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Sample records for psychosocial interventions targeting

  1. The efficacy of targeted interventions for modifiable psychosocial risk factors of persistent nonspecific low back pain e A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kjær, Per

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is considerable interest in whether best practice management of nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) should include the targeting of treatment to subgroups of people with identifiable clinical characteristics. However, there are no published systematic reviews of the efficacy...... were randomised controlled trials of targeted psychosocial interventions that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on the efficacy of targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of pain, activity limitation and psychosocial factors (fear avoidance...... limitation at 12 months, when targeted to people with higher movement-related pain. Few studies have investigated targeted psychosocial interventions in NSLBP, using trial designs suitable for measuring treatment effect modification, and they do not provide consistent evidence supporting such targeting...

  2. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie B. Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based, followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  3. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  4. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    criticises the reductionistic dichotomy - either own or parental choice - and appeals for broader concepts, which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with ethnic minority youths' intimate partnership formation problems U.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  5. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  6. A person-centered intervention targeting the psychosocial needs of gynecological cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Hansson, Eva Helena

    2016-01-01

    , depression, self-esteem, and self-reported ability to monitor and respond to symptoms of recurrence. METHODS: We randomly assigned 165 gynecological cancer survivors to usual care (UC) plus GSD-GYN-C or UC alone. Self-reported QOL-cancer survivor (QOL-CS) total score and subscale scores on physical......PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of a person-centered intervention consisting of two to four nurse-led conversations using guided self-determination tailored to gynecologic cancer (GSD-GYN-C) on gynecological cancer survivors' quality of life (QOL), impact of cancer, distress, anxiety......, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being were assessed before randomization and at 3 and 9 months after randomization using t tests. Bonferroni and Pipper corrections were applied for multiple testing adjustments. RESULTS: At 9 months, the GSD-GYN-C plus UC group scored significantly higher on the QOL...

  7. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  8. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions to Cancer Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and WANFANG were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trails (RCTs; psychosocial intervention to cancer caregivers; psychosocial health indicators including quality of life, depression or anxiety.Results: 21 studies out of 4,666 identified abstracts met inclusion criteria, including 19 RCTs. The intervention modes fell into the following nine categories: family connect intervention, self-determination theory-based intervention (SDT, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, emotion-focused therapy (EFT, comprehensive health enhancement support system (CHESS, FOCUS programme, existential behavioral therapy (EBT, telephone interpersonal counseling (TIP-C, problem-solving intervention (COPE.Conclusion: paired-intervention targeting self-care and interpersonal connections of caregivers and symptom management of patients is effective in improving quality of life and alleviating depression of cancer caregivers while music therapy is helpful for reducing anxiety of cancer caregivers.

  9. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics...

  10. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jhanjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic. Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

  11. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. Selection criteria All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56). Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the

  12. [Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions and endophenotypes in bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correard, N; Elissalde, S N; Azorin, J-M; Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R

    2012-12-01

    Diseases with complex determinism, bipolar disorders, involve at the same time environmental and genetic factors of vulnerability. The characterization of these vulnerabilities would allow a better knowledge of their etiology and envisage the development of therapeutics, more specialized, even preventive. The research in genetic psychiatry allowed to highlight endophenotype candidates associated to bipolar disorders. They are endogenous clinical or biological features, biologically more elementary than phenotypes and more directly bound to the physiological consequences of genes and their polymorphisms. Targeting some of them with specific psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions could reduce the consequences of their expression and so have an action on the course of the disease and also preventive.

  13. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen; Freeman, Alexander; Fenton, Katherine; Busby Grant, Janie; van Spijker, Bregje; Donker, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12-25 years. PsycInfo, PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to the end of December 2014 to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for youth suicide. In total, 13,747 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion in a larger database. Of these, 29 papers describing 28 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The results of the review indicated that just over half of the programs identified had a significant effect on suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.16-3.01), suicide attempts (phi = 0.04-0.38) or deliberate self-harm (phi = 0.29-0.33; d = 0.42). The current review provides preliminary support for the implementation of universal and targeted interventions in all settings, using a diverse range of psychosocial approaches. Further quality research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for suicide prevention programs in this population. In particular, the development of universal school-based interventions is promising given the potential reach of such an approach.

  14. Strategies for implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD. Historically, the research has focused on interventions targeting problems in the home or school setting, but more recent research has highlighted the importance of family – school partnerships and conjoint approaches to intervention involving family and school. Effective approaches to psychosocial intervention consist of strategies to address performance deficits, promote adaptive behavior, and improve children’s self-control and academic and social skills. Considerable evidence exists to indicate that combined approaches are more effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and related academic and social impairments than separate treatments.

  15. Psychosocial Interventions and Children’s Rights: Beyond Clinical Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Doná, Giorgia

    2002-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in psychosocial interventions in the aftermath of ethno-political violence. Rwanda after genocide received sustained psychological attention and this paper critically examines the contribution of psychosocial interventions to the broader development agenda of reconstruction and rehabilitation. We undertake a brief psychologically informed analysis of the factors that contributed to genocide as a means of outlining the political and cultural context in whi...

  16. Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deter Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of patients with chronic diseases will be one of the main challenges of medicine in the future. This paper presents an overview of different origins, mechanism, and symptoms necessary for understanding new and different interventions that include a psychosomatic view. In a psychosomatic therapeutic intervention there are very different targets, such as psychological symptoms, personality traits, attitudes toward disease and life, risk behaviour, and social isolation and as biological targets the change of autonomic imbalance and of the effects of the psycho-endocrinological or psycho-immunological stress responses. And there are also different psychosomatic measures that influence the individual biological, psychological and sociological targets. There is a need to give different answer to different questions in the field of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine. Comparative effectiveness research is an important strategy for solving some methodological issues. What is the target of treatment for different diseases: Symptom reduction, healing, or limiting progression to the worst case - the death of patients. We know that, the patient-physician relationship is important for every medical/therapeutic action for patients with chronic diseases. This volume of BioPsychoSocial Medicine will present four different psychosomatic treatment studies from the clinical field in the sense of phase 2 studies: Reports of patients with obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic somatoform pain and coronary artery disease were presented

  17. A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Given, Barbara A; Shahda, Safi; Helft, Paul R

    2017-07-01

    A significant minority of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients experience clinically meaningful distress that may warrant intervention. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on quality-of-life and psychosocial outcomes for CRC patients. A systematic search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES was undertaken to obtain relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through October 2016. Fourteen RCTs of psychosocial interventions for CRC patients were identified. Only three of these RCTs showed significant intervention effects on multiple mental health outcomes. These interventions included written and verbal emotional expression, progressive muscle relaxation training, and a self-efficacy enhancing intervention. Eight of the 14 trials, testing a range of psychoeducational and supportive care interventions, produced little to no effects on study outcomes. An evaluation of RCT quality highlighted the need for greater rigor in study methods and reporting. A limited evidence base supports the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for CRC patients. Large-scale trials are needed before drawing definitive conclusions regarding intervention impact.

  18. Cost Analysis of Early Psychosocial Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, R.; Sørensen, J.; Waldorff, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. METHODS: Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163...

  19. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  20. [Psychosocial intervention in hospitalization due to alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, J; Solano, S

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a descriptive-type research on the findings of a 1-year follow-up experiment on a 72-inpatient at the Instituto sobre Alcoholismo y Fármacodependencia of the city of San José, Costa Rica. Information wa obtained from a 59-question instrument aimed at exploring: Sociodemographic aspects, alcohol ingestion-abstention patterns; interpersonal, family and labor relationships, autodiagnosis, and evaluation of the treatment program. During the 3-week inpatient treatment, a psychosocial treatment was administered to all subjects. Owing to the substantial changes patients evidenced in the above mentioned areas, findings suggest that the objectives were fulfilled satisfactorily enough.

  1. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  2. Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving

  3. Minority Youth, Broad Context and Inclusive Psychosocial intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    are proposed, based on the processes of inclusion at multiple levels. These processes of inclusion are fundamental to the principles in the psychosocial service (TTT) at the personal, interpersonal as well as societal level. At personal level, the intervention principle implies an identity with multiple...

  4. Is training in psychosocial interventions worthwhile? Report of a psychosocial intervention trainee follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Charlie; Saul, Carol; Robinson, Jeannie; King, Jenny; Dudley, Mike

    2003-09-01

    A follow-up study of psychosocial intervention (PSI) trainees from the Sheffield and Maudsley training centres was undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1, 141 students, at two PSI training centres, were sent a simple postal questionnaire to elicit career trajectory following PSI training. A response rate of 82% was achieved. The sub-group, who had been trained and who still engaged in clinical practice were identified and followed-up in more detail (n=96). The effect of PSI training in a range of domains was investigated. The impact of training may not be to equip students with formal technical skills in CBT and family work. What is more likely is that trainees acquired proficiency in: working effectively using a case management model; conveying 'therapeutic optimism'; enabling users to meet their own goals and helping them to develop better coping strategies; using 'stress vulnerability' and formal outcome measures as means of structuring this approach. The secondary aim of the study was to identify and prioritise the barriers that impede the effective implementation of PSI skills in routine service settings. For the second phase of the survey the response rate was again 82%. This group's service managers were identified and surveyed for the same information and 59% responded. The aim was to gather information about implementation issues from both the clinical and service perspectives. The results of the survey indicate that PSI training has a positive impact on the development of services for people with serious mental health problems although there are serious organisational hurdles for managers, trainees and organisations to overcome if PSI skills are to be properly implemented. Key factors that impact upon faithful implementation are related to resource issues (caseload size), organisational factors (the existence of an implementation plan and training strategy), and the extent to which the trainee's team is supportive.

