which the connection between psychotherapy and anthro pology has been discussed. While this literature has suggested a narrative and a performative approach to ethnographic data and, therefore, to informants, it has not extended the analytic frame to include the ethnographer him/herself within these frames. Clinical case material is presented to demonstrate how such an inclusion is central to the practice of systemic psychotherapy and to show that this type of material is ethnographic. The techniques of double description, hypothesising and circular questioning are described and demonstrated, and it is argued that adapting these to an ethnographic enquiry will enhance the validity of the anthropological project.

  8. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  9. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  10. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  11. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  12. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  13. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  14. Misuse of statistical test in three decades of psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, R; Serlin, R C; Omer, H

    1994-02-01

    This article reviews the misuse of statistical tests in psychotherapy research studies published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in the years 1967-1968, 1977-1978, and 1987-1988. It focuses on 3 major problems in statistical practice: inappropriate uses of null hypothesis tests and p values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rate. The impressive frequency of these problems is documented, and changes in statistical practices over the past 3 decades are interpreted in light of trends in psychotherapy research. The article concludes with practical suggestions for rational application of statistical tests.

  15. Psychosis and the dynamics of the psychotherapy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment of the 's......The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment...

  16. [Institutional psychotherapy, caring for patients and the place of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoul, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Institutional psychotherapy was developed in the specific context of the "assassination" of the Spanish revolution. There are two distinct movements or two periods. The first, based around Georges Daumézon and Henri Ey gave birth to the sector. The second, around FrançoisTosquelles and Jean Oury emphasised the asylum as the place of care. The function of institutional psychotherapy is to care not only for the patients but also the place of treatment. To fulfil this function, it has a tool box: transfer, the fight against the overvaluation of hierarchy as well as the function of the therapeutic club.

  17. The renewal of humanism in European psychotherapy: developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, Alfried A; Kriz, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    In Europe, humanistic psychotherapy is becoming increasingly widespread. Not only are the explicitly "humanistic" psychotherapies being robustly used, they are increasingly being integrated into approaches not traditionally viewed as humanistic. One can therefore observe a progression in the personalization of methodology within European modes of practice. In the past several decades, humanistic psychology has inspired the expanding use of existential-phenomenological modes of practice. This theoretical base, coupled with recent trends in person-centered systems theory, points toward an invigorating future for humanistic forms of practice in Europe, despite the political trends toward psychotherapeutic practice in Germany. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bychkova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for both the normal development of a child and in psychotherapy, and remaining significant for spiritual growth in adults. 

  19. Beyond Mindfulness: Buddha Nature and the Four Postures in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacamano, James; Altman, Jennifer K

    2016-10-01

    We propose to incorporate the contextual view of the Buddhist teachings of the Three Turnings into applications of mindfulness in psychotherapy; specifically by applying the teaching of the Four Postures, which are expressions of innate health in ordinary life activities. This practice may expand understanding of the core mechanisms of different modalities of mindfulness and psychotherapy, thereby supporting clinicians in guiding clients on a healing path that is in natural alignment with each individual. By its allegiance to inherent wakefulness (Buddha Nature), this teaching supports clients in appreciating their own inherent health and the health of the world around them.

  20. Basics of the ascetical (christian) psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievski, N

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious that contemporary man is suffering. His sufferings often seem pointless and causeless. Modern science more and more comes to reveal and acknowledge that human sufferings have a psychosomatic basis. In some of the cases, these sufferings are noogenic neuroses. They do not originate from the psychological dimension but from the noological or spiritual one of human existence. The pointlessness of life is the basic cause for the noogenic neurosis and depression from which the humankind suffers. e. Hence, the many escapes from such experienced reality into various addictions. Possible way towards healing is to retrieve one's meaning of life, to strengthen his will to meaning. Religion has always been - and still remains - a powerful and appealing purpose that fulfills the life and being of the believers. This article demonstrates the systematization of the spiritual development of a person presented in a table of the harmony of the ascetic-hesychastic struggle, according which everyone can find his place on the ladder of spiritual development, become aware, and reconciliate the mode of personal struggle according to his spiritual development. The reconciliation of the primary function of the mind with its secondary function - the intellect, is of an essential importance. Contemporary religious psychology do not regard man merely as a biological or a psychological being. The subject matter of research is the human being as a whole, as a spiritual person that is characterized by autonomy, regarding the biological and psychological processes. The importance of understanding the spiritual level of human existence enables holistic approach and experiencing of the human personality as a whole. Furthermore, it offers new perspectives of psychotherapeutic action not only within the range of the classical psychotherapeutic modalities but also within the range of the applied Christian Psychotherapy.

  1. Psychotherapy in residential treatment: historical development and critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, D Patrick

    2004-04-01

    In a time of concern with policies of managed care, more limited financial resources, and reduced lengths of residential treatment for troubled children and adolescents in the United States, we seem to be confronted ironically with an ever larger number of children who are growing up in circumstances of social dis-organization and personal despair. Faced with this dilemma, considerations of issues related to the provision of therapeutic services within residential treatment were provided by an examination of the historical development of the concepts of the milieu and residential care in the United States. The historical review revealed how the emergence of differing theories of psychotherapy has influenced the creation of various models of residential care. Several tensions have persisted over the years in the effort to provide therapy services within the broader residential setting. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral methodologies currently have come to the forefront in many aspects of milieu treatment in group care for children and adolescents in the United States. This article concluded with a critique of some potential impacts associated with those perspectives on individual and group treatment and on our views of the individual and culture in general. This discussion did not attempt to provide answers to all the stresses that can emerge in a residential setting that strives to provide a range of mental health services, nor was it intended to present an exclusively rejecting, strident criticism of the medical model or behaviorally oriented therapies. The intent was to point out some of the limitations of relying exclusively on those perspectives and to show that an amalgamation of treatment models can have real consequences for children in group care. A continued awareness of those potential consequences is essential to mitigate their potentially antitherapeutic effects.

  2. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  3. Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Hanson, Rochelle; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nichols, Todd; Barnett, Douglas; Zeanah, Charles; Berliner, Lucy; Egeland, Byron; Newman, Elana; Lyon, Tom; LeTourneau, Elizabeth; Miller-Perrin, Cindy

    2006-02-01

    Although the term attachment disorder is ambiguous, attachment therapies are increasingly used with children who are maltreated, particularly those in foster care or adoptive homes. Some children described as having attachment disorders show extreme disturbances. The needs of these children and their caretakers are real. How to meet their needs is less clear. A number of attachment-based treatment and parenting approaches purport to help children described as attachment disordered. Attachment therapy is a young and diverse field, and the benefits and risks of many treatments remain scientifically undetermined. Controversies have arisen about potentially harmful attachment therapy techniques used by a subset of attachment therapists. In this report, the Task Force reviews the controversy and makes recommendations for assessment, treatment, and practices. The report reflects American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children's (APSAC) position and also was endorsed by the American Psychological Association's Division 37 and the Division 37 Section on Child Maltreatment.

  4. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor...... in the plural’ in the city. In particular, we stress the role assumed in such engagements by various image-making practices, as means for activists to express, share and render publicly visible a range of embodied urban attachments. Pragmatic sociology, we conclude, may contribute to a novel understanding...

