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Sample records for psychosocial skills intervention

  1. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. The skills of facilitators included 10 intervention techniques and 1 problem in interventions. Intervention techniques, which promote group dynamics and thereby help participants acquire improvements in their coping abilities and quality of life (QOL), were somewhat different between new and experienced facilitators, with the content showing immaturity and maturity in the new and experienced facilitators, respectively. Both experienced and new facilitators faced the risk of experiencing problems in interventions, which countered the purpose of the intervention of improving the participants' coping abilities or QOL. While intervention skills are necessary for facilitators to execute group interventions, it must be borne in mind, that even well-experienced facilitators may not always be able to accomplish skillful intervention.

  2. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Methods Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. Results The s...

  3. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  4. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    criticises the reductionistic dichotomy - either own or parental choice - and appeals for broader concepts, which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with ethnic minority youths' intimate partnership formation problems U.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  5. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  6. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  7. Development of scales for psychosocial skills in physical education and life skills

    OpenAIRE

    杉山, 佳生; 渋倉, 崇行; 西田, 保; 伊藤, 豊彦; 佐々木, 万丈; 磯貝, 浩久

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we developed scales for psychosocial skills in physical education and life skills (psychosocial skills in daily life) that can be used to evaluate any enhancements in psychosocial skills in physical education classes and their transfer to life skills. Nine items common to both psychosocial skills in physical education and life skills, which included decision-making and problem-solving skills (3 items), communication and interpersonal skills (4 items), and emotion and stress cop...

  8. The effect of a diabetes education, coping skills training, and care intervention on physiological and psychosocial outcomes in black women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo Melkus, Gail; Chyun, Deborah; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Newlin, Kelley; Jefferson, Vanessa; Langerman, Susan

    2010-07-01

    An 11-week culturally relevant group diabetes self-management training (DSMT), coping skills training (CST), and diabetes care intervention was compared to a 10-week usual diabetes education and diabetes care intervention on physiological and psychosocial outcomes in 109 Black women (aged 48 +/- 10 years) with type 2 diabetes in primary care (PC). Strong time effects for hemoglobin A1c improvement were seen in both groups from baseline to 3 months and remained similar at 12 and 24 months (p < .0001). Systolic blood pressure (p =.01) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p = .05) improved in both groups from baseline to 24 months. Baseline quality of life ([QOL]; Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36) was low. Social function, role-emotional, and mental health domains increased initially in both groups then declined slightly, with less decline for the experimental group at 12 months. At 24 months, experimental group scores increased. General health (p = .002), vitality (p = .01), role-physical, and bodily pain (p = .02) domains increased in both groups over time. Perceived provider support for diet (p = .0001) and exercise (p = .0001) increased in both groups over time. Diabetes-related emotional distress decreased in the experimental compared to the control group (group x time, p = .01). Findings suggest that both methods of diabetes education combined with care can improve metabolic control, QOL, and perceptions of provider care. CST may further assist in long-term improvements in health outcomes. Behavioral interventions are needed in addition to routine diabetes care, particularly in PC.

  9. Psychosocial intervention proposal in self-determination, social skills and entrepreneurial capacity: contribution from psychology to the integration of entrepreneurs women with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Poblete Toloza, Yohanna del Pilar; Universidad de Talca; Jiménez Figueroa, Andrés Eduardo; Universidad de Talca

    2013-01-01

    It constructs an intervention on subjective well-being, self-determination, social skills and entrepreneurship in women microentrepreneurs with intellectual disabilities from a diagnosis realized in 20 women with intellectual disabilities.It administered a battery of five instruments: Satisfaction Scale life Diener et ál (1984), subjective happiness scale Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999), Self-Concept Scale (La Rosa y Díaz, 1999), Questionnaire social skills Goldstein (1999) and En...

  10. Direct and Indirect Psychosocial Outcomes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Parents Following a Parent-involved Social Skills Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Viecili, Michelle A; Sloman, Leon; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect outcomes of a social skills group intervention for children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders and their parents. Thirty-five children and their parents participated in the program evaluation. Children and parents completed measures of child social skills and problem behaviors. Children reported on their self-concept, and parents reported on their psychological acceptance and empowerment. Results indicate significant increases in overall child social skills according to parent and child report, in child general self-worth, and in parent service empowerment and psychological acceptance. While past program evaluations of social skills groups highlight changes in social competence, taking a broader perspective on the types of positive outcomes suggests potential benefits for both child and parent.

  11. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics...

  12. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jhanjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic. Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

  13. Is training in psychosocial interventions worthwhile? Report of a psychosocial intervention trainee follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Charlie; Saul, Carol; Robinson, Jeannie; King, Jenny; Dudley, Mike

    2003-09-01

    A follow-up study of psychosocial intervention (PSI) trainees from the Sheffield and Maudsley training centres was undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1, 141 students, at two PSI training centres, were sent a simple postal questionnaire to elicit career trajectory following PSI training. A response rate of 82% was achieved. The sub-group, who had been trained and who still engaged in clinical practice were identified and followed-up in more detail (n=96). The effect of PSI training in a range of domains was investigated. The impact of training may not be to equip students with formal technical skills in CBT and family work. What is more likely is that trainees acquired proficiency in: working effectively using a case management model; conveying 'therapeutic optimism'; enabling users to meet their own goals and helping them to develop better coping strategies; using 'stress vulnerability' and formal outcome measures as means of structuring this approach. The secondary aim of the study was to identify and prioritise the barriers that impede the effective implementation of PSI skills in routine service settings. For the second phase of the survey the response rate was again 82%. This group's service managers were identified and surveyed for the same information and 59% responded. The aim was to gather information about implementation issues from both the clinical and service perspectives. The results of the survey indicate that PSI training has a positive impact on the development of services for people with serious mental health problems although there are serious organisational hurdles for managers, trainees and organisations to overcome if PSI skills are to be properly implemented. Key factors that impact upon faithful implementation are related to resource issues (caseload size), organisational factors (the existence of an implementation plan and training strategy), and the extent to which the trainee's team is supportive.

  14. The influence of mental skills on motivation and psychosocial characteristics.

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    McGraw, Leigh; Pickering, Michael A; Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this observational, cross-sectional study was to assess psychosocial characteristics and intrinsic motivation in a convenience sample of Army soldiers with different mental skills profiles. Participants were recruited immediately before or immediately following regular training activities. Anonymous surveys were completed and collected in the training area. Instruments used in this study included the Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool-3 Revised for Soldiers; Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale; Beck Hopelessness Scale; Intrinsic Motivation Inventory; and an anger measure. Soldiers with strong mental skill profiles were more intrinsically motivated and psychosocially healthier than their peers with weaker mental skill profiles. It is recommended that a proactive approach to psychological health promotion practices in soldiers be sought rather than reactive treatment plans to psychological sequelae. Future research must examine the role of psychosocial fitness and adaptability to enhance mental skills fitness.

  15. Strategies for implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD. Historically, the research has focused on interventions targeting problems in the home or school setting, but more recent research has highlighted the importance of family – school partnerships and conjoint approaches to intervention involving family and school. Effective approaches to psychosocial intervention consist of strategies to address performance deficits, promote adaptive behavior, and improve children’s self-control and academic and social skills. Considerable evidence exists to indicate that combined approaches are more effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and related academic and social impairments than separate treatments.

  16. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder

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    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. Selection criteria All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56). Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the

  17. KNOWLEDGE AND TREATMENT SKILLS IN THE FIELD OF PSYCHOSOCIAL COUNSELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Podgornik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic knowledge and treatment skills in the field of psychosocial counselling. It includes knowledge, skills, personal characteristics, and the ethics of a professional worker, the method of psychosocial approach with and individual and a group, as well as a collective social work. The basic definition of the knowledge and treatment skills in the article is presented by the concept of a working relationship in a social world and by the concepts of modern social work – power perspective, participation ethics, treatment skills, and treatment of the present time. The article also presents the key definitions of social work in the counselling and power processes. The establishing of social-working relationship includes the use of the language, the directing of the dialogue and other methods of postmodern social work.

  18. Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving

  19. Psychosocial interventions for the promotion of mental health and the prevention of depression among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Nordmyr, Johanna; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for the promotion of mental health and prevention of depression among older people. A systematic review of prospective controlled trials was conducted including 69 studies. The studies were divided into physical exercise, skill training, reminiscence, social activities, group support and multicomponent interventions. Data from 44 trials contributed to a meta-analysis of effectiveness. Overall, psychosocial interventions had a positive effect on quality of life and positive mental health. The pooled interventions also had a statistically significant effect on reduction in depressive symptoms. Social activities significantly improved positive mental health, life satisfaction and quality of life and reduced depressive symptoms. Based on the results of this study, duration of interventions is of importance, since interventions lasting for >3 months exhibited more positive effects compared with shorter interventions. Meaningful social activities, tailored to the older individual's abilities and preferences should be considered in aiming to improve mental health among older people.

  20. Psychosocial Interventions and Children’s Rights: Beyond Clinical Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Doná, Giorgia

    2002-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in psychosocial interventions in the aftermath of ethno-political violence. Rwanda after genocide received sustained psychological attention and this paper critically examines the contribution of psychosocial interventions to the broader development agenda of reconstruction and rehabilitation. We undertake a brief psychologically informed analysis of the factors that contributed to genocide as a means of outlining the political and cultural context in whi...

  1. Skills Versus Pills: Psychosocial Treatments for ADHD in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Sasser, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments. The most efficacious psychosocial treatments for children with ADHD include Behavioral Parent Training, Behavioral Classroom Management, and Behavioral Peer Interventions, which all focus on contingency management by adults. Training interventions are increasingly used to teach organizational and interpersonal skills to children and adolescents. These treatments are found to improve functional outcomes associated with ADHD, including on-task behavior, compliance, academic performance, social relationships, and family functioning. Clinicians play an important role in educating families about psychosocial treatments for ADHD, increasing family motivation and engagement, and including these interventions in multimodal treatment plans for youth with ADHD across development. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e367-e372.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Given, Barbara A; Shahda, Safi; Helft, Paul R

    2017-07-01

    A significant minority of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients experience clinically meaningful distress that may warrant intervention. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on quality-of-life and psychosocial outcomes for CRC patients. A systematic search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES was undertaken to obtain relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through October 2016. Fourteen RCTs of psychosocial interventions for CRC patients were identified. Only three of these RCTs showed significant intervention effects on multiple mental health outcomes. These interventions included written and verbal emotional expression, progressive muscle relaxation training, and a self-efficacy enhancing intervention. Eight of the 14 trials, testing a range of psychoeducational and supportive care interventions, produced little to no effects on study outcomes. An evaluation of RCT quality highlighted the need for greater rigor in study methods and reporting. A limited evidence base supports the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for CRC patients. Large-scale trials are needed before drawing definitive conclusions regarding intervention impact.

  3. Intervention LSCI Skills for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Signe; Chambers, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a set of skills that helps adults turn problem situations into learning opportunities for kids. LSCI views conflicts or stressful incidents as opportunities for learning, growth, insight, and change. This training provides parents with tools for building positive relationships with their children and…

  4. Cost Analysis of Early Psychosocial Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, R.; Sørensen, J.; Waldorff, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. METHODS: Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163...

  5. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions to Cancer Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and WANFANG were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trails (RCTs; psychosocial intervention to cancer caregivers; psychosocial health indicators including quality of life, depression or anxiety.Results: 21 studies out of 4,666 identified abstracts met inclusion criteria, including 19 RCTs. The intervention modes fell into the following nine categories: family connect intervention, self-determination theory-based intervention (SDT, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, emotion-focused therapy (EFT, comprehensive health enhancement support system (CHESS, FOCUS programme, existential behavioral therapy (EBT, telephone interpersonal counseling (TIP-C, problem-solving intervention (COPE.Conclusion: paired-intervention targeting self-care and interpersonal connections of caregivers and symptom management of patients is effective in improving quality of life and alleviating depression of cancer caregivers while music therapy is helpful for reducing anxiety of cancer caregivers.

  6. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  7. [Psychosocial intervention in hospitalization due to alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, J; Solano, S

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a descriptive-type research on the findings of a 1-year follow-up experiment on a 72-inpatient at the Instituto sobre Alcoholismo y Fármacodependencia of the city of San José, Costa Rica. Information wa obtained from a 59-question instrument aimed at exploring: Sociodemographic aspects, alcohol ingestion-abstention patterns; interpersonal, family and labor relationships, autodiagnosis, and evaluation of the treatment program. During the 3-week inpatient treatment, a psychosocial treatment was administered to all subjects. Owing to the substantial changes patients evidenced in the above mentioned areas, findings suggest that the objectives were fulfilled satisfactorily enough.

  8. Towards recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: Quality of life outcomes, stage-sensitive treatments, and mindfulness mechanisms.

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    Murray, Greg; Leitan, Nuwan D; Thomas, Neil; Michalak, Erin E; Johnson, Sheri L; Jones, Steven; Perich, Tania; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minority Youth, Broad Context and Inclusive Psychosocial intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    are proposed, based on the processes of inclusion at multiple levels. These processes of inclusion are fundamental to the principles in the psychosocial service (TTT) at the personal, interpersonal as well as societal level. At personal level, the intervention principle implies an identity with multiple...

  10. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey JN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available John N Harvey Diabetes Research Group, Wrexham Academic Unit, Bangor University, Wrexham, UK Abstract: Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient's health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic. Keywords: health beliefs, motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, adolescence

  11. Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic disease

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    Deter Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of patients with chronic diseases will be one of the main challenges of medicine in the future. This paper presents an overview of different origins, mechanism, and symptoms necessary for understanding new and different interventions that include a psychosomatic view. In a psychosomatic therapeutic intervention there are very different targets, such as psychological symptoms, personality traits, attitudes toward disease and life, risk behaviour, and social isolation and as biological targets the change of autonomic imbalance and of the effects of the psycho-endocrinological or psycho-immunological stress responses. And there are also different psychosomatic measures that influence the individual biological, psychological and sociological targets. There is a need to give different answer to different questions in the field of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine. Comparative effectiveness research is an important strategy for solving some methodological issues. What is the target of treatment for different diseases: Symptom reduction, healing, or limiting progression to the worst case - the death of patients. We know that, the patient-physician relationship is important for every medical/therapeutic action for patients with chronic diseases. This volume of BioPsychoSocial Medicine will present four different psychosomatic treatment studies from the clinical field in the sense of phase 2 studies: Reports of patients with obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic somatoform pain and coronary artery disease were presented

  12. [Social cognition of schizophrenia: bridging gap between brain science and psychosocial intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Ikezawa, Satoru; Miura, Sachie; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hidai, Shin-Ichi; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    The concept and assessment tools for social cognition of schizophrenia were reviewed in order to bridge the gap between brain cognitive science and psycho-social intervention. Social cognition as well as neuro-cognition strongly influences social functioning, and the impact of neuro-cognition is mediated by social cognition. Neuronal networks of personal identification, facial perception, emotional identification, eye contact, "theory of mind", mutual communication, and the decision-making process have been clarified recently. The results of face discrimination and emotion recognition tasks show impairment in persons with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls, especially fear, dislike, and sad recognition tasks. It might be difficult for them to link ambiguous stimuli with specific emotions, and they have a tendency to recognize uncomfortable emotions easily. "Jumping to conclusions" tendency (JTC) was identified in previous research on delusion. JTC develops from information uptake bias and confidence bias, and they might be thought to be trait and state. Social problem-solving is the skill to use social cognition to comprehensively adjust to specific social situations, and processing skills of social problem-solving are related to divergent thinking. Rating scales and the results of previous studies on emotion recognition, social perception, attribution style, and "theory of mind" were summarized. Furthermore, psycho-social interventions to improve emotion recognition directly, JTC, and divergent thinking were reported. Interventions aiming at improving social cognition or meta-cognition directly have been recently developed, which might improve some components of social functioning that used to be difficult to improve. These concepts of social cognition and researches on brain science, assessment tools, and intervention methods would clarify the mechanisms of the effects of psycho-social interventions, improve their methodology, and help to develop new

  13. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism, and other shocking events: Guideline development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.; Vries, M. de; Duin, D. van; Rooze, M.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  14. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for stroke family caregivers and stroke survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Cheng, Ho Yu; Chair, Sek Ying; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for family caregivers on their psychosocial and physical wellbeing, quality of life, and the use of healthcare resources by stroke survivors. Electronic English and Chinese bibliographic databases were searched (inception to January 2012) for clinical trials. Two reviewers independently selected and appraised study quality. When possible, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were statistically pooled. Otherwise, a narrative summary was used. Eighteen studies (psychoeducation and social support group) were included. Pooled analysis of two individual psychoeducation programs showed a small effect on improving family functioning (SMD: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.01; p=0.03). Caregivers receiving psychoeducation that aimed at equipping caregivers with the skills of problem-solving, caregiving, and stress-coping appeared to have a more positive influence on the caregivers' psychosocial wellbeing and a reduced use of healthcare resources by stroke survivors. Evidence on the effects of psychosocial interventions was limited. More RCTs of multifaceted psychoeducation programs are needed to further examine the optimal dose and format. To support caregivers across the stroke trajectory, the core skills of problem-solving and stress-coping should be included in the psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen; Freeman, Alexander; Fenton, Katherine; Busby Grant, Janie; van Spijker, Bregje; Donker, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12-25 years. PsycInfo, PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to the end of December 2014 to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for youth suicide. In total, 13,747 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion in a larger database. Of these, 29 papers describing 28 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The results of the review indicated that just over half of the programs identified had a significant effect on suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.16-3.01), suicide attempts (phi = 0.04-0.38) or deliberate self-harm (phi = 0.29-0.33; d = 0.42). The current review provides preliminary support for the implementation of universal and targeted interventions in all settings, using a diverse range of psychosocial approaches. Further quality research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for suicide prevention programs in this population. In particular, the development of universal school-based interventions is promising given the potential reach of such an approach.

  16. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater blinded trial. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics in five...... Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their 330 primary care givers. INTERVENTIONS: Participating dyads (patient and primary care giver) were randomised to control support during follow-up or to control support plus DAISY intervention (multifaceted and semi...... for attrition (P = 0.0146 and P = 0.0103 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The multifaceted, semi-tailored intervention with counselling, education, and support for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their care givers did not have any significant effect beyond that with well structured follow-up support at 12...

  17. The Relationship between Social Skills and Psycho-Social Functioning in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijstra, Jan O.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between anxiety and performance dimensions of adolescents' social skills and their self-esteem, well-being, coping, and social support. Found that scores on a social skills measure and on measures of the four psychosocial factors were related. The social skills measure identified three subgroups (assertives,…

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Psychosocial Intervention for Children and Teenagers Experiencing Diabetes (DEPICTED: a protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a communication skills training programme for healthcare professionals working with young people with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowes Lesley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the third most common chronic condition in childhood and poor glycaemic control leads to serious short-term and life-limiting long-term complications. In addition to optimal medical management, it is widely recognised that psychosocial and educational factors play a key role in improving outcomes for young people with diabetes. Recent systematic reviews of psycho-educational interventions recognise the need for new methods to be developed in consultation with key stakeholders including patients, their families and the multidisciplinary diabetes healthcare team. Methods/design Following a development phase involving key stakeholders, a psychosocial intervention for use by paediatric diabetes staff and not requiring input from trained psychologists has been developed, incorporating a communication skills training programme for health professionals and a shared agenda-setting tool. The effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT. The primary outcome, to be measured in children aged 4-15 years diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for at least one year, is the effect on glycaemic control (HbA1c during the year after training of the healthcare team is completed. Secondary outcomes include quality of life for patients and carers and cost-effectiveness. Patient and carer preferences for service delivery will also be assessed. Twenty-six paediatric diabetes teams are participating in the trial, recruiting a total of 700 patients for evaluation of outcome measures. Half the participating teams will be randomised to receive the intervention at the beginning of the trial and remaining centres offered the training package at the end of the one year trial period. Discussion The primary aim of the trial is to determine whether a communication skills training intervention for specialist paediatric diabetes teams will improve clinical and psychological outcomes for young people with

  19. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  20. Insights into workplace bullying: psychosocial drivers and effective interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartín, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi-) experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of antibullying interventions must flourish and be improved, requiring close cooperation between practitioners and academics to design, implement, and evaluate effective interventions based

  1. [Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions and endophenotypes in bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correard, N; Elissalde, S N; Azorin, J-M; Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R

    2012-12-01

    Diseases with complex determinism, bipolar disorders, involve at the same time environmental and genetic factors of vulnerability. The characterization of these vulnerabilities would allow a better knowledge of their etiology and envisage the development of therapeutics, more specialized, even preventive. The research in genetic psychiatry allowed to highlight endophenotype candidates associated to bipolar disorders. They are endogenous clinical or biological features, biologically more elementary than phenotypes and more directly bound to the physiological consequences of genes and their polymorphisms. Targeting some of them with specific psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions could reduce the consequences of their expression and so have an action on the course of the disease and also preventive.

  2. [Advances in psychosocial interventions on quality of life of cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefen; Wang, Jiwei; Gong, Xiaohuan; Yu, Jinming

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of psychosocial interventions' studies on quality of life in cancer survivors because of improving cancer survival rate. This paper was an integrative literatures review of various psychosocial interventions including cognitive behavioral therapy, group-based supportive therapy, counseling or psychotherapy, education or psychoeducation and music therapy et al, and analyzing the complexity of psychosocial interventions' RCTs in oncology and the current characteristic of these studies in China.

  3. Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving sk

  4. Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving sk

  5. [Psychosocial Interventions in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahunca Velásquez, Luisa Fernanda; García Valencia, Jenny; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Palacio Acosta, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the psychosocial strategies designed to improve the outcomes in adults with schizophrenia in both, acute and stable phase of the disorder. This evidence is used to propose recommendation in the guidelines of integral attention for the diagnosis, treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of adults with schizophrenia. A guideline for clinical practice was developed using the methodological framework of the Ministerio de la Protección Social to collect evidence and grading recommendations. A search, evaluation and synthesis of evidence were carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The psychoeducation and family intervention showed higher efficacy, compared with the usual treatment, to prevent relapses and hospital readmissions, to reduce family burden and to improve adherence to treatment. The social skill training was effective to improve symptoms, social functioning and quality of life. However, the quality of evidence was low. There was not enough evidence about the efficacy of occupational therapy, but considering patients preferences and its wide clinical utilization, the GDG suggested its inclusion. Psychoeducation, family intervention and social skill training are recommended to be offered for the treatment of schizophrenia. Furthermore, occupational therapy is suggested for inpatients and outpatients with the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Leung, Sau Fong; Yeung, Frederick Kk; Wong, Wai Kit

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major health care databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy), psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of functioning, and/or relapse rate. However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions. With the

  7. Insights into workplace bullying: psychosocial drivers and effective interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Escartín Department of Social Psychology, Facultad de Psicologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi- experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of

  8. Psychosocial interventions for addiction-affected families in Low and Middle Income Countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Anil; Church, Sydney; Bhatia, Urvita; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To review the literature on psychosocial interventions for addiction affected family members in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). A systematic review with a detailed search strategy focussing on psychosocial interventions directed towards people affected by addiction without any gender, year or language specifications was conducted. Identified titles and abstracts were screened; where needed full papers retrieved, and then independently reviewed. Data was extracted based on the aims of the study, to describe the modalities, acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the interventions. Four papers met our selection criteria. They were published between 2003 and 2014; the total sample size was 137 participants, and two studies were from Mexico and one each from Vietnam and Malaysia. The predominantly female participants comprised of parents, spouses and siblings. The common components of all the interventions included providing information regarding addiction, teaching coping skills, and providing support. Though preliminary these small studies suggests a positive effect on affected family members (AFM). There was lowering of psychological and physical distress, along with a better understanding of addictive behaviour. The interventions led to better coping; with improvements in self-esteem and assertive behaviour. The interventions, mostly delivered in group settings, were largely acceptable. The limited evidence does suggest positive benefits to AFMs. The scope of research needs to be extended to other addictions, and family members other than spouse and female relatives. Indigenous and locally adapted interventions are needed to address this issue keeping in mind the limited resources of LMIC. This is a field indeed in its infancy and this under recognised and under-served group needs urgent attention of researchers and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It’s Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Baumler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.

  10. Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujacz, Aleksandra; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Rigotti, Thomas; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Lindfors, Petra

    2017-03-30

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Assessment of the Long-Term Benefits of Life Skills Programming on Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruby; Reddon, John R.; Hoglin, Brenda; Woodman, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The durability of the psychosocial benefits of Life Skills programming on outpatient adults with mental health/forensic issues was examined. Participants were 52 adults (28 males, 24 females) who completed 16 weeks of Life Skills at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were re-assessed between six months and six years following treatment.…

  12. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  13. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  14. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results

  15. Effect of Psychosocial Skills Training on Functional Remission of Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdil, Nurcan; Tanrıverdi, Derya

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychosocial skills training on functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 100 patients were divided into the training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The data were collected using a Personal Information Form and Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale. The 13-session training program was given in the form of face-to-face group training and 45- to 60-min sessions twice a week. Training was completed by five groups. Every group comprised of 9 to 12 individuals on average. The training group had higher scores significantly on functional remission levels compared with the control group after psychosocial skills training (p Psychosocial skills training has become considerably effective in increasing the functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia.

  16. The feasibility of implementing recovery, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis: comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Dunn, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Janosik, Monika; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2015-05-23

    Clinical guidelines for the treatment of people experiencing psychosis have existed for over a decade, but implementation of recommended interventions is limited. Identifying influences on implementation may help to reduce this translational gap. The Structured Assessment of Feasibility (SAFE) measure is a standardised assessment of implementation blocks and enablers. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the implementation blocks and enablers for recommended psychosis interventions. SAFE was used to evaluate and compare three groups of interventions recommended in the 2014 NICE psychosis guideline: pharmacological (43 trials testing 5 interventions), psychosocial (65 trials testing 5 interventions), and recovery (19 trials testing 5 interventions). The 127 trial reports rated with SAFE were supplemented by published intervention manuals, research protocols, trial registrations and design papers. Differences in the number of blocks and enablers across the three interventions were tested statistically, and feasibility profiles were generated. There was no difference between psychosocial and recovery interventions in the number of blocks or enablers to implementation. Pharmacological interventions (a) had fewer blocks than both psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 133.77, p recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 104.67, p recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 0.74, p = 0.863) but had fewer enablers than psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 28.92, p recovery and psychosocial interventions. Feasibility profiles show that pharmacological interventions are relatively easy to implement but can sometimes involve risks. Psychosocial and recovery interventions are relatively complex but tend to be more flexible and more often manualised. SAFE ratings can contribute to tackling the current implementation challenges in mental health services, by providing a reporting guideline structure for researchers to maximise the potential for

  17. Gender based violence and psychosocial intervention at Quito. Weaving narratives to construct new meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Guarderas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been done in Ecuador on psychosocial interventions involving gender violence. This article, based on research carried out in Quito with people who have experienced this type of violence, is intended to contribute to the debate on the subject. Through narrative production methodology, we hope to construct new meanings of psychosocial intervention and gender violence. The participants offer conceptions of gender violence that go beyond aspects usually taken into account in the creation of laws and services. They point out that current psychosocial intervention in response to gender violence tends to homogenize women, providing services that reduce these situations to woman/victim-man/perpetrator scenarios.

  18. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withaya Chanchai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2 Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3 Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4 Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%. The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5 Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment.

  19. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  20. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in Che

  1. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in Che

  2. Psychosocial changes in the Mississippi communities for healthy living (MCHL) nutrition intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial changes reported by participants in a nutrition education intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta. The psychosocial constructs such as decisional balance (DB), self-efficacy (SE), and social support (SS) are correlated with fruit and ve...

  3. Psychosocial interventions in workplace mental health promotion: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabała, Czesław; Charzyńska, Katarzyna; Mroziak, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    A review based on the DataPrev final report concerning workplace mental health promotion is presented. Out of 4865 studies identified in a comprehensive bibliographical data search, 315 were selected for abstract screening and 79 were included in the final review. The studies were categorized in terms of their aims/expected outcomes and evaluated for quality on the grounds of their design and type of analysis. The most frequent aims were stress reduction and better coping, followed by increased job satisfaction and effectiveness, mental health enhancement and reduction in mental health-related absenteeism. In the 79 intervention studies, 99 outcome variables were measured using 163 instruments, mostly developed for the study purposes. Different intervention categories turned out to be used to attain the same aim, with skills training being the most popular (other approaches included improvement of occupational qualifications and working conditions, physical exercise, relaxation and multicomponent interventions). Among the few intervention programs that were implemented and evaluated in two or more studies, the Stress Inoculation Training (Cecil and Forman, in Effects of stress inoculation training and coworker support groups on teachers' stress. Journal of School Psychology, 28, 105, 1990) based on the model by Meichenbaum (Meichenbaum, in Stress Inoculation Training. Pergamon Press, New York, 1985) seemed to be the most promising. Its effectiveness, evidenced in a majority of the measures, was evaluated in studies using the randomized controlled design. This paper is illustrated by high-quality intervention studies. In high and moderate quality studies, positive effects were reported in about a half of the examined outcome variables. However, conclusive evidence of intervention programs effectiveness would require further research-repetition of studies using treatments equivalent to the experimental ones, and outcome evaluation taking into account other criteria

  4. Communication skills training in medical students: do motivational orientations predict changes over time in psychosocial attributes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Kushnir, Talma; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2015-03-01

    Perceived psychosocial abilities (i.e., competence in addressing the psychosocial aspects of patient care) and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (i.e., intolerance of physical or emotional discomfort) have been established as significant attributes of experienced medical professionals. We aimed to expand our understanding of the role motivation plays within communication skills training by investigating whether motivation precedes or, conversely, follows psychosocial attributes. According to goal orientations theory, motivation denotes the goals students pursue when engaging in learning tasks. We hypothesized that goal orientations would predict development of psychosocial attributes. More specifically, an adaptive goal orientation (i.e., mastery goal orientation) was expected to predict perceived psychosocial abilities, whereas the maladaptive goal orientations (i.e., performance-approach and avoidance goal orientations) were hypothesized to predict LFT (frustration intolerance). The study spanned two sequential years, in which two cohorts of first-year medical students (N = 151) completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of an annual physician-patient communication course. The questionnaires assessed goal orientations, perceived psychosocial abilities, and LFT. Cross-lagged analyses using Structural Equation Modeling indicated that goal orientations significantly predicted perceived psychosocial abilities, as hypothesized; however, LFT predicted maladaptive goal orientation, rather than the other way around. These findings provided further support for the contribution of goal orientations theory within medical education contexts. Medical schools are advised to consider motivational aspects when planning and implementing training programs.

  5. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  6. Progeria: Medical Aspects, Psychosocial Perspectives, and Intervention Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses progeria (or Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome), a rare childhood disorder that invariably results in death during adolescence. Describes the major medical aspects of progeria, and discusses the psychosocial implications of the disorder with particular emphasis on grief-triggered reactions. Presents an overview of psychosocial intervention…

  7. Implementation of the thinking skills for work program in a psychosocial clubhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Schiano, Diane; Mueser, Kim T; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive remediation programs aimed at improving role functioning have been implemented in a variety of different mental health treatment settings, but not in psychosocial clubhouses. This study sought to determine the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of providing a cognitive remediation program (the Thinking Skills for Work program), developed and previously implemented in supported employment programs at mental health agencies, in a psychosocial club-house. Twenty-three members with a history of difficulties getting or keeping jobs, who were participating in a supported employment program at a psychosocial clubhouse, were enrolled in the Thinking Skills for Work program. A neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and 3 months later after completion of the computer cognitive training component of the program. Hours of competitive work were tracked for the 2 years before enrollment and 2 years following enrollment. Other work-related activities (school, volunteer) were also tracked for 2 years following enrollment. Twenty-one members (91%) completed 6 or more computer cognitive training sessions. Participants demonstrated significant improvements on neurocognitive measures of processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions. Sixty percent of the members obtained a competitive job during the 2-year follow-up, and 74% were involved in some type of work-related activity. Participants worked significantly more competitive hours over the 2 years after joining the Thinking Skills for Work program than before. The findings support the feasibility and promise of implementing the Thinking Skills for Work program in the context of supported employment provided at psychosocial clubhouses.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL SKILLS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIJSTRA, JO; BOSMA, HA; JACKSON, S

    1994-01-01

    This study discusses the relationship between adolescents' social skills and four indicators of psycho-social functioning, viz. self-esteem, well-being, coping and social support. A total of 660 adolescents, 13-15 years of age, responded to a series of self-report measures which referred to these se

  9. Adolescents' school-related self-concept mediates motor skills and psychosocial well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    Background The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing

  10. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  11. Adolescents' School-Related Self-Concept Mediates Motor Skills and Psychosocial Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…

  12. Adolescents' school-related self-concept mediates motor skills and psychosocial well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing r

  13. A randomised trial of a psychosocial intervention for cancer patients integrated into routine care: the PROMPT study (promoting optimal outcomes in mood through tailored psychosocial therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolley Damien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence that up to 35% of patients with cancer experience significant distress, access to effective psychosocial care is limited by lack of systematic approaches to assessment, a paucity of psychosocial services, and patient reluctance to accept treatment either because of perceived stigma or difficulties with access to specialist psycho-oncology services due to isolation or disease burden. This paper presents an overview of a randomised study to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief tailored psychosocial Intervention delivered by health professionals in cancer care who undergo focused training and participate in clinical supervision. Methods/design Health professionals from the disciplines of nursing, occupational therapy, speech pathology, dietetics, physiotherapy or radiation therapy will participate in training to deliver the psychosocial Intervention focusing on core concepts of supportive-expressive, cognitive and dignity-conserving care. Health professional training will consist of completion of a self-directed manual and participation in a skills development session. Participating health professionals will be supported through structured clinical supervision whilst delivering the Intervention. In the stepped wedge design each of the 5 participating clinical sites will be allocated in random order from Control condition to Training then delivery of the Intervention. A total of 600 patients will be recruited across all sites. Based on level of distress or risk factors eligible patients will receive up to 4 sessions, each of up to 30 minutes in length, delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Patient outcome measures include anxiety and depression, quality of life, unmet psychological and supportive care needs. Health professional measures include psychological morbidity, stress and burnout. Process evaluation will be conducted to assess perceptions

  14. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  15. Empirically Based Psychosocial Therapies for Schizophrenia: The Disconnection between Science and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn D. Shean

    2013-01-01

    Empirically validated psychosocial therapies for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were described in the report of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT, 2009). The PORT team identified eight psychosocial treatments: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight manageme...