  5. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  6. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey JN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available John N Harvey Diabetes Research Group, Wrexham Academic Unit, Bangor University, Wrexham, UK Abstract: Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient's health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic. Keywords: health beliefs, motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, adolescence

  7. Assessment effects in educational and psychosocial intervention trials: an important but often-overlooked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E

    2015-06-01

    Baseline assessments and repeated measures are an essential part of educational and psychosocial intervention trials, but merely measuring an outcome of interest can modify that outcome, either by the measurement process alone or by interacting with the intervention to strengthen or weaken the intervention effects. Assessment effects can result in biased estimates of intervention effects and may not be controlled by the usual two-group randomized controlled trial design. In this paper, we review the concept of assessment effects and other related phenomena, briefly describe study designs that estimate assessment effects separately from intervention effects and discuss their strengths and limitations, review evidence regarding the strength of assessment effects in intervention trials targeting behavior change, and discuss implications for intervention research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Towards recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: Quality of life outcomes, stage-sensitive treatments, and mindfulness mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Leitan, Nuwan D; Thomas, Neil; Michalak, Erin E; Johnson, Sheri L; Jones, Steven; Perich, Tania; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    a substantial number of symptoms 3 years after the incident. Thus, a treatment program designed to target PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed children was established. Objectives The first aim of this study was to provide preliminary evidence that a classroom-based psychosocial intervention program for children....... Furthermore, the results indicated that the Darryl instrument is a useful screening tool for assessing PTSD symptoms in this sample of children. Keywords Trauma Disaster Treatment Children Assessment...

  10. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism, and other shocking events: Guideline development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.; Vries, M. de; Duin, D. van; Rooze, M.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  11. A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for family carers of palliative care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kristina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being a family carer to a patient nearing the end of their life is a challenging and confronting experience. Studies show that caregiving can have negative consequences on the health of family carers including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, anxiety and burnout. One of the goals of palliative care is to provide psychosocial support to patients and families facing terminal illness. A systematic review of interventions for family carers of cancer and palliative care patients conducted at the start of this millennium demonstrated that there was a dearth of rigorous inquiry on this topic and consequently limited knowledge regarding the types of interventions likely to be effective in meeting the complex needs of family carers. We wanted to discern whether or not the evidence base to support family carers has improved. Furthermore, undertaking this review was acknowledged as one of the priorities for the International Palliative Care Family Carer Research Collaboration http://www.centreforpallcare.org. Methods A systematic review was undertaken in order to identify developments in family carer support that have occurred over the last decade. The focus of the review was on interventions that targeted improvements in the psychosocial support of family carers of palliative care patients. Studies were graded to assess their quality. Results A total of fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The focus of interventions included psycho-education, psychosocial support, carer coping, symptom management, sleep promotion and family meetings. Five studies were randomised controlled trials, three of which met the criteria for the highest quality evidence. There were two prospective studies, five pre-test/post-test projects and two qualitative studies. Conclusions The systematic review identified a slight increase in the quality and quantity of psychosocial interventions conducted for family carers in the last decade. More rigorous

  12. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership), employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers. A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational

  13. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater blinded trial. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics in five...... Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their 330 primary care givers. INTERVENTIONS: Participating dyads (patient and primary care giver) were randomised to control support during follow-up or to control support plus DAISY intervention (multifaceted and semi...... for attrition (P = 0.0146 and P = 0.0103 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The multifaceted, semi-tailored intervention with counselling, education, and support for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their care givers did not have any significant effect beyond that with well structured follow-up support at 12...

  14. Insights into workplace bullying: psychosocial drivers and effective interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartín, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi-) experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of antibullying interventions must flourish and be improved, requiring close cooperation between practitioners and academics to design, implement, and evaluate effective interventions based

  15. [Advances in psychosocial interventions on quality of life of cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefen; Wang, Jiwei; Gong, Xiaohuan; Yu, Jinming

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of psychosocial interventions' studies on quality of life in cancer survivors because of improving cancer survival rate. This paper was an integrative literatures review of various psychosocial interventions including cognitive behavioral therapy, group-based supportive therapy, counseling or psychotherapy, education or psychoeducation and music therapy et al, and analyzing the complexity of psychosocial interventions' RCTs in oncology and the current characteristic of these studies in China.

  16. Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It’s Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Baumler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.

  17. Insights into workplace bullying: psychosocial drivers and effective interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Escartín Department of Social Psychology, Facultad de Psicologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi- experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of

  18. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.

  19. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  20. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  1. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results

  2. The feasibility of implementing recovery, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis: comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Dunn, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Janosik, Monika; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2015-05-23

    Clinical guidelines for the treatment of people experiencing psychosis have existed for over a decade, but implementation of recommended interventions is limited. Identifying influences on implementation may help to reduce this translational gap. The Structured Assessment of Feasibility (SAFE) measure is a standardised assessment of implementation blocks and enablers. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the implementation blocks and enablers for recommended psychosis interventions. SAFE was used to evaluate and compare three groups of interventions recommended in the 2014 NICE psychosis guideline: pharmacological (43 trials testing 5 interventions), psychosocial (65 trials testing 5 interventions), and recovery (19 trials testing 5 interventions). The 127 trial reports rated with SAFE were supplemented by published intervention manuals, research protocols, trial registrations and design papers. Differences in the number of blocks and enablers across the three interventions were tested statistically, and feasibility profiles were generated. There was no difference between psychosocial and recovery interventions in the number of blocks or enablers to implementation. Pharmacological interventions (a) had fewer blocks than both psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 133.77, p recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 104.67, p recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 0.74, p = 0.863) but had fewer enablers than psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 28.92, p recovery and psychosocial interventions. Feasibility profiles show that pharmacological interventions are relatively easy to implement but can sometimes involve risks. Psychosocial and recovery interventions are relatively complex but tend to be more flexible and more often manualised. SAFE ratings can contribute to tackling the current implementation challenges in mental health services, by providing a reporting guideline structure for researchers to maximise the potential for

  3. Gender based violence and psychosocial intervention at Quito. Weaving narratives to construct new meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Guarderas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been done in Ecuador on psychosocial interventions involving gender violence. This article, based on research carried out in Quito with people who have experienced this type of violence, is intended to contribute to the debate on the subject. Through narrative production methodology, we hope to construct new meanings of psychosocial intervention and gender violence. The participants offer conceptions of gender violence that go beyond aspects usually taken into account in the creation of laws and services. They point out that current psychosocial intervention in response to gender violence tends to homogenize women, providing services that reduce these situations to woman/victim-man/perpetrator scenarios.

  4. Psychosocial child adjustment and family functioning in families reached with an assertive outreach intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots-de Vries, Carin; van de Goor, Ien; Stronks, Karien; Garretsen, Henk

    2011-06-01

    Families who experience a chronic complex of socio-economic and psychosocial problems are hard to reach with mainstream care. Evidence exists that the core of this problem is a problematic interaction between this type of family and current systems of care and services. To improve access to problem families, an assertive outreach intervention was implemented into the field of preventive child health care, The Netherlands. The study aimed to provide a more detailed insight into characteristics of the target group. Although there is consensus about some general features of hard to reach problem families, little is known about their specific characteristics because empirical studies among this group are rarely conducted. Especially, the problems of the children is shed insufficient light on. The studied population consisted of families included in the assertive outreach intervention delivered during one year (N=116). To assess psychosocial adjustment of the children, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was filled in by the parents. Furthermore, a Dutch questionnaire on family functioning was completed by professional carers. Descriptive data were calculated. The findings show that by using the assertive outreach intervention, programme staff came into contact with families characterised by a considerably higher than average proportion of single parents and unemployed households receiving social benefits. The families faced a high level of risk and a wide range of severe and multiple difficulties, including a lack of basic child care, an inadequate social network and poor parenting. Children in these families were also facing a number of risks. The proportion of psychosocial problems was well above the (inter)national average. The findings reveal the problem areas of unreached families and a need to improve the access to care for these families.

  5. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withaya Chanchai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2 Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3 Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4 Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%. The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5 Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment.

  6. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  7. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in Che

  8. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in Che

  9. Psychosocial changes in the Mississippi communities for healthy living (MCHL) nutrition intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial changes reported by participants in a nutrition education intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta. The psychosocial constructs such as decisional balance (DB), self-efficacy (SE), and social support (SS) are correlated with fruit and ve...

  10. Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving sk

  11. Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving sk

  12. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  13. Progeria: Medical Aspects, Psychosocial Perspectives, and Intervention Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses progeria (or Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome), a rare childhood disorder that invariably results in death during adolescence. Describes the major medical aspects of progeria, and discusses the psychosocial implications of the disorder with particular emphasis on grief-triggered reactions. Presents an overview of psychosocial intervention…

  14. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  15. Smoking cessation in pregnancy: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Miyazaki,1 Kunihiko Hayashi,2 Setsuko Imazeki1 1Faculty of Health Care, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki, 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan Background: Smoking during pregnancy causes obstetric and fetal complications, and smoking cessation may have great benefits for the mother and the child. However, some pregnant women continue smoking even in pregnancy.Objective: To review the literature addressing the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, explore psychosocial factors associated with smoking, and review the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy in recent years.Literature review: Computerized Internet search results in PubMed for the years spanning from 2004 to 2014, as well as references cited in articles, were reviewed. A search for the keywords “smoking cessation pregnancy” and “intervention” and “clinical trials” yielded 52 citations. Thirty-five citations were identified as useful to this review for the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy.Results: The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy differs by country, reflecting the countries’ social, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds. Women who had socioeconomic disadvantages, problems in their interpersonal relationships, higher stress, depression, less social support, and who engaged in health-risk behaviors were more prone to smoking during pregnancy. Psychosocial interventions, such as counseling, are effective methods for increasing smoking cessation.Conclusion: Smokers may have various psychosocial problems in addition to health problems. It is important to understand each individual’s social situation or psychosocial characteristics, and a psychosocial intervention focused on the characteristics of the individual is required. Keywords: women’s health, smoking cessation, pregnancy, psychosocial intervention  