  5. Determining adolescents' suitability for inpatient psychotherapy: utility of the clinician-rated Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb; Stoycheva, Valentina; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Baity, Matthew; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Chand, Vijay; Blais, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Growing economic pressure on inpatient services for adolescents has resulted in fewer clinicians to provide individual psychotherapy. As a result, inpatient treatment trends have favored group psychotherapy modalities and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, no clinician-rated measures exist to assist clinicians in determining who would be able to better utilize individual psychotherapy on inpatient units. The current study sought to demonstrate the utility of the Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. This study also used the RIPS as it is intended to be used in everyday practice. Results from the authors' analyses reveal that the RIPS demonstrates good psychometrics and interrater reliability, as well as construct validity.

  6. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  7. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  8. Review of forms of intersubjectivity in infant research and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Elizabeth; Monk, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Reviews the book, Forms of Intersubjectivity in Infant Research and Adult Attachment by Beatrice Beebe, Steven Knoblauch, Judith Rustin, and Dorienne Sorter (2005). In this book, the authors use their 10 years of collaborative work to produce an in-depth and well-constructed discussion of verbal and nonverbal forms of intersubjectivity as observed in the treatment setting and as evidenced by data generated from more mainstream child development studies. They move beyond the lack of integration between these related though often dramatically disconnected disciplines and build on infant researchers' understanding of "prereflective" caregiver-child interactions to offer a new theory of intersubjectivity that enhances our understanding of the clinical interaction with adult patients. This book is not for those therapists who are interested in learning well-specified, new interventions to use in their psychotherapy practice. It is also not suggested for those clinicians who do not have some background in psychoanalytic theory and practice. It is, however, recommended for those clinicians who work psychodynamically and are interested in developing their awareness of the nonverbal aspects of treatment and the co-construction of the therapeutic encounter. This book would also be useful to those in the field of psychotherapy research as it poses new questions about the nature of the therapeutic process and suggests the importance of examining the role that implicit, nonverbal interactions play in psychotherapy. Beebe, Knoblauch, Rustin, and Sorter's book is well constructed, persuasively argued, and highly recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term “Child Attachment Interview” in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  10. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  11. Why Ineffective Psychotherapies Appear to Work: A Taxonomy of Causes of Spurious Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ritschel, Lorie A; Lynn, Steven Jay; Cautin, Robin L; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-07-01

    The past 40 years have generated numerous insights regarding errors in human reasoning. Arguably, clinical practice is the domain of applied psychology in which acknowledging and mitigating these errors is most crucial. We address one such set of errors here, namely, the tendency of some psychologists and other mental health professionals to assume that they can rely on informal clinical observations to infer whether treatments are effective. We delineate four broad, underlying cognitive impediments to accurately evaluating improvement in psychotherapy-naive realism, confirmation bias, illusory causation, and the illusion of control. We then describe 26 causes of spurious therapeutic effectiveness (CSTEs), organized into a taxonomy of three overarching categories: (a) the perception of client change in its actual absence, (b) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from extratherapeutic factors, and (c) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from nonspecific treatment factors. These inferential errors can lead clinicians, clients, and researchers to misperceive useless or even harmful psychotherapies as effective. We (a) examine how methodological safeguards help to control for different CSTEs, (b) delineate fruitful directions for research on CSTEs, and (c) consider the implications of CSTEs for everyday clinical practice. An enhanced appreciation of the inferential problems posed by CSTEs may narrow the science-practice gap and foster a heightened appreciation of the need for the methodological safeguards afforded by evidence-based practice.

  12. The role of hope in psychotherapy with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, L; Walsh, S

    2005-01-01

    The positive impact of psychotherapy upon the mental health problems of older people is increasingly accepted. However little attention has been paid to the role of hope in working therapeutically with older adults. Three relevant bodies of literature, namely adult psychotherapy, hope in older adulthood, and coping with chronic and terminal illness, provide a starting point for examining the therapeutic uses of hope. However, it is argued that these literatures cannot provide a sufficiently comprehensive conceptualisation of hope in psychotherapy with elders. Firstly, it is considered that hope in therapy is directly affected by key experiences of ageing, namely: facing physical and/or cognitive deterioration and facing death. Also, these three bodies of literature have tended to dichotomise hope as either beneficial and adaptive or dysfunctional and maladaptive. A developmental perspective is used to critique this dichotomy and a clinical framework is provided which examines the role and utility of hope in older adult psychotherapy from a more integrated viewpoint embedded in the client's life history. The framework is comprised of three types of 'hope work': 'facilitating realistic hope,' 'the work of despair' and 'surviving not thriving'. Suggestions are made about how this work may be carried out and with whom.

  13. Effects of sex and gender in ten types of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staczan, Pia; Schmuecker, Roswitha; Koehler, Miriam; Berglar, Jessica; Crameri, Aureliano; von Wyl, Agnes; Koemeda-Lutz, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the results of two samples of a large naturalistic (effectiveness study) outpatient process-outcome study in Switzerland (Practice-Oriented Outpatient Psychotherapy Study). Ten different types of psychotherapy were investigated by looking at the role of the sex or gender of therapists and patients with regard to treatment outcome by including several nonspecific therapeutic factors. Ten different types of psychotherapy, 237 patients, and 68 therapists were included in the study. A subsample of 116 cases was analyzed with regard to therapists' technical interventions. Sex and gender issues of both therapists and patients did not play a crucial role in any type of psychotherapy investigated. Gender issues appeared to play an indirect role. Female therapists intervene more empathically, whereas male therapists tend to use more confrontational techniques. Since the results show that therapists differ substantially with regard to their intervention techniques due to their sex, they should become more conscious of their interventions by considering patients' severity of psychological problems and patients' level of psychological functioning so as to not over or underchallenge them.

  14. Counselling and Psychotherapy in Dialogue with Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John

    2011-01-01

    Counselling and psychotherapy is attracting government interest and intervention, for instance the proposal to regulate the profession by the Health Professions Council. Many therapists see this as a threat to its fundamental principles due to the fact that government policy is influenced by the medical model and managerialism. This article looks,…

  15. Breaking through to Teens: Psychotherapy for the New Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffel, Ron

    2005-01-01

    This book presents groundbreaking strategies for psychotherapy with today's teens, for whom high-risk behavior, lack of adult guidance, and intense anxiety and stress increasingly come with the territory. Ron Taffel addresses the key challenge of building a therapeutic relationship that is strong enough to promote real behavioral and emotional…

  16. Correlates of empathic understanding among neophyte trainees in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, S G; Schwartz, R C

    1999-04-01

    Results are summarized of an empirical study testing the associations among various academic, demographic, and personal characteristics and rated empathic understanding among 93 neophyte psychotherapy trainees from six universities. Multiple regression analyses suggested that completion of a graduate group counseling course with a specific personal growth component was the only characteristic significantly correlated with ratings of empathic understanding.