  16. Smoking cessation in pregnancy: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Miyazaki,1 Kunihiko Hayashi,2 Setsuko Imazeki1 1Faculty of Health Care, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki, 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan Background: Smoking during pregnancy causes obstetric and fetal complications, and smoking cessation may have great benefits for the mother and the child. However, some pregnant women continue smoking even in pregnancy.Objective: To review the literature addressing the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, explore psychosocial factors associated with smoking, and review the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy in recent years.Literature review: Computerized Internet search results in PubMed for the years spanning from 2004 to 2014, as well as references cited in articles, were reviewed. A search for the keywords “smoking cessation pregnancy” and “intervention” and “clinical trials” yielded 52 citations. Thirty-five citations were identified as useful to this review for the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy.Results: The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy differs by country, reflecting the countries’ social, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds. Women who had socioeconomic disadvantages, problems in their interpersonal relationships, higher stress, depression, less social support, and who engaged in health-risk behaviors were more prone to smoking during pregnancy. Psychosocial interventions, such as counseling, are effective methods for increasing smoking cessation.Conclusion: Smokers may have various psychosocial problems in addition to health problems. It is important to understand each individual’s social situation or psychosocial characteristics, and a psychosocial intervention focused on the characteristics of the individual is required. Keywords: women’s health, smoking cessation, pregnancy, psychosocial intervention  

  17. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  18. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  19. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  20. Children and Mothers in War: An Outcome Study of a Psychosocial Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdahl, Ragnhild

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated effects on children in Bosnia and Herzegovina of a 5-month psychosocial intervention program of weekly group meetings for mothers. Found that although all participants were exposed to severe trauma, their distress varied considerably. The intervention program had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, children's weight gain, and…

  1. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  2. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  3. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, A.; Assink, M.; van Vugt, E.; van der Put, C.; Stams, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel

  4. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions delivered by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, M.J.H.; Beurskens, A.J.H.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients visit their general practitioner (GP) because of problems that are psychosocial in origin. However, for many of these problems there is no evidence-based treatment available in primary care, and these patients place time-consuming demands on their GP. Therefore, GPs could b

  5. Humanitarian Curriculum and Psychosocial Interventions: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Gonzalo; Low, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical description of the impact of violence and natural disasters on schoolchildren. It attempts to explore the present state of the art in psychosocial aspects of education and the curriculum in humanitarian settings. This is carried out through a compilation and a brief annotated bibliography of existing literature…

  6. A Qualitative Investigation of Health Care Professionals’, Patients’ and Partners’ Views on Psychosocial Issues and Related Interventions for Couples Coping with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tim; Levesque, Janelle V.; Lambert, Sylvie D.; Kelly, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is growing evidence that cancer affects couples as an interdependent system and that couple-based psychosocial interventions are efficacious in reducing distress and improving coping skills. However, adoption of a couples-focused approach into cancer care is limited. Previous research has shown that patients and partners hold differing views from health care professionals (HCPs) regarding their psychosocial needs, and HCPs from different disciplines also hold divergent views regarding couples’ psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of HCPs and couples on the provision of couple-focused psychosocial care in routine cancer services. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 20 HCPs (medical oncologists, nurses, psycho-oncology professionals) and 20 couples where one member had been diagnosed with cancer (breast, prostate, head/neck, bowel, multiple myeloma). Interviews were analysed using the framework approach. Results Three core themes were identified: “How Do Couples Cope with Cancer?” emphasised the positive and negative coping strategies used by couples, and highlighted that partners perceived a lack of engagement by HCPs. “What Is Couple-focused Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer?” described varying perspectives regarding the value of couple-focused psychosocial care and variation in the types of support couples need among HCPs and couples. Whereas most couples did not perceive a need for specialist couple-focused support and interventions, most HCPs felt couple-focused psychosocial care was necessary. “How Can Couple-Focused Psychosocial Care be Improved?” described couples’ view of a need for better provision of information, and the importance of their relationship with oncology clinicians. HCPs identified a lack of confidence in responding to the emotional needs of couples, and barriers to providing psychosocial care, including challenges identifying

  7. A Qualitative Investigation of Health Care Professionals', Patients' and Partners' Views on Psychosocial Issues and Related Interventions for Couples Coping with Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Regan

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that cancer affects couples as an interdependent system and that couple-based psychosocial interventions are efficacious in reducing distress and improving coping skills. However, adoption of a couples-focused approach into cancer care is limited. Previous research has shown that patients and partners hold differing views from health care professionals (HCPs regarding their psychosocial needs, and HCPs from different disciplines also hold divergent views regarding couples' psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of HCPs and couples on the provision of couple-focused psychosocial care in routine cancer services.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 20 HCPs (medical oncologists, nurses, psycho-oncology professionals and 20 couples where one member had been diagnosed with cancer (breast, prostate, head/neck, bowel, multiple myeloma. Interviews were analysed using the framework approach.Three core themes were identified: "How Do Couples Cope with Cancer?" emphasised the positive and negative coping strategies used by couples, and highlighted that partners perceived a lack of engagement by HCPs. "What Is Couple-focused Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer?" described varying perspectives regarding the value of couple-focused psychosocial care and variation in the types of support couples need among HCPs and couples. Whereas most couples did not perceive a need for specialist couple-focused support and interventions, most HCPs felt couple-focused psychosocial care was necessary. "How Can Couple-Focused Psychosocial Care be Improved?" described couples' view of a need for better provision of information, and the importance of their relationship with oncology clinicians. HCPs identified a lack of confidence in responding to the emotional needs of couples, and barriers to providing psychosocial care, including challenges identifying distress (through screening and

  8. A Qualitative Investigation of Health Care Professionals', Patients' and Partners' Views on Psychosocial Issues and Related Interventions for Couples Coping with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tim; Levesque, Janelle V; Lambert, Sylvie D; Kelly, Brian

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer affects couples as an interdependent system and that couple-based psychosocial interventions are efficacious in reducing distress and improving coping skills. However, adoption of a couples-focused approach into cancer care is limited. Previous research has shown that patients and partners hold differing views from health care professionals (HCPs) regarding their psychosocial needs, and HCPs from different disciplines also hold divergent views regarding couples' psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of HCPs and couples on the provision of couple-focused psychosocial care in routine cancer services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 20 HCPs (medical oncologists, nurses, psycho-oncology professionals) and 20 couples where one member had been diagnosed with cancer (breast, prostate, head/neck, bowel, multiple myeloma). Interviews were analysed using the framework approach. Three core themes were identified: "How Do Couples Cope with Cancer?" emphasised the positive and negative coping strategies used by couples, and highlighted that partners perceived a lack of engagement by HCPs. "What Is Couple-focused Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer?" described varying perspectives regarding the value of couple-focused psychosocial care and variation in the types of support couples need among HCPs and couples. Whereas most couples did not perceive a need for specialist couple-focused support and interventions, most HCPs felt couple-focused psychosocial care was necessary. "How Can Couple-Focused Psychosocial Care be Improved?" described couples' view of a need for better provision of information, and the importance of their relationship with oncology clinicians. HCPs identified a lack of confidence in responding to the emotional needs of couples, and barriers to providing psychosocial care, including challenges identifying distress (through screening) and referring

  9. Intervención educativa con docentes: fortalecimiento de habilidades psicosociales para la vida y hábitos saludables con escolares en Bogotá / An educational intervention with teachers: strengthening the psychosocial life skills and healthy habits of school students in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca P. Mantilla-Uribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los resultados de la intervención educativa dirigida a docentes para el fortalecimiento de hábitos saludables y habilidades psicosociales para la vida en niños y niñas de básica primaria en instituciones públicas de la ciudad de Bogotá. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con enfoque descriptivo para lo cual se utilizó como técnica de recolección de información el grupo focal, buscando ahondar con las personas participantes su experiencia, metodología, implementación y resultados del proceso formativo con enfoque de promoción de la salud con énfasis en Habilidades psicosociales para la Vida y Hábitos Saludables con los grupos de escolares. Para el análisis de la información se tuvo en cuenta el enfoque propuesto por Taylor y Bogdan, y para apoyar el análisis se utilizó el software ATLAS ti (v. 6.2. Resultados: La participación de docentes en los procesos formativos tuvo una repercusión en diferentes escenarios de sus vidas, es así como se identifican vivencias en su vida personal, familiar y laboral. Lo cual se explica desde tres ámbitos: lo novedoso del proceso formativo, la creatividad generada en su práctica docente y la solidaridad a la hora de la implementación en las instituciones educativas. Conclusiones: Las personas participantes de la investigación identifican la metodología participativa utilizada en el proceso formativo como innovador y elemento importante para su adherencia al programa, superando así sus predisposiciones iniciales a participar. De la misma manera, el fortalecimiento de la creatividad de docentes es un factor que contribuye al ejercicio docente./ Abstract Objective: to determine the results of an educational intervention aimed at teachers to strengthen the healthy habits and psychosocial life skills of children attending elementary schools in public institutions in the city of Bogotá. Methodology: a qualitative study with a descriptive approach

  10. Effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in improving communication and psychosocial exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B

    2007-07-01

    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain.

  11. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  12. Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy Maynard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND School refusal is a psychosocial problem characterized by a student’s difficulty attending school and, in many cases, substantial absence from school (Heyne & Sauter, 2013. It is often distinguished from truancy, in part because of the severe emotional distress associated with having to attend school and the absence of severe antisocial behavior. Truancy, on the other hand, is not typically associated with emotional distress and is commonly associated with severe externalizing behavior. The emotional distress associated with school refusal is often in the form of fear or anxiety, and sometimes in the form of depression. School refusal occurs for about 1-2% of young people, and estimates among clinically referred youth are considerably higher. There is substantial heterogeneity in both the presentation of school refusal and its associated risk factors. Significant adverse consequences may occur in the short- and long-term, including school dropout and problems with social adjustment. Family members and school staff are also affected by school refusal. The most commonly studied interventions for school refusal are behavioral approaches and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. The overarching aim of these interventions is the reduction of the young person’s emotional distress and an increase in school attendance to help the young person follow a normal developmental pathway (Heyne & Sauter, 2013. Behavioral interventions include exposure-based interventions, relaxation training, and/or social skills training with the student, and contingency management procedures with the parents and school staff. CBT manuals additionally focus attention on the identification and modification of maladaptive cognition that may maintain the young person’s emotional distress and absenteeism. In some instances parent cognition is also targeted. Other interventions have been used to treat school refusal (e.g., psychodynamic treatment, family therapy

  13. Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, M.J.D.; Komproe, I.H.; Tol, W.A.; Kohrt, B.A.; Luitel, N.P.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background:  In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in con

  14. Psychosocial interventions for adolescents and young adult cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Diana; Koehler, Michael; Friedrich, Michael; Hilgendorf, Inken; Mehnert, Anja; Weißflog, Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients experience unique psychosocial needs and developmental challenges. A cancer diagnosis can stress this development and disrupt AYAs in their normal life. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on mental health in AYAs. A literature research was conducted, which resulted in twelve eligible studies. The standardized mean difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.13 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.42) for quality of life, 0.27 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.76) for cancer-related knowledge and -0.16 (95% CI: -0.73 to 0.42) on psychological distress indicating, small and non-significant effects for interventions improving mental health. This work strengthens the need for age-appropriated interventions in psycho-oncology. Future research should develop interventions more graduated by age. Randomized intervention studies with larger samples and focusing psychosocial outcomes are needed to establish evidence-based psycho-oncological interventions for AYAs.

  15. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  16. Computeen: A Randomized Trial of a Preventive Computer and Psychosocial Skills Curriculum for At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…

  17. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  18. European clinical guidelines for Tourette Syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III : behavioural and psychosocial interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdellen, Cara; van de Griendt, Jolande; Hartmann, Andreas; Murphy, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This clinical guideline provides recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted to obt

  19. Psychosocial interventions for patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitterhoeve, R.J.; Vernooy, M.; Litjens, M.; Potting, K.; Bensing, J.; Mulder, P. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2004-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with emotional distress, especially depression and feelings of sadness. To date, it is unclear which is the most effective way to address these problems. This review focuses on the effects of psychosocial interventions on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with advan

  20. Effectiveness of a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, C; Hunfeld, JAM; Duivenvoorden, HJ; den Outer, MA; Fauser, BCJM; Passchier, J; Macklon, NS

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples. In this article the results on women's distress are presented. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-five couples admitted to an IVF treatment programme at the Erasmus MC were asked to pa

  1. Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental health condition characterized by broad impairments in cognition that place profound limitations on functional recovery. Social work has an enduring legacy in pioneering the development of novel psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, and in this article the author introduces cognitive remediation, the…

  2. Goal Attainment Scaling as an Outcome Measure in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychosocial Interventions in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Goal attainment scaling (GAS) holds promise as an idiographic approach for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions in community settings. GAS has been criticized for untested assumptions of scaling level (i.e., interval or ordinal), inter-individual equivalence and comparability, and reliability of coding across different behavioral…

  3. European ways to combat psychosocial risks related to work organisation : towards organisational interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.

    2004-01-01

    From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was

  4. Trauma Collaborative Care Intervention: Effect on Surgeon Confidence in Managing Psychosocial Complications After Orthopaedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Stephen T; Carroll, Eben A; Gary, Joshua L; McKinley, Todd O; OʼToole, Robert V; Sietsema, Debra L; Castillo, Renan C; Frey, Katherine P; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Huang, Yanjie; Collins, Susan C J; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-08-01

    The impact of the Trauma Collaborative Care (TCC) program on surgeon confidence in managing the psychosocial sequelae of orthopaedic trauma was evaluated as part of a larger prospective, multisite, cluster clinical trial. We compared confidence and perceived resource availability among surgeons practicing in trauma centers that implemented the TCC program with orthopaedic trauma surgeons in similar trauma centers that did not implement the TCC. Prospective cohort design. Level-I trauma centers. Attending surgeons and fellows (N = 95 Pre and N = 82 Post). Self-report 10-item measure of surgeon confidence in managing psychosocial issues associated with trauma and perceived availability of support resources. Analyses, performed on the entire sample and repeated on the subset of 52 surgeons who responded to the survey at both times points, found surgeons at intervention sites experienced a significantly greater positive improvement (P < 0.05) in their (1) belief that they have strategies to help orthopaedic trauma patients change their psychosocial situation; (2) confidence in making appropriate referrals for orthopaedic trauma patients with psychosocial problems; and (3) belief that they have access to information to guide the management of psychosocial issues related to recovery. Initial data suggest that the establishment of the TCC program can improve surgeons' perceived availability of resources and their confidence in managing the psychosocial sequelae after injury. Further studies will be required to determine if this translates into beneficial patient effects. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Family carers’ experiences of attending a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program for carers and persons with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aud Johannessen,1 Frøydis Kristine Bruvik,1,3,4 Solveig Hauge2 1Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, 2Norway Faculty of Health and Social Studies and Centre of Caring Research – Southern Norway, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, 3Kavli Centre, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen, 4Haraldsplass Deaconess University College, Bergen, Norway Background: Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers’ experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Methods: Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50–82 years who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Results: Two main categories emerged: 1 benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants’ experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories “importance of content and group organization” and “importance of social support”; and 2 missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants’ suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories “need for extended content” and “need for new group organization”. Conclusion: The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and

  6. The effect of acute exercise and psychosocial stress on fine motor skills and testosterone concentration in the saliva of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Koedijker, Johan M; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of different stressors on fine motor skills, the concentration of testosterone (T), and their interaction in adolescents. Therefore, 62 high school students aged 14-15 years were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (exercise, psychosocial stress) and a control group. Exercise stress was induced at 65-75% of the maximum heart rate by running for 15 minutes (n = 24). Psychosocial stress was generated by an intelligence test (HAWIK-IV), which was uncontrollable and characterized by social-evaluative-threat to the students (n = 21). The control group followed was part of a regular school lesson with the same duration (n = 28). Saliva was collected after a normal school lesson (pre-test) as well as after the intervention/control period (post-test) and was analyzed for testosterone. Fine motor skills were assessed pre- and post-intervention using a manual dexterity test (Flower Trail) from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. A repeated measure ANCOVA including gender as a covariate revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase in manual dexterity only for the psychosocial stress group. Correlation analysis of all students shows that the change of testosterone from pre- to post-test was directly linked (r = -.31, p = .01) to the changes in manual dexterity performance. Participants showing high increases in testosterone from pre- to post-test made fewer mistakes in the fine motor skills task. Findings suggest that manual dexterity increases when psychosocial stress is induced and that improvement of manual dexterity performance corresponds with the increase of testosterone.

  7. The effect of acute exercise and psychosocial stress on fine motor skills and testosterone concentration in the saliva of high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Wegner

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of different stressors on fine motor skills, the concentration of testosterone (T, and their interaction in adolescents. Therefore, 62 high school students aged 14-15 years were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (exercise, psychosocial stress and a control group. Exercise stress was induced at 65-75% of the maximum heart rate by running for 15 minutes (n = 24. Psychosocial stress was generated by an intelligence test (HAWIK-IV, which was uncontrollable and characterized by social-evaluative-threat to the students (n = 21. The control group followed was part of a regular school lesson with the same duration (n = 28. Saliva was collected after a normal school lesson (pre-test as well as after the intervention/control period (post-test and was analyzed for testosterone. Fine motor skills were assessed pre- and post-intervention using a manual dexterity test (Flower Trail from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. A repeated measure ANCOVA including gender as a covariate revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase in manual dexterity only for the psychosocial stress group. Correlation analysis of all students shows that the change of testosterone from pre- to post-test was directly linked (r = -.31, p = .01 to the changes in manual dexterity performance. Participants showing high increases in testosterone from pre- to post-test made fewer mistakes in the fine motor skills task. Findings suggest that manual dexterity increases when psychosocial stress is induced and that improvement of manual dexterity performance corresponds with the increase of testosterone.

  8. Thinking Skills Intervention for Low-Achieving First Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotulainen, Risto; Mononen, Riikka; Aunio, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the improving thinking skills (ITS-1) intervention study on the thinking skills of low-achieving first graders. The intervention programme consists of 12 lessons, each lasting for 45 min. Lessons offer enriched-discovery learning activities and tasks to be solved through inductive reasoning. We used a…

  9. Thinking Skills Intervention for Low-Achieving First Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotulainen, Risto; Mononen, Riikka; Aunio, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the improving thinking skills (ITS-1) intervention study on the thinking skills of low-achieving first graders. The intervention programme consists of 12 lessons, each lasting for 45 min. Lessons offer enriched-discovery learning activities and tasks to be solved through inductive reasoning. We used a…

  10. A Brief Social Skills Intervention to Reduce Challenging Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Troughton, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Social skills instruction has been recommended as a way of improving behavioral and social outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A brief social skills intervention ("Stop and Think" (Knoff in "The stop & think social skills program," Sopris West, Longmont, CO, 2001) was used to extend the…

  11. Psychosocial Intervention with ethnic minority families in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    that relatively newer conceptualizations such as identities with multiple dimensions, transnationalism, resilience orientation and health promotion play a salient role in family intervention in this era of globalization perceived as the growing interconnectedness between people around the world with regards...

  12. Enrolment of children and adolescents in psychosocial care: more likely with low family social support and poor parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between family social support, parenting skills and child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care. We obtained data on 1,331 children (response rate 56.6%), 4-18 years old, enrolled in preventive child health care, and child and adolescent social care and mental health care because of psychosocial problems, and on 463 children (response rate 70.3%) not enrolled in psychosocial care. Results showed that enrolment in psychosocial care was associated with low family social support (odds ratio; 95%-confidence interval: 3.2; 2.4-4.4), and with poor parenting skills, i.e. poor supervision (1.5; 1.1-2.1) and inconsistent disciplining (1.5; 1.1-2.1). Children's psychosocial problems partially mediated the associations with family social support and completely with parenting skills. Children's problems did not moderate the associations. Positive parenting was not associated with care enrolment. We conclude that low family social support and poor parenting are important factors associated with enrolment, in particular because they are associated with more frequent occurrence of children's psychosocial problems. This implies that professionals and policymakers need to be aware that factors in children's social environment are related with enrolment in psychosocial care, in addition to children's psychosocial problems.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Theo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention. Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates

  14. The singing nurse?! Music therapy, interdisciplinarity and an overview of research in psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    , and music therapy is described as an effective psychosocial intervention for reducing agitation in persons with dementia. I will shortly refer to an exploratory RCT where we found that 6 weeks of biweekly music therapy sessions reduced agitation disruptiveness as well as the prescription of psychotropic...... be carried out as direct practice (Bunt & Stige, 2014) but also as indirect music therapy practice. Indirect practice is suggested to play an important role in future culture of care in nursing homes with the music therapist as a key ‘actor’ in implementing music interventions in daily care situations, e.......g. in dyads with caregivers or relatives and the person with dementia. The aim is to provide and develop psychosocial interventions in the interdisciplinary team, and to support staff and caregivers in their use of music as part of the daily culture of care. References Bunt, L. & Stige, B. (2014). Music...

  15. [Evaluation of interventions intended to reduce psychosocial work stress. Proposal for a classification scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, R; Bauer, J; Nübling, M; Rose, U; Krause, A

    2011-08-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress is sporadic. This is contradictory to the requirement identified by the German Social Security Code (SGB VII) that interventions constitute the most important method of maintaining and improving employees' health. Reasons for this can be seen in the complexity of the subject and methodological issues concerning scientific standards. In addition, agreed quality standards are nonexistent for the evaluation of intervention measures. For this reason, a synopsis of existing audit and evaluation schemes was performed, thus, resulting in refined and adapted quality standards for intervention measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress. The quality criteria presented in this paper comprise aims, effectiveness, and facilitators, each being composed of several indicators. The criteria are designed as quality indicators which translate the outcome of an evaluation into quality figures. The process is transparent and offers a rational basis for communication, planning, and decision-making in health promotion.

  16. Assessment effects in educational and psychosocial intervention trials: an important but often-overlooked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E

    2015-06-01

    Baseline assessments and repeated measures are an essential part of educational and psychosocial intervention trials, but merely measuring an outcome of interest can modify that outcome, either by the measurement process alone or by interacting with the intervention to strengthen or weaken the intervention effects. Assessment effects can result in biased estimates of intervention effects and may not be controlled by the usual two-group randomized controlled trial design. In this paper, we review the concept of assessment effects and other related phenomena, briefly describe study designs that estimate assessment effects separately from intervention effects and discuss their strengths and limitations, review evidence regarding the strength of assessment effects in intervention trials targeting behavior change, and discuss implications for intervention research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for family carers of palliative care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kristina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being a family carer to a patient nearing the end of their life is a challenging and confronting experience. Studies show that caregiving can have negative consequences on the health of family carers including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, anxiety and burnout. One of the goals of palliative care is to provide psychosocial support to patients and families facing terminal illness. A systematic review of interventions for family carers of cancer and palliative care patients conducted at the start of this millennium demonstrated that there was a dearth of rigorous inquiry on this topic and consequently limited knowledge regarding the types of interventions likely to be effective in meeting the complex needs of family carers. We wanted to discern whether or not the evidence base to support family carers has improved. Furthermore, undertaking this review was acknowledged as one of the priorities for the International Palliative Care Family Carer Research Collaboration http://www.centreforpallcare.org. Methods A systematic review was undertaken in order to identify developments in family carer support that have occurred over the last decade. The focus of the review was on interventions that targeted improvements in the psychosocial support of family carers of palliative care patients. Studies were graded to assess their quality. Results A total of fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The focus of interventions included psycho-education, psychosocial support, carer coping, symptom management, sleep promotion and family meetings. Five studies were randomised controlled trials, three of which met the criteria for the highest quality evidence. There were two prospective studies, five pre-test/post-test projects and two qualitative studies. Conclusions The systematic review identified a slight increase in the quality and quantity of psychosocial interventions conducted for family carers in the last decade. More rigorous

  18. Diagnóstico y tratamiento psicosocial del tabaquismo Smoking cessation: Diagnosis and psychosocial intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO BELLO S

    2009-01-01

    . The current treatment of smoking has two pillars: psycho-social intervention and pharmacological therapy. The current interventions are based on two theoretical models that try to understand changes of smoking behavior: The Stages of Change and PRIME Theory. Brief intervention is a strategy internationally approved because of its population impact on smoking cessation. The methodology used is named "5A's": Ask, Advise, Asses, Assist and Arrange follow-up. For not motivated patients at the intervention time it can be used the "5R 's" methodology: Relevance, Risks, Rewards, Roadblocks and Repetition. The actual approach used in smokers management, is Motivational Interview, which tries to produce the behavioral change from inside and not imposing it. Its four tools are: express empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance and support self efficacy. The useful psychosocial strategies, in which exists consensus, are: 1 Give practical counseling of problem solving and skills training to face risky situations; 2 Intra-treatment support, encouraging attempts of smoking cessation and communicate caring and concern.

  19. Group psychosocial interventions for adults with schizophrenia and bipolar illness: the evidence base in the light of publications between 1986 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segredou, I; Xenitidis, K; Panagiotopoulou, M; Bochtsou, V; Antoniadou, O; Livaditis, M

    2012-05-01

    The treatment of major mental disorders usually combines medical and psychosocial interventions. The present study reviews research pertaining to the efficacy of group psychosocial interventions for people with psychotic illness. An electronic search was conducted through Medline and PsychINFO to identify articles relevant to group therapy for people with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Articles published in the English language, between January 1986 and May 2006, were considered. Studies were included if they had a control group and at least 20 participants. The search resulted in 23 articles concerning patients with schizophrenia and five concerning patients with bipolar affective disorder. The therapeutic approach in the majority of the studies was along the lines of cognitive behaviour therapy and psychoeducation. All studies reported improvement in at least one parameter. Most of them report improvement in skills and overall functioning.

  20. The positive effects of early powered mobility on children's psychosocial and play skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan; Tefft, Donita

    2013-01-01

    Powered mobility can have an important cognitive and psychosocial impact on young children who are unable to move independently. Twenty-three children with physical disabilities between the ages of 18 months and 6 years participated in this study. Data evaluating social skills, frequency of mobility play activities, frequency of interaction with toys/objects, and play/verbal developmental levels were collected at wheelchair evaluation, wheelchair delivery, and approximately 6 months later. Significant increases were found in parental perceptions of positive social skills for younger children after receiving a wheelchair; slightly older children showed improvements in social skills before the wheelchair was received; no changes were found in negative social skills. Parental ratings also indicated a significantly greater difficulty remaining engaged in tasks after receiving a wheelchair. A significant increase was noted in the number of mobility activities during indoor free play but no difference was seen in interaction with toys or objects. Improvement in the qualitative level of outdoor interactive free play was reported but there was no change in verbal interactions. This article discusses the potential positive impact of early powered mobility. These findings may be helpful in justifying the recommendation of powered mobility to young children and in justifying medical necessity of powered mobility for reimbursement by third party payers.

  1. Timing of intervention affects brain electrical activity in children exposed to severe psychosocial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E Vanderwert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early psychosocial deprivation has profound effects on brain activity in the young child. Previous reports have shown increased power in slow frequencies of the electroencephalogram (EEG, primarily in the theta band, and decreased power in higher alpha and beta band frequencies in infants and children who have experienced institutional care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the consequences of removing infants from institutions and placing them into a foster care intervention on brain electrical activity when children were 8 years of age. We found the intervention was successful for increasing high frequency EEG alpha power, with effects being most pronounced for children placed into foster care before 24 months of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dependence on age of placement for the effects observed on high frequency EEG alpha power suggests a sensitive period after which brain activity in the face of severe psychosocial deprivation is less amenable to recovery.

  2. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    a substantial number of symptoms 3 years after the incident. Thus, a treatment program designed to target PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed children was established. Objectives The first aim of this study was to provide preliminary evidence that a classroom-based psychosocial intervention program for children....... Furthermore, the results indicated that the Darryl instrument is a useful screening tool for assessing PTSD symptoms in this sample of children. Keywords Trauma Disaster Treatment Children Assessment...

  3. Computer-Assisted Intervention for Children with Low Numeracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Pekka; Salminen, Jonna; Wilson, Anna J.; Aunio, Pirjo; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a computer-assisted intervention (CAI) study on number skills in kindergarten children. Children with low numeracy skill (n = 30) were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. The first group played a computer game (The Number Race) which emphasized numerical comparison and was designed to train number sense, while the…

  4. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  5. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.

  6. Psychosocial intervention for children with narcolepsy: Parents' expectations and perceived support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippola-Pääkkönen, Anu; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Valkonen, Jukka; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2016-04-18

    The study focuses on the parents of children who were affected by narcolepsy after a pandemic influenza and vaccination campaign in Finland. The main aim of the study was to clarify parents' expectations and perceived support from the intervention and to assess their need for additional support. The data were gathered using questionnaires. Fifty-eight parents answered the baseline questionnaire and 40 parents the final questionnaire. Parents' expectations of and perceived support from the intervention mainly related to peer support. The intervention offered an arena for sharing information and experiences and provided encouragement for coping in everyday life. Many expectations were not met, especially those concerning information about needed services, financial benefits and availability of local support. The results highlight that for persons with rare disorders and their families, an inpatient psychosocial intervention can offer an important arena to receive both informal and professionally led peer support. Comprehensive psychosocial and other support services are also needed in the community. Listening to parents' perspectives on the intervention and perceived support can help to establish multiform family-centred support for families with children affected by a rare chronic disabling condition. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Family-oriented psychosocial intervention in children with cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ostadhashemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, evidence has shown the growing trend of published studies on family-oriented interventions in children with cancer. Besides shedding light on the current status of knowledge, a review of the existing evidence can serve an effective step toward designing and implementing appropriate interventions in this domain. Methods: This systematic review was carried out to categorize and report the findings of all types of psychosocial interventions on the family caregivers of children with cancer. The English keywords "family career", "family caregiver", “children with cancer", "psychosocial", "intervention”, “educational", and "childhood cancer" were searched in CINAHL, Web of Science (ISI, PsychINFO, Pubmed and Scopus databanks, and equivalent Persian keywords were searched in the SID of Jihad University, IRANDOC, and IranPsych and Magiran databanks. From among 819 papers found between 1994 and 2014, a total of 17 articles were included in the study after qualitative evaluation. Results: Interventions were often performed on mothers and indicated various interventional approaches. The majority of the interventions were cognitive-behavioral which were reported to be effective in improving the measured criteria such as increasing the quality of life, decreasing emotional distress, anxiety and depression, and increasing adaptive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings were generally reported to be hopeful and most of interventions were reported to have positive effects on the participants, among which behavioral-cognitive interventions were found to show the strongest evidence. Supportive interventions must be considered as an indispensable part of care for children with cancer.

  8. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership), employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers. A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational

  9. Psychosocial risk factors, interventions and comorbidity in patients with non-specific low back pain in primary care: need for comprehensive and patient-centered care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eRamond-Roquin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific low back pain (LBP affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical and occupational may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for

  10. A Participatory Physical and Psychosocial Intervention for Balancing the Demands and Resources Among Industrial Workers (PIPPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Christian Dyrlund; Nøhr Henriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    will be carried out allowing team members to discuss current physical and psychosocial work demands and resources, and develop action plans to minimize strain and if possible, optimize the resources. At all levels, the intervention will be integrated into the existing organization of work schedules. An extensive...... receive the intervention in year two. More than 400 workers from three companies in Denmark will be aimed to be cluster randomized into intervention and control groups with at least 200 workers (at least 9 work teams) in each group. An organizational resources audit and subsequent action planning workshop......Background: Need for recovery and work ability are strongly associated with high employee turnover, well-being and sickness absence. However, scientific knowledge on effective interventions to improve work ability and decrease need for recovery is scarce. Thus, the present study aims to describe...

  11. Basic nursing care: retrospective evaluation of communication and psychosocial interventions documented by nurses in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia; Pérez, Esperanza Zuriguel; Padrés, Núria Fabrellas; Samartino, Maribel Gonzalez; García, Marta Romero; Creus, Mònica Castellà; Batllori, Núria Vila; Calvo, Cristina Matud

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of psychosocial aspects of basic nursing care, as e-charted by nurses, when using an interface terminology. An observational, multicentre study was conducted in acute wards. The main outcome measure was the frequency of use of the psychosocial interventions in the electronic nursing care plans, analysed over a 12 month retrospective review. Overall, 150,494 electronic care plans were studied. Most of the intervention concepts from the interface terminology were used by registered nurses to illustrate the psychosocial aspects of fundamentals of care in the electronic care plans. The results presented help to demonstrate that the interventions of this interface terminology may be useful to inform psychosocial aspects of basic and advanced nursing care. The identification of psychosocial elements of basic nursing care in the nursing documentation may lead to obtain a deeper understanding of those caring interventions nurses consider essential to represent nurse-patient interactions. The frequency of psychosocial interventions may contribute to delineate basic and advanced nursing care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Why Latinas With Breast Cancer Select Specific Informal Caregivers to Participate With Them in Psychosocial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Terry; Segrin, Chris; Swiatkowski, Paulina; McNelis, Melissa; Weihs, Karen; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasons 88 Latinas with breast cancer selected specific supportive others to participate in an 8-week psychosocial intervention. Participants were asked one open-ended question during the baseline assessment for a larger clinical trial: "Could you tell me more about why you selected [insert name] to participate in the study with you?" A content analysis of the responses found three thematic categories: source of informational or emotional support, concern for the informal caregiver's welfare, and special characteristics or qualities of the informal caregiver. These findings reflected both the cultural value of familism, the woman's role as caregiver to the family ( marianismo), and the man's role of provider ( machismo). Findings provide support for including the supportive person identified by the patient during a health crisis rather than the provider suggesting who that should be. Psychosocial services designed and implemented through such a cultural lens are more likely to be successful.

  13. Animal-assisted intervention and social skills strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis describe animal-assisted interventions, more precisely, the significance of animal-assisted interventions for strengthening of social skills. Theoretical part includes a detailed presentation of the benefits of therapeutic dog in work with vulnerable populations. I focused on delimitation of the term animal-assisted interventions which includes animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activity and the differences and similarities between them. I continued with therapeuti...

  14. Psychosocial skills training on social functioning and quality of life in the treatment of schizophrenia: a controlled study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Veznedaroglu, Baybars; Eryavuz, Ayse; Kayahan, Bulent

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study assessed the impact of a psychosocial skills training program, consisting of psychoeducation, interpersonal group therapy and family education incorporated into social skills training, as an integrative approach on social functioning and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia, in comparison to standard care for an 8-month period. METHOD Thirty patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were included in the study. Patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Global Assessment of Function (GAF) at baseline. Fifteen patients underwent an 8-month psychosocial skills training group program and another fifteen patients (waiting list) continued in standard care. Both groups were reassessed and analyzed at the end of the study. RESULTS Two groups were not statistically different in terms of total PANSS, QLS, SFS, GAF scores, and demographic characteristics at baseline. However, there was a significant improvement in the mean total QLS, SFS, GAF, and even in total PANSS scores (respectively from 64.46±19.58 to 89.67±24.10, Ppsychosocial skills training program for patients with schizophrenia. It can be concluded that this comprehensive psychosocial skills training program might be an important contribution to the functioning of the patients.

  15. Suicide Intervention Skills among Japanese Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kato, Takahiro A.; Hashimoto, Naoki; Sato, Ryoko; Aoyama-Uehara, Kumi; Fukasawa, Maiko; Tomita, Masayuki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Kashima, Haruo; Otsuka, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Patient suicide is a tragic occurrence, and it can be a demoralizing experience for medical residents. Few studies, however, have assessed suicide management skills among these front-line healthcare professionals. This study evaluated the self-assessed competence and confidence of medical residents with regard to the management of…

  16. Effect of a ball skill intervention on children's ball skills and cognitive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp-Haverdings, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of a 16-wk ball skill intervention on the ball skills, executive functioning (in terms of problem solving and cognitive flexibility), and in how far improved executive functioning leads to improved reading and mathematics performance of children with learning

  17. Effect of a ball skill intervention on children's ball skills and cognitive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp-Haverdings, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of a 16-wk ball skill intervention on the ball skills, executive functioning (in terms of problem solving and cognitive flexibility), and in how far improved executive functioning leads to improved reading and mathematics performance of children with learning

  18. Perceived benefits and psychosocial outcomes of a brief existential family intervention for cancer patients/survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlan, Robert W; Butler, Lisa D; Rosenbaum, Ernest; Siegel, Alison; Spiegel, David

    This study assessed a range of benefits from participation in a brief existential intervention consisting of a semi-structured videotaped interview with cancer patients and their families designed to illuminate a life legacy for the family (the Life Tape Project [LTP]). Results indicated the majority reported intervention-specific benefits, especially in the areas of symbolic immortality (passing on personal values and philosophy), self-reflection and growth, and improved family cohesion and communication. Participants, particularly those who had perceived their cancer as a threat of death, serious injury, or threat to their physical integrity, and responded with intense fear or helplessness, also reported more general reductions in mood disturbance, improvements in aspects of well-being (including overall quality of life), satisfaction with the understanding they received, and enhanced cancer-related posttraumatic growth. In short, the LTP is a brief, inexpensive, existential intervention that can yield broad positive psychosocial changes for a majority of participants.

  19. Psychosocial child adjustment and family functioning in families reached with an assertive outreach intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots-de Vries, Carin; van de Goor, Ien; Stronks, Karien; Garretsen, Henk

    2011-06-01

    Families who experience a chronic complex of socio-economic and psychosocial problems are hard to reach with mainstream care. Evidence exists that the core of this problem is a problematic interaction between this type of family and current systems of care and services. To improve access to problem families, an assertive outreach intervention was implemented into the field of preventive child health care, The Netherlands. The study aimed to provide a more detailed insight into characteristics of the target group. Although there is consensus about some general features of hard to reach problem families, little is known about their specific characteristics because empirical studies among this group are rarely conducted. Especially, the problems of the children is shed insufficient light on. The studied population consisted of families included in the assertive outreach intervention delivered during one year (N=116). To assess psychosocial adjustment of the children, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was filled in by the parents. Furthermore, a Dutch questionnaire on family functioning was completed by professional carers. Descriptive data were calculated. The findings show that by using the assertive outreach intervention, programme staff came into contact with families characterised by a considerably higher than average proportion of single parents and unemployed households receiving social benefits. The families faced a high level of risk and a wide range of severe and multiple difficulties, including a lack of basic child care, an inadequate social network and poor parenting. Children in these families were also facing a number of risks. The proportion of psychosocial problems was well above the (inter)national average. The findings reveal the problem areas of unreached families and a need to improve the access to care for these families.

  20. A new generation of pragmatic trials of psychosocial interventions is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, M; Lasalvia, A; Bonetto, C

    2013-06-01

    This Editorial addresses the crucial issue of which research methodology is most suited for capturing the complexity of psychosocial interventions conducted in 'real world' mental health settings. It first examines conventional randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology and critically appraises its strengths and weaknesses. It then considers the specificity of mental health care treatments and defines the term 'complex' intervention and its implications for RCT design. The salient features of pragmatic RCTs aimed at generating evidence of psychosocial intervention effectiveness are then described. Subsequently, the conceptualization of pragmatic RCTs, and of their further developments - which we propose to call 'new generation' pragmatic trials - in the broader routine mental health service context, is explored. Helpful tools for planning pragmatic RCTs, such as the CONSORT extension for pragmatic trials, and the PRECIS tool are also examined. We then discuss some practical challenges that are involved in the design and implementation of pragmatic trials based on our own experience in conducting the GET UP PIANO Trial. Lastly, we speculate on the ways in which current ideas on the purpose, scope and ethics of mental health care research may determine further challenges for clinical research and evidence-based practice.

  1. Immunological changes associated with clinical improvement of asthmatic children subjected to psychosocial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castés, M; Hagel, I; Palenque, M; Canelones, P; Corao, A; Lynch, N R

    1999-03-01

    In the present study we evaluated the impact of a program of psychosocial intervention (PSI) on the immunological status and the clinical management of a group of asthmatic children of an island population in Venezuela. We studied a total of 35 asthmatic children who belonged to either a PSI group (19 patients) or a control group (16 patients), both of which received conventional antiasthmatic treatment. The PSI group received, in addition, a 6-month psychosocial intervention program which included relaxation, guided imagery, and self-esteem workshops. During the PSI period, the number of asthmatic episodes and the use of bronchodilator medication were significantly reduced, and pulmonary function was significantly improved, compared to the 6 months before intervention. There was also a significant reduction in the specific IgE responses against the most important allergen in these children, the intestinal parasite Ascaris lumbricoides. PSI resulted in a significant increase of NK cells, an augmented expression of the T-cell receptor for IL-2, and a significant decrease of leukocytes with low affinity receptors for IgE. In fact, these surface markers became similar to those of nonasthmatic children from both Coche Island and the mainland. None of these clinical or immunological changes were seen in the control group of asthmatics who did not undergo PSI. These results are consistent with the possibility that PSI induces immunological alterations that are responsible for the clinical and physiological improvements observed in the study group. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. The effect of psychosocial supportive interventions on PTSD symptoms after Bam earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fakour

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive – behavioral therapy and psychological debriefing in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and a few evidences are available for using these techniques in large scale disasters. This study aimed to asses the effect of some psychological interventions in reducing PTSD symptoms after Bam earthquake in different age groups. Methods: In a before-after quasi experimental clinical trial, we compared the efficacy of one session of psychological debriefing and three sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in bam earthquake PTSD symptoms in different age groups. We evaluated PTSD symptoms before and immediately and three months after interventions by CASP scaling system and analyzed data. Results: one hundred and thirty persons entered in the study and 51 persons excluded during interventions because of migration. Interventions were showed to be effective only in short term period. The means of PTSD symptoms frequency and severity of avoidance symptoms were reduced during three months period of study which were statistically significant P<0.05. Interventions showed no efficacy for recall symptoms in long term and hyper arousal symptoms in short term and long term periods. There was no statistically significant difference among age groups. Conclusion: Psychosocial supportive interventions may be effective on some of the PTSD symptoms but there is no difference in different age groups.