  16. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  17. Children and Mothers in War: An Outcome Study of a Psychosocial Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdahl, Ragnhild

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated effects on children in Bosnia and Herzegovina of a 5-month psychosocial intervention program of weekly group meetings for mothers. Found that although all participants were exposed to severe trauma, their distress varied considerably. The intervention program had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, children's weight gain, and…

  18. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  19. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  20. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, A.; Assink, M.; van Vugt, E.; van der Put, C.; Stams, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel

  1. Psychosocial interventions for the promotion of mental health and the prevention of depression among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Nordmyr, Johanna; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for the promotion of mental health and prevention of depression among older people. A systematic review of prospective controlled trials was conducted including 69 studies. The studies were divided into physical exercise, skill training, reminiscence, social activities, group support and multicomponent interventions. Data from 44 trials contributed to a meta-analysis of effectiveness. Overall, psychosocial interventions had a positive effect on quality of life and positive mental health. The pooled interventions also had a statistically significant effect on reduction in depressive symptoms. Social activities significantly improved positive mental health, life satisfaction and quality of life and reduced depressive symptoms. Based on the results of this study, duration of interventions is of importance, since interventions lasting for >3 months exhibited more positive effects compared with shorter interventions. Meaningful social activities, tailored to the older individual's abilities and preferences should be considered in aiming to improve mental health among older people.

  2. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions delivered by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, M.J.H.; Beurskens, A.J.H.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients visit their general practitioner (GP) because of problems that are psychosocial in origin. However, for many of these problems there is no evidence-based treatment available in primary care, and these patients place time-consuming demands on their GP. Therefore, GPs could b

  3. Humanitarian Curriculum and Psychosocial Interventions: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Gonzalo; Low, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical description of the impact of violence and natural disasters on schoolchildren. It attempts to explore the present state of the art in psychosocial aspects of education and the curriculum in humanitarian settings. This is carried out through a compilation and a brief annotated bibliography of existing literature…

  4. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  5. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Methods Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. Results The s...

  6. Effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in improving communication and psychosocial exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B

    2007-07-01

    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain.

  7. Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy Maynard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND School refusal is a psychosocial problem characterized by a student’s difficulty attending school and, in many cases, substantial absence from school (Heyne & Sauter, 2013. It is often distinguished from truancy, in part because of the severe emotional distress associated with having to attend school and the absence of severe antisocial behavior. Truancy, on the other hand, is not typically associated with emotional distress and is commonly associated with severe externalizing behavior. The emotional distress associated with school refusal is often in the form of fear or anxiety, and sometimes in the form of depression. School refusal occurs for about 1-2% of young people, and estimates among clinically referred youth are considerably higher. There is substantial heterogeneity in both the presentation of school refusal and its associated risk factors. Significant adverse consequences may occur in the short- and long-term, including school dropout and problems with social adjustment. Family members and school staff are also affected by school refusal. The most commonly studied interventions for school refusal are behavioral approaches and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. The overarching aim of these interventions is the reduction of the young person’s emotional distress and an increase in school attendance to help the young person follow a normal developmental pathway (Heyne & Sauter, 2013. Behavioral interventions include exposure-based interventions, relaxation training, and/or social skills training with the student, and contingency management procedures with the parents and school staff. CBT manuals additionally focus attention on the identification and modification of maladaptive cognition that may maintain the young person’s emotional distress and absenteeism. In some instances parent cognition is also targeted. Other interventions have been used to treat school refusal (e.g., psychodynamic treatment, family therapy

  8. Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, M.J.D.; Komproe, I.H.; Tol, W.A.; Kohrt, B.A.; Luitel, N.P.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background:  In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in con

  9. Psychosocial interventions for adolescents and young adult cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Diana; Koehler, Michael; Friedrich, Michael; Hilgendorf, Inken; Mehnert, Anja; Weißflog, Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients experience unique psychosocial needs and developmental challenges. A cancer diagnosis can stress this development and disrupt AYAs in their normal life. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on mental health in AYAs. A literature research was conducted, which resulted in twelve eligible studies. The standardized mean difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.13 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.42) for quality of life, 0.27 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.76) for cancer-related knowledge and -0.16 (95% CI: -0.73 to 0.42) on psychological distress indicating, small and non-significant effects for interventions improving mental health. This work strengthens the need for age-appropriated interventions in psycho-oncology. Future research should develop interventions more graduated by age. Randomized intervention studies with larger samples and focusing psychosocial outcomes are needed to establish evidence-based psycho-oncological interventions for AYAs.

  10. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  11. European clinical guidelines for Tourette Syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III : behavioural and psychosocial interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdellen, Cara; van de Griendt, Jolande; Hartmann, Andreas; Murphy, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This clinical guideline provides recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted to obt

  12. Psychosocial interventions for patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitterhoeve, R.J.; Vernooy, M.; Litjens, M.; Potting, K.; Bensing, J.; Mulder, P. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2004-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with emotional distress, especially depression and feelings of sadness. To date, it is unclear which is the most effective way to address these problems. This review focuses on the effects of psychosocial interventions on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with advan

  13. Effectiveness of a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, C; Hunfeld, JAM; Duivenvoorden, HJ; den Outer, MA; Fauser, BCJM; Passchier, J; Macklon, NS

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples. In this article the results on women's distress are presented. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-five couples admitted to an IVF treatment programme at the Erasmus MC were asked to pa

  14. Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental health condition characterized by broad impairments in cognition that place profound limitations on functional recovery. Social work has an enduring legacy in pioneering the development of novel psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, and in this article the author introduces cognitive remediation, the…

  15. Goal Attainment Scaling as an Outcome Measure in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychosocial Interventions in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Goal attainment scaling (GAS) holds promise as an idiographic approach for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions in community settings. GAS has been criticized for untested assumptions of scaling level (i.e., interval or ordinal), inter-individual equivalence and comparability, and reliability of coding across different behavioral…

  16. European ways to combat psychosocial risks related to work organisation : towards organisational interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.

    2004-01-01

    From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was

  17. Trauma Collaborative Care Intervention: Effect on Surgeon Confidence in Managing Psychosocial Complications After Orthopaedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Stephen T; Carroll, Eben A; Gary, Joshua L; McKinley, Todd O; OʼToole, Robert V; Sietsema, Debra L; Castillo, Renan C; Frey, Katherine P; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Huang, Yanjie; Collins, Susan C J; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-08-01

    The impact of the Trauma Collaborative Care (TCC) program on surgeon confidence in managing the psychosocial sequelae of orthopaedic trauma was evaluated as part of a larger prospective, multisite, cluster clinical trial. We compared confidence and perceived resource availability among surgeons practicing in trauma centers that implemented the TCC program with orthopaedic trauma surgeons in similar trauma centers that did not implement the TCC. Prospective cohort design. Level-I trauma centers. Attending surgeons and fellows (N = 95 Pre and N = 82 Post). Self-report 10-item measure of surgeon confidence in managing psychosocial issues associated with trauma and perceived availability of support resources. Analyses, performed on the entire sample and repeated on the subset of 52 surgeons who responded to the survey at both times points, found surgeons at intervention sites experienced a significantly greater positive improvement (P < 0.05) in their (1) belief that they have strategies to help orthopaedic trauma patients change their psychosocial situation; (2) confidence in making appropriate referrals for orthopaedic trauma patients with psychosocial problems; and (3) belief that they have access to information to guide the management of psychosocial issues related to recovery. Initial data suggest that the establishment of the TCC program can improve surgeons' perceived availability of resources and their confidence in managing the psychosocial sequelae after injury. Further studies will be required to determine if this translates into beneficial patient effects. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Family carers’ experiences of attending a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program for carers and persons with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aud Johannessen,1 Frøydis Kristine Bruvik,1,3,4 Solveig Hauge2 1Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, 2Norway Faculty of Health and Social Studies and Centre of Caring Research – Southern Norway, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, 3Kavli Centre, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen, 4Haraldsplass Deaconess University College, Bergen, Norway Background: Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers’ experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Methods: Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50–82 years who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Results: Two main categories emerged: 1 benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants’ experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories “importance of content and group organization” and “importance of social support”; and 2 missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants’ suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories “need for extended content” and “need for new group organization”. Conclusion: The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and

  19. Psychosocial Intervention with ethnic minority families in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    that relatively newer conceptualizations such as identities with multiple dimensions, transnationalism, resilience orientation and health promotion play a salient role in family intervention in this era of globalization perceived as the growing interconnectedness between people around the world with regards...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia

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    Vos Theo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention. Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates

  1. The singing nurse?! Music therapy, interdisciplinarity and an overview of research in psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    , and music therapy is described as an effective psychosocial intervention for reducing agitation in persons with dementia. I will shortly refer to an exploratory RCT where we found that 6 weeks of biweekly music therapy sessions reduced agitation disruptiveness as well as the prescription of psychotropic...... be carried out as direct practice (Bunt & Stige, 2014) but also as indirect music therapy practice. Indirect practice is suggested to play an important role in future culture of care in nursing homes with the music therapist as a key ‘actor’ in implementing music interventions in daily care situations, e.......g. in dyads with caregivers or relatives and the person with dementia. The aim is to provide and develop psychosocial interventions in the interdisciplinary team, and to support staff and caregivers in their use of music as part of the daily culture of care. References Bunt, L. & Stige, B. (2014). Music...