  17. The Use of Digital Narratives to Enhance Counseling and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Yegan

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances have impinged on every aspect of contemporary phenomenological experiences, including counseling and psychotherapy. The author explores the intersection of narrative therapy, specifically the traditional memory book, with the advances in information technology in the formulation of the digital memory book. The digital memory…

  18. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  19. Counselling and Psychotherapy in Dialogue with Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John

    2011-01-01

    Counselling and psychotherapy is attracting government interest and intervention, for instance the proposal to regulate the profession by the Health Professions Council. Many therapists see this as a threat to its fundamental principles due to the fact that government policy is influenced by the medical model and managerialism. This article looks,…

  20. The Development of a Psychotherapy Service at Amherst College

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    This description of counseling and psychotherapy services at Amherst College begins with our heritage from the "mental hygiene" movement of the nineteenth century, the founding of the first university mental health services and the later development of a counseling center tradition. By tracing the evolution at Amherst, from a brief…

  1. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  2. The Selection of Patients for Psychotherapy by College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Wolfgang G.; Abston, Nathaniel, Jr.

    Research on the cognitive activity of clinicians during the initial interview has revealed that mental health professionals are often guided by social stereotypes of attractiveness in their choice of patients for intensive individual or group psychotherapy. Specifically, YAVIS patients (young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successful) are…

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy for Chronic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnow, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) was developed specifically for the chronically depressed patient. CBASP has been shown to be as efficacious as medication singly, and in combination with antidepressant medication is associated with notably high response rates in chronic depression. CBASP's core procedure, "situational…

  4. Child-Parent Psychotherapy and Traumatic Exposure to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vilma; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates the multidimensional impact of violence during infancy and the effectiveness of a relationship-focused treatment, child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), in addressing the traumatic consequences of exposure to violence. The authors describe the treatment of a 3-year-old boy and his mother and highlight three key points: (a)…

  5. Logotherapy as a Bridge Between Religion and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbaugh, James C.

    Frankl's logotherapy, a technique of searching for meaning in life, is presented as a counseling theory which borders religion but does not overlap, by taking both the mentally healthy individual and the patient in psychotherapy to this boundary, and challenging him/her to decide whether religion can be an integral part of life meaning and…

  6. (Re)placing Multiculturalism in Counselling and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Since multiculturalism is not fully theorised it has created much confusion in counselling and psychotherapy. It has been criticised for ignoring questions of power relations, and for emphasising the cultural differences of ethnic minority groups rather than focus on their similar predicaments of racism, sexism, misogyny, homophobia and economic…

  7. The Practice of Psychotherapy in Mexico: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Marcella D.; Frels, Rebecca K.; Chavez, Rafael Reyes; Sharma, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the history of psychotherapy in Mexico and describes past and current practices of psychological services, training, and supervision for Mexican international students in the United States. Sample curricula, texts, and universities in Mexico are listed. Implications for training underscore the importance of collaboration and…

  8. Inherent Self, Invented Self, Empty Self: Constructivism, Buddhism, and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Spencer A.

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist and Buddhist approaches to counseling and psychotherapy share increasing popularity as well as similar epistemological assumptions and understanding of human dysfunction and its amelioration. These approaches can be seen as consistent with postmodern psychology, which is distinguished from a realist or foundationalist view. This…

  9. Methods and Mechanisms in the Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler summarized a large body of research that shows psychodynamic therapy to have a substantial effect size, comparable to that for many empirically supported treatments. This is an important finding, in part refuting the concerns raised by Bornstein…

  10. Integrating Spirituality into Counselling and Psychotherapy: Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, spirituality has become a prominent focus of psychological inquiry. As research begins to elucidate the role of spiritual beliefs and behaviours in mental health and the influences of spirituality in psychotherapy, developing therapist competency in this domain has increased in importance. This article will first situate…

  11. Addressing Anger Using Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    A young woman initiated counselling services at a community agency to address her explosive anger that was a remnant of childhood physical and emotional abuse. Sensorimotor psychotherapy was used to help this client learn how to monitor and regulate her sensorimotor processes. In conjunction with this approach, Cognitive behavioural therapy was…

  12. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy with Juveniles Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newring, Kirk A. B.; Wheeler, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously discussed the application of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) with adults who have committed sexual offense behaviors (Newring & Wheeler, 2010). The present entry borrows heavily from the foundation presented in that chapter, and extends this approach to working with adolescents, youth, and juveniles with sexual offense…

  13. Changes in Studying Abilities as Perceived by Students Attending Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkäpää, Kristiina; Junttila, Outi; Lindfors, Olavi; Järvikoski, Aila

    2014-01-01

    In rehabilitative psychotherapy, the goal is to support and improve the person's working and studying capacity and to secure his/her staying in or entering the workforce. In this qualitative study, the aim was to describe the changes students experienced in their studying ability and the advancement of their studies as a result of the therapy…

  14. Time-Limited Psychotherapy: An Interactional Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J.

    One model of successful time-limited psychotherapy characterizes the therapy as a movement through three interactional stages: the early rapport attainment stage, the middle conflict stage, and the final resolution stage. According to this model, these stages are indicated by the relative presence of communicational harmony. To examine the…

  15. Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.

  16. The efficacy of long-term psychotherapy: Methodological research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, S.M.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Jonghe, de F.

    2007-01-01

    In evidence-based medicine (EBM) hierarchy, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are ranked higher than cohort studies. However, cohort intervention studies are frequently, and RCTs rarely, used to investigate long-term psychotherapy (LTP). The authors compare the two methods and provide critical

  17. Equifinality in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Different Strokes for Different Folks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Dalto, Georgia; Follette, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is an interpersonal behavior therapy that relies on a therapist's ability to contingently respond to in-session client behavior. Valued behavior change in clients results from the therapist shaping more effective client interpersonal behaviors by providing effective social reinforcement when these behaviors…

  18. A Psychosynthetic Model of Personality and its Implications for Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haronian, Frank

    1975-01-01

    A psychosynthetic model of personality was presented as well as several inferences for an eclectic but systematic approach to psychotherapy which embraces a variety of methods, can be ordered in a reasonable sequence, and used within a therapist-client relationship which is existentially structured. (Author/RK)

  19. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  20. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...

  1. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  2. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  3. Journeys through the valley of death: multimethod psychological assessment and personality transformation in long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Stephen E

    2011-03-01

    The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force, 2006) is based on the assumption that an in-depth understanding of clients' underlying emotional, personality, and interpersonal patterns will facilitate their treatment. In this article I show how such an understanding can be achieved through multimethod psychological assessment, and how useful such information can be in long-term psychotherapy with high-achieving, successful clients who struggle with forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Such treatments are extremely difficult, because when these clients attach to their psychotherapists, many of them temporarily become more symptomatic. I illustrate these points with a detailed account of my long-term therapy with a resilient but highly traumatized young man. Repeated use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Rorschach with my client helped guide us in our work, and also helped create an important therapeutic "opening" into the underlying traumatic material. This and other experiences have convinced me that it is extremely useful for psychologists to have training in both assessment and psychotherapy.