  3. [Provincial public center for crisis intervention and psycho-social rehabilitation. A path towards communitary suicidology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work on the systematic comprehensive approach towards the Prevention and Postvencion of Suicide started to develop back in mid 2011 in Río Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz Province. The first step on this development was a Pilot Plan for the Training of Professionals and also field intervention. The Center for Crisis Intervention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation was founded eight months later. The case-client in crisis plus family group- undergoes quantitative and qualitative evaluation by means of a triage system, all of which allows starting intensive face-to-face and also phone follow up according to the Crisis Intervention Model. Such intervention is developed by means of the participation in the "Grupo Sostén", the Adolescents Group if the client fits into that age, and also family relationship interviews as well as Multi-family meetings open to the Community. There is also a Community Team in the Center which performs collective assessment in schools, in conjunction with the "Equidad en Redes" Educational Specialty Team, belonging to the Provincial Education Council. The approach takes place on the field, and works as a screening step for the early detection of risk. Such risk is dealt with by means of short term intervention group programs involving the whole of the educational community. When facing situations of committed suicide there are interventions in communities to the interior of the province, fundamentally through the Hospital Team which works as the cluster convener for the social intersectoral frame-work.

  4. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Karlsen, Randi; Christensen, Jane; Paaschburg, Birgitte; Nielsen, Dorte; Bloch, Iben Seier; Christiansen, Birgitte; Jacobsen, Kathrine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-06-01

    To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC and marital relationship measured by BLRI in women with primary breast cancer conducted 10 weeks after surgery. A secondary outcome was 4-year survival. We randomly assigned 210 patients with primary breast cancer to a control or an intervention group. Patients in the intervention group were offered two weekly 6-h sessions of psycho-education and eight weekly 2-h sessions of group psychotherapy. All participants were followed up for Quality of Life, coping ability and social relations 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention and on survival 4 years after surgical treatment. No statistically significant effects of the intervention were found on any of the psychosocial questionnaire outcomes. There were not enough cases of death to analyse overall survival. The only statistically significant result was for patients who used anti depressive medication, for whom almost all measures improved over time, in both the control and intervention groups. Psycho-education and group psychotherapy did not decrease psychological distress or increase Quality of Life, Mental Adjustment or improve marital relationship among patients with primary breast cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-14

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  6. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  7. Psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected families in Haiti: implications for programs and policies for orphans and vulnerable children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Surkan, Pamela J; Scanlan, Fiona; Hook, Sarah; Mancuso, Anna; Mukherjee, Joia S

    2012-05-01

    Given the increased access of antiretroviral therapy (ART) throughout the developing world, what was once a terminal illness is now a chronic disease for those receiving treatment. This requires a paradigmatic shift in service provision for those affected by HIV/AIDS in low-resource settings. Although there is a need for psychosocial support interventions for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers, to date there has been limited empirical evidence on the effectiveness of curriculum-based psychosocial support groups in HIV-affected families in low-income countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility and assess the preliminary effectiveness of a psychosocial support group intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in central Haiti. The study was conducted at six Partners In Health-affiliated sites between February 2006 and September 2008 and included quantitative as well as qualitative methods. HIV-affected youth (n = 168) and their caregivers (n = 130) completed a baseline structured questionnaire prior to participation in a psychosocial support group intervention. Ninety-five percent of families completed the intervention and a follow-up questionnaire. Psychological symptoms, psychosocial functioning, social support, and HIV-related stigma at baseline were compared with outcomes one year later. Qualitative methods were also used to assess the participants' perspectives of the intervention. Comparing pre- and post-intervention assessment, youth affected by HIV experienced decreased psychological symptoms as well as improved psychosocial functioning and social support. Caregivers (95% HIV-positive) demonstrated a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, improved social support, and decreased HIV-related stigma. Although further study is needed to assess effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial, corroborative findings from qualitative data reflected reduced psychological distress, less social isolation and

  8. Systematic review and meta-analyses of psychosocial interventions for veterans of the military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Kitchiner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of psychosocial therapies for common mental health disorders in veterans is unclear and requires further examination. Method: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Twenty databases were searched. Studies were included if they reported a psychosocial intervention designed to treat or reduce common mental health symptoms in veterans identified as being symptomatic at the time they entered the study. Studies of substance dependency disorders and psychosis were excluded. Eligible studies were assessed against methodological quality criteria and data were extracted and analysed. Results: Twenty-nine RCTs were identified. There was evidence for the use of trauma-focused therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and some evidence for psychological interventions in the treatment of borderline personality disorder, depression, insomnia, and panic disorder co-morbid to PTSD. However, methodological quality of many of the studies was less than optimal. Conclusions: Trauma-focused psychological therapies are likely to be effective for combat-related PTSD but there is a need for more research to determine the efficacy of psychological treatments for other mental health disorders in veterans.

  9. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdellen, Cara; van de Griendt, Jolande; Hartmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This clinical guideline provides recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted...... to obtain an update on the efficacy of BPI for tics. Relevant studies were identified using computerised searches of the Medline and PsycINFO databases and the Cochrane Library for the years 1950-2010. The search identified no meta-analyses, yet twelve (systematic) reviews and eight randomised controlled...... trials provided evidence for the current review. Most evidence was found for habit reversal training (HRT) and the available but smaller evidence also supports the efficacy of exposure with response prevention (ERP). Both interventions are considered first line behavioural treatments for tics for both...

  10. A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction With Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen; Abraham, Amanda; Seymour, Brittany; McLoyd, Keli; Chalk, Mady; Festinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Opioid use and overdose rates have risen to epidemic levels in the United States during the past decade. Fortunately, there are effective medications (ie, methadone, buprenorphine, and oral and injectable naltrexone) available for the treatment of opioid addiction. Each of these medications is approved for use in conjunction with psychosocial treatment; however, there is a dearth of empirical research on the optimal psychosocial interventions to use with these medications. In this systematic review, we outline and discuss the findings of 3 prominent prior reviews and 27 recent publications of empirical studies on this topic. The most widely studied psychosocial interventions examined in conjunction with medications for opioid addiction were contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy, with the majority focusing on methadone treatment. The results generally support the efficacy of providing psychosocial interventions in combination with medications to treat opioid addictions, although the incremental utility varied across studies, outcomes, medications, and interventions. The review highlights significant gaps in the literature and provides areas for future research. Given the enormity of the current opioid problem in the United States, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the most effective ways to deliver psychosocial treatments in conjunction with these medications to improve the health and well-being of individuals suffering from opioid addiction.

  11. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie B. Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based, followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  12. Psychosocial approaches to violence and aggression: contextually anchored and trauma-informed interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Deborah; Guyer, Margaret; Sanders, Kathy

    2015-06-01

    Psychosocial interventions are part of the complex understanding and treatment of violent behavior in our state mental health hospitals. A comprehensive assessment of violence and aggression includes attention to all 3 domains of prevention and assessment (primary-institutional, secondary-structural, and tertiary-direct). Trauma experiences and their consequences may include behavioral violence and aggression. The authors' premise is that trauma is a universal component in the individual assessment of violent behavior. Therapeutic interventions must include a trauma-informed formulation to be effective. Organizational commitment to trauma-informed, person-centered, recovery-oriented (TPR) care is crucial to the efficacy of any of the interventions discussed. Thus, the dynamic nature of the individual, interpersonal, environmental, and cultural factors associated with the daily operations of the inpatient unit need to be assessed through the lens of primary and secondary violence prevention, building on the recognition that the majority of persons served and staff have significant trauma histories. Once a compassionate, respectful, empathic, and empowering approach is embraced by leadership and staff, the work with individuals can proceed more effectively. Interventions used include a variety of cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, and somatosensory therapies. These interventions, when effectively applied, result in more self-esteem, self-mastery, self-control for the person served, and diminished behavioral violence.

  13. Ecological Momentary Interventions: Incorporating Mobile Technology Into Psychosocial and Health Behavior Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Psychosocial and health behavior treatments and therapies can be extended beyond traditional research or clinical settings by using mobile technology to deliver interventions to individuals as they go about their daily lives. These Ecological Momentary Interventions [EMI] are treatments that are provided to people during their everyday lives (i.e., in real time) and in natural settings (i.e., real world). The goal of the present review is to synthesize and critique mobile technology-based EMI aimed at improving health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Methods Twenty-seven interventions using palmtop computers or mobile phones to deliver ambulatory treatment for smoking cessation, weight loss, anxiety, diabetes management, eating disorders, alcohol use, and healthy eating and physical activity were identified. Results There is evidence that EMI can be successfully delivered, are accepted by patients, and are efficacious for treating a variety of health behaviors and physical and psychological symptoms. Limitations of the existing literature were identified and recommendations and considerations for research design, sample characteristics, measurement, statistical analyses, and clinical implementation are discussed. Conclusions Mobile technology-based EMI can be effectively implemented as interventions for a variety of health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Future research should integrate the assessment and intervention capabilities of mobile technology to create dynamically and individually tailored EMI that are ecologically sensitive. PMID:19646331

  14. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  15. Advanced rural skills training: The value of an addiction medicine rotation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allan, Julaine

    2011-01-01

    ...: An addiction medicine rotation offers general practice registrars the opportunity to develop skills and experience in psychosocial interventions as well as physical and mental health issues common...

  16. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    OpenAIRE

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via...

  17. Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J. David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

  18. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions for managing stress in multiple sclerosis: the contribution of mindfulness-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz San José, A; Oreja-Guevara, C; Cebolla Lorenzo, S; Carrillo Notario, L; Rodríguez Vega, B; Bayón Pérez, C

    2016-03-01

    Depression or anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to a more severe course of the disease and higher numbers of relapses, in addition to poorer treatment adherence and exacerbated immune system dysregulation. Recent investigations indicate that psychotherapeutic interventions for stress management, such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), could improve quality of life, depression, anxiety, and fatigue in MS patients. Mindfulness fosters the ability to slow down and observe experiences as they truly are, which improves affect regulation. Mindfulness is acquired through training; its advantage over other psychotherapeutic interventions is that effects may remain over time, since cultivating mindfulness depends on regular practising of abilities learned during training. The objective of this article is to review the current evidence of psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions, including MBIs for stress management, and their beneficial effects on MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Training interventions for improving telephone consultation skills in clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaona, Alberto; Pappas, Yannis; Grewal, Rumant S; Ajaz, Mubasshir; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2017-01-05

    Since 1879, the year of the first documented medical telephone consultation, the ability to consult by telephone has become an integral part of modern patient-centred healthcare systems. Nowadays, upwards of a quarter of all care consultations are conducted by telephone. Studies have quantified the impact of medical telephone consultation on clinicians' workload and detected the need for quality improvement. While doctors routinely receive training in communication and consultation skills, this does not necessarily include the specificities of telephone communication and consultation. Several studies assessed the short-term effect of interventions aimed at improving clinicians' telephone consultation skills, but there is no systematic review reporting patient-oriented outcomes or outcomes of interest to clinicians. To assess the effects of training interventions for clinicians' telephone consultation skills and patient outcomes. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other electronic databases and two trial registers up to 19 May 2016, and we handsearched references, checked citations and contacted study authors to identify additional studies and data. We considered randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies evaluating training interventions compared with any control intervention, including no intervention, for improving clinicians' telephone consultation skills with patients and their impact on patient outcomes. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies using standard Cochrane and EPOC guidance and the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We contacted study authors where additional information was needed. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane for data analysis. We identified one very small controlled before-after study performed in 1989: this study used a

  20. Depression in Homebound Older Adults: Recent Advances in Screening and Psychosocial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Sirey, Jo Anne; Bruce, Martha L

    2013-03-01

    Homebound older adults are more likely than their ambulatory peers to suffer from depression. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of antidepressant medications alone in such cases is limited. Greater benefits might be realized if patients received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy to enhance their skills to cope with their multiple chronic medical conditions, isolation, and mobility impairment; however, referrals to specialty mental health services seldom succeed due to inaccessibility, shortage of geriatric mental health providers, and cost. Since a large proportion of homebound older adults receive case management and other services from aging services network agencies, the integration of mental health services into these agencies is likely to be cost-efficient and effective. This review summarizes recent advances in home-based assessment and psychosocial treatment of depression in homebound recipients of aging services.

  1. The effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for maltreated children and adolescents: an evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Geraldine; Livingstone, Nuala; Hanratty, Jennifer; McCartan, Claire; Cotmore, Richard; Cary, Maria; Glaser, Danya; Byford, Sarah; Welton, Nicky J; Bosqui, Tania; Bowes, Lucy; Audrey, Suzanne; Mezey, Gill; Fisher, Helen L; Riches, Wendy; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN For effectiveness, we included any controlled study. Other study designs were considered for economic decision modelling. For acceptability, we included any study that asked participants for their views. PARTICIPANTS Children and young people up to 24 years 11 months, who had experienced maltreatment before the age of 17 years 11 months. INTERVENTIONS Any psychosocial intervention provided in any setting aiming to address the consequences of maltreatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Psychological distress [particularly post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety, and self-harm], behaviour, social functioning, quality of life and acceptability. METHODS Young Persons and Professional Advisory Groups guided the project, which was conducted in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration and NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Departures from the published protocol were recorded and explained. Meta-analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses of available data were undertaken where possible. RESULTS We identified 198 effectiveness studies (including 62 randomised trials); six economic evaluations (five using trial data and one decision-analytic model); and 73 studies investigating treatment acceptability. Pooled data on cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for sexual abuse suggested post-treatment reductions in PTSD [standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.44 (95% CI -4.43 to -1.53)], depression [mean difference -2.83 (95% CI -4.53 to -1.13)] and anxiety [SMD -0.23 (95% CI -0.03 to -0.42)]. No differences were observed for post-treatment sexualised behaviour

  2. Communication Skills Training in Medical Students: Do Motivational Orientations Predict Changes over Time in Psychosocial Attributes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Kushnir, Talma; Bachner, Yaacov G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived psychosocial abilities (i.e., competence in addressing the psychosocial aspects of patient care) and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (i.e., intolerance of physical or emotional discomfort) have been established as significant attributes of experienced medical professionals. We aimed to expand our understanding of the role motivation…

  3. Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors and Mechanisms in Psychosocial Prevention and Intervention Programs for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2016-06-01

    Extending previous reviews related to cultural responsiveness in the treatment of ethnic minority youth, the current review provides a critical assessment and synthesis of both basic and applied research on the integration of three racial-ethnic protective factors (racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) in psychosocial prevention and intervention programs for Black children and adolescents. Seventeen programs meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated for the extent to which racial-ethnic protective factors and related mechanisms were integrated, applied, and tested in such programs. A systematic assessment of these programs revealed that several prevention and intervention programs drew upon the three factors, particularly Africentric worldview. In addition, a number of studies hypothesized and assessed mechanisms, both those previously identified in conceptual literature and those that emerged from the interventions themselves. A set of recommendations encouraging the implementation of these factors into future prevention and intervention programs, examples of how clinicians can infuse these factors into psychotherapy, and areas for future research are discussed.

  4. The psychosocial impact of armed conflict on children. Rethinking traditional paradigms in research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichick, T

    2001-10-01

    It is undeniable that the impact of war on children is a significant issue that merits continued efforts in research and intervention. It is time for a shift in paradigms; instead of focusing solely on exposure to traumatic events and defining pathology per dominant diagnostic criteria, it is essential that research turn to examining the effect of chronic stressors and exploring how certain mechanisms may be protective or act to moderate the psychosocial impact of war on children. The role of such protective mechanisms must be examined for differences by development and gender and by cultural context and the nature of the conflict situation itself. Investigations of the health and psychosocial well-being of war-affected children and the programs that serve them must attend to the restoration of basic physiologic needs, safety, structure, familial ties, and other sources of support and integration of cultural practices of healing. The coping efforts of young people and their families and the creation of more positive roles for youth also must be explored. Addressing these fundamental issues in research and programming will go a long way in fostering new opportunities for peace, healing, and the promotion of mental health and well-being for war-affected children in modern times.

  5. Review of implementation processes for integrated nutrition and psychosocial stimulation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Aboud, Frances

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the implementation processes for interventions that integrate nutrition and psychosocial stimulation for children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the content of these programs, the delivery strategy, intensity and duration, personnel training and supervision, compliance, and fidelity. A systematic search of the Global Health Ovid database yielded 1020 articles, of which 29 fit the criteria, and two further studies recently completed were reported by author communication. Some of these articles describe efficacy or effectiveness studies where nutritional supplements or education along with psychosocial stimulation experiences or education were delivered directly to children or their caregivers. Other papers describe large-scale programs, such as conditional cash transfers in Latin America, Integrated Child Development Services preschools in India, and World Bank collaborations with national governments in Africa. A summary table of the implementation processes of the 31 programs is included. We conclude with a set of recommendations summarizing what we know so far regarding best practices for integrative programs.

  6. The efficacy of targeted interventions for modifiable psychosocial risk factors of persistent nonspecific low back pain e A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kjær, Per

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is considerable interest in whether best practice management of nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) should include the targeting of treatment to subgroups of people with identifiable clinical characteristics. However, there are no published systematic reviews of the efficacy...... were randomised controlled trials of targeted psychosocial interventions that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on the efficacy of targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of pain, activity limitation and psychosocial factors (fear avoidance...... limitation at 12 months, when targeted to people with higher movement-related pain. Few studies have investigated targeted psychosocial interventions in NSLBP, using trial designs suitable for measuring treatment effect modification, and they do not provide consistent evidence supporting such targeting...

  7. Intervenções psicossociais no transtorno bipolar Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pereira Justo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, os autores, através de revisão bibliográfica narrativa, situam as intervenções psicossociais dentro do panorama terapêutico para o transtorno bipolar e constatam que ainda são insuficientes os estudos primários feitos com metodologia adequada para a obtenção de informações científicas de boa qualidade. São sucintamente descritos os trabalhos mais relevantes.In this paper, the authors review the status of psychosocial interventions within the general treatment for bipolar disorder. They have verified the scantiness of studies performed with adequate methodology to obtain scientific information of good quality. The more relevant studies are briefly described.

  8. Computeen: a randomized trial of a preventive computer and psychosocial skills curriculum for at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason M; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L

    2009-09-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16 years old who were living in affordable housing communities participated in this randomized wait-list control study. Results showed considerable improvements in computer self-efficacy, decreases in internalizing behavior problems, and excellent attendance and consumer satisfaction. Self-esteem and school motivation results were mixed. Computer self-efficacy mediated the relationship between improved computer skills and self-esteem. Younger adolescents showed greater improvement than did older adolescents. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Although there are limitations to this study's sample size and scope, Computeen appears promising as a developmentally appropriate, strengths-based prevention program.

  9. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE FAMILY PRESERVATION USERS: AN ANALYSIS OF NEEDS AND INTERVENTION CLUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ayala-Nunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At-risk families live under circumstances that hinder their parenting competences, compromising their ability to fulfill their children’s needs appropriately. The complex and multiple-source nature of the adversities that they endure makes family preservation interventions challenging. Because their efficacy largely depends on the extent to which interventions fit participants’ needs and characteristics, the aims of this study were to draw the sociodemographic (individual, family, economic, labor, and child-related variables and psychosocial profile (negative life events, parenting stress, and psychological distress symptomatology of Spanish and Portuguese family preservation users while testing the inter-country differences. The results showed that the majority of participants had a low educational level, were unemployed, and were poor. Spanish and Portuguese participants had suffered an average of 5 and 4 negative life events over the past 3 years, respectively, with a high emotional impact. The most common were labor precariousness and economic hardship. Clinical levels of parenting stress were found in 48.1% of the Spanish participants and 39.1% of the Portuguese participants. An important proportion of the participants had clinical levels of psychological distress (Spain = 71.9%; Portugal = 45.8%, indicating the presence of mental health problems. Families’ support needs are discussed and guidelines for interventions aimed at improving parents’ and children’s well-being are outlined.

  10. A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for adult refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Rachel H; Sendt, Kyra-Verena; Tracy, Derek K

    2017-05-09

    Europe is in the midst of the largest refugee migration since the Second World War; there is an urgent need to provide an updated systematic review of the current best evidence for managing mental distress in refugee populations. The aim of this review is to provide an exhaustive summary of the current literature on psychosocial interventions, both trauma- and non-trauma-focused, for refugee populations experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive or anxiety symptoms. To produce recommendations for future research and current clinical practice. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO (Hosted by Ovid), PILOTS and Social Services Abstracts; 5305 articles were screened and 40 were included. This review found medium to high quality evidence supporting the use of narrative exposure therapy (NET). A lack of culturally adapted treatments was apparent and there was less evidence to support standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) and multidisciplinary treatments. NET produced positive outcomes in refugees from a diverse range of backgrounds and trauma types. There is a general dearth of research in all intervention types: further research should include more "real-world" multidisciplinary interventions that better model clinical practice. Recommendations for evaluating local need, and creating a culturally sensitive workforce are discussed.

  11. Factors influencing childhood cancer patients to participate in a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program : Quality of Life in Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan Jl; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; Bierings, MB; Merks, Hans; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Eibrink, Marry; Streng, Isabelle C.; Van Dulmen-Den Broeder, Eline

    2015-01-01

    Background For a multi-center randomized trial investigating the effects of a 12-week physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, we invited 174 patients (8-18 years old) on treatment or within 1 year after treatment; about 40% participated. Reasons for non-participation

  12. Factors influencing childhood cancer patients to participate in a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program : Quality of Life in Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan Jl; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; Bierings, MB; Merks, Hans; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Eibrink, Marry; Streng, Isabelle C.; Van Dulmen-Den Broeder, Eline

    Background For a multi-center randomized trial investigating the effects of a 12-week physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, we invited 174 patients (8-18 years old) on treatment or within 1 year after treatment; about 40% participated. Reasons for non-participation

  13. PSYCHOSOCIAL GROUP INTERVENTION AND THE RATE OF DECLINE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HIV-INFECTED HOMOSEXUAL MEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, CL; ANTONI, MH; EMMELKAMP, PMG; VEUGELERS, PJ; SANDFORT, TGM; VANDEVIJVER, FAJR; DEVRIES, MJ

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes in the rate of decline of immunological parameters after psychosocial group intervention. Subjects were 26 asymptomatic HIV-infected homosexual men who participated in a cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT; n = 14), or an experiential group therapy p

  14. Effects of language intervention on syntactic skill levels in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of input in the growth of syntactic skills have generated substantial debate within psychology and linguistics. The authors address these questions by investigating the effects of experimentally manipulated input on children's skill with the passive voice. The study involved 72 four-year-olds who listened to stories containing either a high proportion of passive voice sentences or a high proportion of active voice sentences. Following 10 story sessions, children's production and comprehension of passives were assessed. Intervention type affected performance--children who heard stories with passive sentences produced more passive constructions (and with fewer mistakes) and showed higher comprehension scores than children who heard stories with active sentences. Theoretical implications of these results for the understanding of the nature of syntactic skills and practical implications for the development of preschool materials are discussed.

  15. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Pincham

    Full Text Available Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32 or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32 passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images. Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.

  16. Reading intervention with a growth mindset approach improves children's skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2016-10-25

    Laboratory experiments have shown that parents who believe their child's abilities are fixed engage with their child in unconstructive, performance-oriented ways. We show that children of parents with such "fixed mindsets" have lower reading skills, even after controlling for the child's previous abilities and the parents' socioeconomic status. In a large-scale randomized field trial (Nclassrooms = 72; Nchildren = 1,587) conducted by public authorities, parents receiving a reading intervention were told about the malleability of their child's reading abilities and how to support their child by praising his/her effort rather than his/her performance. This low-cost intervention increased the reading and writing achievements of all participating children-not least immigrant children with non-Western backgrounds and children with low-educated mothers. As expected, effects were even bigger for parents who before the intervention had a fixed mindset.

  17. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brake, Hans; Dückers, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines), and to what degree these standards are implemented into mental health care practice. Two hundred and six (mental) health care professionals filled out a questionnaire to assess the extent to which they consider the guidelines' scope and recommendations relevant and part of the regular practice in their own country. Forty-five European experts from 24 EU countries discussed the guidelines at an international seminar. The data suggest overall agreement on the standards although many of the recommendations appear not (yet) to be embedded in everyday practice. Although large consensus exists on standards for early psychosocial care, a chasm between norms and practice appears to exist throughout the EU, stressing the general need for investments in guideline development and implementation.

  18. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  19. Parent Management Training Program Developed by “Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network” for Education of Family with Children in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Arslan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Parent management training programme was prepared by Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network based on ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis. The programme aims to prevent or decrease the problem behavior and to bring the children with autism in positive behaviors by educating their families. The controlled randomized clinical research of RUPP has determined that Parent Managament Training (PMT have provided meaningful improvements on childrens’ function and family relationships. The group of children on which risperidone and PMT have implemented together had statistically meaningful improvements such as increase in adaptive skills and decrease in the aggressive behaviors when compared with the children who used only risperidone. There is no such programme in Turkey for the families with children in pervasive developmet disorder. This paper aims to introduce and show the potentials of the PMT programme that has been developed by RUPP Autism Network.

  20. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.

  1. Writing-skills Intervention Programming and its being a Component of Response to Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Dunn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a struggling writer, step-by-step instruction can be a helpful means to manage organizing and producing elaborate text. This mixed-methods project offered four struggling writers a mnemonic strategy called Ask, Reflect, Text (ART in 45-minute sessions over 22 days. The second- and fourth-grade students attended a public school in the US Pacific Northwest. As a parallel component to the project, the students’ teachers and intervention specialist met with the author for 4 one-hour sessions to discuss: 1 the children’s intervention programming and progress, and 2 the paradigm of response to intervention (RTI and their thoughts about its feasibility in classrooms. The end-of-project assessment data demonstrated that the children made progress with writing skills, but the teachers and intervention specialist felt that support personnel would be needed to manage RTI-type intervention programming in general education classrooms.

  2. Continuing Medical Education for European General Practitioners in Doctor-Patient Relationship Skills and Psychosocial Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. Randol

    1998-01-01

    Most of the 23 European providers of continuing medical education (CME) surveyed reported programming on the doctor-patient relationship and psychosocial issues. Visits to programs in France, the Netherlands, and Spain identified the formats used most often in small group instruction, intensive individual learning, and national-level CME. (SK)

  3. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purgato, M.; Gross, A.L.; Jordans, M.J.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Barbui, C.; Tol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this eviden

  4. The Focus of Intervention for Adolescent Social Anxiety: Communication Skills or Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Terence V.

    2017-01-01

    Social skills training is a long-standing intervention for adolescents with social anxiety, while self-esteem is often ignored. However, there is little evidence suggesting that those with social anxiety require social skills training or interventions associated with self-esteem. The aim of the research was to investigate whether social skills and…

  5. The Focus of Intervention for Adolescent Social Anxiety: Communication Skills or Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Terence V.

    2017-01-01

    Social skills training is a long-standing intervention for adolescents with social anxiety, while self-esteem is often ignored. However, there is little evidence suggesting that those with social anxiety require social skills training or interventions associated with self-esteem. The aim of the research was to investigate whether social skills and…

  6. [The psychosocial aspects of perinatal care and their relationship to selected medical interventions and health complications during parturition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, L; Kodyšová, E; Seidlerová, J

    2012-06-01

    Find association between psychosocial factors of perinatal care and selected childbirth complications and interventions. Original study. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, Charles University, Prague. Statistical data analysis of questionnaire survey of low-risk parturients (n=657) was carried out. Respondents were divided into experimental groups (EG) according to experienced interventions and complications (hemorrhage, failure to progress, fetal distress, forceps/VEX delivery, caesarean birth, failure to progress followed by caesarean birth, labour acceleration infusion, other infusion, epidural anesthesia, other form of pharmacological analgesia, episiotomy, amniotomy). EG were compared with a control group (CG) of women with no complications and interventions (n=107) in evaluation of psychosocial factors of perinatal care (healthcare provider attitude; control; communication; woman-friendliness of hospital rules) and physical comfort and services, presence of other persons at birth, prevailing emotional reaction and overall satisfaction with maternity care. The interpretation of results draws from qualitative analysis of open-ended question answers. EG and CG differed significantly in control (all EGs scored lower) and healthcare provider attitude evaluation (significantly more negative perception at EGs: hemorrhage, failure to progress, fetal distress, forceps/VEX delivery, labour acceleration infusion, episiotomy). Significant differences were noted also for woman-friendliness of hospital rules (lower scores for EGs: hemorrhage, failure to progress, failure to progress followed by caesarean birth) and for presence of other persons at birth. Possible interpretations of the above results are discussed. Psychosocial factors of perinatal care constitute important childbirth process determinants, while playing a key role for parturients ability to cope with anxiety and stress connected with childbirth complications and interventions

  7. A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dutra; G. Stathopoulou; S.L. Basden; T.M. Leyro; M.B. Powers; M.W. Otto

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite significant advances in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders, the relative success of these approaches has not been well documented. In this meta-analysis, the authors provide effect sizes for various types of psychosocial treatments, as well as abstinence and treat

  8. Use of Psychosocial Services Increases after a Social Worker-Mediated Intervention in Gynecology Oncology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Yuko; Shah, Nina R.; Ward, Kristy K.; McHale, Michael T.; Alvarez, Edwin A.; Saenz, Cheryl C.; Plaxe, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of psychosocial services to gynecologic oncology outpatients by a social worker increases service use. During the initial six weeks (phase I), patients were referred for psychosocial services by clinic staff. During the second six weeks (phase II), a nurse introduced available…

  9. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    .... This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016...

  10. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. RESUMO Transtornos alimentares são doenças psiquiátricas originadas de e perpetuadas por fatores individuais, familiares e socioculturais. A abordagem psicossocial é essencial para o tratamento e a prevenção de recaídas. Apresentar uma vis

  11. Does psychosocial competency training for junior physicians working in pediatric medicine improve individual skills and perceived job stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Monika; Baresi, Lisa; Groneberg, David; Mache, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Pediatricians' job performance, work engagement, and job satisfaction are essential for both the individual physician and quality of care for their little patients and parents. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly augment pediatricians' individual and professional competencies. In this study, we developed and implemented a psychosocial competency training (PCT) teaching different psychosocial competencies and stress coping techniques. We investigated (1) the influence of the PCT on work-related characteristics: stress perception, work engagement, job satisfaction and (2) explored pediatricians' outcomes and satisfaction with PCT. Fifty-four junior physicians working in pediatric hospital departments participated in the training and were randomized in an intervention (n = 26) or a control group (n = 28). In the beginning, at follow-up 1 and 2, both groups answered a self-rated questionnaire on perceived training outcomes and work-related factors. The intervention group showed that their job satisfaction significantly increased while perceived stress scores decreased after taking part in the PCT. No substantial changes were observed with regard to pediatricians' work engagement. Participating physicians evaluated PCT with high scores for training design, content, received outcome, and overall satisfaction with the training.

  12. Dealing with cancer: a meta-synthesis of patients’ and relatives’ experiences of participating in psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Bente; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2017-01-01

    interventions were used to try to deal with the changes in the human conditions caused by cancer. Sharing their experiences and forming social relationships helped the participants adapt to cancer. An existential perspective may provide a nuanced understanding of patients’ and relatives’ experiences......The aim was to synthesise patients’ and relatives’ experiences of participating in a psychosocial intervention related to having cancer. The study was a meta-synthesis inspired by Noblit & Hare’s ‘meta-ethnography’ approach. We systematically searched six databases and included 33 studies...

  13. Evaluation of psycho-social training for speech therapists in oncology. Impact on general communication skills and empathy. A qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Peter; Wollbrück, Dorit; Danker, Helge; Singer, Susanne

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a psychosocial training programme for speech therapists on their performance skills in patient-therapist communication in general and empathy in particular. Twenty-three speech therapists were interviewed in a pseudo-randomised controlled trial. Communication skills were tested using questionnaires with open questions. Respondents were asked to find adequate replies to clinical vignettes. The vignettes briefly described a patient's physical state and contained a statement from the patient expressing some distress. Answers were coded with qualitative content analysis. Communication skills improved considerably in terms of frequency of conducive communication (especially empathy) and width of conducive communicative repertoire. Negative communication preferences were reduced. Psychosocial training for speech therapists can improve communication skills manifestly and is therefore recommended for further use.

  14. Disclosure of Financial Conflicts of Interests in Interventions to Improve Child Psychosocial Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Humphreys, David K; Wilson, Philip; Gardner, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Academic journals increasingly request a full disclosure of financial conflict of interest (CoI). The Committee for Publication Ethics provides editors with guidance about the course of action in the case of suspected non-disclosure. No prior study has examined the extent to which journal articles on psychosocial interventions disclose CoI, and how journal editors process requests to examine suspected undisclosed CoI. Four internationally disseminated psychosocial interventions were examined. 136 articles related to an intervention, co-authored by intervention developers and published in health sciences journals were retrieved as requiring a CoI statement. Two editors refused consent to be included in the study. COI disclosures and editor responses were coded for 134 articles. Overall, 92/134 (71%) of all articles were found to have absent, incomplete or partly misleading CoI disclosures. Disclosure rates for the four programs varied significantly between 11% and 73%. Journal editors were contacted about 92 published articles with no CoI disclosure or a disclosure that was considered problematic. In 65/92 (71%) of all cases the editors published an 'erratum' or 'corrigendum'. In 16 of these cases the journal had mishandled a submitted disclosure. The most frequent reason for non-publication of an erratum was that the journal had no disclosure policy at the time of the publication (16 cases). Consumers of research on psychosocial interventions published in peer-reviewed journals cannot currently assume that CoI disclosures are adequate and complete. More efforts are needed to achieve transparency.

  15. Long-term effects of methadone maintenance treatment with different psychosocial intervention models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Wang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term effects of different psychosocial intervention models in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT in Xi'an China. Patients from five MMT clinics were divided into three groups receiving MMT only, MMT with counseling psychology (CP or MMT with contingency management (CM. A five-year follow-up was carried out with daily records of medication, monthly random urine morphine tests, and tests for anti-HIV and anti-HCV every six months. Drug use behavior was recorded six months after initial recruitment using a survey. Adjusted RRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using an unconditional logistic regression model or a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 2662 patients were recruited with 797 in MMT, 985 in MMT with CP, and 880 in MMT with CM. Following six months of treatment, the injection rates of MMT with CP and MMT with CM groups were significantly lower than that of MMT (5.1% and 6.9% vs. 16.3%, x²  =  47.093 and 29.908, respectively; P<0.05. HIV incidences for MMT, MMT with CP and MMT with CM at the five year follow-up were 20.09, 0.00 and 10.02 per ten thousand person-years, respectively. HCV incidences were 18.35, 4.42 and 6.61 per hundred person-years, respectively, demonstrating that CP and CM were protective factors for HCV incidence (RR  =  0.209 and 0.414, with range of 0.146-0.300 and 0.298-0.574, respectively. MMT supplemented with CP or CM can reduce heroin use and related risk behaviors, thereby reducing the incidence of HIV and HCV.

  16. Faith Is Confidence: The Implication of Psychosocial Components in Faith-Based Educational Programs on Expressive Communication Skills of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Erin M.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based programs for adult learners have environmental factors that differentiate them from non-faith based programs, but explicit empirical studies evaluating the impact of the psychosocial factors have been lacking in the literature. This study comparatively examines the achievement level of expressive communication skills as measured…

  17. Methodological limitations of psychosocial interventions in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ockene Ira S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potentially life-saving benefits of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD, a significant group of patients experiences emotional distress after ICD implantation. Different psychosocial interventions have been employed to improve this condition, but previous reviews have suggested that methodological issues may limit the validity of such interventions. Aim: To review the methodology of previously published studies of psychosocial interventions in ICD patients, according to CONSORT statement guidelines for non-pharmacological interventions, and provide recommendations for future research. Methods We electronically searched the PubMed, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases. To be included, studies needed to be published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1980 and 2008, to involve a human population aged 18+ years and to have an experimental design. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria. Samples were generally small. Interventions were very heterogeneous; most studies used cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and exercise programs either as unique interventions or as part of a multi-component program. Overall, studies showed a favourable effect on anxiety (6/9 and depression (4/8. CBT appeared to be the most effective intervention. There was no effect on the number of shocks and arrhythmic events, probably because studies were not powered to detect such an effect. Physical functioning improved in the three studies evaluating this outcome. Lack of information about the indication for ICD implantation (primary vs. secondary prevention, limited or no information regarding use of anti-arrhythmic (9/12 and psychotropic (10/12 treatment, lack of assessments of providers' treatment fidelity (12/12 and patients' adherence to the intervention (11/12 were the most common methodological limitations. Conclusions Overall, this review supports preliminary evidence of a positive effect of psychosocial interventions

  18. Integrating psychosocial skills into a medical-surgical curriculum in a baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Jean; Barron, Anne-Marie; Lynch, Marla; Caroline, Harlene

    2010-10-01

    With the increasing acuity levels of hospitalized patients, faculty members struggle with accessing clinical sites for undergraduate students. Teaching students how to interact with patients and their families can often take second place to attending to the many needs and safety issues in caring for acutely ill individuals, particularly in medical-surgical settings. Over the past several years, the psychiatric and medical-surgical faculty members in the nursing department of a college in Boston have struggled with how best to prepare students for both the physical and psychosocial aspects of care. In this article, the evolution of our psychiatric consultation-liaison model is discussed.

  19. The psychosocial burden of human papillomavirus related disease and screening interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, M; Ung, L; Stein, A; Conway, E L; Mast, T C; Fairley, C K; Garland, S

    2009-12-01

    (i) To assess the psychosocial burden of testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) related genital disease or of a HPV-related diagnosis; (ii) to compare an instrument specifically designed to measure HPV-related psychosocial burden with other generic quality of life (QoL) instruments. A cross-sectional design. Researchers recruited women from outpatient clinics at a major tertiary women's hospital and a sexual health centre who completed surveys within 3 months of receiving 331 women, 18-45 years, who had experienced a normal cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) result, an abnormal Pap result, biopsy confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or external genital warts (EGW). The HPV impact profile (HIP) designed to assess the psychosocial impact of HPV; two general health-related QoL surveys-the EuroQoL VAS and the Sheehan disability scale; and a HPV knowledge survey. Response rate was 78%. Significant psychosocial impacts were found for women screened for, or having a diagnosis of, HPV-related genital disease. The largest impact was in women with CIN 2/3 and EGW. This HPV-related psychosocial impact was most sensitively detected with the HIP. Relative to generic measures of QoL, the HIP provided insight into the full range of psychosocial impacts of HPV testing and diagnoses. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential psychosocial impact of testing for or diagnosing HPV-related genital disease, in particular CIN 2/3 and EGW. The HIP survey is a more sensitive measure of the psychosocial impact of HPV-related genital disease than generic QoL surveys.