  2. [Evaluation of interventions intended to reduce psychosocial work stress. Proposal for a classification scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, R; Bauer, J; Nübling, M; Rose, U; Krause, A

    2011-08-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress is sporadic. This is contradictory to the requirement identified by the German Social Security Code (SGB VII) that interventions constitute the most important method of maintaining and improving employees' health. Reasons for this can be seen in the complexity of the subject and methodological issues concerning scientific standards. In addition, agreed quality standards are nonexistent for the evaluation of intervention measures. For this reason, a synopsis of existing audit and evaluation schemes was performed, thus, resulting in refined and adapted quality standards for intervention measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress. The quality criteria presented in this paper comprise aims, effectiveness, and facilitators, each being composed of several indicators. The criteria are designed as quality indicators which translate the outcome of an evaluation into quality figures. The process is transparent and offers a rational basis for communication, planning, and decision-making in health promotion.

  3. Psychosocial interventions in workplace mental health promotion: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabała, Czesław; Charzyńska, Katarzyna; Mroziak, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    A review based on the DataPrev final report concerning workplace mental health promotion is presented. Out of 4865 studies identified in a comprehensive bibliographical data search, 315 were selected for abstract screening and 79 were included in the final review. The studies were categorized in terms of their aims/expected outcomes and evaluated for quality on the grounds of their design and type of analysis. The most frequent aims were stress reduction and better coping, followed by increased job satisfaction and effectiveness, mental health enhancement and reduction in mental health-related absenteeism. In the 79 intervention studies, 99 outcome variables were measured using 163 instruments, mostly developed for the study purposes. Different intervention categories turned out to be used to attain the same aim, with skills training being the most popular (other approaches included improvement of occupational qualifications and working conditions, physical exercise, relaxation and multicomponent interventions). Among the few intervention programs that were implemented and evaluated in two or more studies, the Stress Inoculation Training (Cecil and Forman, in Effects of stress inoculation training and coworker support groups on teachers' stress. Journal of School Psychology, 28, 105, 1990) based on the model by Meichenbaum (Meichenbaum, in Stress Inoculation Training. Pergamon Press, New York, 1985) seemed to be the most promising. Its effectiveness, evidenced in a majority of the measures, was evaluated in studies using the randomized controlled design. This paper is illustrated by high-quality intervention studies. In high and moderate quality studies, positive effects were reported in about a half of the examined outcome variables. However, conclusive evidence of intervention programs effectiveness would require further research-repetition of studies using treatments equivalent to the experimental ones, and outcome evaluation taking into account other criteria

  4. Timing of intervention affects brain electrical activity in children exposed to severe psychosocial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E Vanderwert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early psychosocial deprivation has profound effects on brain activity in the young child. Previous reports have shown increased power in slow frequencies of the electroencephalogram (EEG, primarily in the theta band, and decreased power in higher alpha and beta band frequencies in infants and children who have experienced institutional care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the consequences of removing infants from institutions and placing them into a foster care intervention on brain electrical activity when children were 8 years of age. We found the intervention was successful for increasing high frequency EEG alpha power, with effects being most pronounced for children placed into foster care before 24 months of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dependence on age of placement for the effects observed on high frequency EEG alpha power suggests a sensitive period after which brain activity in the face of severe psychosocial deprivation is less amenable to recovery.

  5. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. The skills of facilitators included 10 intervention techniques and 1 problem in interventions. Intervention techniques, which promote group dynamics and thereby help participants acquire improvements in their coping abilities and quality of life (QOL), were somewhat different between new and experienced facilitators, with the content showing immaturity and maturity in the new and experienced facilitators, respectively. Both experienced and new facilitators faced the risk of experiencing problems in interventions, which countered the purpose of the intervention of improving the participants' coping abilities or QOL. While intervention skills are necessary for facilitators to execute group interventions, it must be borne in mind, that even well-experienced facilitators may not always be able to accomplish skillful intervention.

  6. [Social cognition of schizophrenia: bridging gap between brain science and psychosocial intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Ikezawa, Satoru; Miura, Sachie; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hidai, Shin-Ichi; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    The concept and assessment tools for social cognition of schizophrenia were reviewed in order to bridge the gap between brain cognitive science and psycho-social intervention. Social cognition as well as neuro-cognition strongly influences social functioning, and the impact of neuro-cognition is mediated by social cognition. Neuronal networks of personal identification, facial perception, emotional identification, eye contact, "theory of mind", mutual communication, and the decision-making process have been clarified recently. The results of face discrimination and emotion recognition tasks show impairment in persons with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls, especially fear, dislike, and sad recognition tasks. It might be difficult for them to link ambiguous stimuli with specific emotions, and they have a tendency to recognize uncomfortable emotions easily. "Jumping to conclusions" tendency (JTC) was identified in previous research on delusion. JTC develops from information uptake bias and confidence bias, and they might be thought to be trait and state. Social problem-solving is the skill to use social cognition to comprehensively adjust to specific social situations, and processing skills of social problem-solving are related to divergent thinking. Rating scales and the results of previous studies on emotion recognition, social perception, attribution style, and "theory of mind" were summarized. Furthermore, psycho-social interventions to improve emotion recognition directly, JTC, and divergent thinking were reported. Interventions aiming at improving social cognition or meta-cognition directly have been recently developed, which might improve some components of social functioning that used to be difficult to improve. These concepts of social cognition and researches on brain science, assessment tools, and intervention methods would clarify the mechanisms of the effects of psycho-social interventions, improve their methodology, and help to develop new

  7. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  8. Psychosocial intervention for children with narcolepsy: Parents' expectations and perceived support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippola-Pääkkönen, Anu; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Valkonen, Jukka; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2016-04-18

    The study focuses on the parents of children who were affected by narcolepsy after a pandemic influenza and vaccination campaign in Finland. The main aim of the study was to clarify parents' expectations and perceived support from the intervention and to assess their need for additional support. The data were gathered using questionnaires. Fifty-eight parents answered the baseline questionnaire and 40 parents the final questionnaire. Parents' expectations of and perceived support from the intervention mainly related to peer support. The intervention offered an arena for sharing information and experiences and provided encouragement for coping in everyday life. Many expectations were not met, especially those concerning information about needed services, financial benefits and availability of local support. The results highlight that for persons with rare disorders and their families, an inpatient psychosocial intervention can offer an important arena to receive both informal and professionally led peer support. Comprehensive psychosocial and other support services are also needed in the community. Listening to parents' perspectives on the intervention and perceived support can help to establish multiform family-centred support for families with children affected by a rare chronic disabling condition. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Family-oriented psychosocial intervention in children with cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ostadhashemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, evidence has shown the growing trend of published studies on family-oriented interventions in children with cancer. Besides shedding light on the current status of knowledge, a review of the existing evidence can serve an effective step toward designing and implementing appropriate interventions in this domain. Methods: This systematic review was carried out to categorize and report the findings of all types of psychosocial interventions on the family caregivers of children with cancer. The English keywords "family career", "family caregiver", “children with cancer", "psychosocial", "intervention”, “educational", and "childhood cancer" were searched in CINAHL, Web of Science (ISI, PsychINFO, Pubmed and Scopus databanks, and equivalent Persian keywords were searched in the SID of Jihad University, IRANDOC, and IranPsych and Magiran databanks. From among 819 papers found between 1994 and 2014, a total of 17 articles were included in the study after qualitative evaluation. Results: Interventions were often performed on mothers and indicated various interventional approaches. The majority of the interventions were cognitive-behavioral which were reported to be effective in improving the measured criteria such as increasing the quality of life, decreasing emotional distress, anxiety and depression, and increasing adaptive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings were generally reported to be hopeful and most of interventions were reported to have positive effects on the participants, among which behavioral-cognitive interventions were found to show the strongest evidence. Supportive interventions must be considered as an indispensable part of care for children with cancer.

  10. Psychosocial risk factors, interventions and comorbidity in patients with non-specific low back pain in primary care: need for comprehensive and patient-centered care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eRamond-Roquin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific low back pain (LBP affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical and occupational may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for

  11. A Participatory Physical and Psychosocial Intervention for Balancing the Demands and Resources Among Industrial Workers (PIPPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Christian Dyrlund; Nøhr Henriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    will be carried out allowing team members to discuss current physical and psychosocial work demands and resources, and develop action plans to minimize strain and if possible, optimize the resources. At all levels, the intervention will be integrated into the existing organization of work schedules. An extensive...... receive the intervention in year two. More than 400 workers from three companies in Denmark will be aimed to be cluster randomized into intervention and control groups with at least 200 workers (at least 9 work teams) in each group. An organizational resources audit and subsequent action planning workshop......Background: Need for recovery and work ability are strongly associated with high employee turnover, well-being and sickness absence. However, scientific knowledge on effective interventions to improve work ability and decrease need for recovery is scarce. Thus, the present study aims to describe...

  12. Basic nursing care: retrospective evaluation of communication and psychosocial interventions documented by nurses in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia; Pérez, Esperanza Zuriguel; Padrés, Núria Fabrellas; Samartino, Maribel Gonzalez; García, Marta Romero; Creus, Mònica Castellà; Batllori, Núria Vila; Calvo, Cristina Matud

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of psychosocial aspects of basic nursing care, as e-charted by nurses, when using an interface terminology. An observational, multicentre study was conducted in acute wards. The main outcome measure was the frequency of use of the psychosocial interventions in the electronic nursing care plans, analysed over a 12 month retrospective review. Overall, 150,494 electronic care plans were studied. Most of the intervention concepts from the interface terminology were used by registered nurses to illustrate the psychosocial aspects of fundamentals of care in the electronic care plans. The results presented help to demonstrate that the interventions of this interface terminology may be useful to inform psychosocial aspects of basic and advanced nursing care. The identification of psychosocial elements of basic nursing care in the nursing documentation may lead to obtain a deeper understanding of those caring interventions nurses consider essential to represent nurse-patient interactions. The frequency of psychosocial interventions may contribute to delineate basic and advanced nursing care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Why Latinas With Breast Cancer Select Specific Informal Caregivers to Participate With Them in Psychosocial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Terry; Segrin, Chris; Swiatkowski, Paulina; McNelis, Melissa; Weihs, Karen; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasons 88 Latinas with breast cancer selected specific supportive others to participate in an 8-week psychosocial intervention. Participants were asked one open-ended question during the baseline assessment for a larger clinical trial: "Could you tell me more about why you selected [insert name] to participate in the study with you?" A content analysis of the responses found three thematic categories: source of informational or emotional support, concern for the informal caregiver's welfare, and special characteristics or qualities of the informal caregiver. These findings reflected both the cultural value of familism, the woman's role as caregiver to the family ( marianismo), and the man's role of provider ( machismo). Findings provide support for including the supportive person identified by the patient during a health crisis rather than the provider suggesting who that should be. Psychosocial services designed and implemented through such a cultural lens are more likely to be successful.