  4. Interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Calugi, Simona; Rucci, Paola; Savino, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a dynamically informed and present-focused psychotherapy originally conceived for patients with unipolar depression and subsequently modified for other disorders, including postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of this paper is to review the evidence on the efficacy of IPT for PPD. We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1995 and April 2013 assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD using PubMed and PsycINFO. We included the following: (i) articles that presented a combination of at least two of the established terms in the abstract, namely, interpersonal [all fields] and ("psychotherapy" [MeSH terms] or psychotherapy [all fields]) and (perinatal [all fields] or postpartum [all fields]) and ("depressive disorder" [MeSH terms] or ("depressive" [all fields] and "disorder" [all fields]) or depressive disorder [all fields] or "depression" [all fields] or depression [MeSH terms]); (ii) manuscripts in English; (iii) original articles; and (iv) prospective or retrospective observational studies (analytical or descriptive), experimental, or quasi-experimental. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) other study designs, such as case reports, case series, and reviews; (ii) non-original studies including editorials, book reviews, and letters to the editor; and (iii) studies not specifically designed and focused on IPT. We identified 11 clinical primary trials assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD, including 3 trials with group interventions (G-IPT) and one that required the presence of the partner (PA-IPT). We also identified six studies interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented preventive interventions for use in pregnancy. IPT studies showed overall clinical improvement in the most commonly used depression measures in postpartum depressed women (EPDS, HDRS, BDI) and often-full recovery in several cases of treated patients. Evidence from clinical trials indicates that, when administered in monotherapy (or in combination with

  5. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  6. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment......-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not identical to mapped place...... attachment across participants in the region showed similar spatial intensity to aggregated values home range, but area-based assessment of place attachment and values home range are distorted by edge effects such as a coastline. To further develop the mapping of place attachment in PPGIS, we identify...

  7. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  8. Attachment and Outcomes in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslim Guvendeger Doksat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term and ldquo;attachment and rdquo; is used to imply the bonding between mother and child or the relationship between parents and child. Establishment of secure attachment is the healthiest way for the mental and physical development of the child. Secure attachment system constitutes a protection mechanism from high levels of stress. Insecurely attached children are presented with mental and physical developmental delays and problems in identity formation and personality in the future. To avoid all these, all the requirements of the child by means of affection, nutrition, protection, shelter and health are required to be met in a consistent and healthy way by the caregiver. This review article discuss the term attachment; features associated with insecure attachment and its negative influences in adulthood. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 489-501

  9. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  10. Psychotherapy Participants Show Increased Physiological Responsiveness to a Lab Stressor Relative to Matched Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Steffen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and forty-eight matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, and during a twenty-minute recovery period. Psychotherapy participants and matched controls did not differ at baseline or during the TSST on the physiological measures but psychotherapy participants had higher cortisol and heart rate during the recovery period. In regards to reactivity, cortisol increased during the recovery period for the psychotherapy participants but decreased for those in the matched control group. Psychotherapy participants experiencing clinically significant levels of distress displayed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate during the TSST when compared to psychotherapy participants not experiencing clinically significant levels of distress. Overall, physiological reactivity to stress appears to be an important issue for those in psychotherapy and directly addressing this issue may help improve psychotherapy outcomes.

  11. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  12. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression is associated with poor social problem solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for…

  13. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression is associated with poor social problem solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for…

  14. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  15. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  16. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  17. Association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Adult Unresolved Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Kristin M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Yucuis, Rebecca; Troutman, Beth; Arndt, Stephan; Philibert, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Research on antecedents of organized attachment has focused on the quality of caregiving received during childhood. In recent years, research has begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on quality of infant attachment. However, no published studies report on the association between specific genetic factors and adult attachment. This…

  18. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  19. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  20. Attachment and object relations in patients with narcissistic personality disorder: implications for therapeutic process and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Diana; Meehan, Kevin B

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a therapeutic approach for patients with severe personality disorders, transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), a manualized evidence-based treatment, which integrates contemporary object relations theory with attachment theory and research. Case material is presented from a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) patient in TFP whose primary presenting problems were in the arena of sexuality and love relations, and whose attachment state of mind showed evidence of oscillation between dismissing and preoccupied mechanisms. Clinical process material is presented to illustrate the tactics and techniques of TFP and how they have been refined for treatment of individuals with NPD. The ways in which conflicts around sexuality and love relations were lived out in the transference is delineated with a focus on the interpretation of devalued and idealized representations of self and others, both of which are key components of the compensatory grandiose self that defensively protects the individual from an underlying sense of vulnerability and imperfection.

  1. [Meaning in life and mental health: personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Sabine; Knappe, Rainer; Joraschky, Peter; Pöhlmann, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients as well as correlations between meaning in life and mental health. We qualitatively assessed the content and structure of the personal meaning systems of 41 psychotherapists and 77 psychotherapy patients. In addition, the participants completed questionnaires measuring meaning in life (LRI-r-d), sense of coherence (SOC-9L), self-esteem (RSES), satisfaction with life (SWLS), self-efficacy (SWK), and depression (BDI). The personal meaning systems of psychotherapists were more complex and coherent compared to psychotherapy patients. In the group of psychotherapy patients, a more elaborate structure of the personal meaning system correlated with the subjective sense of meaning. We were able to confirm correlations between meaning in life and mental health for most of the instances. Psychotherapists had more elaborate and coherent meaning systems than psychotherapy patients. Especially for psychotherapy patients elaborate and coherent meaning systems turned out to be important for mental health.

  2. Hidden points of view in cross-cultural psychotherapy and ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Inga-Britt

    2006-06-01

    This article examines the challenges posed by cross-cultural psychotherapy in a creolized world, and the way this intersects with issues faced by the ethnographer. It proposes 'the relational subject,' implicit in systemic psychotherapy and social anthropology, as a framework for an understanding of communication. In cross-cultural psychotherapy, this assumption is central to non-discriminatory and equitable treatment. Drawing on Bateson's ethnographic work, the article connects 'the relational subject' to what Bateson, following Whitehead, called 'the fallacy of misplaced concreteness' and later referred to as 'context.' The article examines the choices of 'context' first in ethnography and systemic psychotherapy and then in Bateson's own analysis of the Naven ritual. It is suggested that cross-cultural psychotherapy is psychotherapy in which the therapist keeps in mind, both her own and her client's contexts. This means an assessment of process (performative aspects) as well as content (semiotic aspects) and attention to 'moments' rather than longer sequences in the therapy.

  3. Case sampling for psychotherapy practice, theory, and policy guidance: Qualities and quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Merton S

    2016-09-01

    Random sampling of cases is usually infeasible for psychotherapy research, so opportunistic and purposive sampling must be used instead. Such sampling does not justify generalizations from sample to population-distribution statistics, but does justify reporting what independent-variable value configurations are associated with what dependent-variable value configurations. This allows only the generalization that these associations occur at least that frequently in the population sampled from, which is enough for suggesting and testing some psychotherapy theories and informing some psychotherapy practice. Although psychotherapy practice is a longitudinal process, formal psychotherapy outcome research is so far most feasible and most widely done in the form of two-phase cross-sectional input-outcome studies. Thus, the analysis of sampling for psychotherapy research here will be in terms of the independent- and dependent-variable value configurations produced in such two-phase studies.