  20. Non-specialist psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with intellectual disability or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Reichow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%. Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52% were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49% were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62% were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower

  1. Piloting a Coping Skills Group Intervention to Reduce Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Patients Awaiting Kidney or Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Julie Anne; Miner, Dee; Remtulla, Tasneem; Miller, Janet; Zanussi, Lauren W

    2017-02-01

    The authors evaluated the use of a coping skills group (CSG) therapy intervention to decrease depression and anxiety and increase healthy coping skills in a population of kidney and liver transplant candidates. The study, using a pre-posttest design, piloted a CSG with a convenience sample of 41 consenting participants on a waiting list or in workup for kidney or liver transplant. Two transplant social workers led five eight-week closed psychoeducational groups. Coping skills, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at follow-up one month later. Results suggest that the CSG group created significant changes in some coping areas, such as decreasing the use of denial and self-blame and increasing the use of acceptance, religion, and instrumental supports. In this study, instrumental supports are strategies such as seeking assistance, finding information, or asking for advice about what to do. The effects on instrumental supports did not sustain at the one-month follow-up. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly reduced, and these changes were sustained at one-month follow-up. This study supports the use of a group-based psychosocial intervention for the pretransplant population and will be most relevant to social workers practicing in the transplant field. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  2. A randomized control trial of a psychosocial intervention for caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: Effects on distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, Mark L.; Simoneau, Teri L.; Kilbourn, Kristin; Natvig, Crystal; Philips, Sam; Spradley, Janet; Benitez, Patrick; McSweeney, Peter; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (Allo-HSCT) serve a pivotal role in patient care but experience high stress, anxiety, and depression as a result. We theorized that a stress management adapted for Allo-HSCT caregivers would reduce distress compared to treatment as usual (TAU). From 267 consecutive caregivers of Allo-HSCT patients approached, 148 (mean=53.5 years, 75.7% female) were randomized to either psychosocial intervention (n=74) or TAU (n=74). Eight 1-on-1 stress management sessions delivered across the 100 day post-transplant period focused on understanding stress, changing role(s) as caregiver, cognitive behavioral stress management, pacing respiration, and identifying social support. Primary outcomes included perceived stress (psychological) and salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) (physiological). Randomized groups were not statistically different at baseline. Mixed models analysis of covariance (intent-to-treat) showed that intervention was associated with significantly lower caregiver stress 3 months post-transplant (Mean=20.0, CI95=17.9-22.0) compared to TAU (Mean=23.0, CI95=21.0-25.0) with an effect size (ES) of 0.39 (p=0.039). Secondary psychological outcomes, including depression and anxiety, were significantly reduced with ESs of 0.46 and 0.66 respectively. Caregiver CAR did not differ from non-caregiving controls at baseline and was unchanged by intervention. Despite significant caregiving burden, this psychosocial intervention significantly mitigated distress in Allo-HSCT caregivers. PMID:25961767

  3. Formative evaluation of the STAR intervention: improving teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the pilot phase of a participatory reflection and action (PRA) study. The longitudinal investigation explores teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support within the context of HIV/AIDS following an asset-based intervention. The study ensued from our desire to understand and contribute to knowledge about the changed roles of teachers due to adversity in the community, specifically in relation to HIV/AIDS and education. The supportive teachers, assets and resilience (STAR) intervention was facilitated from November 2003 to October 2005 and consisted of the research team undertaking nine field visits and facilitating 20 intervention sessions (2-3 hours each), and 12 post-intervention research visits have been conducted to date. Ten female teachers were selected for participation through random purposeful sampling at a primary school in an informal settlement outside Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data-generation included PRA activities, observation, informal interactive interviews, and focus group discussions. The data were analysed by means of inductive thematic analysis. We found that the teachers did not view vulnerability as being related to children or HIV/AIDS in isolation, but rather that their psychosocial support to children and the school community was inclusive across a spectrum of vulnerabilities and services. We argue that teachers who are inclined to provide such support will fulfil this role irrespective of understanding policy or receiving training. We contend that teachers are well-positioned to manage school-based psychosocial support in order to create relevant and caring spaces for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

  4. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  5. Do Psychosocial Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Wellbeing in Adults with Neuromuscular Disorders? A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Muse, Kate; Meyrick, Jane; Moss, Tim

    2016-08-30

    Quality of life and well-being are frequently restricted in adults with neuromuscular disorders. As such, identification of appropriate interventions is imperative. The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise quantitative studies (RCTs, controlled trials and cohort studies) of psychosocial interventions designed to improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders. A systematic review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool and results presented in a narrative synthesis. Out of 3,136 studies identified, ten studies met criteria for inclusion within the review. Included studies comprised a range of interventions including: cognitive behavioural therapy, dignity therapy, hypnosis, expressive disclosure, gratitude lists, group psychoeducation and psychologically informed rehabilitation. Five of the interventions were for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The remainder were for patients with post-polio syndrome, muscular dystrophies and mixed disorders, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, myasthenia gravis and myotonic dystrophy. Across varied interventions and neuromuscular disorders, seven studies reported a short-term beneficial effect of intervention on quality of life and well-being. Whilst such findings are encouraging, widespread issues with the methodological quality of these studies significantly compromised the results. There is no strong evidence that psychosocial interventions improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders, due to a paucity of high quality research in this field. Multi-site, randomised controlled trials with active controls, standardised outcome measurement and longer term follow-ups are urgently required.

  6. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee-Fay; Baker, Jess R; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Camp, Cameron; Haertsch, Maggie; Skropeta, Margaret

    2013-11-16

    Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process evaluation will also be

  7. Independent Life Skills among psychosocial care network users of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cândida Garcia Sinott Silveira; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Coimbra, Valeria Cristina Christello; Treichel, Carlos Alberto Dos Santos; Francchini, Beatriz; Bretanha, Andreia Ferreira; Neutzling, Aline Dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    This is a cross-sectional study that aims to identify the prevalence of lower independent living skills and their associations in 390 users of psychiatric community-based services in the state Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For tracing the outcome it was used the "scale Independent Living Skills Survey", adopting a cut-off value lower than 2. The crude and adjusted analyses were conducted on binary logistic regressions and they considered a hierarchical model developed through a systematic literature review. In adjusted analysis the level of the same variables were adjusted to each other and to previous levels. The statistical significance remained as a skills was 33% and their associations were: younger age; no partner; lower education; resident at SRT; diagnosis of schizophrenia and younger diagnosis.

  8. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  9. A livelihood intervention to improve economic and psychosocial well-being in rural Uganda: Longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Kakuhikire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV and poverty are inextricably intertwined in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and livelihood intervention strategies have been suggested to help mitigate the adverse economic effects of HIV, but few intervention studies have focused specifically on HIV-positive persons. We conducted three pilot studies to assess a livelihood intervention consisting of an initial orientation and loan package of chickens and associated implements to create poultry microenterprises. We enrolled 15 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative participants and followed them for up to 18 months. Over the course of follow-up, participants achieved high chicken survival and loan repayment rates. Median monthly income increased, and severe food insecurity declined, although these changes were not statistically significant (P-values ranged from 0.11 to 0.68. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of three HIV-positive participants identified a constellation of economic and psychosocial benefits, including improved social integration and reduced stigma.

  10. Behavioral and Psychosocial Considerations in Intelligence Analysis: A Preliminary Review of Literature on Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    34 College Student Journal 38 (2004): 482-493. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO . 4 June 2008. - This study was conducted to determine whether an introductory... EBSCO . 4 June 2008. - We describe how instructors can integrate the critical thinking skill of examining theoretical assumptions (e.g., determinism

  11. Neurocognition as a Predictor of Response to Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia: What is the State of the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Impairment in functional status is a hallmark of schizophrenia that has been linked to deficits in aspects of neurocognition (e.g., attention, memory, and problem-solving). A growing number of evidence-based behavioral interventions have been developed to address impairment in functional status, yet the relationships between these interventions and neurocognitive impairment are not well-understood. We conducted a synthetic, critical literature review of studies of performance on neurocognitive tests as a predictor of response to evidence-based behavioral treatment in schizophrenia. Behavioral treatments were selected based on the Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT; Dixon et al., 2010) recommendations for practice and areas of emerging interest. Comprehensive searches of PsychINFO and MEDLINE/PUBMED databases identified 20 relevant studies. Results revealed that: (1) attention and memory measured at study entry were most frequently linked to proximal measures of progress in social skill training programs, (2) composite measures of neurocognitive function, as well attention, memory and problem-solving, were linked to progress in work therapy and supported employment programs, and comprehensive, integrated programs of psychosocial rehabilitation, while (3) baseline impairment on neurocogntive tests was not shown to limit progress in treatment studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The relevance of these findings for clinical practice and future research is discussed. PMID:21482324

  12. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  13. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  14. Building Relationships and Combating Bullying: Effectiveness of a School-Based Social Skills Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a generic social skills intervention, Social Skills GRoup INtervention (S.S.GRIN), for children experiencing peer dislike, bullying, or social anxiety. Third-grade children were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 187) or no-treatment control (CO; n = 194) groups. Examination of the direction and magnitude of…

  15. Increasing the Social Skills of a Student with Autism through a Literacy-Based Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Grace L.; McMullen, Victoria B.; Blue-Banning, Martha; Haines, Shana

    2013-01-01

    Social skills instruction is as important for many students with disabilities as instruction in core academic subjects. Frequently, students with autism require individualized social skills instruction to experience success in general education settings. Literacy-based behavioral Interventions (LBBIs) are an effective intervention that instructors…

  16. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  17. Do Instructional Interventions Influence College Students' Critical Thinking Skills? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lian; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Garvan, Cyndi W.

    2013-01-01

    Promoting students' critical thinking skills is an important task of higher education. Colleges and universities have designed various instructional interventions to enhance students' critical thinking skills. Empirical studies have yielded inconsistent results in terms of the effects of such interventions. This meta-analysis presents a synthesis…

  18. Effects of Self-Determination Interventions on the Academic Skills of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Moira; Fowler, Catherine H.; Walker, Allison R.; Test, David W.; Wood, Wendy M.

    2007-01-01

    Given the importance of both academic and self-determination skills for students with disabilities, it is important to identify efficient ways to deliver instruction in these essential areas. This literature review synthesizes intervention research that has examined the effects of self-determination interventions on academic skills for students…

  19. The Impact of a Thinking Skills Intervention on Children's Concepts of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported was part of a large thinking skills intervention for 11-12-year-old children. This paper focuses on the impact of a thinking skills intervention on children's understandings of intelligence. A total of 178 children (n = 86 girls and n= 92 boys) across six schools participated in the study. Children were individually pre-tested…

  20. A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective on Skill Acquisition in Catheter-based Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Katja; Cnossen, Fokeltje; Lanzer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Catheter-based cardiovascular interventions (CBCVI) provide a fascinating context to study skill acquisition. In CBCVI, multiple cognitive skills are crucial; technical, perceptual, and decision-making skills are all used at the same time and often depend on each other. In order to be able to

  1. Caregiver Descriptions of the Developmental Skills of Infants and Toddlers Entering Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Anita A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Spiker, Donna

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to describe the developmental skills of a national sample of infants and toddlers at entry into early intervention services. Caregivers were asked about their child's skills during a telephone interview. Summary values were derived from descriptions of motor, communication, independence, and cognitive skills. More…

  2. Changeover-time in psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV and people living close to them after an HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael; Ellis, Suria

    2015-01-01

    HIV stigma continues to affect the psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV (PLWH) and people living close to them (PLC). Literature unequivocally holds the view that HIV stigma and psychosocial wellbeing interact with and have an impact on each other. This study, which is part of a larger research project funded by the South Africa Netherlands research Programme on Alternatives in Development (SANPAD), responds to the lack of interventions mitigating the impactful interaction of HIV stigma and psychosocial wellbeing and tests one such intervention. The research objectives were to test the changeover-time in the psychosocial wellbeing of PLWH and PLC in an urban and a rural setting, following a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement intervention. An experimental quantitative single system research design with a pre- and four repetitive post-tests was used, conducting purposive voluntary sampling for PLWH (n = 18) and snowball sampling for PLC (n = 60). The average age of participants was 34 years old. The five measuring instruments used for both groups were the mental health continuum short-form scale, the patient health questionnaire, the satisfaction with life scale, the coping self-efficacy scale and the spirituality wellbeing scale. No significant differences were found between the urban-rural settings and data were pooled for analysis. The findings show that initial psychosocial wellbeing changes after the intervention were better sustained (over time) by the PLC than by the PLWH and seemed to be strengthened by interpersonal interaction. Recommendations included that the intervention should be re-utilised and that its tenets, content and activities be retained. A second intervention three to six months after the first should be included to achieve more sustainability and to add focused activities for the enhancement of psychosocial wellbeing. PLWH and PLC are to be encouraged to engage with innovative community

  3. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  4. Testing the Difference between School Level and Academic Mindset in the Classroom: Implications for Developing Student Psycho-Social Skills in Secondary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between school level and the psychosocial construct of an academic mindset operationalized on the Likert-style Project for "Educational Research That Scales" (PERTS) instrument; widely used in testing academic mindset interventions at the classroom level. Analyses were conducted using existing school…

  5. Psychosocial child adjustment and family functioning in families reached with an assertive outreach intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rots-de Vries; I. van de Goor; K. Stronks; H. Garretsen

    2011-01-01

    Families who experience a chronic complex of socio-economic and psychosocial problems are hard to reach with mainstream care. Evidence exists that the core of this problem is a problematic interaction between this type of family and current systems of care and services. To improve access to problem

  6. 精神分裂症患者的心理社会干预%Psychosocial Interventions for Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白哈拉桑; 黄楠; 陆峥

    2011-01-01

    精神分裂症的治疗不仅包括药物治疗,还包括为患者提供支持、有效的信息、心理社会干预以及康复治疗.中国的研究者在精神分裂症患者非药物治疗领域进行着各项研究,而国外研究数据一致显示心理社会干预可以降低复发率和再住院率.尽管缓解症状仍然是精神分裂症治疗的一个重要目标,但工作、学习、独立生活及社会化方面的功能损伤往往也是患者及其家属关注的重点.因此,精神分裂症患者更有可能从着重于减轻残疾的干预中获益.本文对中外有效应用于精神分裂症患者的主要心理社会干预进行综述,包括认知行为治疗、社会技能训练、家庭干预、认知纠正、心理教育、职业训练、危机干预及综合心理治疗;同时就中外心理社会干预的差异进行讨论.%This article reviews the main psychosocial interventions that have been used effectively in patients with schizophrenia in China and abroad,namely cognitive-behavioral therapy,social skills training,family intervention therapy,cognitive remediation,psycho education,vocational training,crisis intervention and integrated psychotherapy.The difference between psychosocial interventions in China and abroad has also been discussed.

  7. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D; John Reynolds; Lisa Hanna; Jo Salmon

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, u...

  8. 癌症疼痛心理社会干预治疗的研究进展%Research Progress of the Psychosocial Intervention of Cancer Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂冰; 陈永和

    2014-01-01

    Cancer pain is a complex and multidimensional experience that affects and is affected by psychological and social factors .This article reviews recent domestic and overseas research that points to a number of key psychosocial factors associated with pain ,including psychological distress ,coping ,and social support ,as well as the impact of socioeconomic factors on barriers to pain management . We also review recent research suggesting that psychosocial interventions , including education ,coping skills training ,and hypnosis ,which may be useful complement to medical management of pain ,and the antidepressants are also useful for the treatment of pain .%癌症疼痛是一种复杂和多维的感受,与心理和社会因素相互影响。本文回顾近期国内外相关研究指出,许多重要的社会心理因素与疼痛有关,包括心理压力、应对方法、社会支持以及社会经济因素,它们是疼痛管理的难点。近期的国内外研究表明缓解癌痛的心理社会干预措施包括:疼痛教育、应对技能训练和催眠等,它们对疼痛治疗管理是有益的补充,同时抗抑郁药物应用对疼痛治疗有益。

  9. Social Skills Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Social skills training" is not a specific curriculum, but rather a collection of practices that use a behavioral approach for teaching preschool children age-appropriate social skills and competencies, including communication, problem solving, decision making, self-management, and peer relations. "Social skills training" can…

  10. Changing meanings through art: a systematization of a psychosocial intervention with Chilean women in urban poverty situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Marianne; Haz, Ana María

    2011-06-01

    This study explores the experiences that women in urban poverty situation have about their participation in a psychosocial group intervention mediated by artistic techniques. An investigation was done using a qualitative methodology. Participants were ten women older than 21 years old who live in Santiago de Chile in poverty situation. Two group evaluations were performed during the intervention process and once it was completed, ten individual semi-structure interviews. The information was analyzed following the proposals of Grounded Theory, identifying negative experience about tiredness and sacrifice related to the circumstances they live in. It was possible, at the same time, to describe the benefits of an artistic activity including a psychosocial work over the individual well-being. The artistic creation was revealed as a way of expression, of re-viewing oneself and the environment, and relaxation. Transformation is discussed concerning self-affirmation, reparation and transference of this experience in their lives, as a preventive and protective resource to overcome their problems.

  11. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Witt, A; Fegert, J M; Keller, F; Rassenhofer, M; Plener, P L

    2017-08-01

    Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre-post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.

  12. Factors influencing the suicide intervention skills of emergency medical services providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygnugaryte-Griksiene, Aidana; Leskauskas, Darius; Jasinskas, Nedas; Masiukiene, Agne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Lithuania currently has the highest suicide rate in Europe and the fifth highest worldwide. Aims: To identify the factors that influence the suicide intervention skills of emergency medical services (EMS) providers (doctors, nurses, paramedics). Method: Two hundred and sixty-eight EMS providers participated in the research. The EMS providers were surveyed both prior to their training in suicide intervention and six months later. The questionnaire used for the survey assessed their socio-demographic characteristics, suicide intervention skills, attitudes towards suicide prevention, general mental health, strategies for coping with stress, and likelihood of burnout. Results: Better suicide intervention skills were more prevalent among EMS providers with a higher level of education, heavier workload, more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention, better methods of coping with stress, and those of a younger age. Six months after the non-continuous training in suicide intervention, the providers’ ability to assess suicide risk factors had improved, although there was no change in their suicide intervention skills. Conclusions: In order to improve the suicide intervention skills of EMS providers, particular attention should be paid to attitudes towards suicide prevention, skills for coping with stress, and continuous training in suicide intervention. Abbreviations: EMS: Emergency medical services; SIRI: Suicide intervention response inventory PMID:28235388

  13. Development and pilot-testing of a cognitive behavioral coping skills group intervention for patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Evon, Ph.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1 formative work leading to intervention development; (2 preliminary study protocol; and (3 pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design. Formative work included a literature review, qualitative interviews, and adaption, development, and review of study materials. A preliminary study protocol is described. We evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT of the CBCS-HCV with 12 study participants in Wave 1 testing to examine: (a feasibility of intervention delivery; (b patient acceptability; (c recruitment, enrollment, retention; (d feasibility of conducting a RCT; (d therapist protocol fidelity; and (e feasibility of data collection. Numerous lessons were learned. We found very high rates of data collection, participant attendance, engagement, retention and acceptability, and therapist protocol fidelity. We conclude that many aspects of the CBCS-HCV intervention and study protocol were highly feasible. The greatest challenge during this Wave 1 pilot study was efficiency of participant enrollment due to changes in standard of care treatment. These findings informed two additional waves of pilot testing to examine effect sizes and potential improvements in clinical outcomes, with results forthcoming.

  14. Use of the dialectical behavior therapy skills and management of psychosocial stress with newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogwell Anderson, Rebecca; Jensik, Kathleen; Peloza, David; Walker, Alonzo

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related health concerns have the potential to impact quality of life for patients with breast cancer. National cancer organizations such as the National Cancer Institute, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network have acknowledged that all patients with cancer experience some level of distress during the course of illness and treatment. Literature on cancer suggests a range of expected distress from 20% to 50% among all patients diagnosed with cancer. Acknowledging and managing this distress with patients with cancer and providing them behavioral-based Interventions are important parts of cancer research. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy skill is are an empirically proven treatment modality across numerous patient populations. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization and effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills modified for use with patients with breast cancer.

  15. Teaching social skills to adults with intellectual disabilities: a comparison of external control and problem-solving interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark F; Lancioni, Giulio E; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Donoghue, Deirdre; Lacey, Claire; Edrisinha, Chaturi

    2004-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of a problem-solving and an external control intervention to teach social skills to five adults with mild intellectual disabilities. The social skills of "responding to corrective feedback" and "managing conflict" were targeted for intervention. Each participant received the problem-solving intervention with one social skill and the external control intervention with the other social skill. The comparative effectiveness of the social skills training protocol was evaluated using individual participant alternating treatments designs. Little difference between the intervention protocol was observed in terms of acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of the social skills. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  16. Changes in teachers’ instructional skills during an intensive data-based decision making intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Emmelien; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Visscher, Arend J.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates changes in teachers' instructional skills after participating in an intensive data-based decision making (DBDM) intervention for grade 4 teachers. Teachers were recorded three times prior to the intervention, and three times after the intervention, and all recordings were rated

  17. Efficacy of additional psychosocial intervention in reducing low birth weight and preterm birth in teenage pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Wongrathanandha, Chathaya; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Dellow, Alan; Horsuwansak, Pornpot; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2015-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in reducing risk of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in teenage pregnancy. Relevant studies were identified from Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. Randomized controlled trials investigating effect of psychosocial interventions on risk of LBW and PTB, compared to routine antenatal care (ANC) were eligible. Relative risks (RR) of LBW and PTB were pooled using inverse variance method. Mean differences of birth weight (BW) between intervention and control groups were pooled using unstandardized mean difference (USMD). Five studies were included in the review. Compared with routine ANC, psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW by 40% (95%CI: 8%,62%) but not for PTB (pooled RR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.42,1.05). Mean BW of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group with USMD of 200.63 g (95% CI: 21.02, 380.25). Results of our study suggest that psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW in teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  19. Psychosocial Demands of Speech Therapy with Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients: Clinical Experiences, Communicative Skills and Need for Training of Speech Therapists in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ullrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer patients suffer from high levels of psychological comorbidity and often do not receive adequate psychological assistance. Therefore, speech therapists are frequently confronted with specific psychosocial challenges beyond the scope of their standard professional education. The following aspects were examined via a mixed-methods approach to explore their own perceptions of these challenges and their skills to deal with them: 1 The experiences and problems of speech therapists working with head and neck cancer patients; 2 the self-assessment of speech therapists' skills in cancer patient care; 3 the experiences and observations of psychologists supervising case discussions in oncology with speech therapists; 4 the communication skills of speech therapists working with emotionally distressed patients in oncology Our results show that therapists are acutely aware of their patients' distress. They agree that there is a need for patients to receive psychosocial counseling and that a significant portion of their speech therapy sessions is often dedicated to talking about personal problems. This difficult situation leads to: 1 deficiencies in speech therapists' ability to address patients' demands and deficiencies in distancing themselves from their patients; 2 speech therapists feeling overwhelmed with excessive demands and experiencing mental distress themselves. The psycho-oncological knowledge and communication skills among speech therapists were often deficient in light of such demands. There is a need for further training in psychological and social skills for speech therapists working with head and neck cancer patients. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001220

  20. A randomized controlled clinical trial of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program for people with first-onset mental illness in psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Bressington, Daniel

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness. A single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial design was used. The study involved 180 participants with mild to moderate-severe symptoms of psychotic or mood disorders who were newly referred to two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Patients were randomly assigned to either an eight-session nurse-led psychosocial intervention program (plus usual care) or usual psychiatric outpatient care (both n=90). The primary outcome was psychiatric symptoms. Outcomes were measured at recruitment, one week and 12 months post-intervention. Patients in the psychosocial intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in symptoms compared to treatment as usual. There were also significant improvements in illness insight and perceived quality of life and reduction in length of re-hospitalizations over the 12-month follow-up. The findings provide evidence that the nurse-led psychosocial intervention program resulted in improved health outcomes in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness.

  1. Rethinking research on psychosocial interventions in biopsychosocial oncology: an essay written in honor of the scholarly contributions of Bernard H. Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temoshok, Lydia R

    2004-07-01

    In his best known contribution to the field of psychooncology, the late Dr Bernard H. Fox applied his breadth of scholarship in biopsychosocial cancer epidemiology to address the question of whether and to what extent stress and other psychosocial factors may contribute to cancer risk. Less well known but equally important to the field is his incisive critique of the 1989 study by Spiegel et al. on survival time of patients with metastatic breast cancer following a psychosocial intervention. This essay represents an attempt to take Fox's line of thought to the next logical level of rethinking research on psychosocial interventions in biopsychosocial oncology. Following an analysis of the inadequacy of randomized clinical trials (RCT) to evaluate the causal effects of psychosocial interventions on cancer outcomes and distinguish these from mere prediction, an integrated RCT design is suggested to take into account the psychogenicity of a given intervention, potential mediating mechanisms, and individual differences that could help illuminate hypothesized causal processes linking an experimental intervention and cancer outcomes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Deliverability, Acceptability, and Perceived Effect of the Macmillan Approach to Weight Loss and Eating Difficulties: A Phase II, Cluster-Randomized, Exploratory Trial of a Psychosocial Intervention for Weight- and Eating-Related Distress in People with Advanced Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkinson, Jane B; Fenlon, Debbie R; Okamoto, Ikumi; Wright, David N.M; Scott, Issy; Addington-Hall, Julia M; Foster, Claire

    2010-01-01

    .... The Macmillan Weight and Eating Studies (2000-2009) have used the Medical Research Council complex interventions framework to develop the first psychosocial intervention for weight- and eating-related distress (WRD and ERD...

  3. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    .... This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi...

  4. "Play Skills" for Shy Children: Development of a "Social Skills Facilitated Play" Early Intervention Program for Extremely Inhibited Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Schneider, Barry H.; Matheson, Adrienne; Graham, Allison

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary evaluation of a social-skills-based early intervention program specifically designed to assist extremely inhibited preschoolers. Participants were a sample of n = 522 extremely inhibited preschool-aged children, who were randomly assigned to either the "Social Skills…

  5. Empirically Based Psychosocial Therapies for Schizophrenia: The Disconnection between Science and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Shean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated psychosocial therapies for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were described in the report of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT, 2009. The PORT team identified eight psychosocial treatments: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight management. PORT listings of empirically validated psychosocial therapies provide a useful template for the design of effective recovery-oriented mental health care systems. Unfortunately, surveys indicate that PORT listings have not been implemented in clinical settings. Obstacles to the implementation of PORT psychosocial therapy listings and suggestions for changes needed to foster implementation are discussed. Limitations of PORT therapy listings that are based on therapy outcome efficacy studies are discussed, and cross-cultural and course and outcome studies of correlates of recovery are summarized.

  6. Improving the Social Skills of Children with HFASD: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Cynthia; Peskin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a social skills and Theory of Mind (S.S.ToM) intervention for children with high-functioning ASD. Children were taught to identify and consider their peer's mental states, e.g., knowledge, emotions, desires, beliefs, intentions, likes and dislikes, while learning friendship-making skills and strategies,…

  7. Effects of an Individualized Narrative Intervention on Children's Storytelling and Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Trina D.; Kajian, Mandana; Petersen, Douglas B.; Bilyk, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Narrative skills that are important for preschoolers include retelling stories, telling personal stories, and answering questions about stories. Narrative abilities form the foundation of reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an individually delivered language intervention on the narrative skills of…

  8. Women's Self-Ratings of Skills: Issues and Strategies for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reixach, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Discusses underestimation of women's skills as an issue of concern for all women and for socioeconomically disadvantaged women in particular. Factors contributing to underestimation are gender-biased expectations, socialization, gender-biased definitions of skills, discrimination, and low self-esteem. Presents interventions to increase skills…

  9. Is There Evidence to Support the Use of Social Skills Interventions for Students with Emotional Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners advocate for the use of social skills interventions for students with emotional disabilities because significant social skills deficits are common among these students. Yet contemporary practices must be vetted for empirical evidence of their efficacy and effectiveness to ensure students are provided appropriate…

  10. Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured…

  11. Life Skills in Educational Contexts: Testing the Effects of an Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A. Rui; Marques, Brazelina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a training programme on students' acquisition of life skills, life satisfaction, life orientation and expectations about academic achievement. Participants were allocated to either an intervention group ("n"?=?41) that took part in a life skills programme, or a control group ("n"?=?43).…

  12. Life Skills in Educational Contexts: Testing the Effects of an Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A. Rui; Marques, Brazelina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a training programme on students' acquisition of life skills, life satisfaction, life orientation and expectations about academic achievement. Participants were allocated to either an intervention group ("n"?=?41) that took part in a life skills programme, or a control group ("n"?=?43). Participants completed the…

  13. Social Skills Assessment and Intervention Review and Recommendations for School Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; McCarty, Joseph; Coniglio, Jennifer; Zorilla-Ramirez, Claudia; Putnam, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    We present a "practitioner's guide" to social skills assessment and intervention with students attending public schools. Important characteristics of assessment instruments are discussed, including psychometric properties and strategies applicable to school settings. We then review several social skills assessment protocols and rating scales that…

  14. Family caregivers’ assessment of symptoms in persons with dementia using the GBS-scale: differences in rating after psychosocial intervention – an 18-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Dahlrup

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beth Dahlrup, Eva Nordell, Signe Andrén, Sölve ElmståhlDepartment of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if psychosocial intervention for family caregivers made any differences in describing symptoms of dementia in the persons they cared for. The study population comprised family caregivers of persons aged 70 years and older receiving social services and diagnosed with dementia disorders. A group of 129 family caregivers underwent psychosocial intervention including education, information, and provision of a support group, while 133 family caregivers did not and these formed the control group. Family caregivers were followed-up every 6 months for a total of 18 months. They rated intellectual, emotional, and activity of daily living (ADL functions in persons with dementia using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale (GBS-scale. Family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention rated the intellectual and emotional symptoms of dementia significantly higher 6 months later compared to controls and the effect was sustained during the 18-month follow-up irrespective of relationship and education. Most notably, decrease in function of recent memory, ability to increase tempo, long-windedness, distractibility, and blunting were better identified. Our findings suggest that the family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention achieved better understanding of different symptoms and the behaviors of dementia. These findings may explain earlier findings of positive effects after psychosocial intervention on family caregivers’ sense of burden, satisfaction, and ability to delay nursing home placement.Keywords: intervention, dementia, family caregivers, education, GBS-scale

  15. [Features of occupational health nurse support for the improvement of psychosocial working environments and related factors: Focusing on required knowledge and skills, and measures to develop them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tomoko; Nishikido, Noriko; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the support activities provided for occupational health nurses aimed at improving psychosocial working environments, related knowledge and skills, and learning environments as well as associations among these factors. In addition, we aimed to create correlated factor models to describe the support activities in order to identify ways to promote these activities among occupational health nurses. An anonymous mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted of occupational health nurses who were members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and belonged to enterprises or independent health insurance societies. Among 356 returned questionnaires (response rate: 46.4%), all the main items were answered in 329 (valid response rate: 92.4%), and these questionnaires were analyzed. Factor analysis was performed for the seven items pertaining to support activities for the improvement of psychosocial working environments and models of each factor of the support activities were developed using covariance structure analysis. In the factor analysis, [Clarifying a stress-related situation and providing advice] and [Facilitating workplace involvement] were identified as support-related factors. The mean implementation rates for these approaches were approximately 50 to 80%, and less than 40%, respectively. [Clarifying a stress-related situation and providing advice] was associated with skills of "providing superiors with explanations to enhance their understanding" and "collecting and analyzing stress survey results by department", and knowledge of "personal stress questionnaires" and "common stress factors in working environments". The above-mentioned knowledge and skills were associated with self-learning of "examining and reporting daily activities for the improvement of working environments" and "reviewing related papers". [Facilitating workplace involvement] was associated with skills of "indirectly supporting discussions led by

  16. Evaluation of a Culturally Tailored Skills Intervention for Latinos with Persistent Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Bucardo, Jesus; Cardenas, Veronica; McKibbin, Christine L.; Barrio, Concepcion; Goldman, Sherrill R.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine Latino participants diagnosed with persistent psychotic disorders were assigned to either a culturally tailored skills-training intervention (n = 21), an equivalent non-tailored intervention (n = 15), or a community-based support group (n = 23). Participants completed a number of skills-based performance assessments (e.g., UCSD performance-based skills assessment; UPSA) and a well-being measure prior to and immediately post-treatment. Compared to those in the non-tailored intervention, participants receiving the tailored intervention showed significant improvement in several outcomes. These results indicate that Latino individuals with persistent psychotic disorders benefit from interventions which consider cultural values and mores. PMID:19779589

  17. The pursuit of evidence-based practice: Comparisons of three guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmark Anders

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - In this article we scrutinise three prominent guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems. We pay special attention to how congruent the guidelines are in terms of the interventions recommended, and the processes used in order to identify and rank the “evidence” underpinning these recommendations. DATA - The analysed guidelines are: 1 Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Substance Use Disorders, American Psychiatric Association (2006; 2 Alcohol-Use Disorders. The NICE Guideline on Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Harmful Drinking and Alcohol Dependence (2011, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, UK; 3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Alcohol Problems, Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing (2009. The purpose is not to review the three guidelines as such, but to study them as an example of the production of evidence. All report to be based on “best available evidence”, so the guidelines were compared both regarding the actual recommendations and the guideline production procedures and differences in these procedures with related consequences. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS - Prestigious organisations in different national contexts have reached divergent conclusions about evidence-based practice and the quality of the scientific studies underpinning these conclusions. Differences in the guidelines regarding interpretations, limitations and grading illustrate the difficulties with the dilemmas of sensitivity (to include factors that are significant for how a psychological intervention is to be judged and specificity (that irrelevant studies are cleared off in the recommendations presented.

  18. The Psychosocial Work Environment, Employee Mental Health and Organizational Interventions: Improving Research and Practice by Taking a Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography.

  20. The Role of Language Skill in Child Psychopathology: Implications for Intervention in the Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann

    2016-12-01

    In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.

  1. Moderators of the efficacy of a psychosocial group intervention for children with chronic illness and their parents: what works for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, L.; Willemen, A.M.; Napoleone, E.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Last, B.F.; Dijk-Lokkart, E.M. van; Zandbelt, N.; Ensink, E.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate psychosocial characteristics of children and parents as predictors and moderators of the effect of a group intervention for children with chronic illness and their parents. METHODS: Data from a randomized controlled trial were used, including 194 children (8-18 years) who

  2. A stakeholder-collaborative evaluation of intervention for students with greater psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-17

    The Tier 2 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) in Hong Kong was designed and implemented by school social workers targeting adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. Based on the responses of 237 participants, 48 program implementers wrote down five conclusions on the program effectiveness in their reports submitted to the funding body. Based on a stakeholder-collaborative approach involving secondary data analyses, results showed that most conclusions were positive regarding participants' perceptions of the program, instructors and their perceived program effectiveness, although there were also conclusions reflecting difficulties encountered and suggestions for improvements. In conjunction with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by the stakeholders and the program was beneficial to the development of the program participants.

  3. The action and the psychosocial approach of the intervention in social contexts: can we move from the fashion to the theoretical, epistemological, and methodological precision?.

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Gómez, Juan David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2012-01-01

    The following article, derived from research, poses the question about a growing issue in Colombia: the increase in projects of psychosocial intervention in diverse social sectors, particularly with victims of the armed conflict, social violence, violence of gender and family, etc., as well as population in a situation of extreme poverty, forced displacement and victims of natural disasters. In relation to this logic of intervention and action, the academic reflection tends to be scarce, uncl...

  4. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Classroom-Wide Interventions to Build Social Skills: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    January, Alicia M.; Casey, Rita J.; Paulson, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes of 28 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1981 and 2007 were evaluated quantitatively to assess the effectiveness of classroom-wide interventions for the improvement of social skills. All interventions included in the study were implemented with intact classrooms that included both socially competent children and those with…

  6. A Trial of an iPad™ Intervention Targeting Social Communication Skills in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of…

  7. A Trial of an iPad™ Intervention Targeting Social Communication Skills in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of…

  8. Should psychosocial intervention be added to pharmacological treatment for opiate abuse/dependence? An overview of systematic reviews of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Opioid abuse and dependence are major health and social issues in most societies. Different interventions are available, but the majority of heroin patients relapse and these relapses are a substantial problem to their rehabilitation. Psychosocial interventions for drug addicts have been suggested as possible instruments to overcome the difficulty of maintaining a drug-free state. The aim of this paper is to provide a summary of the available evidence of effectiveness.

    Methods: We summarised the results from two systematic reviews on psychosocial interventions combined with Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Methadone or Buprenorphine Detoxification Treatment.

    Results: For detoxification treatments, the results show that benefits can be gained from adding any psychosocial treatment to any substitution detoxification treatment in terms of completion of treatment: relative risk (RR 1.68 (95% CI 1.11-2.55, and compliance (proportion of clinical absences: RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.38-0.59; for the use of heroin during treatment, the differences were not statistically significant. For maintenance treatments, there is an additional benefit to be gained in adding any psychosocial treatment to methadone maintenance treatment in relation to the use of heroin during treatment: RR 0.69(95% CI 0.53-0.91; no statistically significant additional benefit was shown in terms of treatment retention and results at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Psychosocial treatments offered in addition to pharmacological detoxification treatments are effective in terms of completion of treatment and compliance, while adding any psychosocial support to methadone maintenance significantly improves the non-use of heroin during treatment but does not improve the other outcomes considered.

  9. Reading interventions with behavioral and social skill outcomes: a synthesis of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Garrett J; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed.