  14. Psychosocial interventions for addiction-affected families in Low and Middle Income Countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Anil; Church, Sydney; Bhatia, Urvita; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To review the literature on psychosocial interventions for addiction affected family members in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). A systematic review with a detailed search strategy focussing on psychosocial interventions directed towards people affected by addiction without any gender, year or language specifications was conducted. Identified titles and abstracts were screened; where needed full papers retrieved, and then independently reviewed. Data was extracted based on the aims of the study, to describe the modalities, acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the interventions. Four papers met our selection criteria. They were published between 2003 and 2014; the total sample size was 137 participants, and two studies were from Mexico and one each from Vietnam and Malaysia. The predominantly female participants comprised of parents, spouses and siblings. The common components of all the interventions included providing information regarding addiction, teaching coping skills, and providing support. Though preliminary these small studies suggests a positive effect on affected family members (AFM). There was lowering of psychological and physical distress, along with a better understanding of addictive behaviour. The interventions led to better coping; with improvements in self-esteem and assertive behaviour. The interventions, mostly delivered in group settings, were largely acceptable. The limited evidence does suggest positive benefits to AFMs. The scope of research needs to be extended to other addictions, and family members other than spouse and female relatives. Indigenous and locally adapted interventions are needed to address this issue keeping in mind the limited resources of LMIC. This is a field indeed in its infancy and this under recognised and under-served group needs urgent attention of researchers and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived benefits and psychosocial outcomes of a brief existential family intervention for cancer patients/survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlan, Robert W; Butler, Lisa D; Rosenbaum, Ernest; Siegel, Alison; Spiegel, David

    This study assessed a range of benefits from participation in a brief existential intervention consisting of a semi-structured videotaped interview with cancer patients and their families designed to illuminate a life legacy for the family (the Life Tape Project [LTP]). Results indicated the majority reported intervention-specific benefits, especially in the areas of symbolic immortality (passing on personal values and philosophy), self-reflection and growth, and improved family cohesion and communication. Participants, particularly those who had perceived their cancer as a threat of death, serious injury, or threat to their physical integrity, and responded with intense fear or helplessness, also reported more general reductions in mood disturbance, improvements in aspects of well-being (including overall quality of life), satisfaction with the understanding they received, and enhanced cancer-related posttraumatic growth. In short, the LTP is a brief, inexpensive, existential intervention that can yield broad positive psychosocial changes for a majority of participants.

  16. A new generation of pragmatic trials of psychosocial interventions is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, M; Lasalvia, A; Bonetto, C

    2013-06-01

    This Editorial addresses the crucial issue of which research methodology is most suited for capturing the complexity of psychosocial interventions conducted in 'real world' mental health settings. It first examines conventional randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology and critically appraises its strengths and weaknesses. It then considers the specificity of mental health care treatments and defines the term 'complex' intervention and its implications for RCT design. The salient features of pragmatic RCTs aimed at generating evidence of psychosocial intervention effectiveness are then described. Subsequently, the conceptualization of pragmatic RCTs, and of their further developments - which we propose to call 'new generation' pragmatic trials - in the broader routine mental health service context, is explored. Helpful tools for planning pragmatic RCTs, such as the CONSORT extension for pragmatic trials, and the PRECIS tool are also examined. We then discuss some practical challenges that are involved in the design and implementation of pragmatic trials based on our own experience in conducting the GET UP PIANO Trial. Lastly, we speculate on the ways in which current ideas on the purpose, scope and ethics of mental health care research may determine further challenges for clinical research and evidence-based practice.

  17. Immunological changes associated with clinical improvement of asthmatic children subjected to psychosocial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castés, M; Hagel, I; Palenque, M; Canelones, P; Corao, A; Lynch, N R

    1999-03-01

    In the present study we evaluated the impact of a program of psychosocial intervention (PSI) on the immunological status and the clinical management of a group of asthmatic children of an island population in Venezuela. We studied a total of 35 asthmatic children who belonged to either a PSI group (19 patients) or a control group (16 patients), both of which received conventional antiasthmatic treatment. The PSI group received, in addition, a 6-month psychosocial intervention program which included relaxation, guided imagery, and self-esteem workshops. During the PSI period, the number of asthmatic episodes and the use of bronchodilator medication were significantly reduced, and pulmonary function was significantly improved, compared to the 6 months before intervention. There was also a significant reduction in the specific IgE responses against the most important allergen in these children, the intestinal parasite Ascaris lumbricoides. PSI resulted in a significant increase of NK cells, an augmented expression of the T-cell receptor for IL-2, and a significant decrease of leukocytes with low affinity receptors for IgE. In fact, these surface markers became similar to those of nonasthmatic children from both Coche Island and the mainland. None of these clinical or immunological changes were seen in the control group of asthmatics who did not undergo PSI. These results are consistent with the possibility that PSI induces immunological alterations that are responsible for the clinical and physiological improvements observed in the study group. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  19. The effect of psychosocial supportive interventions on PTSD symptoms after Bam earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fakour

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive – behavioral therapy and psychological debriefing in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and a few evidences are available for using these techniques in large scale disasters. This study aimed to asses the effect of some psychological interventions in reducing PTSD symptoms after Bam earthquake in different age groups. Methods: In a before-after quasi experimental clinical trial, we compared the efficacy of one session of psychological debriefing and three sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in bam earthquake PTSD symptoms in different age groups. We evaluated PTSD symptoms before and immediately and three months after interventions by CASP scaling system and analyzed data. Results: one hundred and thirty persons entered in the study and 51 persons excluded during interventions because of migration. Interventions were showed to be effective only in short term period. The means of PTSD symptoms frequency and severity of avoidance symptoms were reduced during three months period of study which were statistically significant P<0.05. Interventions showed no efficacy for recall symptoms in long term and hyper arousal symptoms in short term and long term periods. There was no statistically significant difference among age groups. Conclusion: Psychosocial supportive interventions may be effective on some of the PTSD symptoms but there is no difference in different age groups.

  20. [Provincial public center for crisis intervention and psycho-social rehabilitation. A path towards communitary suicidology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work on the systematic comprehensive approach towards the Prevention and Postvencion of Suicide started to develop back in mid 2011 in Río Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz Province. The first step on this development was a Pilot Plan for the Training of Professionals and also field intervention. The Center for Crisis Intervention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation was founded eight months later. The case-client in crisis plus family group- undergoes quantitative and qualitative evaluation by means of a triage system, all of which allows starting intensive face-to-face and also phone follow up according to the Crisis Intervention Model. Such intervention is developed by means of the participation in the "Grupo Sostén", the Adolescents Group if the client fits into that age, and also family relationship interviews as well as Multi-family meetings open to the Community. There is also a Community Team in the Center which performs collective assessment in schools, in conjunction with the "Equidad en Redes" Educational Specialty Team, belonging to the Provincial Education Council. The approach takes place on the field, and works as a screening step for the early detection of risk. Such risk is dealt with by means of short term intervention group programs involving the whole of the educational community. When facing situations of committed suicide there are interventions in communities to the interior of the province, fundamentally through the Hospital Team which works as the cluster convener for the social intersectoral frame-work.

  1. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Karlsen, Randi; Christensen, Jane; Paaschburg, Birgitte; Nielsen, Dorte; Bloch, Iben Seier; Christiansen, Birgitte; Jacobsen, Kathrine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-06-01

    To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC and marital relationship measured by BLRI in women with primary breast cancer conducted 10 weeks after surgery. A secondary outcome was 4-year survival. We randomly assigned 210 patients with primary breast cancer to a control or an intervention group. Patients in the intervention group were offered two weekly 6-h sessions of psycho-education and eight weekly 2-h sessions of group psychotherapy. All participants were followed up for Quality of Life, coping ability and social relations 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention and on survival 4 years after surgical treatment. No statistically significant effects of the intervention were found on any of the psychosocial questionnaire outcomes. There were not enough cases of death to analyse overall survival. The only statistically significant result was for patients who used anti depressive medication, for whom almost all measures improved over time, in both the control and intervention groups. Psycho-education and group psychotherapy did not decrease psychological distress or increase Quality of Life, Mental Adjustment or improve marital relationship among patients with primary breast cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-14

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  3. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  4. Psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected families in Haiti: implications for programs and policies for orphans and vulnerable children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Surkan, Pamela J; Scanlan, Fiona; Hook, Sarah; Mancuso, Anna; Mukherjee, Joia S