  4. Biliprotein maturation: the chromophore attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H; Zhao, K-H

    2008-04-01

    Biliproteins are a widespread group of brilliantly coloured photoreceptors characterized by linear tetrapyrrolic chromophores, bilins, which are covalently bound to the apoproteins via relatively stable thioether bonds. Covalent binding stabilizes the chromoproteins and is mandatory for phycobilisome assembly; and, it is also important in biliprotein applications such as fluorescence labelling. Covalent binding has, on the other hand, also considerably hindered biliprotein research because autocatalytic chromophore additions are rare, and information on enzymatic addition by lyases was limited to a single example, an EF-type lyase attaching phycocyanobilin to cysteine-alpha84 of C-phycocyanin. The discovery of new activities for the latter lyases, and of new types of lyases, have reinvigorated research activities in the subject. So far, work has mainly concentrated on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins. Methodological advances in the process, however, as well as the finding of often large numbers of homologues, opens new possibilities for research on the subsequent assembly/disassembly of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae, on the assembly and organization of the cryptophyte light-harvesting system, on applications in basic research such as protein folding, and on the use of phycobiliproteins for labelling.

  5. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  6. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta

    2011-03-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days.

  7. Attachment to Caregivers and Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnič Radobuljac, Maja; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Attachment is a behavioral and physiological system, which enables individual's dynamic adaptation to its environment. Attachment develops in close interaction between an infant and his/her mother, plays an important role in the development of the infant's brain, and influences the quality of interpersonal relationships throughout life. Security of attachment is believed to influence individual response to stress, exposing insecurely organized individuals to deregulated autonomic nervous system and exaggerated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, which, in turn, produces increased and prolonged exposure to stress-hormones. Such stress responses may have considerable implications for the development of diverse health-risk conditions, such as insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia, shown by numerous studies. Although the mechanisms are not yet fully understood, there is compelling evidence highlighting the role of psychological stress in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). One of the possible contributing factors for the development of T1D may be the influence of attachment security on individual stress reactivity. Thus, the suggestion is that insecurely attached individuals are more prone to experience increased and prolonged influence of stress hormones and other mechanisms causing pancreatic beta-cell destruction. The present paper opens with a short overview of the field of attachment in children, the principal attachment classifications and their historic development, describes the influence of attachment security on individual stress-reactivity and the role of the latter in the development of T1D. Following is a review of recent literature on the attachment in patients with T1D with a conclusion of a proposed role of attachment organization in the etiology of T1D.

  8. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rick, Ann; Vanheule, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.

  9. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet DİNÇ

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of Cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored sevent...

  10. A translational approach to the functional analysis of language in psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Virues-Ortega; María Xesús Froján-Parga

    2014-01-01

    The functional analysis of verbal behavior has been successful in establishing basic and advanced forms of language in individuals with developmental disabilities. The development of behavioral approaches to psychotherapy, such as the functional-analytic psychotherapy, have advanced the implementation of operant analyses of verbal behavior among typical adults. The field of behavior-analytic approaches to psychotherapy departs from the applied experimental research in behavior analysis in ...

  11. Discussion of "Eating disorders and attachment: a contemporary psychodynamic perspective:" does the attachment model of eating disorders indicate the need for psychodynamic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2014-06-01

    Tasca and Balfour have done admirable work highlighting the importance of attachment security in the psychopathology of eating disorders (EDs), and their contributions are extremely valuable. For their points to be fully appreciated by the research and treatment-research communities, additional data are needed in key areas. Research is needed to help clarify the relative roles and cause-and-effect relationships between attachment insecurity, reflective functioning, and emotion regulation in the development and maintenance of EDs. Tasca and Balfour furthermore call their model "psychodynamic," and call for psychodynamically informed treatment for patients with attachment insecurity. For this call to be heeded, additional research is needed to examine whether the unique elements of psychodynamic psychotherapy have particular benefit for patients with insecure attachment styles. The unique psychodynamic elements considered in this comment include a therapeutic focus on reflective functioning, the patient's developmental history, the "unconscious," and the transference and countertransference. The utility of a non-directive (or patient-directed) therapeutic process is also considered. Investigation of these treatment issues could be extremely useful to practitioners and patients alike.

  12. "Our Time is Up": A Relational Perspective on the Ending of a Single Psychotherapy Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jerome S

    2016-12-31

    This paper, written from a relational perspective, examines the final minutes of an individual psychotherapy session, and is organized around the topics of boundary negotiation, unwitting self-disclosures, visual challenges, and countertransference. Attending to session-ending material is important because the separation involved lends heightened emotional intensity to the oftensignificant material that appears in the final minutes. This material often serves as a bridge to the psychotherapeutic work to be taken up in subsequent sessions. Session-ending dynamics call upon the therapist to prioritize empathy, validation, and support for the patient suffering from early deprivation; identify and heal narcissistic injury in the patient wishing to be special; judiciously alter the frame when doing so will benefit the patient and not constitute a boundary violation; avoid re-traumatization; admit mistakes; confront blatant denial; advance agency; address uncomfortable topics; set appropriate limits; and deal authentically with uncomfortable countertransference. Numerous clinical examples serve to illustrate these clinical phenomena.

  13. Clinical Considerations Regarding Regression in Psychotherapy with Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marcia

    Regression is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis, typically part of a reorganization that leads to progression, at least with respect to recruiting elements in the unconscious to consciousness. Regression in patients with conversion disorder (i.e., pseudo-neurological symptoms without an organic basis) is often itself somatic/physical rather than psychic in nature. Psychotherapists working with these patients must be prepared for confusing or frightening forms of regression that should be expected as part of the therapeutic process. In conversion disorder patients with adequate character structure, this regression, when handled effectively by the psychotherapist, ultimately leads to verbalized thoughts and feelings and a gradually strengthening alternative to physically experienced psychic conflict.

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy and Brief Supportive Psychotherapy for Augmentation of Antidepressant Nonresponse in Chronic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Klein, Daniel N.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Manber, Rachel; Keller, Martin B.; Leon, Andrew C.; Wisniewski, Steven R.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Markowitz, John C.; Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have found that few chronically depressed patients remit with antidepressant medications alone. Objective To determine the role of adjunctive psychotherapy in the treatment of chronically depressed patients with less than complete response to an initial medication trial. Design This trial compared 12 weeks of (1) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), (2) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), and (3) continued optimized pharmacotherapy (MEDS) alone. We hypothesized that adding CBASP would produce higher rates of response and remission than adding BSP or continuing MEDS alone. Setting Eight academic sites. Participants Chronically depressed patients with a current DSM-IV–defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years. Interventions Phase 1 consisted of open-label, algorithm-guided treatment for 12 weeks based on a history of antidepressant response. Patients not achieving remission received next-step pharmacotherapy options with or without adjunctive psychotherapy (phase 2). Individuals undergoing psychotherapy were randomized to receive either CBASP or BSP stratified by phase 1 response, ie, as nonresponders (NRs) or partial responders (PRs). Main Outcome Measures Proportions of remitters, PRs, and NRs and change on Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores. Results In all, 808 participants entered phase 1, of which 491 were classified as NRs or PRs and entered phase 2 (200 received CBASP and MEDS, 195 received BSP and MEDS, and 96 received MEDS only). Mean HAM-D scores dropped from 25.9 to 17.7 in NRs and from 15.2 to 9.9 in PRs. No statistically significant differences emerged among the 3 treatment groups in the proportions of phase 2 remission (15.0%), partial response (22.5%), and non-response (62.5%) or in changes on HAM-D scores. Conclusions Although 37.5% of the