  11. The interventions in social skills: review and analysis from a health point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that social skills are acquired through learning. On many occasions, the inhibition of social behavior or the aggressive manifestations can minimize the opportunities of children and/ or adolescents to relate using assertive behavior. For these social deficits, the interventions turn out to be effective, teaching and training more effective skills, which can give more possibilities to learn, to mature and to be happy. The aim of work was to analyze the particularities that the designs of intervention in social skills. Both conceptual and methodological aspects were reviewed, and intervention experiences within the infant and juvenile population were described. We work with a review of empirical papers, from Latin America, published between 2005-2011. It was found that the designs showed changes in the social skills of the participants, particularly in those with social deficits. As a conclusion, the contribution of these empirical experiences in the development of social healthy behavior is highlighted.

  12. Musculoskeletal, visual and psychosocial stress in VDU operators before and after multidisciplinary ergonomic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarås, A; Horgen, G; Bjørset, H H; Ro, O; Thoresen, M

    1998-10-01

    The study has a parallel group design with two intervention groups (T and S) and one control group (C) of VDU operators. Three serial interventions were carried out in the T and S groups, first a new lighting system, then new workplaces and last an optometric examination and corrections if needed. The new lighting gave significantly increased illuminance levels, increased luminances of the room surfaces and better luminance distribution. The two intervention groups reported significant improvement of the lighting conditions, as well as of the visual conditions and significantly reduced visual discomfort and glare. Significant reduction of headache was found in one of the intervention groups. Optometric corrections reduced the visual discomfort in both the intervention groups. When looking at those given new corrections, a significant reduction was found in the T group and a clear tendency was also found in the S group. The C group reported no improvements for any of these health outcomes. The workplace intervention gave the operator the possibility to support the whole forearm and hand on the table top. Before the intervention there were no significant differences between the three groups regarding shoulder pain and static trapezius electromyographic (EMG) load. Two years after the intervention, a significant reduction of shoulder pain was reported in the T and S groups in parallel with a significant reduction in static trapezius load, while no such reduction was found in the C group. At the same time, both static trapezius load and shoulder pain were significantly lower in the T and S groups compared with the C group. Pain in the forearm and hand showed no significant changes in any of the groups during the study period. However, there seem to be a relationship between pain in the forearm and hand and the time the operator used the mouse. The C group reported significantly higher intensity of pain and used the mouse significantly more than the S group.

  13. Stress management with adolescents at the junior high transition: an outcome evaluation of coping skills intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports an outcome study of coping skills intervention to help adolescents manage stress associated with the transition from elementary school to junior high. In a randomized design, sixth grade students from four elementary schools were pretested, then two schools each were assigned to an intervention condition and to a control condition. Intervention condition subjects received eight sessions of instruction and practice in coping skills intervention. Following intervention, all subjects were posttested. At posttest and relative to control condition subjects, intervention condition subjects scored more positively on measures of problem solving, assertive direct refusals, adequacy of information about junior high school, ability to handle stress, ability to deal with peer pressure, and general readiness for junior high school.

  14. Adapting a Psychosocial Intervention for Smartphone Delivery to Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Gill, Lydia E; Bruce, Martha L; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    To describe the process of adapting an integrated medical and psychiatric self-management intervention to a smartphone application for middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness using an adaptive systems engineering framework and user-centered design. First, we determined the technical abilities and needs of middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illnesses using smartphones. Then, we developed smartphone content through principles of user-centered design and modified an existing smartphone platform. Finally, we conducted a usability test using "think aloud" and verbal probing. We adapted a psychosocial self-management intervention to a smartphone application and tested its usability. Ten participants (mean age: 55.3 years, SD: 6.2 years) with serious mental illness and comorbid chronic health conditions reported a high level of usability and satisfaction with the smartphone application. Middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness and limited technical abilities were able to participate in a process involving user-centered design and adaptation of a self-management intervention to be delivered by a smartphone. High usability ratings suggest that middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness have the potential to use tailored smartphone interventions. Future research is indicated to establish effectiveness and to determine the type and intensity of clinical support needed to successfully implement smartphone applications as a component of community-based services for older adults with psychiatric and medical conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A trial of an iPad™ intervention targeting social communication skills in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher-Watson, Susan; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; Mcconachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years old with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of developmental level, and was rated highly by parents. There were no significant group differences in parent-report measures post-intervention, nor in a me...

  16. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola ePitchford

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3,...

  17. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchford, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1–3,...

  18. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Braga, Iara Falleiros; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2016-10-26

    This study's objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students' individual aspects.

  19. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students’ individual aspects.

  20. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  1. The Effectiveness of Psychosocial Intervention for Individuals With Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Alyson; Persson, Martin; Stock, Nicola; Rumsey, Nichola; Sandy, Jonathan; Waylen, Andrea; Edwards, Zoe; Hammond, Vanessa; Partridge, Lucy; Ness, Andy

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of different psychological interventions for children and adults with cleft lip and/or palate and their parents. We searched six databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE to June 2013 and checked bibliographies. We included research that evaluated any psychological intervention in studies in which at least 90% of the participants had cleft lip and/or palate or were parents of those with cleft lip and/or palate. Studies containing less than 90% were excluded unless they reported results separately for those with cleft lip and/or palate, or raw data were available upon request from the authors. Inclusion assessment, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two reviewers. Seven studies were identified as inclusions, with only two studies being included in the full data analysis (one of which failed to meet the full inclusion criteria). The five remaining studies were included only in a narrative synthesis because data were available for people or parents of those with cleft lip and/or palate only. This highlights a distinct dearth of research into psychological intervention within the field of cleft lip and/or palate. The review found no evidence to support any specific intervention. Key uncertainties need to be identified and addressed. Adequately powered, methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to provide a secure evidence base for psychological intervention techniques in participants with cleft lip and/or palate and their parents.

  2. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control and time (pre and post and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no. Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95 participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006 but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913 between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835. A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406 or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.

  3. Educational intervention of undergraduate nursing students' confidence skills with alcohol and drug misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    2008-04-01

    There is a paucity literature on the educational interventions and evaluation programmes in alcohol and drug with undergraduate nursing students in the United Kingdom and this study intends to add a body of knowledge to this area. The aim of the study was to assess the intervention confidence skills of undergraduate nursing students before and after an educational intervention on alcohol and drug misuse. The research study is a quasi-experimental, pre- and post-test design. The sample was made of four cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n=110) enrolled at a course leading to a diploma or BSc in nursing from three educational institutions. A visual analogue scale was used to measure intervention confidence skills before and after the educational programme in alcohol and drug. The findings showed an improvement in the level of intervention confidence skills of undergraduate nursing students. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of educational interventions in working with substance misusers and whether substance misuse education is the key predictor of changing in changing intervention confidence skills.

  4. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Sylvie D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is known both patients’ and partners’ reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients’ partners’ reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might benefit from conventional face-to-face psychosocial interventions do not access these, either by preference or because of geographical or mobility barriers. Self-directed interventions can overcome some of these limitations and have been shown to contribute to patient well-being. This study will examine the feasibility of a self-directed, coping skills intervention for couples affected by cancer, called Coping-Together, and begin to explore its potential impact on couples’ illness adjustment. The pilot version of Coping-Together includes a series of four booklets, a DVD, and a relaxation audio CD. Methods/design In this double-blind, two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 70 couples will be recruited within 4 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis through urology private practices and randomized to: 1 Coping-Together or 2 a minimal ethical care condition. Minimal ethical care condition couples will be mailed information booklets available at the Cancer Council New South Wales and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline. The primary outcome (anxiety and additional secondary outcomes (distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy, and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed at baseline (before receiving study material and 2 months post-baseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Discussion As partners’ distress rates exceed not only population

  5. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future.

  6. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future. PMID:28151992

  7. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care: Review of Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsverk, John A.; Burns, Barbara J.; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Rolls Reutz, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Between one-half and three-fourths of children entering foster care exhibit behavioral or social-emotional problems warranting mental health care. This paper, condensed and updated from a technical report prepared for Casey Family Programs in 2005, reviews evidence-based and promising interventions for the most prevalent mental conditions found…

  8. Effects of a pain programme on nurses' psychosocial, physical and relaxation interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Luiken, J.B.; Garssen, B.; Huijer-Abu Saad, H.; Grypdonck, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of a continuing education programme on pain assessment and management was investigated in 106 surgical cancer nurses. It was found that the programme led to a more positive attitude towards physical and relaxation interventions (such as the use of relaxation, distraction and

  9. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MA...

  10. Evaluating Psychosocial and Behavioral Mechanisms of Change in a Tailored Communication Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Campbell, Nadia R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a tailored nutrition intervention at 3 and 6 months postintervention. In all, 357 Latinas were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) a control condition comprised of previously developed Spanish language targeted materials, (2) tailored print materials, or (3) tailored print materials accompanied by…

  11. Effects of a pain programme on nurses' psychosocial, physical and relaxation interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Luiken, J.B.; Garssen, B.; Huijer-Abu Saad, H.; Grypdonck, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of a continuing education programme on pain assessment and management was investigated in 106 surgical cancer nurses. It was found that the programme led to a more positive attitude towards physical and relaxation interventions (such as the use of relaxation, distraction and massag

  12. Research and Psychosocial Intervention With Families of Children and Adolescents With Eating Disorders and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexina Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders and obesity in children and adolescents have been calling researchers and public health institutions’ attention due to severity and increasing incidence in the last decades. Studies on etiological factors of diseases related to alimentation are important to justify more efficient treatment methodologies. The family participation has been suggested by authors of systems theory, motivating us to study this issue from the point of view of individual, family and socio-cultural. This paper aims to present research data to construct a psychosocial attendance methodology to children and adolescents with eating disorders and obesity and their families. The method used is qualitative and includes a family life cycle interview, Multifamily Group, children and adolescents groups and the use of Rorschach test in adolescents. Partial data show that parents’ life history has influence on eating pattern of family; the genitors don’t comprehend the obesity as a multi-factorial syndrome and don’t recognize that their children are obese and have difficulty setting boundaries in general and regarding to food; conjugal and parental conflicts and grandparents interference have negative influence on children dietary and on treatment of obesity and eating disorders; the use of Rorschach test has identified: low self-esteem, anguish and distorted self and body perceptions, self-concept and self-image distortions in adolescents with eating disorders and depressive thoughts, dependency, fear of abandonment and distortion between ideal and real images in obese adolescents. These data are in accordance with bibliographic review regarding to family influence on each member’s health development and on family eating pattern. Parents and adults have a central role as in orientation and education as presenting appropriate models in terms of alimentation.

  13. Effects of life review interventions on psychosocial outcomes among older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiuyan; Xiao, Huimin; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-26

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of life review interventions on psychosocial outcomes among older adults. We searched PubMed, Ovid, CINHAL, Cochrane library, PsycINFO, Springer Link, Oxford Journals Collection, FRMS, CBM, VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang to identify randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the effects of life review among older adults. The quality of studies included was evaluated and the relevant information was extracted. Then, a meta-analysis was carried out with RevMan software. We identified 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria, and 11 studies were allowed for meta-analysis. The combined results of the meta-analysis showed that life review significantly reduced depression (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% CI 0.73 to -0.42) and hopelessness (mean difference [MD] 4.01, 95% CI 6.13 to -1.89). There was a significant improvement in well-being (standardized mean difference 0.54, 95% CI 0.01-1.06) and specific memory (MD 1.05, 95% CI 0.07-2.03). However, other study findings did not support its effect in life satisfaction (MD 2.15, 95% CI 0.69- 5.00), self-esteem (MD 0.21, 95% CI 2.09-2.50), the quality of life (standardized mean difference 0.15, 95% CI 0.96-0.66), extended memory (MD 0.03, 95% CI 0.61-0.55), categorical memory (MD 0.48, 95% CI 1.08- 0.12) and no recall (MD 0.30, 95% CI 1.12- 0.52). Life review is a worthwhile intervention for reducing depression and hopelessness, and improving quality of life, well-being and specific memory in older adults. More well-designed trials with a large sample and long-term follow up are necessary to confirm the effects of life review on other psychosocial outcomes. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. The Effects of a Social and Talent Development Intervention for High Ability Youth with Social Skill Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Assouline, Susan G.; Kivlighan, D. Martin; Fosenburg, Staci; Cederberg, Charles; Nanji, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary models highlight the need to cultivate cognitive and psychosocial factors in developing domain-specific talent. This model was the basis for the current study where high ability youth with self-reported social difficulties (n = 28, 12 with a coexisting disability) participated in a social skills and talent development intervention…

  15. Developing students' writing skills: an early intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson Diehl, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In what seems to be a universal situation, nurse educators are reading student papers and lamenting the fact that their students cannot write. The author explains a successful model of early intervention aimed at improving academic writing for new graduate students. The model and teaching strategies are helpful to nurse educators who struggle with the quality of their students' written work.

  16. Psychosocial interventions as adjunct therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Rukmal Kumari; Bertouch, James V

    2010-10-01

    To identify the psychological interventions for which there is consistent, high quality evidence of efficacy in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A computer-aided search and manual screening of identified papers was conducted. Randomised controlled trials published in English in peer-reviewed journals, assessing the use of psychological interventions in adult patients with RA were included. Thirty-four papers published between 1981 and 2009 encompassing 31 studies with 2021 patients were included. There is consistent supportive evidence for the efficacy of disclosure therapy (four studies) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with maintenance therapy (five studies). There is supportive evidence for improvement with CBT of greater than 6 weeks duration (six studies) in the short-term but conflicting evidence for its long-term efficacy. There is some evidence for improvement with biofeedback-based interventions (two studies). There is conflicting evidence for the benefits of counselling (three studies), psychotherapy (two studies) mindfulness and meditation (two studies), and CBT of less than 6 weeks duration (six studies). There is limited evidence regarding relaxation therapy (two studies). Methodological limitations of the reviewed literature included failure of allocation concealment, blinding and conduction of intention-to-treat analysis, as well as the heterogeneity and choice of outcome measures. This review shows consistent supportive evidence for the use of disclosure therapy, and CBT with maintenance therapy as adjunct therapies in patients with RA. It also highlights methodological limitations in the current literature and the need for future research in this area.

  17. Dancing as a psychosocial intervention in care homes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-García, A; Hughes, J C; James, I A; Rochester, L

    2013-09-01

    There is a need to find meaningful and engaging interventions to improve mood and behaviour for residents of care homes. The demand on care staff might diminish opportunities for them to encourage these activities. Staff anecdotal information attests that dancing as an activity improves mood in residents and staff. Hence, the importance of investigating what dancing brings to the care home social environment. To provide a systematic review of the evidence from studies related to dancing interventions for older people with dementia living in care homes. Electronic databases were searched. Previous reviews were also included, and recognised experts were consulted up to January 2012. Inclusion criteria considered study methodology and evidence that the impact of the dance intervention had been measured. Ten studies were identified that satisfied the inclusion criteria: seven qualitative and three quantitative. Studies used different approaches such as therapeutic dance, dance movement therapy, dance therapy, social dancing and psychomotor dance-based exercise. There was evidence that problematic behaviours decreased; social interaction and enjoyment in both residents and care staff improved. A few adverse effects were also acknowledged. The evidence on the efficacy of dancing in care homes is limited in part owing to the methodological challenges facing such research. This review aims to raise awareness of the possibility of implementing dance work as an engaging activity in care homes. We shall also consider options for future dance work research as a means to encourage relationships and sensory stimulation for both residents and staff. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of Psychosocial Interventions for School-aged Children's Internet Addiction, Self-control and Self-esteem: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to perform an effect size analysis of psychosocial interventions for internet addiction and to identify the intervention moderators applied to school-aged children. Methods For the meta-analysis, studies were included that were published in English or Korean until January 2015, without limitation in terms of the year. They were retrieved from 11 electronic databases and by manual searches according to predefined inclusion criteria. Results A total of 37 studies were selected, which included 11 treatment conditions and covered a total of 1,490 participants. The effect size estimates showed that psychosocial interventions had a large effect for reducing internet addiction (standardized mean difference [SMD], –1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], –1.52 to –0.87) and improving self-control (SMD, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.47) and self-esteem (mean difference, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.03 to 5.12). The moderator analyses reveals that group treatments, a selective approach, a long duration, a community setting, or higher school grade had a larger effect. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest that psychosocial intervention may be used to prevent Internet addiction in school-aged children, although further research should be conducted using a randomized controlled trial design or diverse age groups to provide evidence-based recommendations. PMID:27525163

  19. Effects of using a nursing crisis intervention program on psychosocial responses and coping strategies of infertile women during in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Hsin, Lee

    2003-09-01

    Infertility and its treatment may cause life crises in infertile women. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a crisis intervention program on improving psychosocial responses and enhancing coping strategies for infertile women attending different stages of an In-Vitro Fertilization V Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) treatment program. Using an experimental study design, infertile women attending an IVF-ET treatment program were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, infertile women completed and answered a questionnaire and received nursing crisis intervention at the initial stage of treatment (day 3). This included (1). viewing a video explaining the therapeutic process of IVF-ET, (2). self-hypnosis and muscle relaxation training, and (3). provision of cognitive-behavioral counseling. The same questionnaire was used again for subjects at the stage of embryo transfer and before taking a pregnancy test. The women in the control group were only interviewed using the same questionnaire and at the same times as the experimental group. Analysis by repeated measurement ANOVA demonstrated that there was a reduction in psychosocial response in terms of interpersonal relationships, and there was an interaction between intervention effects and stage of treatment. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the level of psychosocial responses between the experimental and control groups although some meaningful findings were made. However, in terms of state of anxiety, confrontational problems, and isolated mind/body relaxation, there were significant differences between the two groups of infertile women at some stages of IVF-ET treatment. The women in the experimental group perceived a positive effect of the nursing intervention in relieving their psychosocial responses. The results of this nursing crisis intervention could be helpful in nursing practice when dealing with infertile women attending IVF

  20. The interventions in social skills: review and analysis from a health point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that social skills are acquired through learning. On many occasions, the inhibition of social behavior or the aggressive manifestations can minimize the opportunities of children and/ or adolescents to relate using assertive behavior. For these social deficits, the interventions turn out to be effective, teaching and training more effective skills, which can give more possibilities to learn, to mature and to be happy. The aim of work was to analyze the particularities...

  1. Life skills in educational contexts : testing the effects of an intervention program

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, António Rui; Marques, Brazelina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a training program on students’ acquisition of life skills, life satisfaction, life orientation and expectations about academic achievement. Participants were allocated to either an intervention group (n = 41) that took part in a life skills program, or a control group (n = 43). Participants completed the Youth Experiences Scale 2.0, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Life Orientation Test-Revised, and the Expectations about Academic Achievement. Results ...

  2. ADCS Prevention Instrument Project: pilot testing of a book club as a psychosocial intervention and recruitment and retention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Peter J; Rajcan, Julia L; Sami, Susie A; Patterson, Marian B; Smyth, Kathleen A; Edland, Steven D; George, Daniel R

    2006-01-01

    Both psychosocial and biologic interventions may delay or prevent Alzheimer disease. Staying mentally active may help older people maintain their cognitive abilities. In the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project a book club was introduced as a recruitment and retention device. A 3-arm study was designed and included: a nonrandomized, self-selected group (n=211) who chose not to participate in the book club, and 2 groups randomly assigned to receive 2 books per year in individual self-improvement (n=210) or community involvement (n=207) categories. Participants reported their reactions to the selections and other reading behaviors. Results from the first 2 years revealed that most book club participants agreed with Likert-type statements indicating the readings were enjoyable (Popen-ended questions in the reader survey revealed such themes as developing plans for successful aging and reflecting on attitudes and behaviors in their own lives. Further longitudinal analyses are planned to determine whether the book club influenced retention and whether participation was associated with slowing cognitive decline.

  3. Skills for life of rural teenagers: cognitive and social skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Morales Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A life skills-based approach allows to develop psychosocial skills in adolescents; specifically, cognitive and social skills play a fundamental role. Thus arises the objective of the present study, strengthen self-efficacy and coping, cognitive skills and social skills in high school adolescents in rural area, through the implementation of two programs of psycho-educational intervention. It is based on a quantitative methodology, pre-experimental design of descriptivo-correlacional scope; participating 96 adolescents. The results highlight an improvement in social skills; In addition to finding partnership between advanced social skills and self-efficacy, as well as active coping with social skills; there were changes in self-efficacy and coping. It is concluded that the program was effective in improving social skills of teenagers; however, it requires more time for the improvement of cognitive abilities, given the conditions of a rural area.

  4. Enrolment of children and adolescents in psychosocial care : more likely with low family social support and poor parenting skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations

  5. Enrolment of children and adolescents in psychosocial care : more likely with low family social support and poor parenting skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations be

  6. Gifted Education in Science and Chemistry: Perspectives and Insights into Teaching, Pedagogies, Assessments, and Psychosocial Skills Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. CHOWDHURY

    2016-01-01

    This article provides gifted education perspectives and creative insights with a particular focus on chemistry and science, and discusses associated teaching, learning, pedagogies, curriculum developments and assessments in the context of gifted education. The article emphasizes the cluster grouping approach, hidden curriculum, mentoring and proper counselling provisions in school that may significantly impact on gifted students’ developments. The article discusses gifted students’ psychosoci...

  7. The Effects of a School-Based Psychosocial Intervention on Resilience and Health Outcomes among Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowokere, A. E.; Okanlawon, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the psychosocial health needs of the vulnerable population has been considered as a significant public health issue that must be addressed through access to public health professionals. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of a training program on nurses and teachers' knowledge of psychosocial health…

  8. Fostering interpersonal problem solving skills in children

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Carla dos Santos Elias; Edna Maria Marturano

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problem solving skills - IPSS are important for psychosocial adaptation of people. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a program for the development ofHSPI, applied by teachers. Participants were 203 students from a public elementary school, aged between six and ten years, and their teachers. The children were allocated in two groups - intervention and comparison. The groups were evaluated before and after intervention as their social skills, IPSS, beha...

  9. Preventing child abuse: psychosocial description of clients of brief intervention programs in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gómez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study describe characteristics and risk factors for child abuse and neglect,in 591 children and adolescents, their parents and families served by eight brief intervention programs (PIB “Viviendo en Familia”, funded by the Chilean National Service of Children (SENAME and implemented by Protectora de la Infancia (a non-profit organization in Chile. The results revealed the existence of problems of moderate complexity, on the environment,parental competencies, family interactions, family safety and child well-being. About three of each four caregivers show signs of high risk for the abuse or neglect of children, especially in their mental health, a topic that must be considered by the staff to develop a plan of coordinated work with the local network of health services.

  10. A person-centered intervention targeting the psychosocial needs of gynecological cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Hansson, Eva Helena

    2016-01-01

    , depression, self-esteem, and self-reported ability to monitor and respond to symptoms of recurrence. METHODS: We randomly assigned 165 gynecological cancer survivors to usual care (UC) plus GSD-GYN-C or UC alone. Self-reported QOL-cancer survivor (QOL-CS) total score and subscale scores on physical......PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of a person-centered intervention consisting of two to four nurse-led conversations using guided self-determination tailored to gynecologic cancer (GSD-GYN-C) on gynecological cancer survivors' quality of life (QOL), impact of cancer, distress, anxiety......, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being were assessed before randomization and at 3 and 9 months after randomization using t tests. Bonferroni and Pipper corrections were applied for multiple testing adjustments. RESULTS: At 9 months, the GSD-GYN-C plus UC group scored significantly higher on the QOL...

  11. Intervention in social skills with a child with Down’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Piazentin Rolim Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that children with Down’s syndrome have deficits in social skills, which can interfere in their social interactions and also in their academic performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical significance and reliable change in repertory of social skills of a child with Down’s syndrome, from interventions in the clinic, at home and at school. A seven year old girl with Down’s Syndrome who had frequented the first year of regular school, her parents and her teacher participated in this study. They were attending in a Center of Applied Psychology, of a public university in São Paulo State. Before and after the intervention parents and teacher answered the Rating System Social Skills (SSRS. The intervention with the child had been conducted for six months, through playful activities in weekly meetings. It was discussed various topics related to social skills with parents and teacher in biweekly and monthly meetings. The results were analyzed using JT method. With parents, comparing the two assessments conducted, the data pointed to positive change reliable for four of the six skills assessed. Of the five skills assessed by the teacher, one of them was not in the clinical level since the first application. The other two went from clinical to non-clinical level, featuring reliable positive change. The study showed the importance of pre and post measures in case study, enabling the assessment of the effects of the intervention performed on the various factors of social skills. Further studies with larger populations may ratify the data obtained.

  12. Neurocognitive skills moderate urban male adolescents' responses to preventive intervention materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H; Hyde, Christopher; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hubal, Robert; Das, Abhik; Tarter, Ralph; Ialongo, Nick; Hubbard, Scott; Yung, Betty

    2006-03-15

    The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention Intervention Research Center (JHU PIRC) within the Baltimore City Public Schools. A subsample (N = 120) of male 9th grade students was recruited from the larger JHU study population. Approximately half of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of CD while the other half had no diagnosis of CD or other reported problem behaviors. Measures of executive cognitive function (ECF), emotional perception and intelligence were administered. In a later session, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent a facilitated session using excerpted materials from a model preventive intervention, Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), and controls received no intervention. Outcomes (i.e., social competency skills) were assessed using virtual reality vignettes involving behavioral choices as well as three social cognition questionnaires. Poor cognitive and emotional performance and a diagnosis of CD predicted less favorable change in social competency skills in response to the prevention curriculum. This study provides evidence for the moderating effects of neurocognitive and emotional regulatory functions on ability of urban male youth to respond to preventive intervention materials.

  13. Psychosocial intervention improves depression, quality of life, and fluid adherence in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Asher, Deborah Rosenthal; Coplan, Jeremy D; Weedon, Jeremy; Wyka, Katarzyna E; Saggi, Subodh J; Kimmel, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ESRD have high rates of depression, which is associated with diminished quality of life and survival. We determined whether individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces depression in hemodialysis patients with elevated depressive affect in a randomized crossover trial. Of 65 participants enrolled from two dialysis centers in New York, 59 completed the study and were assigned to the treatment-first group (n=33) or the wait-list control group (n=26). In the intervention phase, CBT was administered chairside during dialysis treatments for 3 months; participants were assessed 3 and 6 months after randomization. Compared with the wait-list group, the treatment-first group achieved significantly larger reductions in Beck Depression Inventory II (self-reported, P=0.03) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (clinician-reported, Pimprovements in quality of life, assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (P=0.04), and interdialytic weight gain (P=0.002) than the wait-list group, although no effect on compliance was evident at follow-up. In summary, CBT led to significant improvements in depression, quality of life, and prescription compliance in this trial, and studies should be undertaken to assess the long-term effects of CBT on morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD.

  14. An Intervention Framework Designed to Develop the Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Wenbo; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices such as collaborative inquiry. Collaborative problem solving is becoming popular in school settings, but there is limited knowledge on how to develop skills crucial in collaborative problem solving in students. Based on the intervention design in social interaction of…

  15. Implementing an Intervention in Special Education to Promote Social Skills in an Inclusive Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Kathleen; Mathur, Sarup R.; Zamora, Roxanne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of instruction, delivered in a special education classroom, to improve classroom behaviors and support the emergence of social skills in an inclusive classroom for two fourth grade male students with behavioral concerns. The intervention consisted of peer mentoring, interactive social narratives, video modeling and…

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30…

  17. A New Framework for Systematic Reviews: Application to Social Skills Interventions for Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard; Lackey, Kimberly C.; Schneider, Naomi J. B.

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a novel framework for evaluating evidence based on a set of parallel criteria that can be applied to both group and single-subject experimental design (SSED) studies. The authors illustrate use of this evaluation system in a systematic review of 67 articles investigating social skills interventions for preschoolers with autism…

  18. It's all about CareerSKILLS: Effectiveness of a Career Development Intervention for Young Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of the CareerSKILLS program, a career development intervention based on career competencies and the JOBS methodology, which aims to stimulate career self-management and well-being of young employees. In a quasi-randomized control trial, the e

  19. It's all about career skills: Effectiveness of a career development intervention for young employees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, T.J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of the CareerSKILLS program, a career development intervention based on career competencies and the JOBS methodology, which aims to stimulate career self-management and well-being of young employees. In a quasi-randomized control trial, the e

  20. Intervention to Improve Expository Reading Comprehension Skills in Older Children and Adolescents with Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.; Duthie, Jill K.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent renewed emphasis on the importance of providing instruction to improve expository discourse comprehension and production skills, speech-language pathologists need to be prepared to implement effective intervention to meet this critical need in older children and adolescents with language disorders. The purpose of this review…

  1. Social Competence and Social Skills Training and Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugno, Albert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a 30 week social competence and social skills group intervention program with children, ages 7-11, diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Eighteen children with ASD were assessed with pretreatment and posttreatment measures on the Walker-McConnell Scale (WMS) and the MGH YouthCare Social Competence…

  2. Functional Life Skills Curricular Interventions for Youth with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwell, Morgen; Cobb, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between functional or life skills curricula (the intervention) and transition-related outcomes for secondary-aged youth with disabilities is explored in this systematic review. A total of 50 studies intervening with 482 youth with (largely) disability labels of moderate to severe mental retardation were reviewed. The findings of…

  3. Evidence-Based Social Skills Interventions for Students at Risk for EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Children and youth with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) present substantial challenges for schools, teachers, parents, and peers. Social skills interventions have been shown to be effective for this population. Meta-analytic reviews of this literature show that about 65% of students with EBD will improve when given social…

  4. The Effect of an Instructional Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Hüsnüye; Mutlu, Seçkin

    2017-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate the effects of the instructional intervention on science processes skills (SPSs) of seventh-grade students. The study was designed as nonequivalent control-group pretest-posttest, and it was carried out with 43 students. Participants were chosen according to the convenient sampling method. The authors collected…

  5. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  6. Video Self-Modeling: A Job Skills Intervention with Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities in Employment Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Ailsa E.

    2010-01-01

    A large majority of adults with intellectual disabilities are unemployed. Unemployment of adults with intellectual disabilities is a complex multidimensional issue. Some barriers to employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities are the lack of job experience and skills training. In recent years, video-based interventions, such as video…

  7. An Intervention Framework Designed to Develop the Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Wenbo; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices such as collaborative inquiry. Collaborative problem solving is becoming popular in school settings, but there is limited knowledge on how to develop skills crucial in collaborative problem solving in students. Based on the intervention design in social interaction of…

  8. Educational and Skills-Based Interventions to Prevent Relationship Violence in Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellmeth, Gracia; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and other databases for randomized, cluster-randomized, and quasi-randomized…

  9. Intervention to Improve Expository Reading Comprehension Skills in Older Children and Adolescents with Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.; Duthie, Jill K.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent renewed emphasis on the importance of providing instruction to improve expository discourse comprehension and production skills, speech-language pathologists need to be prepared to implement effective intervention to meet this critical need in older children and adolescents with language disorders. The purpose of this review…

  10. Long-Term Outcome of Social Skills Intervention Based on Interactive LEGO[C] Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legoff, Daniel B.; Sherman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    LEGO[C] building materials have been adapted as a therapeutic modality for increasing motivation to participate in social skills intervention, and providing a medium through which children with social and communication handicaps can effectively interact. A 3 year retrospective study of long-term outcome for autistic spectrum children participating…

  11. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Lessons from surgery and anaesthesia: evaluation of non-technical skills in interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salil B; Pilkington, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In the medical profession, surgery and anaesthesia are leading the way in identifying human errors that negatively affect patient safety. Evidence suggests that the implementation of non-technical skills assessments reduces such errors. Interventional Radiology is a procedural based speciality and therefore may also benefit from formal assessment of non-technical skills. This literature review supports the use of standardised assessment tools used in surgery and anaesthesia. Using the Downing framework of internal validity, the tools demonstrated good internal consistency but a spectrum of inter-rater variability, which can be partially improved with training. At present, a formal Interventional Radiology non-technical skills assessment tool is probably not suitable to be a stand-alone ‘high stakes’ assessment, but may be a useful adjunct to the existing array of workplace-based assessments. PMID:26664733

  13. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: psychosocial and personal risk factors (part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, P M; Ijmker, S; van den Heuvel, S; Blatter, B M

    2006-09-01

    upper limb problems are discussed. Few randomised or non randomised controlled trials have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of individual or organisational interventions to improve work related psychosocial factors. Very few have reported on the preventive effect for work related neck and upper limb symptoms. Therefore, there is a great need for additional high quality trials before any conclusions on effectiveness of bio-behavioural interventions for reduction of neck and upper limb problems and return to work after these symptoms can be made. From the low back pain intervention research can be learned that interventions should best be targeted to both the worker and the organisation and that interventions will only be successful when all stakeholders are involved.

  14. Educability, skills and parental involvement: a factorial analysis of teacher perception scale for families in psychosocial risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Garcés, Carlos; Centro de Investigación CIDCIE de la Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán

    2016-01-01

    Through the scale “Perception Teaching for Families Experiencing Psychosocial Risk” applied to 175 teachers in training, conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The AFE, with an explained variance of 43.9%, reveals the existence of four factors or dimensions: Implications Parental Education, features personological Attributive, Parental Participation and Attribution Genealogical. The subsequent descriptive analysis reports that there is a tarnished image by teachers of vulnerable chil...

  15. Effects of three interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Stefan; Fälth, Linda; Svensson, Idor; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, the effects of three intervention strategies on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2 were analyzed. The interventions consisted of computerized training programs: One bottom-up intervention aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second intervention focused on top-down processing on the word and sentence levels, and the third was a combination of these two training programs (n = 25 in each group). In addition, there were two comparison groups, 25 children with reading disabilities who received ordinary special instruction and 30 age-matched typical readers. All reading disabled participants completed 25 training sessions with special education teachers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group who received combined training showed higher improvements than the ordinary special instruction group and the typical readers. Different cognitive variables were related to treatment gains for different groups. Thus, a treatment combining bottom-up and top-down aspects of reading was the most effective in general, but individual differences among children need to be considered.

  16. Effectiveness of training intervention to improve medical student's information literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Yousefi, Mahmood

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficiency of delivering a 4-month course of "effective literature search" among medical postgraduate students for improving information literacy skills. This was a cross-sectional study in which 90 postgraduate students were randomly selected and participated in 12 training sessions. Effective search strategies were presented and the students' attitude and competency concerning online search were measured by a pre- and post-questionnaires and skill tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using t-test. There was a significant improvement (p=0.00), in student's attitude. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) was 2.9 (0.8) before intervention versus the mean (SD) 3.9 (0.7) after intervention. Students' familiarity with medical resources and databases improved significantly. The data showed a significant increase (p=0.03), in students' competency score concerning search strategy design and conducting a search. The mean (SD) was 2.04 (0.7) before intervention versus the mean (SD) 3.07 (0.8) after intervention. Also, students' ability in applying search and meta search engine improved significantly. This study clearly acknowledges that the training intervention provides considerable opportunity to improve medical student's information literacy skills.

  17. Effectiveness of training intervention to improve medical student’s information literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficiency of delivering a 4-month course of “effective literature search” among medical postgraduate students for improving information literacy skills. This was a cross-sectional study in which 90 postgraduate students were randomly selected and participated in 12 training sessions. Effective search strategies were presented and the students’ attitude and competency concerning online search were measured by a pre- and post-questionnaires and skill tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using t-test. There was a significant improvement (p=0.00), in student’s attitude. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) was 2.9 (0.8) before intervention versus the mean (SD) 3.9 (0.7) after intervention. Students’ familiarity with medical resources and databases improved significantly. The data showed a significant increase (p=0.03), in students’ competency score concerning search strategy design and conducting a search. The mean (SD) was 2.04 (0.7) before intervention versus the mean (SD) 3.07 (0.8) after intervention. Also, students’ ability in applying search and meta search engine improved significantly. This study clearly acknowledges that the training intervention provides considerable opportunity to improve medical student’s information literacy skills. PMID:27907985

  18. Effects of a Social Skills Intervention Administered in Mixed Diagnostic Groups for Children with Peer Relationship Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Scambler, Douglas J.; Page, Melanie C.; Sullivan, Maureen A.; Armendariz, Monica L.; Isenberg, Jill C.; Warner, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on social skills interventions has been mixed. This study evaluates a group-administered, manualized social skills intervention program. Twenty-three boys and 9 girls between the ages of 7 and 13 participated. Participants were included in the groups based on peer relationship difficulties rather than diagnostic status, resulting in a…

  19. Effects on the family context of a complex psychosocial intervention in children with TDAH - Efectos sobre el contexto familiar de una intervención psicosocial compleja en niños con TDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Miranda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder has a complex negative impact on the family system that has not been thoroughly examined. This study analyzes the effects of psychosocial treatment on a wide range of aspects of family dynamics, such as to what degree the families overcome the difficulties they experience in the social and economic areas, improvements in the feelings and attitudes of the parents, or the tension between siblings or the within the couple. The purpose is also to analyze whether the presence of associated behavioral problems modulates the effects of the intervention.The participants in the study were 42 families divided into two groups, with and without treatment. The intervention included 3 programs differentiated according to the context in which they were implemented: directly with the children, with the parents and with the teachers. Each program included techniques of behavior modification, self-regulation, academic accommodations and social skills. The results show the beneficial effect of the multi-component intervention performed on all the family aspects analyzed, especially for the group of children without associated behavior problems.

  20. Truth Be Told: Evaluation of a Narrative and Skills Intervention in Two Women's Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    This article describes the evaluation of a narrative and skills intervention to enable women to come to terms with their offenses, tell the truth, and then work to deal with the emotions and issues surrounding their offenses, in two southern U.S. women's prisons. The intervention involved skills building in communication, community building, creativity, and caring for the self, using narrative writing, speaking, and movement. There was broad agreement that the intervention had multiple positive impacts, including insight into factors that lead to incarceration, comfort with selves and better ability to express themselves, restorative justice (ability to understand the situation of others, understanding the impact on themselves and their families), better relationships with other inmates, and understanding the challenges that may lead to recidivism. Findings are consistent with the importance of "confession" and the importance of narrative in traumatic life situations in bringing resolution.