    2012-05-01

    Given the increased access of antiretroviral therapy (ART) throughout the developing world, what was once a terminal illness is now a chronic disease for those receiving treatment. This requires a paradigmatic shift in service provision for those affected by HIV/AIDS in low-resource settings. Although there is a need for psychosocial support interventions for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers, to date there has been limited empirical evidence on the effectiveness of curriculum-based psychosocial support groups in HIV-affected families in low-income countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility and assess the preliminary effectiveness of a psychosocial support group intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in central Haiti. The study was conducted at six Partners In Health-affiliated sites between February 2006 and September 2008 and included quantitative as well as qualitative methods. HIV-affected youth (n = 168) and their caregivers (n = 130) completed a baseline structured questionnaire prior to participation in a psychosocial support group intervention. Ninety-five percent of families completed the intervention and a follow-up questionnaire. Psychological symptoms, psychosocial functioning, social support, and HIV-related stigma at baseline were compared with outcomes one year later. Qualitative methods were also used to assess the participants' perspectives of the intervention. Comparing pre- and post-intervention assessment, youth affected by HIV experienced decreased psychological symptoms as well as improved psychosocial functioning and social support. Caregivers (95% HIV-positive) demonstrated a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, improved social support, and decreased HIV-related stigma. Although further study is needed to assess effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial, corroborative findings from qualitative data reflected reduced psychological distress, less social isolation and

  5. Systematic review and meta-analyses of psychosocial interventions for veterans of the military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Kitchiner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of psychosocial therapies for common mental health disorders in veterans is unclear and requires further examination. Method: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Twenty databases were searched. Studies were included if they reported a psychosocial intervention designed to treat or reduce common mental health symptoms in veterans identified as being symptomatic at the time they entered the study. Studies of substance dependency disorders and psychosis were excluded. Eligible studies were assessed against methodological quality criteria and data were extracted and analysed. Results: Twenty-nine RCTs were identified. There was evidence for the use of trauma-focused therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and some evidence for psychological interventions in the treatment of borderline personality disorder, depression, insomnia, and panic disorder co-morbid to PTSD. However, methodological quality of many of the studies was less than optimal. Conclusions: Trauma-focused psychological therapies are likely to be effective for combat-related PTSD but there is a need for more research to determine the efficacy of psychological treatments for other mental health disorders in veterans.

  6. [Psychosocial Interventions in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahunca Velásquez, Luisa Fernanda; García Valencia, Jenny; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Palacio Acosta, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the psychosocial strategies designed to improve the outcomes in adults with schizophrenia in both, acute and stable phase of the disorder. This evidence is used to propose recommendation in the guidelines of integral attention for the diagnosis, treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of adults with schizophrenia. A guideline for clinical practice was developed using the methodological framework of the Ministerio de la Protección Social to collect evidence and grading recommendations. A search, evaluation and synthesis of evidence were carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The psychoeducation and family intervention showed higher efficacy, compared with the usual treatment, to prevent relapses and hospital readmissions, to reduce family burden and to improve adherence to treatment. The social skill training was effective to improve symptoms, social functioning and quality of life. However, the quality of evidence was low. There was not enough evidence about the efficacy of occupational therapy, but considering patients preferences and its wide clinical utilization, the GDG suggested its inclusion. Psychoeducation, family intervention and social skill training are recommended to be offered for the treatment of schizophrenia. Furthermore, occupational therapy is suggested for inpatients and outpatients with the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdellen, Cara; van de Griendt, Jolande; Hartmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This clinical guideline provides recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted...... to obtain an update on the efficacy of BPI for tics. Relevant studies were identified using computerised searches of the Medline and PsycINFO databases and the Cochrane Library for the years 1950-2010. The search identified no meta-analyses, yet twelve (systematic) reviews and eight randomised controlled...... trials provided evidence for the current review. Most evidence was found for habit reversal training (HRT) and the available but smaller evidence also supports the efficacy of exposure with response prevention (ERP). Both interventions are considered first line behavioural treatments for tics for both...

  8. A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction With Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen; Abraham, Amanda; Seymour, Brittany; McLoyd, Keli; Chalk, Mady; Festinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Opioid use and overdose rates have risen to epidemic levels in the United States during the past decade. Fortunately, there are effective medications (ie, methadone, buprenorphine, and oral and injectable naltrexone) available for the treatment of opioid addiction. Each of these medications is approved for use in conjunction with psychosocial treatment; however, there is a dearth of empirical research on the optimal psychosocial interventions to use with these medications. In this systematic review, we outline and discuss the findings of 3 prominent prior reviews and 27 recent publications of empirical studies on this topic. The most widely studied psychosocial interventions examined in conjunction with medications for opioid addiction were contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy, with the majority focusing on methadone treatment. The results generally support the efficacy of providing psychosocial interventions in combination with medications to treat opioid addictions, although the incremental utility varied across studies, outcomes, medications, and interventions. The review highlights significant gaps in the literature and provides areas for future research. Given the enormity of the current opioid problem in the United States, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the most effective ways to deliver psychosocial treatments in conjunction with these medications to improve the health and well-being of individuals suffering from opioid addiction.

  9. Psychosocial approaches to violence and aggression: contextually anchored and trauma-informed interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Deborah; Guyer, Margaret; Sanders, Kathy

    2015-06-01

    Psychosocial interventions are part of the complex understanding and treatment of violent behavior in our state mental health hospitals. A comprehensive assessment of violence and aggression includes attention to all 3 domains of prevention and assessment (primary-institutional, secondary-structural, and tertiary-direct). Trauma experiences and their consequences may include behavioral violence and aggression. The authors' premise is that trauma is a universal component in the individual assessment of violent behavior. Therapeutic interventions must include a trauma-informed formulation to be effective. Organizational commitment to trauma-informed, person-centered, recovery-oriented (TPR) care is crucial to the efficacy of any of the interventions discussed. Thus, the dynamic nature of the individual, interpersonal, environmental, and cultural factors associated with the daily operations of the inpatient unit need to be assessed through the lens of primary and secondary violence prevention, building on the recognition that the majority of persons served and staff have significant trauma histories. Once a compassionate, respectful, empathic, and empowering approach is embraced by leadership and staff, the work with individuals can proceed more effectively. Interventions used include a variety of cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, and somatosensory therapies. These interventions, when effectively applied, result in more self-esteem, self-mastery, self-control for the person served, and diminished behavioral violence.

  10. Ecological Momentary Interventions: Incorporating Mobile Technology Into Psychosocial and Health Behavior Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Psychosocial and health behavior treatments and therapies can be extended beyond traditional research or clinical settings by using mobile technology to deliver interventions to individuals as they go about their daily lives. These Ecological Momentary Interventions [EMI] are treatments that are provided to people during their everyday lives (i.e., in real time) and in natural settings (i.e., real world). The goal of the present review is to synthesize and critique mobile technology-based EMI aimed at improving health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Methods Twenty-seven interventions using palmtop computers or mobile phones to deliver ambulatory treatment for smoking cessation, weight loss, anxiety, diabetes management, eating disorders, alcohol use, and healthy eating and physical activity were identified. Results There is evidence that EMI can be successfully delivered, are accepted by patients, and are efficacious for treating a variety of health behaviors and physical and psychological symptoms. Limitations of the existing literature were identified and recommendations and considerations for research design, sample characteristics, measurement, statistical analyses, and clinical implementation are discussed. Conclusions Mobile technology-based EMI can be effectively implemented as interventions for a variety of health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Future research should integrate the assessment and intervention capabilities of mobile technology to create dynamically and individually tailored EMI that are ecologically sensitive. PMID:19646331

  11. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions for managing stress in multiple sclerosis: the contribution of mindfulness-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz San José, A; Oreja-Guevara, C; Cebolla Lorenzo, S; Carrillo Notario, L; Rodríguez Vega, B; Bayón Pérez, C

    2016-03-01

    Depression or anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to a more severe course of the disease and higher numbers of relapses, in addition to poorer treatment adherence and exacerbated immune system dysregulation. Recent investigations indicate that psychotherapeutic interventions for stress management, such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), could improve quality of life, depression, anxiety, and fatigue in MS patients. Mindfulness fosters the ability to slow down and observe experiences as they truly are, which improves affect regulation. Mindfulness is acquired through training; its advantage over other psychotherapeutic interventions is that effects may remain over time, since cultivating mindfulness depends on regular practising of abilities learned during training. The objective of this article is to review the current evidence of psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions, including MBIs for stress management, and their beneficial effects on MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Leung, Sau Fong; Yeung, Frederick Kk; Wong, Wai Kit

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major health care databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy), psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of functioning, and/or relapse rate. However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions. With the

  13. Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors and Mechanisms in Psychosocial Prevention and Intervention Programs for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2016-06-01

    Extending previous reviews related to cultural responsiveness in the treatment of ethnic minority youth, the current review provides a critical assessment and synthesis of both basic and applied research on the integration of three racial-ethnic protective factors (racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) in psychosocial prevention and intervention programs for Black children and adolescents. Seventeen programs meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated for the extent to which racial-ethnic protective factors and related mechanisms were integrated, applied, and tested in such programs. A systematic assessment of these programs revealed that several prevention and intervention programs drew upon the three factors, particularly Africentric worldview. In addition, a number of studies hypothesized and assessed mechanisms, both those previously identified in conceptual literature and those that emerged from the interventions themselves. A set of recommendations encouraging the implementation of these factors into future prevention and intervention programs, examples of how clinicians can infuse these factors into psychotherapy, and areas for future research are discussed.

  14. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS TARGETING PATERNAL MENTAL HEALTH IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Pilkington, Pamela D; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Interventions targeting parents' mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers' mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, and stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three of five psychosocial interventions and three massage-technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilize more rigorous research strategies.