  15. Social Integration as Professional Field: Psychotherapy in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johnsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes and analyses the emergence and development of a professional field called social integration. Ideas, theories, and occupational practices forming this field are explored, particularly those related to the development of a new discipline, that of psychotherapy. The development of three occupations (psychiatry, psychology and social work and their professionalisation is described through their qualitative and quantitative take‑offs in particular historical periods. Three periods are identified: formation, 1850-1920, when psychiatry was defined as a medical sub-discipline; consolidation, 1920-1945, with the institutionalisation of psychiatric care, and with psychoanalysis and mental hygiene as qualitatively new cognitive bases for practitioners; and professionalisation, 1945-1980, with the deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric care and the professionalisation of psychologists and social workers. New ideas on subjectivity and individualism, new welfare state institutions, as well as collaborative professionalism all favoured the creation of psychotherapy as professional knowledge, and a possible new profession of psychotherapists.

  16. Amelioration of transference resistance: substitute therapists in milieu group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, M B; Kibel, H D; Loutsch, E M

    1990-01-01

    Building upon Wolf's (1949) notion of the use of an alternate session in group psychotherapy, this paper suggests that an alternate therapist substituting for an absent regular therapist in milieu group psychotherapy can facilitate similar therapeutic benefits. The mechanism of this process of overcoming transference resistance is seen as twofold: (1) sessions with a substitute therapist allow patients to confront the infantilization often present in a milieu setting and experiment with more autonomous ego functioning. (2) Sessions with a substitute therapist create conditions which are apart from the ongoing process of the therapy group, thereby allowing for a therapeutic splitting process to develop wherein transference feelings about the regular therapist can be expressed to his or her "alter ego." Several case vignettes are presented in order to illustrate the clinical utility of a substitute therapist.

  17. Kant, cognitive psychotherapy, and the hardening of the categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2007-12-01

    Contemporary models of psychotherapy owe a considerable intellectual debt to philosophy, even though the contributions of philosophers to contemporary practice in the field often go unrecognized. A case in point is Kant's epistemology, which is foundational to cognitive approaches to psychotherapy. Here, it is argued that the rigid use of certain judgments represented in Kant's conceptual scheme underlies patterns of distorted or dysfunctional thinking associated with emotional disorders. Kantian judgments of necessity, disjunction, particularity and universality have counterpoints in contemporary conceptions of cognitive distortions. Moreover, Kantian epistemology has important therapeutic implications with respect to helping people with emotional disorders recognize and challenge rigidly held judgments or categories of understanding. The Kantian perspective also leads us to consider the cognitive frameworks or thought structures that underlie dysfunctional thinking patterns.

  18. Buddhist psychology, psychotherapy and the brain: a critical introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2008-03-01

    Buddhist psychology is increasingly informing psychotherapeutic practice in the western world. This article: (a) provides a general background to Buddhist tradition; (b) outlines the central tenets of Buddhist psychology, with particular emphasis on the practice of meditation; (c) provides an overview of research into the effects of Buddhist practice on the brain; (d) outlines the relationships between Buddhist psychology and existing forms of psychotherapy; (e) provides an overview of Buddhist approaches to specific psychiatric disorders and the psychological aspects of physical disorders; and (f) discusses the emergence of Buddhist psychotherapy in western societies and explores likely future developments. There is a need for further research into the neuroscientific correlates of Buddhist concepts of mind and the evidence-base for the use of specific techniques (e.g., meditation) in psychotherapeutic practice.

  19. [Aspects of psychotherapy in diabetes mellitus with accompanying alcoholic intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, P I; Novikova, I A; Solov'ev, A G

    2001-01-01

    120 patients with different types of diabetes mellitus were divided into groups by the presence and intensity of accompanying alcoholic intoxication: group 1--no alcohol intake; group 2--rare alcohol intake; group 3--moderate alcohol intake; group 4--alcoholic abuse. Experimental psychological methods were used together with psychotherapeutic approaches: Wiesbaden's questionnaire (WIPPF), Lusher's and MMPI tests. For each group of the patients some recommendations are given for application of the above techniques. Thus in patients from the 1-3 groups it is worthwhile to perform a positive psychotherapy directed to the development of the body/sensation sphere (according to WIPPF), that is a care about physical and mental state (including autotraining and training of communication). In the alcohol abusing patients the main point should be fantasy/future sphere (according to WIPPF) in the ranges of the same positive psychotherapy directed to forming positive world view and correction of the interpersonal relations.

  20. Open access meta-analysis for psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Scott A; Del Re, A C

    2016-04-01

    Meta-analysis has played a key role in psychotherapy research for nearly 40 years. There is now an opportunity for technology to assist with transparent and open meta-analyses. The authors describe an open-access database of effect sizes and a corresponding web application for performing meta-analyses, viewing the database, and downloading effect sizes. The initial databases provide effect sizes for family therapy for delinquency studies and for alliance-outcome correlations in individual psychotherapy. Disciplinary norms about data sharing and openness are shifting. Furthermore, meta-analyses of behavioral interventions have been criticized for lacking transparency and openness. The database and web application are aimed at facilitating data sharing and improving the transparency of meta-analyses. The authors conclude with a discussion of future directions for the database.

  1. Prediction of outcome of brief psychotherapy from therapist interpretive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, E A

    1984-03-01

    This study replicated Malan's 1976 analysis of psychodynamic interpretations and corrected the major methodological fault in his work: the use of therapist notes for rating the interpretive elements. In this study, the sessions of 25 patients treated in brief dynamic psychotherapy were audiotaped and the ratings of the interpretive interventions were made directly from the audiotapes. Malan's findings were supported. There was a positive association between more favorable outcome, measured on five psychodynamic scales, and the frequency with which therapist interpretations referred to emotions experienced in the transference relationship that were similar to those experienced in relationships with parents and other important persons. The results of this replication indicate that these therapist-offered explanations about the meanings of significant current and past interpersonal relationships contribute to the outcome of brief psychotherapy.

  2. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy on marriage adaptive and postpartum depression in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hajiheidari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this research confirm marriage interpersonal psychotherapy on the depression recovery and the increasing marriage satisfaction of women suffering from postpartum depression.

  3. Clinical algorithms as a tool for psychotherapy with Latino clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoleas, Peter; Garcia, Betty

    2003-04-01

    Clinical algorithms have the advantage of being able to integrate clinical, cultural, and environmental factors into a unified method of planning and implementing treatment. A model for practice is proposed that uses 3 algorithms as guides for conducting psychotherapy with Latino clients, the uses of which are illustrated in a single, ongoing case vignette. The algorithm format has the additional advantage of easily adapting itself for data gathering for research purposes.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anita D Stuart; H Gertie Pretorius; Patricia K Nel

    2003-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an individualized holistic psychotherapy and synergistic stress management programme for the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and stress, both of which are common disorders in this present day and age. IBS is a functional bowel disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that leads to change in bowel habits with the additional features of abdominal pain and distension (Drossman, 1994b). This functional disorder has been ...