  1. Internet-based health information consumer skills intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G

    2006-06-01

    Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social- cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an 8-session intervention that focused on Internet information consumer skills or (b) a time-matched support group and were followed to 9 months postintervention. The Internet skills group demonstrated greater Internet use for health, information coping, and social support compared with the control group. The authors conclude that people with HIV infection may benefit from increased access to health information on the Internet and that vulnerability to misinformation and fraud can be reduced through behavioral interventions. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Family Generated and Delivered Social Story Intervention: Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization of Social Skills in Youths with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcay-Gül, Seray; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) family members were able to learn to write a social story and deliver social story intervention to teach social skills to their children (age 12 to 16) with ASD, (b) youths with ASD acquired and maintained the targeted social skills and generalized these skills across novel situations. Multiple…

  3. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola ePitchford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-week period, for the equivalent of 30-minutes per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas. Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test.A final sample of 283 children from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standard 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child

  4. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child's developmental

  5. 社会技能训练对精神分裂症患者临床结局的研究%Effect of Psychosocial Skills Training on Clinical Outcome of Schizophrenic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏雪涛; 旷昌珍; 喻体莲; 周建初

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of psychosocial skills training mode on clinical outcome of patients with schizophrenia. Methods Totally 86 0utpatients with stable schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups : the patients in the training group were given comprehensive intervention of medication maintenance plus psychosocial skills training, and the patients in the control group were only given medication. All patient were regularly evaluated with Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire ( ITAQ ), recurrence rate, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ( PANSS ), Social Disability Screening Schedule ( SDSS ), and a 16 - month follow - up was conducted. Results After 16 - month intervention, the insight and treatment attitude in the training group were statistically better that those in the control group ( P < 0. 05 ). The total average PANSS score , average scores of positive and negative syndrome . and SDSS score were statistically significantly different between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The structured psychosocial skills training mode is of evident effects in recovery of patients' insight, increase of treatment compliance , decrease of relapse , and improvement of social function.%目的 评定社会技能训练模式对精神分裂症患者临床结局的作用.方法 86例稳定期精神分裂症患者随机分为药物维持治疗合并社会技能训练组(训练组)和单纯药物治疗组(对照组),采用自知力与治疗态度问卷(ITAQ)、复发率、阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)和社会功能缺陷表(SDSS)定期纵向评定,随访期16个月.结果 经16个月治疗随访,训练组ITAQ评分、治疗依从性与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).训练组PANSS总均分、阳性与阴性症状均分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).训练组SDSS评分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 程式化社会技能训练对恢复患者自知力、提高维

  6. Rationale and design: telephone-delivered behavioral skills interventions for Blacks with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strom Joni L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM have higher prevalence of diabetes, poorer metabolic control, and greater risk for complications and death compared to American Whites. Poor outcomes in African Americans with T2DM can be attributed to patient, provider, and health systems level factors. Provider and health system factors account for Methods/Design We describe an ongoing four-year randomized clinical trial, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, which will test the efficacy of separate and combined telephone-delivered, diabetes knowledge/information and motivation/behavioral skills training interventions in high risk African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 9%. Two-hundred thirty-two (232 male and female African-American participants, 18 years of age or older and with an HbA1c ≥ 9%, will be randomized into one of four groups for 12-weeks of phone interventions: (1 an education group, (2 a motivation/skills group, (3 a combined group or (4 a usual care/general health education group. Participants will be followed for 12-months to ascertain the effect of the interventions on glycemic control. Our primary hypothesis is that among African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM, patients randomized to the combined diabetes knowledge/information and motivation/behavioral skills training intervention will have significantly greater reduction in HbA1c at 12 months of follow-up compared to the usual care/general health education group. Discussion Results from this study will provide important insight into how best to deliver diabetes education and skills training in ethnic minorities and whether combined knowledge/information and motivation/behavioral skills training is superior to the usual method of delivering diabetes education for African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM. Trial registration National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier# NCT00929838.

  7. The macular degeneration and aging study: Design and research protocol of a randomized trial for a psychosocial intervention with macular degeneration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Silvia; White, Katherine; Mak, Wingyun; Zanibbi, Katherine; Tang, Wan; O'Hearn, Amanda; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-05-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible and predictable blindness among older adults with serious physical and mental health consequences. Visual impairment is associated with negative future outlook and depression and has serious consequences for older adults' quality of life and, by way of depression, on long-term survival. Psychosocial interventions have the potential to alleviate and prevent depression symptoms among older AMD patients. We describe the protocol of the Macular Degeneration and Aging Study, a randomized clinical trial of a psychosocial Preventive Problem-Solving Intervention. The intervention is aimed at enhancing well-being and future planning among older adults with macular degeneration by increasing preparation for future care. Adequate randomization and therapeutic fidelity were achieved. Current retention rates were acceptable, given the vulnerability of the population. Acceptability (adherence and satisfaction) was high. Given the high public health significance and impact on quality of life among older adults with vision loss, this protocol contributes a valid test of a promising intervention for maintaining mental and physical health in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A pilot randomized study of skills training for African American cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cindy; Rust, Connie; Choi, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a psychosocial group intervention for African American breast cancer survivors based on the Cancer Survival Toolbox with the specific aim of decreasing distress and improving aspects of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. This pilot study utilized a randomized, repeated measures, experimental design. The study sample (N = 71) consisted of an intervention group (n = 23) of cancer survival skills training for 6 weeks and a control group (n = 48). The study could not confirm that cancer skills training in a psychoeducational group setting had a positive effect on decreasing stress or improving aspects of psychosocial functioning and quality of life.

  9. Oral language skills intervention in pre-school-a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children identified as having poor oral language skills in preschool classes. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in 13 UK nursery schools. In each nursery, eight children (N = 104, mean age = 3 years 11 months) with the poorest performance on standardized language measures were selected to take part. All but one child were randomly allocated to either an intervention (N = 52) or a waiting control group (N = 51). The intervention group received a 15-week oral language programme in addition to their standard nursery curriculum. The programme was delivered by trained teaching assistants and aimed to foster vocabulary knowledge, narrative and listening skills. Initial results revealed significant differences between the intervention and control group on measures of taught vocabulary. No group differences were found on any standardized language measure; however, there were gains of moderate effect size in listening comprehension. The study suggests that an intervention, of moderate duration and intensity, for small groups of preschool children successfully builds vocabulary knowledge, but does not generalize to non-taught areas of language. The findings strike a note of caution about implementing language interventions of moderate duration in preschool settings. The findings also highlight the importance of including a control group in intervention studies. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  10. Intervention study on psychosocial adaptptation of freshmen in medical university%医科大学新生心理社会适应干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳芳; 吴晓兵; 郭巍伟; 邢玉梅; 石倩; 马艳艳; 何丽玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨改善医科大学新生心理社会适应能力干预实验的方法、内容和效果,为制定干预措施提供依据.方法 采用心理测验量表评价被试的心理社会适应能力.在对560名新生进行基线问卷测查的基础上,通过分层整群随机抽样对223名学生进行了"学校生活技能"干预,对照组为其余337人.干预实验以班为单位进行,每周2学时,共进行5次.干预实验结束后,采用基线测查时所用相同心理测验问卷进行复测.结果 干预后干预组的社会适应和人际关系测验总得分均显著高于干预前(P值均<0.05),且干预组均显著高于对照组(P>0.05).但干预前、后2组学生的应对方式总得分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 学校生活技能干预对改善医科大学新生的社会适应能力和人际关系状况有一定的效果,但对应对方式的改善效果不明显.%Objective To set up valid, feasible and reliable intervention to improve psychosocial adaptation of freshmen in medical university, and to provide bases for the intervention measurement. Methods Psychological test scales were used to measure the psychosocial adaptation ability of the subjects. Based on baseline questionnaire survey among 560 freshmen, we conducted school life-skill intervention on 223 students who were selected by stratified cluster random sampling,control group included other 337 students. Intervention was conducted in class two hours a week and totally 5 times. After intervention post-test was completed using the same questionnaires as base line. Results After intervention the total scores of social adaptation and interpersonal relations were significantly improved in intervention group comparing to pre-test ( P < 0.05 ), and the scores were significantly higher in intervention group than those in control group( P <0.05 ). However the total score of coping style between two groups was not different before and after intervention ( P > 0

  11. The "Romsås in Motion" community intervention: program exposure and psychosocial mediated relationships to change in stages of change in physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenum Anne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting process evaluations of health promoting interventions, and measuring the effectiveness of specific intervention components, may help in the understanding of program failure or success. The purposes of the present study were to examine adults' exposure to and involvement in specific components of a three year long pseudo-experimental community-based physical activity intervention, and to examine the relationship between such exposure and participation and changes in stages of change in physical activity and psychosocial mediators. Methods 1497 persons in the intervention group attended the baseline survey in 2000 (50.6% and 1204 (80.4 of baseline attendees provided data on the outcome variables of the present study. In 2003, 1089 were still living in the area, and were re-invited to follow-up assessments. Current analyses are based on the 603 persons (mean age 49 ± 10 years who provided baseline and follow-up data for the current purposes (56.6% follow-up rate. Process data, stages of change in physical activity, and potential psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity were assessed by questionnaires. The theory-based intervention was composed of communication, physical activity, environmental and participatory components. Data were analysed using frequency and descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-tests, and regression analyses. Results Exposure and participation rates in the various intervention components varied greatly (1.5–92.7%. Participation in walking groups and aerobic exercise groups, as well as having seen the "Walk the stairs"-poster were significantly and positively related to change in stages of change in physical activity (β = .12, p = .011; β = .211, p Conclusion Findings revealed that particular intervention components, such as participation in physical activity groups, were more strongly related to forward transition in stages of change in physical activity than others. These

  12. Can teaching agenda-setting skills to physicians improve clinical interaction quality? A controlled intervention

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    Rogers William H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians and medical educators have repeatedly acknowledged the inadequacy of communication skills training in the medical school curriculum and opportunities to improve these skills in practice. This study of a controlled intervention evaluates the effect of teaching practicing physicians the skill of "agenda-setting" on patients' experiences with care. The agenda-setting intervention aimed to engage clinicians in the practice of initiating patient encounters by eliciting the full set of concerns from the patient's perspective and using that information to prioritize and negotiate which clinical issues should most appropriately be dealt with and which (if any should be deferred to a subsequent visit. Methods Ten physicians from a large physician organization in California with baseline patient survey scores below the statewide 25th percentile participated in the agenda-setting intervention. Eleven physicians matched on baseline scores, geography, specialty, and practice size were selected as controls. Changes in survey summary scores from pre- and post-intervention surveys were compared between the two groups. Multilevel regression models that accounted for the clustering of patients within physicians and controlled for respondent characteristics were used to examine the effect of the intervention on survey scale scores. Results There was statistically significant improvement in intervention physicians' ability to "explain things in a way that was easy to understand" (p = 0.02 and marginally significant improvement in the overall quality of physician-patient interactions (p = 0.08 compared to control group physicians. Changes in patients' experiences with organizational access, care coordination, and office staff interactions did not differ by experimental group. Conclusion A simple and modest behavioral training for practicing physicians has potential to positively affect physician-patient relationship interaction quality

  13. The Effect of Psychosocial Support Intervention on Depression in Patients with Dementia and Their Family Caregivers: An Assessor-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Froydis Kristine Bruvik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: A three-component tailored psychosocial 12-month assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial to reduce depression in people with dementia (PWD and carers was conducted. Methods: A total of 230 home-dwelling dyads of PWD and their carers were randomized to usual care or intervention consisting of three components over 12 months. Primary outcomes were the difference between the baseline and 12-month score on the Cornell Scale of Depression in Dementia (CSDD in the PWD and on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS in the carers. Results: The intent-to-treat difference between the baseline and 12- month change score was not significant between the intervention and control groups for the CSDD (p = 0.95 or GDS (p = 0.82. Conclusions: The trial did not show a significant difference between usual care and the intervention on depressive symptoms in PWD or their family caregivers.

  14. Methods of intervention in reducing the psychosocial impact while dealing with cancer as a disease: A clinician′s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: We searched for the clinically relevant suggestions, recommendations and findings amongst the papers on psycho oncology. The term clinically relevant for us meant ′practical and implemental modes of intervention that contribute but would not affect or interfere with the normal functioning of the present system and treatment modality of the patients.′ Our intention was to use the available information for the benefit of our patients. We also searched for the data that would prove the significance of these methods. In most parts of the world it is not possible to involve a psychologist at every level of cancer care. Based on the findings, we intend to carry out our own project for the psychosocial intervention in cancer patients and make suggestions that could be adopted even by those who have little or no experience in psychology. Conclusion: The field of psycho oncology is a relatively new and evolving subspecialty of oncology and psychology at the same time. Current data and papers, which would make simple and implemental modes of intervention at psychosocial level, are limited. There is a dire necessity of solid data and list of suggestion to the specialists, non-specialists and those who take care of the cancer patients, to enhance the care they provide to the cancer patients.

  15. Methods of intervention in reducing the psychosocial impact while dealing with cancer as a disease: A clinician′s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: We searched for the clinically relevant suggestions, recommendations and findings amongst the papers on Psycho-oncology. The term clinically relevant for us meant ′practical and implemental modes of intervention that contribute but would not affect or interfere with the normal functioning of the present system and treatment modality of the patients.′ Our intention was to use the available information for the benefit of our patients. We also searched for the data that would prove the significance of these methods. In most parts of the world it is not possible to involve a psychologist at every level of cancer care. Based on the findings, we intend to carry out our own project for the psychosocial intervention in cancer patients and make suggestions that could be adopted even by those who have little or no experience in psychology. Conclusion: The field of psycho oncology is a relatively new and evolving subspecialty of oncology and psychology at the same time. Current data and papers, which would make simple and implemental modes of intervention at psychosocial level, are limited. There is a dire necessity of solid data and list of suggestions to the specialists, non-specialists and to those who take care of the cancer patients, to enhance the care they provide to the cancer patients.

  16. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  17. The Influence of Exercise Training on Quality of Life and Psychosocial Functioning in Children with Congenital Heart Disease:A Review of Intervention Studies

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    Karolijn Dulfer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with severe congenital heart disease. Participation in an exercise program among young people with complex congenital heart disease seemed to have positive effects on quality of life and passive leisure time spent. However, more effects of the exercise programs may have been expected. For future research it is important to critically evaluate the content of the exercise programs.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Trauma-Informed Support, Skills, and Psychoeducation Intervention for Survivors of Torture and Related Trauma in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith; Murray, Sarah McIvor; Mohammed, Thikra Ahmed; Bunn, Mary; Gorman, William; Ahmed, Ahmed Mohammed Amin; Murray, Laura; Bolton, Paul

    2016-09-28

    Supportive counseling type interventions are frequently provided to meet the mental health needs of populations in emergency and post-conflicts contexts, but it has seldom been rigorously evaluated. Existing evaluations from low- and middle-income countries provide mixed evidence of effectiveness. While Iraqi Kurdistan experienced relative stability following the fall of Saddam Hussein's government, the population in the northern Dohuk region has continued to experience periodic violence due to conflicts with neighboring Turkey as well as more recent ISIS-associated violence. We evaluated the impact of a trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation intervention provided by community mental health workers (CMHWs) on depressive symptoms and dysfunction (primary outcomes) as well as post-traumatic stress, traumatic grief, and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes). Between June 2009 and June 2010, 295 adults were screened; 209 (71%) met eligibility criteria (trauma exposure and a symptom severity score indicating significant distress and functional impairment, among others) and consented to participate. Of these, 159 were randomized to supportive counseling while 50 were randomized to a waitlist control condition. Comparing average symptom severity scores post-treatment among those in the intervention group with those in the waitlist control group, the supportive counseling program had statistically and clinically significant impacts on the primary outcomes of depression (Cohen's d, 0.57; P = .02) and dysfunction (Cohen's d, 0.53; P = .03) and significant but smaller impacts on anxiety. Although studies by the same research team of psychotherapeutic interventions in other parts of Kurdistan and in southern Iraq found larger effects, this study adds to the global research literature on mental health and psychosocial support and shows that a well-trained and supervised program of trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation that emphasizes the therapeutic

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Trauma-Informed Support, Skills, and Psychoeducation Intervention for Survivors of Torture and Related Trauma in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith; Murray, Sarah McIvor; Mohammed, Thikra Ahmed; Bunn, Mary; Gorman, William; Ahmed, Ahmed Mohammed Amin; Murray, Laura; Bolton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Supportive counseling type interventions are frequently provided to meet the mental health needs of populations in emergency and post-conflicts contexts, but it has seldom been rigorously evaluated. Existing evaluations from low- and middle-income countries provide mixed evidence of effectiveness. While Iraqi Kurdistan experienced relative stability following the fall of Saddam Hussein’s government, the population in the northern Dohuk region has continued to experience periodic violence due to conflicts with neighboring Turkey as well as more recent ISIS-associated violence. We evaluated the impact of a trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation intervention provided by community mental health workers (CMHWs) on depressive symptoms and dysfunction (primary outcomes) as well as post-traumatic stress, traumatic grief, and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes). Between June 2009 and June 2010, 295 adults were screened; 209 (71%) met eligibility criteria (trauma exposure and a symptom severity score indicating significant distress and functional impairment, among others) and consented to participate. Of these, 159 were randomized to supportive counseling while 50 were randomized to a waitlist control condition. Comparing average symptom severity scores post-treatment among those in the intervention group with those in the waitlist control group, the supportive counseling program had statistically and clinically significant impacts on the primary outcomes of depression (Cohen’s d, 0.57; P = .02) and dysfunction (Cohen’s d, 0.53; P = .03) and significant but smaller impacts on anxiety. Although studies by the same research team of psychotherapeutic interventions in other parts of Kurdistan and in southern Iraq found larger effects, this study adds to the global research literature on mental health and psychosocial support and shows that a well-trained and supervised program of trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation that emphasizes

  20. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  1. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phonological awareness intervention and the acquisition of literacy skills in children from deprived social backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancollis, Alex; Lawrie, Barbara-Anne; Dodd, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the effect of phonological awareness intervention that focused on syllable and rhyme awareness on the acquisition of literacy and the development of phonological awareness skills 2 years post intervention. The longitudinal study compared two groups of children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds in the United Kingdom. One group received a program of phonological awareness intervention and one did not. Ninety-nine children received a 9-week program of phonological awareness intervention in the summer term of their final preschool year. These children were then assessed on measures of phonological awareness and language in the first term of their first year at school (M age = 4;7 [years; months]) and again 2 years later (M age = 6;8) on measures of phonological awareness and literacy. One year earlier, a control group of 114 children from the same schools were also assessed at these two points in their schooling on the same measures. This group did not receive any phonological awareness intervention. At the second assessment, the group of children who received phonological awareness intervention performed better than those children who received no intervention (control group) on rhyme awareness and nonword spelling. Surprisingly, however, the control group performed better than the children who had received intervention on the phoneme segmentation task. The phonological awareness intervention that was implemented, which focused on enhancing syllable and rhyme awareness, had little effect on later literacy development and may have interfered with the acquisition of phoneme awareness. Implications for intervention with children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds are discussed in the context of current research.

  3. Limited intervention improves technical skill in focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography among novice examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies addressing teaching and learning in point-of-care ultrasound have primarily focussed on image interpretation and not on the technical quality of the images. We hypothesized that a limited intervention of 10 supervised examinations would improve the technical skills in Focus Assessed Transthoracic Echocardiography (FATE and that physicians with no experience in FATE would quickly adopt technical skills allowing for image quality suitable for interpretation. Methods Twenty-one physicians with no previous training in FATE or echocardiography (Novices participated in the study and a reference group of three examiners with more than 10 years of experience in echocardiography (Experts was included. Novices received an initial theoretical and practical introduction (2 hours, after which baseline examinations were performed on two healthy volunteers. Subsequently all physicians were scheduled to a separate intervention day comprising ten supervised FATE examinations. For effect measurement a second examination (evaluation of the same two healthy volunteers from the baseline examination was performed. Results At baseline 86% of images obtained by novices were suitable for interpretation, on evaluation this was 93% (p = 0.005. 100% of images obtained by experts were suitable for interpretation. Mean global image rating on baseline examinations was 70.2 (CI 68.0-72.4 and mean global image rating after intervention was 75.0 (CI 72.9-77.0, p = 0.0002. In comparison, mean global image rating in the expert group was 89.8 (CI 88.8-90.9. Conclusions Improvement of technical skills in FATE can be achieved with a limited intervention and upon completion of intervention 93% of images achieved are suitable for clinical interpretation.

  4. A pilot study: the effects of music therapy interventions on middle school students' ESL skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Roy; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy techniques on the story retelling and speaking skills of English as a Second Language (ESL) middle school students. Thirty-four middle school students of Hispanic heritage, ages 10-12, in high and low-functioning groups participated in the study for 12 weeks. Pretest to posttest data yielded significant differences on the story retelling skills between the experimental and control groups. Chi Square comparisons on English speaking skills also yielded significant results over 3 months of music therapy intervention. A variety of music therapy techniques were used including music and movement, active music listening, group chanting and singing, musical games, rhythmic training, music and sign language, and lyric analysis and rewrite activities as supplemental activities to the ESL goals and objectives. Comparisons of individual subjects' scores indicated that all of the students in the experimental groups scored higher than the control groups on story retelling skills (with the exception of 1 pair of identical scores), regardless of high and low functioning placement. Monthly comparisons of the high and low functioning experimental groups indicated significant improvements in English speaking skills as well.

  5. The efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults in contexts of ongoing man-made violence - A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleber, Rolf; de Jong, K; Knipscheer, Jeroen; Ford, N.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to psychosocial programs implemented in post-conflict settings those executed in areas of ongoing conflicts may have different effects. Their evidence of efficacy has never been systematically reviewed. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and the Dutch Tropical Institute Literature Portal from

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…

  7. The efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults in contexts of ongoing man-made violence - A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleber, Rolf; de Jong, K; Knipscheer, Jeroen; Ford, N.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to psychosocial programs implemented in post-conflict settings those executed in areas of ongoing conflicts may have different effects. Their evidence of efficacy has never been systematically reviewed. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and the Dutch Tropical Institute Literature Portal from in

  8. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  9. Reading intervention with a growth mindset approach improves children’s skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that parents who believe their child’s abilities are fixed engage with their child in unconstructive, performance-oriented ways. We show that children of parents with such “fixed mindsets” have lower reading skills, even after controlling for the child’s previous abilities and the parents’ socioeconomic status. In a large-scale randomized field trial (Nclassrooms = 72; Nchildren = 1,587) conducted by public authorities, parents receiving a reading intervention were told about the malleability of their child’s reading abilities and how to support their child by praising his/her effort rather than his/her performance. This low-cost intervention increased the reading and writing achievements of all participating children—not least immigrant children with non-Western backgrounds and children with low-educated mothers. As expected, effects were even bigger for parents who before the intervention had a fixed mindset. PMID:27729533

  10. Reading skill and neural processing accuracy improvement after a 3-hour intervention in preschoolers with difficulties in reading-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovio, Riikka; Halttunen, Anu; Lyytinen, Heikki; Näätänen, Risto; Kujala, Teija

    2012-04-11

    This study aimed at determining whether an intervention game developed for strengthening phonological awareness has a remediating effect on reading skills and central auditory processing in 6-year-old preschool children with difficulties in reading-related skills. After a 3-hour training only, these children made a greater progress in reading-related skills than did their matched controls who did mathematical exercises following comparable training format. Furthermore, the results suggest that this brief intervention might be beneficial in modulating the neural basis of phonetic discrimination as an enhanced speech-elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) was seen in the intervention group, indicating improved cortical discrimination accuracy. Moreover, the amplitude increase of the vowel-elicited MMN significantly correlated with the improvement in some of the reading-skill related test scores. The results, albeit obtained with a relatively small sample, are encouraging, suggesting that reading-related skills can be improved even by a very short intervention and that the training effects are reflected in brain activity. However, studies with larger samples and different subgroups of children are needed to confirm the present results and to determine how children with different dyslexia subtypes benefit from the intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An obesity educational intervention for medical students addressing weight bias and communication skills using standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Zeiss, Dinah M; Feinglass, Joseph M; Yelen, Marsha

    2014-03-18

    In order to manage the increasing worldwide problem of obesity, medical students will need to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to assess and counsel patients with obesity. Few educational intervention studies have been conducted with medical students addressing stigma and communication skills with patients who are overweight or obese. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in students' attitudes and beliefs about obesity, and their confidence in communication skills after a structured educational intervention that included a clinical encounter with an overweight standardized patient (SP). First year medical students (n = 127, 47% female) enrolled in a communications unit were instructed to discuss the SPs' overweight status and probe about their perceptions of being overweight during an 8 minute encounter. Prior to the session, students were asked to read two articles on communication and stigma as background information. Reflections on the readings and their performance with the SP were conducted prior to and after the encounter when students met in small groups. A newly constructed 16 item questionnaire was completed before, immediately after and one year after the session. Scale analysis was performed based on a priori classification of item intent. Three scales emerged from the questionnaire: negative obesity stereotyping (7 items), empathy (3 items), and counseling confidence (3 items). There were small but significant immediate post-intervention improvements in stereotyping (p = .002) and empathy (p stereotyping reverted to the baseline mean. Percent of students with improved scale scores immediately and at one year follow up were as follows: stereotyping 53.1% and 57.8%; empathy 48.4% and 47.7%; and confidence 86.7% and 85.9%. A structured encounter with an overweight SP was associated with a significant short-term decrease in negative stereotyping, and longer-term increase in empathy and raised confidence among first year medical

  12. Effects of a music therapy group intervention on enhancing social skills in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, A Blythe

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that music therapy can improve social behaviors and joint attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, more research on the use of music therapy interventions for social skills is needed to determine the impact of group music therapy. To examine the effects of a music therapy group intervention on eye gaze, joint attention, and communication in children with ASD. Seventeen children, ages 6 to 9, with a diagnosis of ASD were randomly assigned to the music therapy group (MTG) or the no-music social skills group (SSG). Children participated in ten 50-minute group sessions over a period of 5 weeks. All group sessions were designed to target social skills. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and video analysis of sessions were used to evaluate changes in social behavior. There were significant between-group differences for joint attention with peers and eye gaze towards persons, with participants in the MTG demonstrating greater gains. There were no significant between-group differences for initiation of communication, response to communication, or social withdraw/behaviors. There was a significant interaction between time and group for SRS scores, with improvements for the MTG but not the SSG. Scores on the ATEC did not differ over time between the MTG and SSG. The results of this study support further research on the use of music therapy group interventions for social skills in children with ASD. Statistical results demonstrate initial support for the use of music therapy social groups to develop joint attention. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Life skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of a resilience-based intervention on psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS: Effects at 6- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward E; Fairchild, Amanda J; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Global literature suggests that resilience-based interventions may yield improvements in psychosocial well-being for vulnerable children, but limited data are available regarding the efficacy of such interventions among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. To evaluate initial efficacy of a multi-level resilience-based intervention among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in China in improving children's psychosocial well-being and resilience-related outcomes. Seven hundred-ninety children, 6-17 years of age, were recruited from rural China. Children were either AIDS orphans or were living with one or two parents infected with HIV/AIDS. Children and primary caregivers were randomly assigned to participate in a 4-arm trial to evaluate the Child-Caregiver-Advocacy Resilience (ChildCARE) intervention. This resilience-based psychosocial intervention provides programming at three levels (child, caregiver, community). Survey data were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months in order to examine efficacy of the child-only and child + caregiver arms in improving children's psychological resilience. Intervention groups displayed improvements in several resilience-related outcomes at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, including self-reported coping, hopefulness, emotional regulation, and self-control. The child-only intervention arm showed some fading of intervention effects by 12-months. Preliminary findings suggest that the ChildCARE intervention is efficacious in promoting psychosocial well-being of children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China. Targeting both children and caregivers for psychosocial intervention may be effective in improving children's resilience. Additional evaluation and modifications, including the inclusion of booster sessions, should be considered to further strengthen the program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Patient-Centred, Psychosocial Support Intervention for Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Care in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sudeepa; Elsey, Helen; King, Rebecca; Baral, Sushil C; Bhatta, Bharat Raj; Newell, James N

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a major threat to public health worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The current long (20 month) and arduous treatment regime uses powerful drugs with side-effects that include mental ill-health. It has a high loss-to-follow-up (25%) and higher case fatality and lower cure-rates than those with drug sensitive tuberculosis (TB). While some national TB programmes provide small financial allowances to patients, other aspects of psychosocial ill-health, including iatrogenic ones, are not routinely assessed or addressed. We aimed to develop an intervention to improve psycho-social well-being for MDR-TB patients in Nepal. To do this we conducted qualitative work with MDR-TB patients, health professionals and the National TB programme (NTP) in Nepal. We conducted semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, aged 21 to 68), four family members and three frontline health workers. In addition, three focus groups were held with MDR-TB patients and three with their family members. We conducted a series of meetings and workshops with key stakeholders to design the intervention, working closely with the NTP to enable government ownership. Our findings highlight the negative impacts of MDR-TB treatment on mental health, with greater impacts felt among those with limited social and financial support, predominantly married women. Michie et al's (2011) framework for behaviour change proved helpful in identifying corresponding practice- and policy-level changes. The findings from this study emphasise the need for tailored psycho-social support. Recent work on simple psychological support packages for the general population can usefully be adapted for use with people with MDR-TB.

  16. A pilot home-based early intervention study to improve the mathematical skills of young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Şükran Öz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Children who come from low socioeconomic backgrounds and children with learning disabilities are found to be at risk for future failure in mathematics. Even though the mathematics scores increases over time the achievement gap remains between the various ethnic and socioeconomic groups. One way to prevent this failure is to identify the students who are at risk and provide them with effective early intervention. This study reports the results of a pilot early mathematics intervention study focusing on two Turkish families in the US. In this single-subject research, a multiple probe technique was used in order to examine the impact of the SRA DLM Math Pre-K CD-ROM in combination with parent scaffolding on young children’s number sense skills. Two parent-child dyads participated in this study. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with the parents before and after the intervention. The child participants received 3 Mathematical Curriculum Based Measure (CBM every week to monitor their progress. Building Blocks Assessment was used to identify whether children were able to generalize the number sense skills developed during work sessions in different settings. This measure was administered both before and after the intervention.This study demonstrated that children’s and parents’ use of a software program where they work collaboratively at home resulted in increased number sense skills. These results were interpreted in the context of socio-cultural theory. The parents displayed different strategies during the mathematics work sessions, reflecting their own feelings about mathematics and technology.

  17. Do psychosocial sleep interventions improve infant sleep or maternal mood in the postnatal period? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Liora; Sharpe, Louise; Miller, Christopher B; Bartlett, Delwyn J

    2016-10-01

    Sleep complaints are common amongst mothers of infants and insufficient, inefficient or fragmented sleep is associated with postnatal depression. The aim of this review is to determine whether psychosocial sleep-focused interventions offered in the perinatal period improve infant sleep or maternal mood. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and CINAHL with no date restriction. We reviewed 1097 articles, resulting in nine papers (n = 1,656) that fit the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the analyses. The primary outcome was infant sleep, defined as maternal reports of infant nocturnal total sleep time and number of night-time wakes. The secondary outcome was maternal mood. The meta-analysis indicated improvements in reported infant nocturnal total sleep time (Hedge's g = 0.204, p improvements (Hedge's g = 0.152, p = 0.014), however, this could have been influenced by publication bias. Psychosocial sleep interventions appear to impact the amount of sleep that a mother reports her baby to have, although the infants continue to wake as frequently. More research is needed to confirm whether sleep-related improvements can translate into improvements in maternal mood.

  18. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  19. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Skills Groups at School: A Randomized Trial Comparing Intervention Approach and Peer Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…

  20. Desired attributes and skills of program managers in translation of evidence-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rhonda; Woodell, Carol; McCarville, Erin; Damitz, Maureen; Banks, Tinesha; Montoya, Jorge; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Peretz, Patricia; Lara, Marielena

    2011-11-01

    Successful chronic disease project management, especially of multiyear initiatives using evidence-based interventions (EBIs), is of great importance to funders, health care decision makers, and researchers, particularly in light of limited funding. However, a gap in knowledge may exist regarding which attributes and skills are most desirable in a program manager to help him or her ensure successful implementation of EBIs. Although some literature examines the dynamics contributing to the success of community coalitions, public health leadership, and community health education, there is minimal literature exploring the significance of a program manager's role in the conceptualization, implementation, and sustainability of initiatives to improve patient and community health. The authors present their experiences as participants in a large-scale asthma initiative implemented in priority communities, as well as results of a survey distributed among all personnel of the program sites. The survey aimed to assess the key skills and attributes, in addition to contextual factors, that contribute to the strength of a program manager overseeing EBIs in asthma initiatives. The results suggest that certain attributes and skills are desirable in recruiting and hiring of a program manager, especially when augmented by ongoing skill-building training, and can help ensure program and research success.

  1. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G. R.; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P.; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K.; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges. PMID:23869293

  2. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G R; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K M

    2013-05-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges.

  3. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome, Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1 verbal and nonverbal communication, (2 reciprocal social interaction and (3 repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions: * What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? * What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? * What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? * Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results: In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT, Applied behavioural analysis (ABA. Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and

  4. A three-year follow-up on the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their caregivers: the multicentre, rater-blinded, randomized Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, K.T.T.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the long-term efficacy at the 36-month follow-up of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme lasting 8-12 months for community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater-blinded trial....... SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics in five Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 home-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers (dyads). INTERVENTIONS: Dyads were randomised to receive intervention during the first year after diagnosis. Both intervention and control...... of Life Scale for Alzheimer's disease (QoL-AD), Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, Alzheimer's disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale, all-cause mortality and nursing home placement. RESULTS: At a 36-month follow-up, 2 years after the completion of the Danish Alzheimer...

  5. Efficacy of social skill training in patient with chronic schizophrenia: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh R Koujalgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with schizophrenia often have social skills deficits. Social skill training (SST is a structured learning oriented approach for patient with schizophrenia. Effectiveness of SST improves communication, which achieves patient′s goals in social situations. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of SST in patient with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 65 patients with chronic schizophrenia participated in the study, 34 in experimental and 31 as a control group. This was cross-sectional interventional study. The patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (all types disorders using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10, classification of mental and behavioral disorders, ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for research criteria. Patient with more than 2 years duration of illness were included in the study groups. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to rule out predominant positive symptoms. Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and social adaptive functioning evaluation (SAFE were used to measure the efficacy of SST in schizophrenia patient. All participants were examined on SANS, and SAFE on pre- and post-test design. Data were analyzed using Statistical pakage for social sciences SPSS 17 version. P < 0.005 was considered as statistically significance. Results: The pre-and post-intervention score of SAFE of the control group did not show significant differences (P = 0.053. There was a significant difference between the pre- and post-intervention SAFE scores in the experimental group were noted (P < 0.002. The result indicated no significant decrease in SANS score in the experimental group compared to the control group (P = 0.072. However, results indicated significant improvement in alogia, apathy, and anhedonia (P = 0.007, P = 0.030, P = 0.025. Conclusion: SST is effective in improving social skills of patients with schizophrenia. SST is effective in alogia, apathy

  6. Reading intervention with a growth mindset approach improves children’s skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that parents who believe their child’s abilities are fixed engage with their child in unconstructive, performance-oriented ways. We show that children of parents with such “fixed mindsets” have lower reading skills, even after controlling for the child’s previous...... by praising his/her effort rather than his/her performance. This low-cost intervention increased the reading and writing achievements of all participating children—not least immigrant children with non-Western backgrounds and children with low-educated mothers. As expected, effects were even bigger...

  7. Problem coping skills, psychosocial adversities and mental health problems in children and adolescents as predictors of criminal outcomes in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs.

  8. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  9. A Play and Language Intervention for Two-Year-Old Children: Implications for Improving Play Skills and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Julie; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette; Friehe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention for 2-year-old children to enhance play and language skills. The intervention was implemented over a 4-week period and included components of reading, modeling, and positive reinforcement of language and play. Specifically, children were read a story and played with a matching toy set.…

  10. Use of Computer-Based Interventions to Teach Communication Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; Lang, Russell; Mulloy, Austin; Franco, Jessica; O'Reilly, Mark; Didden, Robert; Lancioni, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies involving the use of computer-based interventions (CBI) to teach communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review evaluates intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and describes software and system requirements for each…

  11. Use of Computer-Based Interventions to Improve Literacy Skills in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; El Zein, Farah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies investigating computer-based interventions (CBI) to improve literacy skills (e.g., reading, writing, and vocabulary) in students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review synthesizes intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and describes software…

  12. Use of computer-based interventions to teach communication skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdoss, S.; Lang, R.; Mulloy, A.; Franco, J.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies involving the use of computer-based interventions (CBI) to teach communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review evaluates intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and desc

  13. Use of computer-based interventions to improve literacy skills in students with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdoss, S.; Mulloy, A.; Lang, R.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; El Zein, F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies investigating computer-based interventions (CBI) to improve literacy skills (e.g., reading, writing, and vocabulary) in students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review synthesizes intervention outcomes, appraises th

  14. Behaviorally Based Interventions for Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Children with ASD in Inclusive Settings: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Síglia Pimentel Höher; Rispoli, Mandy; Ganz, Jennifer; Hong, Ee Rea; Davis, Heather; Mason, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Behaviorally based interventions have been demonstrated to be effective to teach social interaction skills for children with autism spectrum disorders in general education. However, the overall and moderating effects of these interventions have not been previously investigated in inclusive settings. The goal of this study was to investigate the…

  15. The Effectiveness of Using a Social Story Intervention to Improve Social Interaction Skills of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al zyoudi, Mohammed; Al Murhairi, Oshua; Sartaiwi, AbedAlziz; Olimat, Enas; Al zyoudi, Abedsalm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a social story intervention to improve social interaction skills in three students with autism aged between 7-8 years. A multiple-baseline-across participants design was used. To achieve the purpose of the study, the social stories were implemented. The intervention included reading…

  16. Evaluation of an intervention on socio cultural communication skills of international nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Shen, Jay; Bolstad, Anne L; Covelli, Margaret; Torpey, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    International nurses face a myriad of challenges in their transition, adaptation, and integration into the U.S. health care environment. This pilot intervention study examined socio-cultural competence regarding communication in a sample of international nurses working in two community hospitals in southern Nevada. Significant improvement in communication behaviors of the sampled international nurses with regard to socio-cultural skills of communication after the workshop intervention were not found. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in standardized patient comments for most items on the checklist. However, the sampled international nurses demonstrated some highly desirable qualities such as being very personable, caring, and compassion that appeared to lay a foundation for an effective nurse-patient relationship.