  15. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for stroke family caregivers and stroke survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ho Yu; Chair, Sek Ying; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for family caregivers on their psychosocial and physical wellbeing, quality of life, and the use of healthcare resources by stroke survivors. Electronic English and Chinese bibliographic databases were searched (inception to January 2012) for clinical trials. Two reviewers independently selected and appraised study quality. When possible, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were statistically pooled. Otherwise, a narrative summary was used. Eighteen studies (psychoeducation and social support group) were included. Pooled analysis of two individual psychoeducation programs showed a small effect on improving family functioning (SMD: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.01; p=0.03). Caregivers receiving psychoeducation that aimed at equipping caregivers with the skills of problem-solving, caregiving, and stress-coping appeared to have a more positive influence on the caregivers' psychosocial wellbeing and a reduced use of healthcare resources by stroke survivors. Evidence on the effects of psychosocial interventions was limited. More RCTs of multifaceted psychoeducation programs are needed to further examine the optimal dose and format. To support caregivers across the stroke trajectory, the core skills of problem-solving and stress-coping should be included in the psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of a resilience-based intervention on psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS: Effects at 6- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward E; Fairchild, Amanda J; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Global literature suggests that resilience-based interventions may yield improvements in psychosocial well-being for vulnerable children, but limited data are available regarding the efficacy of such interventions among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. To evaluate initial efficacy of a multi-level resilience-based intervention among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in China in improving children's psychosocial well-being and resilience-related outcomes. Seven hundred-ninety children, 6-17 years of age, were recruited from rural China. Children were either AIDS orphans or were living with one or two parents infected with HIV/AIDS. Children and primary caregivers were randomly assigned to participate in a 4-arm trial to evaluate the Child-Caregiver-Advocacy Resilience (ChildCARE) intervention. This resilience-based psychosocial intervention provides programming at three levels (child, caregiver, community). Survey data were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months in order to examine efficacy of the child-only and child + caregiver arms in improving children's psychological resilience. Intervention groups displayed improvements in several resilience-related outcomes at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, including self-reported coping, hopefulness, emotional regulation, and self-control. The child-only intervention arm showed some fading of intervention effects by 12-months. Preliminary findings suggest that the ChildCARE intervention is efficacious in promoting psychosocial well-being of children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China. Targeting both children and caregivers for psychosocial intervention may be effective in improving children's resilience. Additional evaluation and modifications, including the inclusion of booster sessions, should be considered to further strengthen the program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The psychosocial impact of armed conflict on children. Rethinking traditional paradigms in research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichick, T

    2001-10-01

    It is undeniable that the impact of war on children is a significant issue that merits continued efforts in research and intervention. It is time for a shift in paradigms; instead of focusing solely on exposure to traumatic events and defining pathology per dominant diagnostic criteria, it is essential that research turn to examining the effect of chronic stressors and exploring how certain mechanisms may be protective or act to moderate the psychosocial impact of war on children. The role of such protective mechanisms must be examined for differences by development and gender and by cultural context and the nature of the conflict situation itself. Investigations of the health and psychosocial well-being of war-affected children and the programs that serve them must attend to the restoration of basic physiologic needs, safety, structure, familial ties, and other sources of support and integration of cultural practices of healing. The coping efforts of young people and their families and the creation of more positive roles for youth also must be explored. Addressing these fundamental issues in research and programming will go a long way in fostering new opportunities for peace, healing, and the promotion of mental health and well-being for war-affected children in modern times.

  18. Review of implementation processes for integrated nutrition and psychosocial stimulation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Aboud, Frances

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the implementation processes for interventions that integrate nutrition and psychosocial stimulation for children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the content of these programs, the delivery strategy, intensity and duration, personnel training and supervision, compliance, and fidelity. A systematic search of the Global Health Ovid database yielded 1020 articles, of which 29 fit the criteria, and two further studies recently completed were reported by author communication. Some of these articles describe efficacy or effectiveness studies where nutritional supplements or education along with psychosocial stimulation experiences or education were delivered directly to children or their caregivers. Other papers describe large-scale programs, such as conditional cash transfers in Latin America, Integrated Child Development Services preschools in India, and World Bank collaborations with national governments in Africa. A summary table of the implementation processes of the 31 programs is included. We conclude with a set of recommendations summarizing what we know so far regarding best practices for integrative programs.

  19. Molecular Targeted Intervention for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC remains one of the worst cancers, with almost uniform lethality. PC risk is associated with westernized diet, tobacco, alcohol, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, and family history of pancreatic cancer. New targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations have yet to provide adequate treatments for patients with advanced cancer. To design better preventive and/or treatment strategies against PC, knowledge of PC pathogenesis at the molecular level is vital. With the advent of genetically modified animals, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of PC. Currently, several clinical trials and preclinical evaluations are underway to investigate novel agents that target signaling defects in PC. An important consideration in evaluating novel drugs is determining whether an agent can reach the target in concentrations effective to treat the disease. Recently, we have reported evidence for chemoprevention of PC. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of current updates on molecularly targeted interventions, as well as dietary, phytochemical, immunoregulatory, and microenvironment-based approaches for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive regimens. Special attention is given to prevention and treatment in preclinical genetically engineered mouse studies and human clinical studies.

  20. Molecular Targeted Intervention for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Pant, Shubham; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the worst cancers, with almost uniform lethality. PC risk is associated with westernized diet, tobacco, alcohol, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, and family history of pancreatic cancer. New targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations have yet to provide adequate treatments for patients with advanced cancer. To design better preventive and/or treatment strategies against PC, knowledge of PC pathogenesis at the molecular level is vital. With the advent of genetically modified animals, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of PC. Currently, several clinical trials and preclinical evaluations are underway to investigate novel agents that target signaling defects in PC. An important consideration in evaluating novel drugs is determining whether an agent can reach the target in concentrations effective to treat the disease. Recently, we have reported evidence for chemoprevention of PC. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of current updates on molecularly targeted interventions, as well as dietary, phytochemical, immunoregulatory, and microenvironment-based approaches for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive regimens. Special attention is given to prevention and treatment in preclinical genetically engineered mouse studies and human clinical studies. PMID:26266422

  1. Intervenções psicossociais no transtorno bipolar Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pereira Justo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, os autores, através de revisão bibliográfica narrativa, situam as intervenções psicossociais dentro do panorama terapêutico para o transtorno bipolar e constatam que ainda são insuficientes os estudos primários feitos com metodologia adequada para a obtenção de informações científicas de boa qualidade. São sucintamente descritos os trabalhos mais relevantes.In this paper, the authors review the status of psychosocial interventions within the general treatment for bipolar disorder. They have verified the scantiness of studies performed with adequate methodology to obtain scientific information of good quality. The more relevant studies are briefly described.

  2. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: psychosocial and personal risk factors (part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, P M; Ijmker, S; van den Heuvel, S; Blatter, B M

    2006-09-01

    upper limb problems are discussed. Few randomised or non randomised controlled trials have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of individual or organisational interventions to improve work related psychosocial factors. Very few have reported on the preventive effect for work related neck and upper limb symptoms. Therefore, there is a great need for additional high quality trials before any conclusions on effectiveness of bio-behavioural interventions for reduction of neck and upper limb problems and return to work after these symptoms can be made. From the low back pain intervention research can be learned that interventions should best be targeted to both the worker and the organisation and that interventions will only be successful when all stakeholders are involved.

  3. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE FAMILY PRESERVATION USERS: AN ANALYSIS OF NEEDS AND INTERVENTION CLUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ayala-Nunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At-risk families live under circumstances that hinder their parenting competences, compromising their ability to fulfill their children’s needs appropriately. The complex and multiple-source nature of the adversities that they endure makes family preservation interventions challenging. Because their efficacy largely depends on the extent to which interventions fit participants’ needs and characteristics, the aims of this study were to draw the sociodemographic (individual, family, economic, labor, and child-related variables and psychosocial profile (negative life events, parenting stress, and psychological distress symptomatology of Spanish and Portuguese family preservation users while testing the inter-country differences. The results showed that the majority of participants had a low educational level, were unemployed, and were poor. Spanish and Portuguese participants had suffered an average of 5 and 4 negative life events over the past 3 years, respectively, with a high emotional impact. The most common were labor precariousness and economic hardship. Clinical levels of parenting stress were found in 48.1% of the Spanish participants and 39.1% of the Portuguese participants. An important proportion of the participants had clinical levels of psychological distress (Spain = 71.9%; Portugal = 45.8%, indicating the presence of mental health problems. Families’ support needs are discussed and guidelines for interventions aimed at improving parents’ and children’s well-being are outlined.

  4. A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for adult refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Rachel H; Sendt, Kyra-Verena; Tracy, Derek K

    2017-05-09

    Europe is in the midst of the largest refugee migration since the Second World War; there is an urgent need to provide an updated systematic review of the current best evidence for managing mental distress in refugee populations. The aim of this review is to provide an exhaustive summary of the current literature on psychosocial interventions, both trauma- and non-trauma-focused, for refugee populations experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive or anxiety symptoms. To produce recommendations for future research and current clinical practice. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO (Hosted by Ovid), PILOTS and Social Services Abstracts; 5305 articles were screened and 40 were included. This review found medium to high quality evidence supporting the use of narrative exposure therapy (NET). A lack of culturally adapted treatments was apparent and there was less evidence to support standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) and multidisciplinary treatments. NET produced positive outcomes in refugees from a diverse range of backgrounds and trauma types. There is a general dearth of research in all intervention types: further research should include more "real-world" multidisciplinary interventions that better model clinical practice. Recommendations for evaluating local need, and creating a culturally sensitive workforce are discussed.