  5. [On the problem of psychodiagnosis in psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, H; Littmann, E

    1975-04-01

    Owing to the changed concept of psychiatry and psychotherapy, greater demands are also being made on psychodiagnostics. The article deals with the prerequisites, possible significance and application of the clinical methods and psychological tests, describes the problems of standardization and quality testing and discusses indications and problems of the different groups of methods. The demands of the clinician addressed to test designers are dealt with, as well as the question of which group of methods should be used and by whom.

  6. [Psychotherapies for the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Katherine; Aranda, Mariana

    The phantom limb pain has been described as a condition in which patients experience a feeling of itching, spasm or pain in a limb or body part that has been previously amputated. Such pain can be induced by a conflict between the representation of the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the previously healthy limb. The phantom limb pain occurs in at least 42 to 90% of amputees. Regular drug treatment of phantom limb pain is almost never effective. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline and Cochrane using the MESH terms "phantom limb pain" and "psychotherapy", published in the last 10 years, in English and Spanish, finding 49 items. After reviewing the abstracts, 25 articles were excluded for not being related to the objective of the research. Additionally cross references of included articles and literature were reviewed. To describe the psychotherapies used in the management of phantom limb pain, their effectiveness and clinical application reported in the literature. The mechanisms underlying phantom limb pain were initially explained, as were the published studies on the usefulness of some psychotherapies such as mirror visual feedback and immersive virtual reality, visual imagery, desensitization and reprocessing eye movements and hypnosis. The phantom limb pain is a complex syndrome that requires pharmacological and psychotherapeutic intervention. The psychotherapies that have been used the most as adjuvants in the treatment of phantom limb pain are mirror visual feedback, desensitization and reprocessing eye movements, imagery and hypnosis. Studies with more representative samples, specifically randomized trials are required. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychotherapy after acquired brain injury: Is less more?

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    Rudi Coetzer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the challenges and dilemmas facing psychotherapists working with neurological patients, and in particular those who work in the context of under-resourced brain injury rehabilitation healthcare systems. Through the subjective process of reflective practice integral to clinical supervision, the author attempts to identify five core aspects of psychotherapy intended to augment post-acute long- term rehabilitation programmes and interventions after acquired brain injury.

  8. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Aleksandrovna Melkumova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy (CBPT methods in the treatment of patients with chronic pain is considered. Despite the existing difficulties in evaluating the efficiency of CBPT, numerous studies have shown good results when it is used both alone and as part of a multidisciplinary approach. The use of CBPT methods may be considered as an effective non-drug treatment for chronic back pain

  9. Attachment avoidance modulates neural response to masked facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Dannlowski, Udo; Bauer, Jochen; Konrad, Carsten; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    According to recent models of individual differences in attachment organization, a basic dimension of adult attachment is avoidance. Attachment-related avoidance corresponds to tendencies to withdraw from close relationships and to an unwillingness to rely on others. In the formation of attachment orientation during infancy facial emotional interaction plays a central role. There exists an inborn very rapid decoding capacity for facial emotional expression. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in automatic brain reactivity to facial emotions as a function of attachment avoidance in a sample of 51 healthy adults. Pictures of sad and happy faces (which are approach-related interpersonal signals) were presented masked by neutral faces. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) was used to assess the attachment avoidance. Masked sad faces activated the amygdala, the insula, occipito-temporal areas, and the somatosensory cortices. Independently from trait anxiety, depressivity, and detection performance, attachment avoidance was found to be inversely related to responses of the primary somatosensory cortex (BA 3) to masked sad faces. A low spontaneous responsivity of the primary somatosensory cortex to negative faces could be a correlate of the habitual unwillingness to deal with partners' distress and needs for proximity. The somatosensory cortices are known to be critically involved in the processes of emotional mimicry and simulation which have the potential to increase social affiliation. Our data are consistent with the idea that people who withdraw from close relationships respond spontaneously to a lesser extent to negative interpersonal emotional signals than securely attached individuals.

  10. Psychotherapy as cultural discourse [Psychoterapia jako dyskurs kulturowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years` history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic “reality”. These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists` perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists` ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  11. Sign-language interpretation in psychotherapy with deaf patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, A

    1999-01-01

    Sporadic encounters with deaf patients seeking psychotherapy present a challenge to general clinicians outside of specialized services for the deaf. Skills for working with people who do not share one's own language mode and culture are not routinely taught in most training programs, so clinicians may be unprepared when they first encounter a deaf patient. While it would be ideal to be able to match deaf patients with therapists fluent in their preferred language mode, this is often not feasible in smaller centers. Working with a trained professional sign-language interpreter can be a productive alternative, as long as patient, therapist, and interpreter understand and are comfortable with the process. Peer-reviewed literature on sign language interpretation in psychotherapy is sparse, but some practical guidelines can be gleaned from it and supplemented by information provided by the deaf community through the Internet. This paper arose from one psychiatric resident's first experience of psychotherapy working with a sign-language interpreter, and summarizes the literature search that resulted from a quest for understanding of deaf culture and experience, of the unique characteristics of sign language, and of the effects on the therapeutic relationship of the presence of the interpreter.

  12. [Integrative approach in the psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years six psychotherapy methods have been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. Solid RCT evidences suggests the efficacy of all the methods. Roughly equivalent improvement was obtained from the different types of psychotherapies. Today we have reached a new phase of the borderline "psychotherapy boom", the integrative approach. According to the integrative treatment advocates we should not choose among these effective treatments but we can incorporate in the therapy all the components that work. The integrative approach uses general factors common to all effective therapies, combined with specific treatment techniques taken from different therapies in order to treat the given patient's psychopathology. These common factors are: coherent framework; attention to strategies for building strong positive alliance and maintaining patient motivation; creating a safe and structured therapeutic environment; clear treatment frame; transparency of the goals and roles; focus upon presenting problems; higher level therapeutic activity; here-and-now focus; and facilitating self-reflection. Treatment focuses on change while maintaining a validating and supportive stance. General strategies can be supplemented by more specific techniques such as cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing maladaptive behavior, training for developing emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills coming from dialectical behavior therapy. Methods drawn from psychodynamic approaches can be used for the modification of underlying interpersonal cognitive-emotional schemas.

  13. Learning through the lens: ethical considerations in videotaping psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkenstein, Amy B; Kessler, Katherine Ann; Schen, Cathy R

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatry training programs have begun to use technology to enhance psychotherapy teaching. Videotaped interviews provide a window into the psychotherapeutic exchange, demystifying the process and capturing verbal and nonverbal interactions, facial expression, and tone of voice-which can illustrate therapeutic elements such as the alliance and resistance. The process of videotaping psychotherapeutic interviews, however, introduces issues related to consent, ethics, and the dynamics of therapy. By examining two cases in which residents asked their patients to videotape a session for didactic purposes and encountered divergent outcomes, we explore the ethical issues unique to providing informed consent for videotaping psychotherapy. Informed consent must be given verbally and in writing. Verbal consent must include discussion of the risks and benefits of therapy. The discussion must also include the risks inherent in memorializing sensitive material on an external device, with disclosure of the logistics of how data will be stored, who will view the recorded material, and when it will be destroyed. Therapists should be aware of the coercive power inherent in the physician-patient relationship and should individualize each informed consent procedure with this knowledge in mind. Despite these potential pitfalls, videotaping sessions provides a wealth of information about both patients and therapists that can improve psychotherapy teaching and supervision, and indirectly improve patient care.