  17. Social skills training as nursing intervention to improve the social skills and self-esteem of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Min; Ahn, Sukhee; Byun, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Chul-Kweon

    2007-12-01

    The effects of social skills training on the social skills and self-esteem of 66 patients with chronic schizophrenia were evaluated using the basic training and problem-solving training models. The experimental group received 16 group training sessions, and the control group received routine nursing care. The training program consisted of two parts: conversational skills and assertiveness skills. Data were collected at pretreatment and posttreatment. The conversational, interpersonal relationship, and assertiveness skills, and self-esteem of the experimental group showed significant improvement, whereas problem-solving skills did not improve. The results indicate that training in social skills is effective for improving the social skills and self-esteem of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

  18. Training Interventions Needed For Developing Black Micro-Entrepreneurial Skills In The Informal Sector: A Qualitative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Smith

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the results of a qualitative study, which investigates the nature of training interventions needed for developing black micro entrepreneurial skills in the informal sector. As this is a qualitative study, an empirical survey was conducted by means of a series of in-depth interviews with ten black micro entrepreneurs. A control group was used to verify the results of the initial sample selected. Four main types of entrepreneurial skills were identified, namely personal, technical, business operations and management skills. A model is developed indicating which training interventions and methods could be used to upgrade black micro entrepreneurial skills. General guidelines are also provided as to how training could be used to facilitate the acquisition of these microentrepreneurial skills.

  19. Effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention on improving thehand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chong; Hu, Junfeng; Tao, Maoxuan; Li, Yubo; Chai, Yan; Ning, Yan; Li, Li; Xiao, Qin

    2016-05-09

    This study explores the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention featuring a combination of tailored print and video (TPV) and peer education on improving the hand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers in the capital city of China. In the control group, supportive measures in both policy and environment were adopted. In addition, the intervention group received TPV and peer education. A total of 1496 participants were involved in the baseline and evaluation survey. The results showed that the participants experienced significant changes in developing health behaviors and skills as a whole after the intervention. The intervention effectiveness of hand-washing skills on vendors was relatively small compared with those on restaurant waiters and waitresses (44.3% and 87.2%, respectively). About 81.2 percent of the participants always forgot to carefully wash their thumbs and 81.8 percent failed to properly clean the back of their hands. The multifaceted intervention of this study has helped in improving the hand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers. Key steps should be strengthened to enhance the intervention effect. Moreover, the elderly should be given more attention with regards to hand-washing skills.

  20. Psychosocial intervention, as a contribution to local human development within Medellin’s public scope. Case study: project aps - “buenvivir” (good living into a family. sponsor: City hall of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about a research held on the psychosocial intervention offered from social projects such as educational formative spaces. A critical analysis is made by means of a government project conducted by the local administration of the city of Medellin known as “APS Buenvivir en Familia, 2011”, compiled by the Social Welfare Town Council Office, in association with the Municipality’s Health Department. Its purpose was to examine the logic and approach of psychosocial intervention as an input to human development. It was carried out through a qualitative focusing, taking in consideration the following categories: The psychosocial intervention has a definite impact on local human development, psychosocial praxis from the point of view of a public action strategy, community involvement taken as a true political act. The results showed that the psychosocial as a public exercise makes a contribution to local human development starting from the social involvement of communities and, in its everyday doing, presents structural and formal contradictions between the way they are designed and how the projects are planned and implemented among the people. 

  1. The Comparison of Educational Intervention Effect Using BASNEF and Classic Models on Improving Assertion Skill Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazavehei, Smm; Sharifirad, Ghr; Kargar, M

    2008-06-28

    To compare the effectiveness of BASNEF and Classic educational models to improve the assertion skill level of high school boy students. The 60 high school male students from Shiraz City, Fars Province Iran, were participated in this study. They were randomly divided in two groups (groups A and B). The group A attended in designed educational planning based on BASNEF model and group B attended in classic educational program. The both groups had participated in six session educational activity (2 hours each session) during the four weeks. The data collected using questionnaire before and after one-month intervention. The mean score of knowledge, attitude, enabling factors, social norms, and Rathus Assertion Test were not significant statistically between two groups before and after intervention. However, the mean scores of all mentioned variables in group A and only knowledge and assertion variables in group B changed significantly after intervention. In addition, the comparison of the mean scores and the means of scores difference of all variables changed significantly between two groups after intervention. Performing BASNEF educational model, in accordance with its main parts (knowledge, attitude, social norms, and enabling factors) is more effective than performing classic educational model to improve high school boy students' assertion.

  2. Long-term outcome of social skills intervention based on interactive LEGO play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legoff, Daniel B; Sherman, Michael

    2006-07-01

    LEGO building materials have been adapted as a therapeutic modality for increasing motivation to participate in social skills intervention, and providing a medium through which children with social and communication handicaps can effectively interact. A 3 year retrospective study of long-term outcome for autistic spectrum children participating in LEGO therapy (N = 60) compared Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale socialization domain (VABS-SD) and Gilliam Autism Rating Scale social interaction subscale (GARS-SI) scores preand post-treatment with a matched comparison sample (N = 57) who received comparable non-LEGO therapy. Although both groups made significant gains on the two outcome measures, LEGO participants improved significantly more than the comparison subjects. Diagnosis and pre-treatment full-scale IQ scores did not predict outcome scores; however, Vineland adaptive behavior composite, Vineland communication domain, and verbal IQ all predicted outcome on the VABS-SD, especially for the LEGO therapy group. Results are discussed in terms of implications for methods of social skills intervention for autistic spectrum disorders.

  3. Modeling Alphabet Skills as Instructive Feedback Within a Phonological Awareness Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Arnold; Soto, Xigrid; Goldstein, Howard

    2017-08-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of an instructive feedback strategy for modeling letter names and sounds during presentation of positive feedback within a small-group phonological awareness intervention for preschoolers. Two experiments were conducted using multiple-baseline designs across children and behaviors. Letter name and sound identification and performance on a phonological awareness fluency measure served as the primary outcome variables. Six children completed Experiment 1. A progressive time delay was added to instructive feedback to elicit a response from the 9 children in the second experiment. In the first experiment, 6 children demonstrated gains on phonological awareness but not alphabet knowledge. With the addition of progressive time delay in the second experiment, all 9 children demonstrated gains on letter name and sound identification as well as phonological awareness skills. Progressive time delay to prompt children's responses appears to bolster the effects of instructive feedback as an efficient strategy for modeling alphabet skills within a broader early literacy curriculum. Modeling alphabet skills did not detract from, and may have enhanced, phonological awareness instruction for preschoolers.

  4. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Maryann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%; 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were fully completed (where all required risk content was covered. Ninety-three percent of the subsample of intervention women had a positive view of their

  5. Early psychosocial intervention does not delay institutionalization in persons with mild Alzheimer disease and has impact on neither disease progression nor caregivers' well-being: ALSOVA 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Anne M; Hallikainen, Ilona; Välimäki, Tarja; Hongisto, Kristiina; Hiltunen, Asta; Karppi, Pertti; Sivenius, Juhani; Soininen, Hilkka; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-03-01

    Early diagnosis, initiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy and programs that support care of persons with AD at home are recommended. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of early psychosocial intervention on delaying the institutionalization of persons with AD. We also assessed the influence of intervention on AD progression, behavioral symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in persons with AD and caregivers. Kuopio ALSOVA study, a prospective, randomized intervention study with a 3-year follow-up, was carried out at memory clinics. Home-dwelling persons with very mild or mild AD (n = 236) and AD-targeted therapy and their family caregivers (n = 236) were randomized to the intervention or control group (1:2). Psychosocial intervention including education, counseling, and social support was given during the first 2 years (16 days). The primary outcome was the cumulative risk (controlled for death) of institutionalization over 36 months. Secondary outcomes were adjusted mean changes from baseline in disease severity, cognition, daily activities, behavior, and HRQoL for persons with AD; and change in psychological distress, depression, and HRQoL for caregivers. No differences were found in nursing home placement after the 36-month follow-up between intervention and control groups. No beneficial effects of the intervention were found on the secondary outcomes. The psychosocial intervention did not delay nursing home placement in persons with AD and had no effect on patient well-being, disease progression, or AD-related symptoms or caregiver well-being. Instead of automatically providing psychosocial intervention courses, individualized support programs may be more effective. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Effect of a Social Stories Intervention on the Social Skills of Male Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Golzari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a social stories intervention on the social skills of male students with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The sample included 30 male students with ASD who were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 15 or a control group (n = 15. The social skills of both groups were assessed pre- and post-test using Stone and colleagues’ Social Skills Scale (which included subscales for understanding/perspective-taking, initiating interactions, responding to interactions, and maintaining interactions. The experimental group participated in 16 sessions of social stories training, while the control group did not. Overall, the results showed that the social stories intervention improved the social skills of the children with ASD in the experimental group compared with the control group. The effects of the social stories intervention were mostly evident in the subscales for understanding/perspective-taking, initiating interactions, and maintaining interactions with others. The social stories intervention had no effect on the subscale assessing ability to respond to others. The study findings emphasize the effectiveness of the social stories intervention in improving the social skills of children with ASD, which may be used by teachers, parents, or professionals who work with such children.

  7. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these

  8. The Need for Psychosocial Interventions to Facilitate the Transition to Extended-Release Naltrexone (XR-NTX) Treatment for Opioid Dependence: A Concise Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Susan E.; Rounsaville, Dan; Hoskinson, Randall; Park, Tae Woo; Ames, Evan G.; Neirinckx, Victor D.; Friedmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given the increase of opioid dependence and opioid-related morbidity and mortality, improving treatment options for individuals with opioid dependence warrants increased attention. This article provides a concise review of work in this area. Remission from opioid dependence can be very difficult to sustain, particularly in the absence of opioid replacement or opioid antagonist therapy. For those who wish to transition from opioid use or opioid replacement therapy to opioid antagonist therapy, a significant challenge can be the period of withdrawal symptoms that must be endured prior to the initiation of opioid antagonist therapy. Studies that have incorporated psychosocial interventions into detoxification protocols have found that they can result in improved treatment outcomes. Interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy have shown promise in the treatment of clinical disorders that present with symptoms similar to those of opioid withdrawal and have been found to positively impact outcomes among those tapering from methadone. However, the use of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based intervention has yet to be studied among opioid-dependent patients transitioning to XR-NTX, and its value to those transitioning to XR-NTX is currently unknown. PMID:27512336

  9. RAN as a predictor of reading skills, and vice versa: results from a randomised reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-07-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of educational interventions designed to improve medication administration skills and safety of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Marja; Voutilainen, Ari; Turunen, Elina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the nature, quality and effectiveness of educational interventions designed to increase the medication administration skills and safety of registered nurses working in hospitals. A systematic review with meta-analysis. Intervention studies designed to increase the medication administration skills and safety of nurses, indexed in one or more databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, PsycInfo, or Medic), and published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2000 and April 2015. The nature of the interventions was evaluated by narrative analysis, the quality of studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practise Project Quality Assessment Tool and the effectiveness of the interventions was ascertained by calculating effect sizes and conducting a meta-analysis. A total of 755 studies were identified and 14 intervention studies were reviewed. Interventions differed by their nature, including traditional classroom training, simulation, e-learning, slide show presentations, interactive CD-ROM programme, and the use of posters and pamphlets. All interventions appeared to improve medication administration safety and skills based on original p-values. Only five studies reached strong (n=1) or moderate (n=4) quality ratings and one of them had to be omitted from the meta-analysis due unclear measures of dispersion. The meta-analysis favoured the interventions, the pooled effect size (Hedges' g) was large, 1.06. The most effective interventions were a blended learning programme including e-learning and a 60-min PowerPoint presentation. The least effective educational intervention, an interactive internet-based e-learning course, was reported in the study that achieved the only strong quality rating. It is challenging to recommend any specific intervention, because all educational interventions seem to have a positive effect, although the size of the effect greatly varies. In the future, studies sharing similar contents and

  11. The Effect of a Social Stories Intervention on the Social Skills of Male Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Golzari; Ghorban Hemati Alamdarloo; Shahram Moradi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a social stories intervention on the social skills of male students with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample included 30 male students with ASD who were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). The social skills of both groups were assessed pre- and post-test using Stone and co...

  12. Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Budney

    2010-05-01

    . This article provides a review of the research evaluating potential treatments for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: A search of publication databases identified research studies and reviews of the scientific literature on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for cannabis use disorders. RESULTS: For adults, behaviorally-based interventions engender significant positive effects on abstinence and reductions in cannabis use. With adolescents, similar treatments and family-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy. Across studies, response rates appear modest even with the most potent psychosocial treatments. Evaluations of pharmacological approaches to cannabis use disorders have yet to provide clinical efficacy data for any specific medication. Agonist and antagonist approaches appear to offer the most promise. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of the cannabinoid system provide optimism that the synthesis of compounds that alter CB1 receptor site functioning may produce promising medications. CONCLUSION: Clinical research has identified effective psychosocial treatments, but has yet to yield effective pharmacotherapies. Much work remains to enhance the potency of and access to interventions for those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders.

  13. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nrupa Jani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results: For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65 and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81 from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47, knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51 and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97. For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94, knowledge of a place to test

  14. Improving early language and literacy skills: differential effects of an oral language versus a phonology with reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J; Duff, Fiona J; Fieldsend, Elizabeth; Carroll, Julia M; Miles, Jeremy; Götz, Kristina; Hulme, Charles

    2008-04-01

    This study compares the efficacy of two school-based intervention programmes (Phonology with Reading (P + R) and Oral Language (OL)) for children with poor oral language at school entry. Following screening of 960 children, 152 children (mean age 4;09) were selected from 19 schools on the basis of poor vocabulary and verbal reasoning skills and randomly allocated to either the P + R programme or the OL programme. Both groups of children received 20 weeks of daily intervention alternating between small group and individual sessions, delivered by trained teaching assistants. Children in the P + R group received training in letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness and book level reading skills. Children in the OL group received instruction in vocabulary, comprehension, inference generation and narrative skills. The children's progress was monitored at four time points: pre-, mid- and post-intervention, and after a 5-month delay, using measures of literacy, language and phonological awareness. The data are clustered (children within schools) and robust confidence intervals are reported. At the end of the 20-week intervention programme, children in the P + R group showed an advantage over the OL group on literacy and phonological measures, while children in the OL group showed an advantage over the P + R group on measures of vocabulary and grammatical skills. These gains were maintained over a 5-month period. Intervention programmes designed to develop oral language skills can be delivered successfully by trained teaching assistants to children at school entry. Training using P + R fostered decoding ability whereas the OL programme improved vocabulary and grammatical skills that are foundations for reading comprehension. However, at the end of the intervention, more than 50% of at-risk children remain in need of literacy support.

  15. Brief Report: Does Gender Matter in Intervention for ASD? Examining the Impact of the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention on Social Behavior among Females with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J.; Schiltz, Hillary; Haendel, Angela; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Carson, Audrey M.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    A paucity of research has been conducted to examine the effect of social skills intervention on females with ASD. Females with ASD may have more difficulty developing meaningful friendships than males, as the social climate can be more complex (Archer, Coyne, "Personality and Social Psychology Review" 9(3):212-230, 2005). This study…

  16. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30 adolescents with ASD and anxiety symptoms of moderate or greater severity. The treatment was acceptable to families, subject adherence was high, and therapist fidelity was high. A 16% improvement in ASD social impairment (within-group effect size = 1.18) was observed on a parent-reported scale. Although anxiety symptoms declined by 26%, the change was not statistically significant. These findings suggest MASSI is a feasible treatment program and further evaluation is warranted. PMID:22735897

  18. Building vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills in children with specific language impairment through hybrid language intervention: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a hybrid language intervention approach that targets vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills within the context of oral narrative, storybook reading, and drill-based games. This study also reports on two novel, experimental assessments that were developed to expand options for measuring changes in lexical skills in children. Seventeen children with specific language impairment participated in a pilot within-group evaluation of a hybrid intervention programme. The children's performance at pre- and post-intervention was compared on a range of clinical and experimental assessment measures targeting both spoken language and phonological awareness skills. Each child received intervention for six one-hour sessions scheduled on a weekly basis. Intervention sessions focused on training phonological awareness skills as well as lexical-semantic features of words within the context of oral and storybook narrative and drill-based games. The children significantly improved on clinical measures of phonological awareness, spoken vocabulary and oral narrative. Lexical-semantic and sublexical vocabulary knowledge also significantly improved on the experimental measures used in the study. The results of this feasibility study suggest that a larger scale experimental trial of an integrated spoken language and emergent literacy intervention approach for preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment is warranted.

  19. The Effects of Severe Psychosocial Deprivation and Foster Care Intervention on Cognitive Development at 8 Years of Age: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nathan A.; Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous reports from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project suggested that children removed from institutions and placed into intervention displayed gains in IQ relative to children randomized to remain in institutional care. Method: The current report presents data from the 8-year follow-up of these children. One hundred and three…

  20. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  1. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Current practices and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Ori; Caponigro, Janelle M.; Kring, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with poor functioning and quality of life, the treatment of negative symptoms is a high priority for intervention development. However, current psychosocial treatments primarily focus on the reduction of positive symptoms with comparatively few studies investigating the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms. In this article, we review and evaluate the existing literature on three categories of psychosocial treatments – cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), social skills training (SST), and combined treatment interventions – and their impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Of the interventions reviewed, CBT and SST appear to have the most empirical support, with some evidence suggesting that CBT is associated with maintenance of negative symptom improvement beyond six months after treatment. It remains unclear if a combined treatment approach provides improvements above and beyond those associated with each individual treatment modality. Although psychosocial treatments show promise for the treatment of negative symptoms, there are many unanswered questions about how best to intervene. We conclude with a general discussion of these unanswered questions, future directions and methodological considerations, and suggestions for the further development of negative symptom interventions. PMID:23988452

  2. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: current practices and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Ori; Caponigro, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with poor functioning and quality of life, the treatment of negative symptoms is a high priority for intervention development. However, current psychosocial treatments primarily focus on the reduction of positive symptoms with comparatively few studies investigating the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms. In this article, we review and evaluate the existing literature on three categories of psychosocial treatments--cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), social skills training (SST), and combined treatment interventions--and their impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Of the interventions reviewed, CBT and SST appear to have the most empirical support, with some evidence suggesting that CBT is associated with maintenance of negative symptom improvement beyond six months after treatment. It remains unclear if a combined treatment approach provides improvements above and beyond those associated with each individual treatment modality. Although psychosocial treatments show promise for the treatment of negative symptoms, there are many unanswered questions about how best to intervene. We conclude with a general discussion of these unanswered questions, future directions and methodological considerations, and suggestions for the further development of negative symptom interventions.

  3. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality.

  4. Effects of a non-instructional prosocial intervention program on children’s metacognition skills and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umino, Ayumi; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    (planning), helped each other (acting) and evaluated their own performance (self-evaluation). Overall results showed that children’s overall quality of life and self-esteem were significantly higher after intervention compared to before. No changes on metacognitive skills were found; however, evaluating...... girls and boys independently, boys scored significantly higher on evaluation of metacognitive awareness after the intervention compared to before. The importance of supporting student́s prosocial experience and self-evaluation at school are discussed....

  5. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. No effect on survival of home psychosocial intervention in a randomized study of Danish colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Boesen, Sidsel H;

    2009-01-01

    for measurement of immune parameters. Survival was assessed 6.5-9.5 years after the first operation.Results: A total of 148 patients died during follow-up. The intervention was not significantly associated with survival (p=0.68) after adjustment for Dukes' stage, radicality of the operation, age, sex, family...... social class and marital status. Likewise, no significant interactions were found between group and these covariates (all p>/=0.08). In the substudy of the possible effect of the intervention on immune parameters, there were no differences between the two groups with respect to lymphocyte proliferation...

  7. The need for a systematic approach to disaster psychosocial response: a suggested competency framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robin S; Danford, Taryn

    2014-04-01

    Competency models attempt to define what makes expert performers "experts." Successful disaster psychosocial planning and the institutionalizing of psychosocial response within emergency management require clearly-defined skill sets. This necessitates anticipating both the short- and long-term psychosocial implications of a disaster or health emergency (ie, pandemic) by developing effective and sustained working relationships among psychosocial providers, programs, and other planning partners. The following article outlines recommended competencies for psychosocial responders to enable communities and organizations to prepare for and effectively manage a disaster response. Competency-based models are founded on observable performance or behavioral indicators, attitudes, traits, or personalities related to effective performance in a specific role or job. After analyzing the literature regarding competency-based frameworks, a proposed competency framework that details 13 competency domains is suggested. Each domain describes a series of competencies and suggests behavioral indicators for each competency and, where relevant, associated training expectations. These domains have been organized under three distinct categories or types of competencies: general competency domains; disaster psychosocial intervention competency domains; and disaster psychosocial program leadership and coordination competency domains. Competencies do not replace job descriptions nor should they be confused with performance assessments. What they can do is update and revise job descriptions; orient existing and new employees to their disaster/emergency roles and responsibilities; target training needs; provide the basis for ongoing self-assessment by agencies and individuals as they evaluate their readiness to respond; and provide a job- or role-relevant basis for performance appraisal dimensions or standards and review discussions. Using a modular approach to psychosocial planning, service

  8. A randomized control intervention trial to improve social skills and quality of life in pediatric brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Sung, Lillian; Bartels, Ute; Schulte, Fiona; Chung, Joanna; Cataudella, Danielle; Hancock, Kelly; Janzen, Laura; Saleh, Amani; Strother, Douglas; Downie, Andrea; Zelcer, Shayna; Hukin, Juliette; McConnell, Dina

    2017-01-26

    To determine if a group social skills intervention program improves social competence and quality of life (QOL) in pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS). We conducted a randomized control trial in which PBTS (8-16 years old, off therapy for over 3 months) were allocated to receive social skills training (eg, cooperation, assertion, using social cognitive problem solving strategies, role playing, games, and arts and crafts) in 8 weekly 2-hour sessions, or an attention placebo control (games and arts and crafts only). Outcomes were self-reported, proxy-reported (caregiver), and teacher-reported using the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), to measure social competence, and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL4.0, generic) to measure QOL at baseline, after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. At baseline, SSRS were stratified into low and high scores and included as a covariate in the analysis. Compared to controls (n = 48), PBTS in the intervention group (n = 43) reported significantly better total and empathy SSRS scores, with improvements persisting at follow-up. The PBTS in the intervention group who had low scores at baseline reported the greatest improvements. Proxy and teacher reports showed no intervention effect. Participating in group social skills intervention can improve self-reported social competence that persisted to follow up. The PBTS should be given the opportunity to participate in social skills groups to improve social competence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport.

  10. Assessing Change in Psychosocial Functioning of Incarcerated Girls with a Substance Use Disorder: Gender Sensitive Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia L.; Jackson, Mary S.; Kirk, Raymond; Pharr, O. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the effectiveness of a female gender-specific substance abuse treatment intervention (Holistic Enrichment for At-Risk Teens, or HEART) in improving problems related to personal and social functioning. A quasi-experimental, 2-group pretest and posttest repeated measures design was used to…

  11. Psychosocial interventions for perinatal common mental disorders delivered by providers who are not mental health specialists in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Clarke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs are a major cause of disability among women. Psychosocial interventions are one approach to reduce the burden of PCMDs. Working with care providers who are not mental health specialists, in the community or in antenatal health care facilities, can expand access to these interventions in low-resource settings. We assessed effects of such interventions compared to usual perinatal care, as well as effects of interventions based on intervention type, delivery method, and timing.We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. We searched databases including Embase and the Global Health Library (up to 7 July 2013 for randomized and non-randomized trials of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist mental health care providers in community settings and antenatal health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries. We pooled outcomes from ten trials for 18,738 participants. Interventions led to an overall reduction in PCMDs compared to usual care when using continuous data for PCMD symptomatology (effect size [ES] -0.34; 95% CI -0.53, -0.16 but not binary categorizations for presence or absence of PCMDs (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.35, 1.080 [corrected]. We found a significantly larger ES for psychological interventions (three studies; ES -0.46; 95% CI -0.58, -0.33 than for health promotion interventions (seven studies; ES -0.15; 95% CI -0.27, -0.02. Both individual (five studies; ES -0.18; 95% CI -0.34, -0.01 and group (three studies; ES -0.48; 95% CI -0.85, -0.11 interventions were effective compared to usual care, though delivery method was not associated with ES (meta-regression β coefficient -0.11; 95% CI -0.36, 0.14. Combined group and individual interventions (based on two studies had no benefit compared to usual care, nor did interventions restricted to pregnancy (three studies. Intervention timing was not associated with ES (β 0.16; 95% CI -0.16, 0.49. The small number

  12. Exploring Preschoolers' Engagement and Perceived Physical Competence in an Autonomy-Based Object Control Skill Intervention: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel; Robinson, Leah; Webster, E. Kipling; Barber, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe children's engagement during two (high and low) autonomy-based climates. Twenty-five preschool children participated in a nine-week object control skill intervention. Children completed the object control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition and the perceived physical competence…

  13. Impact of Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Interventions on Birth with a Skilled Attendant : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Roggeveen, Yadira; Shields, Laura; van Elteren, Marianne; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Portela, Anayda

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased preparedness for birth and complications is an essential part of antenatal care and has the potential to increase birth with a skilled attendant. We conducted a systematic review of studies to assess the effect of birth preparedness and complication readiness interventions on

  14. WWW.com: A Brief Intervention to Bolster a 5th Grader's Regrouping Skills in Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Matthew; Harrison, Gina L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief math intervention using cognitive behaviour instruction (CBI) supplemented by a mnemonic cue system for a 5th grade student with math computation and fluency difficulties. Regrouping operations in addition and subtraction were the targeted skills. Curriculum-based measurements were conducted at the end…

  15. The Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Training Intervention on Pre-Reading Skills of Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate the individual speech sounds that make up connected speech. Little information is reported on the acquisition of phonological awareness in special populations. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training intervention on pre-reading skills of…

  16. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  17. Qualitative Evaluation of the Design Variables of a Teaching Intervention to Expose Accounting Students to Pervasive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviers, Herman Albertus

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to evaluate the design variables of a newly developed teaching intervention, "The Amazing Tax Race". It comprises a race against time in which accounting students participate within teams in multiple tax-related activities so that they are exposed to pervasive skills. The findings provide…

  18. A Multi-Component Social Skills Intervention for Children with Asperger Syndrome: The Junior Detective Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Renae; Sofronoff, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a new multi-component social skills intervention for children with Asperger syndrome (AS): The Junior Detective Training Program. This 7-week program included a computer game, small group sessions, parent training sessions and teacher handouts. Method: Forty-nine children with AS were…

  19. Impact of Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Interventions on Birth with a Skilled Attendant : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Roggeveen, Yadira; Shields, Laura; van Elteren, Marianne; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Portela, Anayda

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased preparedness for birth and complications is an essential part of antenatal care and has the potential to increase birth with a skilled attendant. We conducted a systematic review of studies to assess the effect of birth preparedness and complication readiness interventions on in

  20. Reinventing the Reel: An Innovative Approach to Resident Skill-Building in Motivational Interviewing for Brief Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bonnie; Clark, Denice Crowe; Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Lyme, Alan; Johnson, J. Aaron; Chhabria, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the skills of primary care residents in addressing substance misuse, residency screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs increasingly offer motivational interviewing (MI) training, but seldom include feedback and coaching. This innovative 2-round "Virginia Reel" approach, supplementing 3 hours of basic MI…

  1. 心理社会干预对首发老年抑郁症患者1年结局的影响%Effects of psychosocial intervention on one-year outcome of the first fall geriatric depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘苗; 张三强; 王长虹; 李玉凤; 马振武; 于洪岩; 李欣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of antidepressants alone versus combination with psychosocial intervention on one-year outcome of the first fall geriatric depression. Methods Two hundred and eighty first fall geriatric depression patients were randomly assigned to receive medication treatment alone(140 cases) or medication combined psychosocial intervention (140 cases) for twelve months.The psychosocial intervention consisted of psycho-education,family intervention,skills training and cognitive-behavioral therapy.The main outcome measures were the rates of discontinuation due to any cause, relapse or re-hospitalization.Secondary outcomes were assessed by the insight and treatment attitudes questionnaire(ITAQ), medical outcome study short-form 36-time questionnaire(SF-36), global assessment scale(GAS) and social treatment due to any cause was 22.14% in combined treatment group and 45.71% in medication treatment alone group, and the difference between two groups was significant(P<0.01).The rate of relapse was 11.43% in combined treatment group and 23.57% in medication treatment alone group, and the difference between two groups was significant(P<0.05). The rate of being hospitalized was 5.71% in combined treatment group and 15.8% in medication treatment alone group, the difference between the two groups was significant(P<0.05). The rate of drug compliance was 84.3% in combined treatment group and 63.6% in medication treatment alone group, the difference between two groups was than in medication treatment alone(P<0.01). Patients receiving combined treatment showed greater improvement in 7 domains of SF-36. Mean change of SDSS and GAS score was more in combined treatment than in medication treatment alone(P<0.01). Conclusions In the first fall geriatric depression patients, antidepressants combination with psychosocial intervention is useful to prove insight and treatment adherence, quality of life and social function and prevent relapse.%目的 比较抗抑郁

  2. Intervenções psicossociais em comunidades: contribuições da psicanálise Psychosocial interventions in communities: psychoanalyses contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Lara Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão de cunho teórico-metodológico sobre as formas de intervenção psicossocial em comunidades e as contribuições que a psicanálise freudo-lacaniana pode oferecer a esse campo. Para tanto, nosso ponto de partida será, além de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema na psicologia social comunitária, a nossa experiência profissional e acadêmica. Nosso objetivo é fundamentar uma proposta praxiológica de intervenção com comunidades e para isso utilizaremos alguns conceitos e ideias relevantes pautadas na psicanálise que nos possibilitam refletir sobre a prática interventiva dos psicólogos e também de outros profissionais que atuam na área social. Neste texto dialogamos com autores como Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Zizek e Chantal Mouffe.This article proposes a theoretical-methodological reflection on the forms of psychosocial intervention in communities and the contributions that Freud-Lacanian psychoanalyzes can offer to this field. Therefore we will have a bibliographic revision on the topic according to the Community Social Psychology and our professional and academic experience. However our objective is to found a praxiological proposal of intervention in communities and, to do so, we will use some concepts and relevant ideas based in Psychoanalyses, which enable the reflection on the intervention practices of the psychologist, and also of other professionals who work in the social area. In this text, we dialogue with authors like: Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Zizek e Chantal Mouffe.

  3. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  4. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  5. Reporting and understanding the safety and adverse effect profile of mobile apps for psychosocial interventions: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Gire, Nadeem; Xiang, Shuo; Yang, Megan; Syed, Yumeen; Shokraneh, Farhad; Adams, Clive; Farooq, Saeed

    2016-06-22

    Recent years have seen a rapidly increasing trend towards the delivery of health technology through mobile devices. Smartphones and tablet devices are thus becoming increasingly popular for accessing information and a wide range of services, including health care services. Modern mobile apps can be used for a variety of reasons, ranging from education for the patients and assistance to clinicians to delivery of interventions. Mobile phone apps have also been established to benefit patients in a scope of interventions across numerous medical specialties and treatment modalities. Medical apps have their advantages and disadvantages. It is important that clinicians have access to knowledge to make decisions regarding the use of medical apps on the basis of risk-benefit ratio. Mobile apps that deliver psycho social interventions offer unique challenges and opportunities. A number of reviews have highlighted the potential use of such apps. There is a need to describe, report and study their side effects too. The adverse effects associated with these apps can broadly be divided into: (1) those resulting from the security and safety concerns; (2) those arising from the use of a particular psycho social intervention; and (3) those due to the interaction with digital technology. There is a need to refine and reconsider the safety and adverse effects in this area. The safety profile of a mobile PSI app should describe its safety profile in: (1) privacy and security; (2) adverse effects of psychotherapy; and (3) adverse effects unique to the use of apps and the internet. This is, however, a very new area and further research and reporting is required to inform clinical decision making.

  6. Intervention in engineering students’ final year capstone research projects to enhance their written, oral and presentation skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Blicblau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an intervention and enhancement approach to improvement in capstone student’s written, oral and presentation skills as part of their final year research project requirements especially for international students, whose first language is not English. Training in these skills have been incorporated into the early stages of the final year research (capstone project, as an intervention and enhancement program, incorporating a series of intensive seminars and practical applications to provide the students with these capabilities.  In this paper, we report on the research question “how does an intensive intervention and enhancement program in an engineering capstone research project effect students’ perceptions and their capabilities in communicating their research findings.” Results of student responses showed statistically significant differences between perceptions of local and international students in categories of intervention and enhancement in a tutorial environment for writing, oral communication and presentations. International students perceived the intervention and enhancement process of greater benefit to their engineering future than local students did. Overall, the results from this work are relevant to both international and local students who may be lacking in specialised reporting and English skills.

  7. Raising the Reading Skills of Secondary-Age Students with Severe and Persistent Reading Difficulties: Evaluation of the Efficacy and Implementation of a Phonics-Based Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffes, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The importance of reading skills to academic achievement, job acquisition and future success is well documented. Most of the research on reading interventions focuses on children in primary schools but many children start secondary school with very poor reading skills and schools require evidence-based interventions to support these children. The…

  8. Raising the Reading Skills of Secondary-Age Students with Severe and Persistent Reading Difficulties: Evaluation of the Efficacy and Implementation of a Phonics-Based Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffes, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The importance of reading skills to academic achievement, job acquisition and future success is well documented. Most of the research on reading interventions focuses on children in primary schools but many children start secondary school with very poor reading skills and schools require evidence-based interventions to support these children. The…

  9. A systematic review of interventions to promote social support and parenting skills in parents with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; McKenzie, K; Quayle, E; Murray, G

    2014-01-01

    The family support needs of parents with an intellectual disability (ID) are relatively unknown. This paper reviewed two types of intervention for parents with ID: those designed to strengthen social relationships and those teaching parenting skills. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a limited number of evaluative studies were found. The evidence for interventions aimed at strengthening social relationships was inconclusive; although positive changes were observed, there were limitations in study design which restricted the generalizability of the results. The evidence for parental skills teaching suggested that behavioural based interventions are more effective than less intensive forms such as lesson booklets and the provision of normal services, although these studies also had limitations. There is a need for further large scale controlled studies in this area to provide clearer evidence and to explore additional factors relating to child, parent and family which may impact on outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effectiveness of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care in increasing uptake of skilled maternity care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Ernestina; Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Portela, Anayda

    2016-01-01

    Addressing cultural factors that affect uptake of skilled maternity care is recognized as an important step in improving maternal and newborn health. This article describes a systematic review to examine the evidence available on the effects of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care on the use of skilled maternity care during pregnancy, for birth or in the postpartum period. Items published in English, French and/or Spanish between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2014 were considered. Fifteen studies describing a range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on population and intervention characteristics; study design; definitions and data for relevant outcomes; and the contexts and conditions in which interventions occurred. Because most of the included studies focus on antenatal care outcomes, evidence of impact is particularly limited for care seeking for birth and after birth. Evidence in this review is clustered within a small number of countries, and evidence from low- and middle-income countries is notably lacking. Interventions largely had positive effects on uptake of skilled maternity care. Cultural factors are often not the sole factor affecting populations’ use of maternity care services. Broader social, economic, geographical and political factors interacted with cultural factors to affect targeted populations’ access to services in included studies. Programmes and policies should seek to establish an enabling environment and support respectful dialogue with communities to improve use of skilled maternity care. Whilst issues of culture are being recognized by programmes and researchers as being important, interventions that explicitly incorporate issues of culture are rarely evaluated. PMID:27190222

  11. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  12. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  13. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  14. Managing the unmet psychosocial and information needs of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Abrahamson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Abrahamson1, Morgan Durham1, Rebekah Fox21Department of Public Health, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA; 2Department of Communication, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USAAbstract: In this article, we synthesize current literature regarding the unmet needs of cancer patients, with a specific focus on interventions that address psychosocial distress, social support, and information deficits. Research indicates many patients diagnosed with cancer express unmet needs in terms of emotional distress, decision-making support, and practical concerns such as childcare, transportation, and financial assistance. Four types of system-level barriers to the meeting of patient psychosocial and information-based needs emerge from the literature: underidentification of needs due to inadequate assessment, time constraints on cancer care providers, lack of adequate reimbursement for psychosocial and information services, and barriers related to communication of disease-related information. There is also evidence that unmet need, especially unmet information need, is related to the level of patient health literacy. Patient empowerment through the resolution of unmet needs increases patient participation in care, and is especially crucial in regards to understanding risks and benefits of treatment. There is evidence that some interventions are effective for some patients, and that even relatively simple interventions can reduce psychosocial and information-based needs. The challenge is therefore to discover which intervention will be effective for each individual patient, and to attain the skills and resources necessary to intervene appropriately.Keywords: cancer, unmet need, health literacy, intervention

  15. Psychosocial deprivation, executive functions and the emergence of socio-emotional behavior problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Martin McDermott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Early psychosocial deprivation can negatively impact the development of executive functions (EF. Here we explore the impact of early psychosocial deprivation on behavioral and physiological measures (i.e. event-related potentials; ERPs of two facets of EF, inhibitory control and response monitoring, and their associations with internalizing and externalizing outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP; Zeanah et al., 2003. This project focuses on two groups of children placed in institutions shortly after birth and then randomly assigned in infancy to either a foster care intervention or to remain in their current institutional setting. A group of community controls was recruited for comparison. The current study assesses these children at 8-years of age examining the effects of early adversity, the potential effects of the intervention on EF and the role of EF skills in socio-emotional outcomes. Results reveal exposure to early psychosocial deprivation was associated with impaired inhibitory control on a flanker task. Children in the foster care intervention exhibited stronger response monitoring compared to children who remained in the institution on the error-related positivity (Pe. Moreover, among children in the foster care intervention those who exhibited stronger error-related negativity (ERN responses had lower levels of socio-emotional behavior problems. Overall, these data identify specific aspects of EF that contribute to adaptive and maladaptive socio-emotional outcomes among children experiencing early psychosocial deprivation.

  16. Psycho-social consequences in everyday life of patients of diabetes mellitus and the potential for the improvement of health-care interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsounis A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic illness with multiple medical, psychological, social and economic consequences, both in macro-social and individual level. Aim: The aim of the present task is το study the multiple consequences of the illness in patients’ and their social environment life and tο search for ways of coping that will take into account all the involvement parts (patients, health-professionals, health-care system. Method: the methodology which was used included a literature review of Greek and international bibliography with the help of keywords. Conclusions: The meeting of an individual with a chronic illness like Diabetes Mellitus brings rapid changes to his/her everyday life. The constraints that emerge in all social activities, the effects on the quality of social contacts, the development of psychological clinical symptoms, the social stigma, the impact on self-image and self-esteem cause significant psychosocial burden. For their effective treatment, holistic interventions on the part of health professionals and exploitation of the potential of the patient’s social environment are imposed.

  17. The role of psychosocial stress in the onset and progression of bipolar disorder and its comorbidities: the need for earlier and alternative modes of therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R M; Leverich, G S

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocial stress plays an important role at multiple junctures in the onset and course of bipolar disorder. Childhood adversity may be a risk factor for vulnerability to early onset illness, and an array of stressors may be relevant not only to the onset, recurrence, and progression of affective episodes, but the highly prevalent substance abuse comorbidities as well. A substantial group of controlled studies indicate that various cognitive behavioral psychotherapies and psychoeducational approaches may yield better outcomes in bipolar disorder than treatment as usual. Yet these approaches do not appear to be frequently or systematically employed in clinical practice, and this may contribute to the considerable residual morbidity and mortality associated with conventional treatment. Possible practical approaches to reducing this deficit (in an illness that is already underdiagnosed and undertreated even with routine medications) are offered. Without the mobilization of new clinical and public health approaches to earlier and more effective treatment and supportive interventions, bipolar illness will continue to have grave implications for many patients' long-term well being.

  18. Community-based, acute posttraumatic stress management: a description and evaluation of a psychosocial-intervention continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Robert D; Behar, Lenore; Paulson, Robert; Delman, Jon; Schmid, Lisa; Smith, Stefanie F

    2004-01-01

    Much of today's psychological trauma can be identified as resulting from sudden and seemingly random events, and particularly from events that involve the loss of human life. This article presents a perspective on how behavioral health providers may approach the design, development, and implementation of community-based psychological trauma interventions. These interventions allow those community members most affected by the trauma to play a central role in the resolution of, and community adaptation to, traumatic losses. After a brief discussion of "critical incident stress debriefing"--a common form of psychological "first aid" that is sometimes used following traumatic events that affect a community--the article turns to the description of a community-based trauma-response program that provides a continuum-of-care model for the care and management of individual and group reactions to shared, traumatic events. A recent evaluation of that program, which was developed by the Community Services Program of the Trauma Center in Boston, is presented as an important first step toward determining the types of community-based responses that show promise in our efforts to ameliorate the impact of traumatic events in communities nationwide and internationally.

  19. Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Multi-Element Psychosocial Intervention for First-Episode Psychosis: Results From the Cluster-Randomized Controlled GET UP PIANO Trial in a Catchment Area of 10 Million Inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Bonetto, Chiara; Lasalvia, Antonio; Fioritti, Angelo; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pileggi, Francesca; Neri, Giovanni; Ghigi, Daniela; Giubilini, Franco; Miceli, Maurizio; Scarone, Silvio; Cocchi, Angelo; Torresani, Stefano; Faravelli, Carlo; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Pratelli, Michela; Bellini, Francesca; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Bissoli, Sarah; Poli, Sara; Ira, Elisa; Zoppei, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Bislenghi, Laura; Patelli, Giovanni; Cristofalo, Doriana; Meneghelli, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Integrated multi-element psychosocial interventions have been suggested to improve the outcomes of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but they have been studied primarily in experimental settings and in nonepidemiologically representative samples. Thus, we performed a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an integrated multi-element psychosocial intervention, comprising cognitive behavioral therapy, family intervention, and case management, with treatment as usual (TAU) for FEP patients in 117 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in a large area of northern Italy (10 million inhabitants). The randomized units (clusters) were the CMHCs, and the units of observation the patients (and, when available, their family members). The primary hypotheses were that add-on multicomponent intervention: (1) results in greater improvements in symptoms, as assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale and (2) reduces in-hospital stay, based on days of hospitalization over the 9-month follow-up. Four hundred and forty-four FEP patients received the intervention or TAU and were assessed at baseline and 9 months. Based on the retention rates of patients (and families) in the experimental arm, multi-element psychosocial interventions can be implemented in routine mental health services. Regarding primary outcomes, patients in the experimental arm showed greater reductions in overall symptom severity, while no difference could be found for days of hospitalization. Among the secondary outcomes, greater improvements were detected in the experimental arm for global functioning, emotional well-being, and subjective burden of delusions. No difference could be found for service disengagement and subjective burden of auditory hallucinations. These findings support feasibility and effectiveness of early interventions for psychosis in generalist mental health services.

  20. Information Literacy (IL Intervention Workshop has Positive, but Limited, Effects on Undergraduate Students’ IL Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To evaluate the impact of an educational intervention workshop on students’ information literacy (IL skills and self-perception of their own IL knowledge. Design – Quasi-experimental design with control groups and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Two community colleges in the United States of America, one in a rural setting and one in an urban setting. Subjects – Ninety-two students enrolled in an entry-level English course, who scored below proficiency (65% on the Information Literacy Test (ILT. Methods – One hundred students from each college took the pre-session ILT and an IL self assessment survey at the beginning of the Spring 2011 semester. The ILT used was developed and validated by James Madison University (Wise, Cameron, Yang, & Davis, n.d. and measures understanding of all the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards (ACRL, 2000, pp. 2-3 except Standard 4. For motivation, students each received $20 for their efforts and were told those who scored in the top 15% would enter a draw to win one of two additional prizes of $50. Those who scored below the ILT proficiency level of 65% were invited to participate in the quasi-experiment.

  1. A communication skills intervention for community healthcare workers reduces perceived patient aggression: a pretest-postest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Gale, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that healthcare workers experience high levels of aggression from patients. Prevention packages to address this have received little research support. Communication skills have been shown to influence individuals' experience of aggression and are also amenable to training. This study aims to deliver a communication skills training package that will reduce the experience of aggression in the workplace for healthcare workers. An interactive, multimedia communication skills package was developed that would be suitable for community healthcare workers. The training consisted of four workshops, including teaching, discussion and DVD illustrative examples. These were based on research and clinical experience. This intervention was delivered in two community care organisations over several months. Fifty-six community healthcare workers took part in the trial in small groups. There were 46 females and 10 males with a median age of 45-54 years. For each group a series of four communication skills workshops were given. Measurements of perceived aggression and wellbeing were taken before the workshops, at the end of the workshops, one month after and two months after. Results show statistically significant reductions in perceived aggression one and two months after baseline measures (pcommunication skills training programme is both enjoyable and shows decreases in perceived aggression, distress, and increases in general mental wellness. A full RCT of this intervention is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical reasoning process underlying choice of teaching strategies: a framework to improve occupational therapists' transfer skill interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Bédard, Denis; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reasoning, a critical skill influenced by education and practice context, determines how occupational therapists teach transfer skills. Teaching strategies affect intervention efficacy. Although knowledge about the way teaching strategies are chosen could help improve interventions, few studies have considered this aspect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the clinical reasoning process of occupational therapists underlying the choice of strategies to teach older adults transfer skills. A grounded theory study was carried out with eleven community occupational therapists recruited in six Health and Social Services Centres in Québec, Canada. Data were collected through observations of teaching situations (n = 31), in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 12) and memos, and were analysed using constant comparative methods. Memos were also used to raise codes to conceptual categories, leading to an integrative framework. Rigour was assured by following scientific criteria for qualitative studies. The integrative framework includes the clinical reasoning process, consisting of eight stages, and its factors of influence. These factors are internal (experiences and elements of personal context) and external (type of transfer, clients' and their environment's characteristics and practice context). The clinical reasoning process underlying the choice of strategies to teach transfer skills was conceptualised into an integrative framework. Such a framework supports clinicians' reflective practice, highlights the importance of theory and practice of pedagogy in occupational therapists' education, and encourages consideration and better documentation of the possible influence of practice context on teaching interventions. As such, this integrative framework could improve occupational therapists' transfer skill interventions with older adults. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Humanitarian space and well-being: effectiveness of training on a psychosocial intervention for host community-refugee interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Zeina; Borba, Christina P C; Johnson, Kelsey; Hock, Rebecca S; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Henderson, David C; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2017-06-01

    Social and fieldworkers face enormous challenges in assisting millions of Syrian refugees in Lebanon since the Syrian war in 2011. We sought to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an adapted version of the SMART-3RP (Stress Management Relaxation Response Resilience Training) training to address the emotional and physical burden on the humanitarian field. Data were collected using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), blood pressure, pulse and a brief qualitative survey at months 0, 3, 6 and 9. We compared mean SCL-90 scores and physiological measures from these time points and subjected qualitative data to a thematic analysis. Mean values of all measures decreased from months 0 to 9, with significance in SCL-90 changes increasing at each visit. Qualitative themes included decreased stress, increased positivity and problem-solving skills, interpersonal and personal benefits of mindfulness practice and the need to continue and expand the programme. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed a decrease in stress perception and blood pressure, demonstrating the physiological benefits of mind body approaches. We highlight the importance of self-care for humanitarian workers as the basis for the mission's success. We invite additional research to confirm these findings and their implications for the humanitarian field.

  4. Examining the Language Skills of Children with ADHD Following a Play-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, Kimberley; Munro, Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Ellis, Prudence

    2013-01-01

    Communication and play skills are important aspects of development yet are largely uncharted in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This exploratory study examined whether changes in pragmatic skills and problem-solving skills were observed in children with ADHD pre- and post-participation in a play-based intervention…

  5. Advances in psychosocial interventions on quality of life of cancer survivors%心理社会干预对癌症生存者生命质量改善的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学芬; 王继伟; 宫霄欢; 余金明

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,there has been increasing recognition of the importance of psychosocial interventions' studies on quality of life in cancer survivors because of improving cancer survival rate.This paper was an integrative literatures review of various psychosocial interventions including cognitive behavioral therapy,group-based supportive therapy,counseling or psychotherapy,education or psychoeducation and music therapy et al,and analyzing the complexity of psychosocial interventions' RCTs in oncology and the current characteristic of these studies in china.%随着癌症生存率提高,对癌症生存者生命质量改善的心理社会研究越来越受到关注,本文综述了近年来常见的心理社会干预措施如认知行为干预、支持性小组干预、咨询或心理疗法和音乐疗法等,分析了心理社会干预RCT研究的复杂性以及我国心理社会研究现状.

  6. Psychosocial Interventions for the Acute Treatment of Late-life Major Depression: A Systematic Review of Evidence-based Treatments, Predictors of Treatment Outcomes and Moderators of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Areán, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for the acute treatment of late-life depression and identify predictors of treatment outcomes and moderators of treatment effects. The results of the systematic review may help to advance the development of personalized psychosocial treatments for late-life major depression. Based on our criteria, Problem Solving Therapy (PST), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Treatment Initiation and Participation Program (TIP) have supportive evidence of efficacy, pending replication. Even though the data on the predictors of treatment outcomes and moderators of treatment effects are still preliminary, it appears that baseline anxiety and stress level, personality pathology, endogenous depression, and reduced self-rated health are associated with worse depression outcomes. More research is also recommended to examine the moderating effects of baseline depression severity; for instance, our review indicates that Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) may work better in participants with high baseline depression severity than in participants with low depression severity. Recommendations for future novel psychosocial interventions for the acute treatment of late-life major depression include application of these interventions in non-traditional settings, involvement of the caregivers in the treatment of cognitively and functionally impaired older adults with major depression, and expansion of research to include more racially and ethnically diverse populations as the samples of the examined studies is highly selective, i.e. overly healthy, cognitively intact, Caucasian, and highly educated. PMID:21536164

  7. Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  8. Social skills training and computer-assisted cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Mueser, Kim T; Thime, Warren R; Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of research shows that cognitive remediation (COG REM), consisting of drill-and-practice and/or strategy training in neurocognitive functions, produces moderate improvements in neurocognition. These improvements generalize to functioning when COG REM is provided with other rehabilitation interventions (Wykes et al., 2011). The number of studies using COG REM as an adjunct to other behavioral-based rehabilitation interventions however remains small and consists of widely varying interventions with few active control conditions. This study compared the effects of an extended (6-month), standardized, computer-assisted cognitive remediation intervention, administered along with a standardized program of social skills-training (SST), with those of an active control condition that included participation in the same SST program and a computer skills training program (Computer Skills). Sixty-four individuals with schizophrenia recruited from two treatment sites were randomly assigned to one of two conditions and were assessed by blinded raters on neurocognitive measures, performance-based measures of social skill, and ratings of psychosocial function before and after treatment. Results revealed that the COG REM group improved significantly more in attention, working memory, and empathy than the Computer Skills group, but there were no differences between groups on other measures of psychosocial functioning or skills. Taken together, these findings suggest that COG REM used in the context of other evidence-based psychosocial interventions (SST) improves working memory in schizophrenia and suggests that this effect may generalize to improved empathy.

  9. Intervenções psicossociais na comunidade: desafios e práticas Psychosocial interventions in community: challenges and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Ansara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos os desafios teórico-práticos que os profissionais de diferentes áreas sociais têm encontrado em suas práticas de intervenção psicossocial em comunidades de diversos municípios de São Paulo. Entre os grandes desafios estão os limites dos programas sociais propostos pelo poder público, as dificuldades dos agentes externos em desenvolver um trabalho que leve ao fortalecimento da comunidade e a ausência de referenciais teórico-metodológicos que fundamentem as práticas desses agentes. A fim de ilustrar tais desafios, relatamos a experiência de um curso de Psicologia Comunitária e da Libertação no qual discutimos propostas de intervenção comunitária a partir de conceitos desenvolvidos por Martín-Baró (1998 e da contribuição de Maritza Montero (2004 com o Paradigma da Construção e Transformação Crítica. Com base nesses referenciais teóricos, analisamos a relação entre Estado, Programas e Organizações, assim como as contradições existentes entre uma prática social comunitária e as exigências dos planos e programas governamentais.In this article we present the theoretical-practical challenges that professionals from different social fields face in their practices of social psychological intervention in communities in various cities of São Paulo. Among the largest challenges are the limitations of social programs offered by public authorities, the difficulties of external agents in developing actions that lead to the strengthening of the community, and the absence of theoretical-methodological references that support the practices of these agents. In order to illustrate these challenges, we narrate the experience of a course on Community Psychology and Psychology of Liberation in which we discussed propositions for community intervention from the perspective of concepts developed by Martín-Baró (1998 and the contributions of Maritza Montero (2004 with the Paradigm of Construction and

  10. Effectiveness of pharmacovigilance: multifaceted educational intervention related to the knowledge, skills and attitudes of multidisciplinary hospital staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rossi Varallo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Most educational interventions in pharmacovigilance are designed to encourage physicians to report adverse drug reactions. However, multidisciplinary teams may play an important role in reporting drug-related problems. This study assessed the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention in pharmacovigilance on the knowledge, skills and attitudes of hospital professionals. METHOD: This prospective, open-label, non-randomized study was performed in a medium-complexity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The intervention involved four activities: 1 an interactive lecture, 2 a practical class, 3 a pre-post questionnaire administered to professionals on a multidisciplinary team, and 4 educational material. The intervention’s impact on the professionals’ knowledge and skills was assessed using the World Health Organization’s definitions. The intervention’s effect on the professionals’ attitudes was analysed by the prevalence of adverse drug event reports (adverse drug reactions, medication errors, therapeutic failure and drug quality deviations and the relevance (seriousness and expectancy of the events. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-three professionals were enrolled. A 70-fold increase in the number of adverse drug event reports was observed during the 12 months post-intervention. The intervention improved the professionals’ form-completion skills (p<0.0001 and their knowledge of pharmacovigilance (p<0.0001. The intervention also contributed to detecting serious drug-induced events. The nursing staff reported medication errors, and pharmacists and physiotherapists recognized serious adverse drug reactions. Physicians communicated suspicions of therapeutic failure. CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary approach to drug-safety assessments contributes to identifying new, relevant drug-related problems and improving the rate of adverse drug event reporting. This strategy may therefore be applied to improve risk communication in

  11. Effectiveness of a video-based motivational skills-building HIV risk-reduction intervention for female military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, E James; Mgbere, Osaro; Monjok, Emmanuel; Ekong, Ernest; Holstad, Marcia M; Kalichman, Seth C

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in several African armed forces are high, with gender inequality rendering female military personnel more vulnerable to the disease. The objective of this study was to replicate a successful videotape-based HIV prevention intervention among Nigerian female military personnel in an effort to establish the cross-cultural stability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this approach in resource-limited countries. Enlisted women (N346) were recruited from two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria and randomly assigned to either (a) a 5-session video-based, small group, cognitive-behavioral, HIV prevention intervention, or (b) a 5-session, video-based, contact-matched, HIV education control condition. Participants provided self-report of their HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and sexual behaviors at baseline, 3 and 6 months after completing the intervention. The results indicate that the motivational skills-building intervention did not improve participants' knowledge of HIV/AIDS any better than did the HIV education control condition at each assessment period, but it significantly increased condom use among women in this group by 53.6% at 3-month follow-up. HIV preventive behaviors among women in the motivational skills-building intervention group improved significantly, being 2 and 3 times more, compared to women in the HIV education control group at 3-month and 6-month follow-up assessments. The intervention also significantly improved behavioral intentions of participants as well as reduced alcohol use before sex by 25%, after 3 months; and number of sexual partners by 12% after 6 months. Women in the intervention group were five times more likely than women in HIV education control group to suggest that their new male partners use condom. These findings indicate that a videotape-based, HIV prevention intervention is a feasible and effective approach to HIV prevention among female military personnel from sub

  12. Efficacy of group social skills interventions for youth with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jacquelyn A; Kang, Erin; Lerner, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioral tasks). The current meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness of GSSIs and differences by reporting sources. Nineteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. Results show that overall positive aggregate effects were medium (g=0.51, pskilled social behaviors (social knowledge; g=1.15, psocial performance; g=0.28, p=0.31). Social skills interventions presently appear modestly effective for youth with ASD, but may not generalize to school settings or self-reported social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Promoting Visualization Skills through Deconstruction Using Physical Models and a Visualization Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Holly Kristine

    ' modeled visualization artifacts had on students. No patterns emerged from the passive observation of visualization artifacts in lecture or recitation, but the need to elicit visual information from students was made clear. Deconstruction proved to be a valuable method for instruction and assessment of visual information. Three strategies for using deconstruction in teaching were distilled from the lessons and observations of the student focus groups: begin with observations of what is given in an image and what it's composed of, identify the relationships between components to find additional operations in different environments about the molecule, and deconstructing steps of challenging questions can reveal mistakes. An intervention was developed to teach students to use deconstruction and verbalization to analyze complex visualization tasks and employ the principles of the theoretical framework. The activities were scaffolded to introduce increasingly challenging concepts to students, but also support them as they learned visually demanding chemistry concepts. Several themes were observed in the analysis of the visualization activities. Students used deconstruction by documenting which parts of the images were useful for interpretation of the visual. Students identified valid patterns and rules within the images, which signified understanding of arrangement of information presented in the representation. Successful strategy communication was identified when students documented personal strategies that allowed them to complete the activity tasks. Finally, students demonstrated the ability to extend symmetry skills to advanced applications they had not previously seen. This work shows how the use of deconstruction and verbalization may have a great impact on how students master difficult topics and combined, they offer students a powerful strategy to approach visually demanding chemistry problems and to the instructor a unique insight to mentally constructed strategies.

  14. Motor skill development in low-income, at-risk preschoolers: A community-based longitudinal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura L; Davies, Patricia L; Courtney, Jimikaye B; Gavin, William J; Johnson, Susan L; Boles, Richard E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to: (1) determine the status of fundamental movement skill (FMS) performance in low-income, at-risk preschoolers; and (2) evaluate the impact of the Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves (MM) program on improving children's FMS at two-year follow-up. Longitudinal, quasi-experimental study with matched controls. The Colorado LEAP study was conducted in four Head Start/preschools (two intervention, two control) serving children aged 3-5 years. MM was delivered to the intervention group during preschool. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) subtests for balance, running speed and agility, upper-limb coordination (object control (OC) skills) and strength were administered to children at baseline, post-intervention in preschool, one-year follow-up (kindergarten), and two-year follow-up (first grade). Compared to the normative sample's mean, the mean scaled score for all participants at baseline was significantly lower for balance (p=0.016) and OC skills (pskills for just the control group were significantly lower than those of the normative sample (p≤0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed a significant intervention effect for OC skills with the overall model accounting for 41% of variance at two-year follow-up, F(6,165)=20.45, pskills, in at-risk elementary school children. Results suggest that at-risk preschoolers are already behind in FMS development and these delays will continue through first grade. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psycho-social reflections on craniofacial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, James

    2010-05-01

    Psychologists are now increasingly involved in understanding the challenges faced by people who experience facial disfigurements from many causes (congenital, traumatic, oncological, iatrogenic, neurological, ophthalmological or dermatological). This article describes how the author has combined the lessons of his personal recovery after severe facial burns with the rigorous science of psychological research to enable improved psycho-social support and interventions to be developed, through a UK not-for-profit (Changing Faces) and in formal health care services. It suggests that against the background of a culture that is less-than-positive about disfigurement, anyone who experiences it needs access to a range of support, advice, counselling and social skills training to enable them to live full, confident lives.

  16. Establishing a Scale for Assessing the Social Validity of Skill Building Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I; Manston, Lauren; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Scale of Treatment Perceptions (STP), a measure of treatment acceptability targeting skill-building interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This scale utilizes a strength-based approach to intervention assessment, and was established by modifying the Behavior Intervention Rating Scale (Elliott and Von Brock Treuting in J School Psychol 29(1):43-51, 1991. doi: 10.1016/0022-4405(91)90014-I ) and the Treatment Evaluation Inventory (Kazdin in J Appl Behav Anal 13(2):259-273, 1980. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1980.13-259 ) to be appropriate for assessing multiple dimensions of acceptability across skill-building ASD treatments. Overall, the STP demonstrated good psychometric properties: the scale had appropriate internal consistency, demonstrated a stable three-factor structure that was invariant across samples, and discriminated among different skill-building treatments for ASD. This has important implications for dissemination, as perceived acceptability of a treatment relates to treatment utilization and adherence.

  17. Influence of Psychosocial Intervention on Social function and Life quality of Patients with Geriatric Depression%心理社会干预对老年抑郁症患者社会功能及生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富松; 符娟; 潘苗

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨心理社会干预对老年抑郁症患者社会功能及生活质量的影响.方法:将320例老年抑郁症患者随机分为单纯药物治疗组(以下简称药物组,160例)和药物结合心理社会干预组(以下简称干预组,160例),治疗随访6个月.心理社会干预包括健康教育、家庭干预、技能训练及认知行为治疗.主要评定指标为汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、自知力与治疗态度问卷(ITAQ)、健康状况问卷(SF-36)、大体评定量表(GAS)和社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)评分的变化.结果:干预组HAMD总分、HAMA总分、ITAQ总分变化值、7项SF-36因子分改善值、GAS总分变化值、SDSS总分变化值均明显高于药物组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:抗抑郁药结合心理社会干预治疗老年抑郁症患者,临床疗效、自知力、治疗依从性、生活质量、社会功能的改善优于单用抗抑郁药患者.%[ Objective ] To explore the influence of psychosocial intervention on social function and life quality of patients with geriatric depression. [Methods] 320 geriatric depression patients were randomly divided into the simple medication treatment group (the medication group, 160 cases) and the medication combined with psychosocial intervention group ( the intervention group, 160 cases ), and all patients were followed up for six months. The psychosocial intervention concluded health education, family intervention, skills training and cognitive-behavioral therapy. The main evaluation indexes were Hamilton Depression Scale ( HAMD ), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Insight Treatment Attitude Auestionnaire ( ITAQ ), Short Form 36 Health survey Questionnaire ( SF-36 ), Global Assessment Scale ( GAS ) and Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS). [ Results ] The change values of HAMD scores, HAMA scores, ITAQ scores, 7 items of SF-36, GAS scores and SDSS scores of the intervention group were significantly

  18. Cognitive behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy versus a brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Psychological treatments for adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder are associated with diagnostic remission within 28 weeks in 65-70% of patients. We aimed to assess the medium-term effects and costs of psychological therapies on maintenance of reduced depression symptoms 12 months after treatment. We did this multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial (IMPACT) at 15 National Health Service child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinics in three regions in England. Adolescent patients (aged 11-17 years) with a diagnosis of DSM IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a web-based randomisation service, to receive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytical therapy versus a reference brief psychological intervention. Randomisation was stochastically minimised by age, sex, self-reported depression sum score, and region. Patients and clinicians were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. Patients were followed up and reassessed at weeks 6, 12, 36, 52, and 86 post-randomisation. The primary outcome was self-reported depression symptoms at weeks 36, 52, and 86, as measured with the self-reported Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Because our aim was to compare the two psychological therapies with the brief psychosocial intervention, we first established whether CBT was inferior to short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the same outcome. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN83033550. Between June 29, 2010, and Jan 17, 2013, we randomly assigned 470 patients to receive the brief psychosocial intervention (n=158), CBT (n=155), or short-term psychoanalytical therapy (n=157); 465 patients comprised the intention-to-treat population. 392 (84%) patients had available data for primary analysis by the end of follow-up. Treatment fidelity and

  19. Improving oral hygiene skills among children undergoing treatment at the haemato-oncology department - an interventional programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Bilder, Leon; Borisov, Oxana

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this interventional programme was to educate children undergoing treatment at the haemato-oncology department in how to improve their oral hygiene skills. Children (and their parents) treated at the haemato-oncology department for haematological malignancies and disorders were educated and instructed in how to improve their dental oral hygiene skills. Instructions, demonstration and practice of toothbrushing techniques, as well as interproximal cleaning, were carried out in three separate sessions. In each session, toothbrushing skills were evaluated using the Ashkenazi index to assess improvement in oral hygiene skills over time. Four assessments were performed and recorded for each participant: before the initial explanation; immediately following the explanation; and 3 and 6 weeks following the first visit. Overall, 52 children were enrolled in the programme. The first toothbrushing performance skill evaluation revealed a low score of 10.44 out of a total of 40; this was significantly increased, following the instruction session, to 33.02 (P oral health and prevent future disease in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Enhancing Social Skills in Adolescents with High Functioning Autism using Motor-based Role-play Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Gutman PhD, OTR, FAOTA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study was to collect pilot data evaluating whether a motor-based role-play intervention using a canine animal assistant can enhance social skill use in two adolescents with HFA. A single subject ABA design across two participants was used. The intervention consisted of four 1-hour sessions over 4 weeks. The quality of social interaction was measured by the Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESIadministered at baseline and the 3-month probe. Frequency of targeted social skill use was measured duringbaseline, intervention, and probe phases. Participant 1 experienced statistically significant increases in both ESI scores (p = .012, t = -5.488 from baseline to the 3-month probe. Participant 2 also experienced a statistically significant increase in ESI scores from baseline to probe (p = .002, t = -10.167, but he was unable to fully maintain these gains at the 3-month probe. This pilot study’s findings suggest that the intervention produced positive effects in both participants and warrant further investigation.

  1. Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides' communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides' (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides' communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents' psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff.

  2. Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff. PMID:25653513

  3. The effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention in pre-schoolers with motor problems depends on gender but not environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Descamps, Sofie; Verhoeven, Liesbeth; De Pooter, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; D'Hondt, Eva

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 10-week fundamental motor skill programme in pre-schoolers with motor problems. Alongside the general effect of the intervention, we also explored possible gender differences and the role of the environmental context (living community, socio-economic status, and recreational space inside/outside the house). The intervention group (n=47; 20 ♂ and 27 ♀) received twenty 60-min motor skill sessions (2 per week) in addition to the regular physical education curriculum for pre-schoolers; the control group (n=46; 21 ♂ and 25 ♀) did not receive additional practice. General motor competence, and locomotor and object control subscales, were assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition (TGMD-2). Data regarding environmental factors were gathered through a questionnaire. A Group×Gender×Time ANOVA revealed that the intervention group benefited significantly from the intervention and scored better than the control group at the post-test for general motor competence and both sub-categories (locomotor and object control skill). Moreover, the intervention programme was found to be effective in helping 49% of the intervention group to achieve an average motor skill level, according to the TGMD-2 norms, while a further decline in motor competence was observed in the control group. Interestingly, the effect appeared to be gender-specific, since object control skill improved only in girls of the intervention group. Considering the environmental context, none of the above-mentioned factors was found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the intervention. The present study highlights the need for an early motor skill programme with a gender-specific approach in order to help low skilled boys and girls master a diverse set of motor skills.

  4. Effects of a Training Intervention to Foster Argumentation Skills While Processing Conflicting Scientific Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Markus H.; Berthold, Kirsten; Renkl, Alexander; Riess, Werner; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation skills play a crucial role in science education and in preparing school students to act as informed citizens. While processing conflicting scientific positions regarding topics such as sustainable development in the domain of ecology, argumentation skills such as evaluating arguments or supporting theories with evidence are…

  5. Impact of communication skills training on parents perceptions of care: intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Laulund, Lone W

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the effects of communication-skills training for healthcare professionals on parents' perceptions of information, care and continuity.......This paper is a report of a study of the effects of communication-skills training for healthcare professionals on parents' perceptions of information, care and continuity....

  6. Evaluating the Use of Behavioral Skills Training to Improve School Staffs' Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Ashley; Knez, Nikki; Kahng, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Variations of behavioral skills training (BST) have been used to teach behaviorally oriented skills such as discrete trial teaching, guided compliance, the implementation of the picture exchange system, and safe guarding students with physical disabilities. One area that has not received much attention is evaluating school staff's correct…

  7. Developmental Pathways to Integrated Social Skills: The Roles of Parenting and Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Catherine; Vallotton, Claire D.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic skill theory was utilized to explain the multiple mechanisms and mediating processes influencing development of self-regulatory and language skills in children at 14, 24, and 36 months of age. Relations were found between family risks, parenting-related stresses, and parent-child interactions that contribute either independently or through…

  8. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A; MacPherson, Heather A

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) are serious conditions associated with morbidity and mortality. Although most treatment research has examined pharmacotherapy for pediatric BPSDs, growing literature suggests that psychosocial interventions are also important to provide families with an understanding of symptoms, course, and treatment of BPSDs; teach youth and parents methods for coping with symptoms (e.g., problem solving, communication, emotion regulation, cognitive-behavioral skills); and prevent relapse. Thirteen psychosocial intervention trials for pediatric BPSDs were identified via a comprehensive literature search and evaluated according to the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines. All interventions were examined adjunctive to pharmacotherapy and/or treatment as usual (TAU). No well-established or questionably efficacious treatments were identified. Family psychoeducation plus skill building was probably efficacious (i.e., Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy, Family-Focused Treatment); cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was possibly efficacious. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) were experimental. Limited research precluded subdivision of treatments by format and age. Only single- and multiple-family psychoeducation plus skill building and CBT were evaluated with children. Only single-family psychoeducation plus skill building and DBT, and individual (commonly with limited familial involvement) CBT and IPSRT were evaluated with adolescents. In conclusion, psychosocial interventions that involve families, psychoeducation, and skill building may offer added benefit to pharmacotherapy and/or other TAU. Limitations of current research include few outcome studies, small samples, and failure to use stringent control conditions or randomization. The review concludes with a discussion of mediators and moderators, recommendations for best practice

  9. Social skills interventions for individuals with autism: evaluation for evidence-based practices within a best evidence synthesis framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a best evidence synthesis of interventions to increase social behavior for individuals with autism. Sixty-six studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 2001 and July 2008 with 513 participants were included. The results are presented by the age of the individual receiving intervention and by delivery agent of intervention. The findings suggest there is much empirical evidence supporting many different treatments for the social deficits of individuals with autism. Using the criteria of evidence-based practice proposed by Reichow et al. (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38:1311-1318, 2008), social skills groups and video modeling have accumulated the evidence necessary for the classifications of established EBP and promising EBP, respectively. Recommendations for practice and areas of future research are provided.

  10. Oral Language Skills Intervention in Pre-School--A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J.; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Background: While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children…

  11. Oral Language Skills Intervention in Pre-School--A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J.; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Background: While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children…

  12. Examination of the Learning and Psycho-Social Skills Needed by and Barriers for Remedial Students at Mercer County Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolge, Robert D.

    An exploratory study was conducted at Mercer County Community College to identify the skills needed and external barriers suffered by most remedial students enrolled at the college, and to develop a preliminary ranking of these skills and barriers according to their perceived importance by faculty. A survey instrument identifying 26 learning…

  13. A longitudinal examination of dyadic distress patterns following a skills intervention for carers of adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Laura; Rhind, Charlotte; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Goddard, Elizabeth; Todd, Gillian; Tchanturia, Kate; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Treasure, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Family interventions in anorexia nervosa (AN) have been developed to ameliorate maladaptive patterns of patient-carer interaction that can play a role in illness maintenance. The primary aim of this study is to examine the inter-relationship between baseline and post-treatment distress in dyads of carers and patients with AN to examine the interdependence between carers and patients. The secondary aim is to examine whether a carer skills intervention [Experienced Carer Helping Others (ECHO)] impacts on this inter-relationship. Dyads consisting of treatment-seeking adolescents with AN and their primary carer (n = 149; mostly mothers) were randomised to receive a carer skills intervention (ECHO) in addition to treatment as usual (TAU), or TAU alone, as part of a larger clinical trial. Carers and patients completed a standardised measure of psychological distress (The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale) at baseline and 12 months post-treatment. The Actor Partner Interdependence Model was used to examine longitudinal changes in interdependence by treatment group. As expected, post-treatment levels of distress were related to baseline levels in both groups (actor effects). Moreover, carer distress at 12 months was related to patient distress at baseline for the TAU (partner effects), but not for the ECHO group. Finally, carers' distress change was not a significant predictor of patients' body mass index (BMI) change in the two treatment conditions. These findings are limited to predominantly mother-offspring dyads and may not generalise to other relationships. The ECHO intervention which is designed to teach carers skills in illness management and emotion regulation may be an effective addition to TAU for ameliorating interdependence of distress in patients and their primary carers over time.

  14. Brief Report: Does Gender Matter in Intervention for ASD? Examining the Impact of the PEERS(®) Social Skills Intervention on Social Behavior Among Females with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J; Schiltz, Hillary; Haendel, Angela; Dolan, Bridget K; Willar, Kirsten S; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S; Carson, Audrey M; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2017-07-01

    A paucity of research has been conducted to examine the effect of social skills intervention on females with ASD. Females with ASD may have more difficulty developing meaningful friendships than males, as the social climate can be more complex (Archer, Coyne, Personality and Social Psychology Review 9(3):212-230, 2005). This study examined whether treatment response among females differed from males. One hundred and seventy-seven adolescents and young adults with ASD (N = 177) participated in this study. When analyzed by group, no significant differences by gender emerged: PEERS(®) knowledge (TASSK/TYASSK, p = .494), direct interactions (QSQ, p = .762), or social responsiveness (SRS, p = .689; SSIS-RS, p = .482). Thus, females and males with ASD respond similarly to the PEERS(®) intervention.

  15. Limits of “Skills And Drills” Interventions to Improving Obstetric and Newborn Emergency Response: What More Do We Need to Learn?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricca, Jim

    2016-01-01

    A “skills and drills” intervention in 4 hospitals in Karnataka, India, produced modest improvement in provider knowledge and skills but not in actual response to obstetric and newborn emergencies. We explore possible explanations, which include (1) the need for a more intensive intervention; (2) other weaknesses in the health system; and (3) behavioral or organizational barriers related to hierarchical structures, roles, and team formation.

  16. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills

  17. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  18. Educational interventions to improve knowledge and skills of interns towards prevention and control of hospital-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Sandeep; Mahajan, Ruchita; Jad, Beena; Mahajan, Bella

    2015-08-01

    We believe that there is significant educational deficit amongst interns regarding up-to-date formal knowledge and skills on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) which might compromise patient safety. This urgently requires curriculum innovations to ensure their formal training on HAIs prevention and control. Education of interns to improve their knowledge and skills toward HAIs prevention and control. This pilot study was conducted in interns using a multimodal approach consisting of a combination of videos, PowerPoint presentation, and hands-on demonstration to provide applied and practical teaching on prevention and control of HAIs. Pre- and post-test assessment of knowledge, attitude, and skills was carried out by multiple choice questions, 5-point Likert scale, and Objective Structured Practical Examination respectively. Paired t-test. A statistically significant improvement in the overall score rates between pre- and post-test of intern's was seen, suggesting that educational programs have a positive effect. Intern's felt benefitted from interventions focused on HAIs prevention and control and hoped that such sessions are integrated in the regular undergraduate curriculum. A majority of the students felt that their learning style assessment matched well with their own perception of learning preference. Assessment drives learning; hence strengthening the contribution of health-care workers to HAIs prevention programs should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve skills and develop appropriate attitudes, resulting in safety and quality of patient care.

  19. A brief information–motivation–behavioral skills intervention to promote human papillomavirus vaccination among college-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez GK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Giselle K Perez,1 Dean G Cruess,2 Nicole M Strauss,3 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 3Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV is prevalent among college-aged women. Although HPV vaccines decrease women’s risk for cervical cancer, the vaccination rates remain inadequate.  Objective: This study explored the utility of an information–motivation–behavioral skills (IMB intervention in promoting HPV vaccination knowledge, motivation, and intentions among college-aged women. Methods: In Spring/Fall 2012, 62 participants were randomly assigned to a single-session intervention or attention control and were assessed baseline, post-intervention, and at 1 month. Results: The participants demonstrated adequate baseline vaccine knowledge, low HPV/cancer knowledge, and ambivalence about the vaccination. Post-intervention, the IMB arm demonstrated increased HPV/cancer and vaccination knowledge, motivation, and intentions. There were no group differences in vaccination at 1 month; however, the odds of wanting to get vaccinated increased sevenfold in the IMB arm. Conclusion: These results provide preliminary support for an IMB-based intervention in increasing vaccination knowledge, motivation, and intentions among at-risk women. Future research examining the efficacy of longer trials with larger, diverse populations is warranted. Keywords: human papillomavirus, HPV, vaccination, cervical cancer, Gardasil, IMB

  20. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.