  14. The renewal of humanism in psychotherapy: a roundtable discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried

    2012-12-01

    This special section highlights the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. For the purposes of this special section, humanism is defined as a philosophical perspective whose subject matter is the whole human being. In psychotherapy, humanism places special emphasis on the personal, interpersonal, and contextual dimensions of therapy and on clients' reflections on their relationship with self, others, and the larger psychosocial world. The contributors to this special section-Bruce Wampold, David Elkins, Steven Hayes, Robert Stolorow, Jurgen Kriz, Lillian Comas-Diaz, and the authors of this introduction-are each leaders in their respective therapeutic specialties: research and training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic therapy, European therapy, and multicultural therapy. In the manner of a "roundtable," each contributor was asked to provide a short article on the renewal of humanism in his or her respective specialty followed by brief comments on the initial round of articles. The conclusion of these reflections is that the renewal of humanism is a viable and growing phenomenon among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy. The corollary conclusion is that although many theoretical and practical questions remain, humanism is (1) a foundational element of therapeutic effectiveness; (2) a pivotal (and needed) dimension of therapeutic training; and (3) a critical contributor to societal well-being. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Psychotherapie mit Videotelefon - Telemental Health by using Videoconferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Reisinger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available All areas of life are covered by the technological development, the use of computer and Internet. This media world does not stop in front of the carefully protected, therapeutic areas. It seems to be necessary to examine the possibilities of psychotherapy or psychotherapeutic counseling with videophone. In this qualitative research, different kind of aspects by psyhotherapists will be presented of how to engage in psychotherapy by using videophone. Furthermore are shown the specifics of the therapeutic relationship, the limits shown in a screen-to-screen treatment and the expectations of the psychotherapists for the future. Examining this subject it became clear that the experts act very carefully when selecting the patients and keep staying within their self-imposed limits. In this area the development of a sound relationship and a successful therapy is possible. For the future, experts hope that the question of the legal general regulations and the protection of quality will be solved. Psychotherapy with videophone shall be offered in addition to mental health care but the presence-therapy should not be replaced.

  16. Physiologic evidence for the interpersonal role of laughter during psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marci, Carl D; Moran, Erin K; Orr, Scott P

    2004-10-01

    The role of laughter during psychotherapy is poorly understood. This study examined 10 unique sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy with digital videotape and simultaneous measures of skin conductivity (SC) from patients and therapists. Independent observers coded laugh episodes using published criteria. Observers identified 167 laugh responses. Of the 119 patient laughs, 91 (76.5%) were patient as speaker, compared with 28 (23.4%) as nonspeaker audience. In contrast, of the 48 therapist laughs, only five (10.4%) were therapist as speaker, whereas 43 (90.3%) were as nonspeaker audience. The difference was highly significant (p < .001). Physiologic data showed that mean SC level increased regardless of role as patient, therapist, speaker, or audience (p < .001). Two-factor analysis of variance indicated that SC change scores were significantly larger when patients and therapists laughed together compared with laughing alone (p < .05). The results support an empirically based approach to the study of laughter and the use of psychophysiology as a measure of process during psychotherapy.

  17. AN INTEGRATIVE GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN. THE WIZARDING SCHOOL

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    Oana Maria Popescu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy. The program takes place within a fairy tale, being therefore a type of informal hypnotic trance. The interventions are drawn from the lessons described in Harry Potter’s story at Hogwarts, based on the fundamental principles of child psychotherapy and including elements of play therapy, art therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive- behavioural therapy, transactional analysis, supportive therapy, family therapy and person centred therapy. From a theoretical point of view the program is based on elements from a number of psychotherapeutic approaches, the main concept being that we need to create a therapeutic myth that is acceptable to a child. The program is not suitable for children with structural deficits, who have difficulties in making the difference between fantasy and reality.

  18. Different perspectives on the sex-attachment link: towards an emotion-motivational account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between sex and attachment was made decades ago (Hazan & Shaver, 1987), theories on sexual and attachment functioning have been developed in relative isolation. Recent efforts to integrate both literatures have been complicated by the fact that the sex-attachment link has been approached from very different perspectives, including biological, evolutionary, developmental, cognitive, and social psychology approaches. Also, at the empirical level, research on sex and attachment lacks overarching synthesis. This article gives an overview of the most important theoretical ideas and empirical insights on sex and attachment. It starts with describing general models that approach the sex-attachment link from an evolutionary and neurobiological perspective. Then, it summarizes theoretical and empirical ideas of attachment theory and describes how attachment style differences are manifested in intimate and sexual relationships. Research so far has been limited to studying the predicted link between sex and attachment in terms of broad descriptives, and it would benefit the literature to specify the processes and pathways that mediate the sex-attachment link. After a short discussion of the functional similarities between the sexual and the attachment systems, the article describes some specific--dynamical--models that focus on the emotional and cognitive-motivational processes through which attachment schemas influence sexual experiences. Such an emotion-motivational perspective on sex and attachment can help to organize theoretical ideas and empirical findings and eventually promote an integrative view on how attachment dynamics can interact with sexual experiences.

  19. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  20. NICE recommendations for psychotherapy in depression: Of limited clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, D; Smith, P St John

    2015-01-01

    In 2009/10 NICE partially updated its guidelines on the treatment and management of depression in adults. Due to methodological shortcomings the recommendations for psychotherapy must be treated with caution. Despite recognising the heterogeneous and comorbid nature of depression, and the limitations of depression as a unitary diagnostic category, NICE treats depression as if it were a unitary entity differentiated only by severity. The guidance ignores important aetiological factors such as trauma, loss and maltreatment, personality and interpersonal difficulties. It excludes the largest naturalistic studies on clinical populations treated in the National Health Service on the grounds that they are observational studies conducted in heterogeneous groups with mixed neurotic disorders. It unquestioningly accepts that the "brand" of psychotherapy has construct validity, and ignores psychotherapy process research indicating significant commonalities, and overlap, between treatment modalities and evidence that individual practitioner effects are larger than the differences between treatment modalities. It fails to consider patient differences and preferences, which are known to influence uptake, completion and response. It takes an exclusively short-term perspective on a chronic relapsing disorder. It does not consider the evidence for longer-term treatments. It is of special concern that NICE misrepresents the findings of its own systematic review by implying that CBT and IPT are superior treatments. NICE's systematic review actually found no evidence of superiority between CBT, IPT, psychodynamic psychotherapy, or counselling. Based on the exclusion of much clinically relevant research demonstrating the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy and counselling many commentators have alleged a bias towards CBT in the guidance. With regard to service delivery NICE proposes the replacement of psychiatric assessment and individualised treatment plans, with an unproven