  5. Factors influencing childhood cancer patients to participate in a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program : Quality of Life in Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan Jl; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; Bierings, MB; Merks, Hans; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Eibrink, Marry; Streng, Isabelle C.; Van Dulmen-Den Broeder, Eline

    2015-01-01

    Background For a multi-center randomized trial investigating the effects of a 12-week physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, we invited 174 patients (8-18 years old) on treatment or within 1 year after treatment; about 40% participated. Reasons for non-participation

  6. Factors influencing childhood cancer patients to participate in a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program : Quality of Life in Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan Jl; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; Bierings, MB; Merks, Hans; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Eibrink, Marry; Streng, Isabelle C.; Van Dulmen-Den Broeder, Eline

    Background For a multi-center randomized trial investigating the effects of a 12-week physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, we invited 174 patients (8-18 years old) on treatment or within 1 year after treatment; about 40% participated. Reasons for non-participation

  7. PSYCHOSOCIAL GROUP INTERVENTION AND THE RATE OF DECLINE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HIV-INFECTED HOMOSEXUAL MEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, CL; ANTONI, MH; EMMELKAMP, PMG; VEUGELERS, PJ; SANDFORT, TGM; VANDEVIJVER, FAJR; DEVRIES, MJ

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes in the rate of decline of immunological parameters after psychosocial group intervention. Subjects were 26 asymptomatic HIV-infected homosexual men who participated in a cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT; n = 14), or an experiential group therapy p

  8. A randomised trial of a psychosocial intervention for cancer patients integrated into routine care: the PROMPT study (promoting optimal outcomes in mood through tailored psychosocial therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolley Damien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence that up to 35% of patients with cancer experience significant distress, access to effective psychosocial care is limited by lack of systematic approaches to assessment, a paucity of psychosocial services, and patient reluctance to accept treatment either because of perceived stigma or difficulties with access to specialist psycho-oncology services due to isolation or disease burden. This paper presents an overview of a randomised study to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief tailored psychosocial Intervention delivered by health professionals in cancer care who undergo focused training and participate in clinical supervision. Methods/design Health professionals from the disciplines of nursing, occupational therapy, speech pathology, dietetics, physiotherapy or radiation therapy will participate in training to deliver the psychosocial Intervention focusing on core concepts of supportive-expressive, cognitive and dignity-conserving care. Health professional training will consist of completion of a self-directed manual and participation in a skills development session. Participating health professionals will be supported through structured clinical supervision whilst delivering the Intervention. In the stepped wedge design each of the 5 participating clinical sites will be allocated in random order from Control condition to Training then delivery of the Intervention. A total of 600 patients will be recruited across all sites. Based on level of distress or risk factors eligible patients will receive up to 4 sessions, each of up to 30 minutes in length, delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Patient outcome measures include anxiety and depression, quality of life, unmet psychological and supportive care needs. Health professional measures include psychological morbidity, stress and burnout. Process evaluation will be conducted to assess perceptions

  9. Clinical and psychosocial predictors of exceeding target length of stay during inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wesley; Buttineau, Mackenzie; Harvey, Jennifer K; Pucci, Rebecca A; Wong, Anna P M; Dell'Erario, Linda; Bosnyak, Stephanie; Reid, Shannon; Salbach, Nancy M

    2017-05-09

    In Ontario, Canada, patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation hospitals post-stroke are classified into rehabilitation patient groups based on age and functional level. Clinical practice guidelines, called quality-based procedures, recommend a target length of stay (LOS) for each group. The study objective was to evaluate the extent to which patients post-stroke at an inpatient rehabilitation hospital are meeting LOS targets and to identify patient characteristics that predict exceeding target LOS. A quantitative, longitudinal study from an inpatient rehabilitation hospital was conducted. Participants included adult patients (≥18 years) with stroke, admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital between 2014 and 2015. The percentage of patients exceeding the recommended target LOS was determined. Logistic regression was performed to identify clinical and psychosocial patient characteristics associated with exceeding target LOS after adjusting for stroke severity. Of 165 patients, 38.8% exceeded their target LOS. Presence of ataxia, recurrent stroke, living alone, absence of a caregiver at admission, and acquiring a caregiver during hospital LOS was each associated with significantly higher odds of exceeding target LOS in comparison to patients without these characteristics after adjusting for stroke severity (p < 0.05). Findings suggest that social and stroke-specific factors may be helpful to adjust LOS expectations and promote efficient resource allocation. This exploratory study was limited to findings from one inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Cross-validation of results using data-sets from multiple rehabilitation hospitals across Ontario is recommended.

  10. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Pincham

    Full Text Available Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32 or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32 passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images. Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.

  11. A stakeholder-collaborative evaluation of intervention for students with greater psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-17

    The Tier 2 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) in Hong Kong was designed and implemented by school social workers targeting adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. Based on the responses of 237 participants, 48 program implementers wrote down five conclusions on the program effectiveness in their reports submitted to the funding body. Based on a stakeholder-collaborative approach involving secondary data analyses, results showed that most conclusions were positive regarding participants' perceptions of the program, instructors and their perceived program effectiveness, although there were also conclusions reflecting difficulties encountered and suggestions for improvements. In conjunction with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by the stakeholders and the program was beneficial to the development of the program participants.

  12. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brake, Hans; Dückers, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines), and to what degree these standards are implemented into mental health care practice. Two hundred and six (mental) health care professionals filled out a questionnaire to assess the extent to which they consider the guidelines' scope and recommendations relevant and part of the regular practice in their own country. Forty-five European experts from 24 EU countries discussed the guidelines at an international seminar. The data suggest overall agreement on the standards although many of the recommendations appear not (yet) to be embedded in everyday practice. Although large consensus exists on standards for early psychosocial care, a chasm between norms and practice appears to exist throughout the EU, stressing the general need for investments in guideline development and implementation.

  13. Evaluating Psychosocial and Behavioral Mechanisms of Change in a Tailored Communication Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Campbell, Nadia R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a tailored nutrition intervention at 3 and 6 months postintervention. In all, 357 Latinas were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) a control condition comprised of previously developed Spanish language targeted materials, (2) tailored print materials, or (3) tailored print materials accompanied by…

  14. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  15. Early psychosocial intervention does not delay institutionalization in persons with mild Alzheimer disease and has impact on neither disease progression nor caregivers' well-being: ALSOVA 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Anne M; Hallikainen, Ilona; Välimäki, Tarja; Hongisto, Kristiina; Hiltunen, Asta; Karppi, Pertti; Sivenius, Juhani; Soininen, Hilkka; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-03-01

    Early diagnosis, initiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy and programs that support care of persons with AD at home are recommended. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of early psychosocial intervention on delaying the institutionalization of persons with AD. We also assessed the influence of intervention on AD progression, behavioral symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in persons with AD and caregivers. Kuopio ALSOVA study, a prospective, randomized intervention study with a 3-year follow-up, was carried out at memory clinics. Home-dwelling persons with very mild or mild AD (n = 236) and AD-targeted therapy and their family caregivers (n = 236) were randomized to the intervention or control group (1:2). Psychosocial intervention including education, counseling, and social support was given during the first 2 years (16 days). The primary outcome was the cumulative risk (controlled for death) of institutionalization over 36 months. Secondary outcomes were adjusted mean changes from baseline in disease severity, cognition, daily activities, behavior, and HRQoL for persons with AD; and change in psychological distress, depression, and HRQoL for caregivers. No differences were found in nursing home placement after the 36-month follow-up between intervention and control groups. No beneficial effects of the intervention were found on the secondary outcomes. The psychosocial intervention did not delay nursing home placement in persons with AD and had no effect on patient well-being, disease progression, or AD-related symptoms or caregiver well-being. Instead of automatically providing psychosocial intervention courses, individualized support programs may be more effective. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purgato, M.; Gross, A.L.; Jordans, M.J.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Barbui, C.; Tol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this eviden

  17. Diagnóstico y tratamiento psicosocial del tabaquismo Smoking cessation: Diagnosis and psychosocial intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO BELLO S

    2009-01-01

    . The current treatment of smoking has two pillars: psycho-social intervention and pharmacological therapy. The current interventions are based on two theoretical models that try to understand changes of smoking behavior: The Stages of Change and PRIME Theory. Brief intervention is a strategy internationally approved because of its population impact on smoking cessation. The methodology used is named "5A's": Ask, Advise, Asses, Assist and Arrange follow-up. For not motivated patients at the intervention time it can be used the "5R 's" methodology: Relevance, Risks, Rewards, Roadblocks and Repetition. The actual approach used in smokers management, is Motivational Interview, which tries to produce the behavioral change from inside and not imposing it. Its four tools are: express empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance and support self efficacy. The useful psychosocial strategies, in which exists consensus, are: 1 Give practical counseling of problem solving and skills training to face risky situations; 2 Intra-treatment support, encouraging attempts of smoking cessation and communicate caring and concern.

  18. [The psychosocial aspects of perinatal care and their relationship to selected medical interventions and health complications during parturition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, L; Kodyšová, E; Seidlerová, J

    2012-06-01

    Find association between psychosocial factors of perinatal care and selected childbirth complications and interventions. Original study. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, Charles University, Prague. Statistical data analysis of questionnaire survey of low-risk parturients (n=657) was carried out. Respondents were divided into experimental groups (EG) according to experienced interventions and complications (hemorrhage, failure to progress, fetal distress, forceps/VEX delivery, caesarean birth, failure to progress followed by caesarean birth, labour acceleration infusion, other infusion, epidural anesthesia, other form of pharmacological analgesia, episiotomy, amniotomy). EG were compared with a control group (CG) of women with no complications and interventions (n=107) in evaluation of psychosocial factors of perinatal care (healthcare provider attitude; control; communication; woman-friendliness of hospital rules) and physical comfort and services, presence of other persons at birth, prevailing emotional reaction and overall satisfaction with maternity care. The interpretation of results draws from qualitative analysis of open-ended question answers. EG and CG differed significantly in control (all EGs scored lower) and healthcare provider attitude evaluation (significantly more negative perception at EGs: hemorrhage, failure to progress, fetal distress, forceps/VEX delivery, labour acceleration infusion, episiotomy). Significant differences were noted also for woman-friendliness of hospital rules (lower scores for EGs: hemorrhage, failure to progress, failure to progress followed by caesarean birth) and for presence of other persons at birth. Possible interpretations of the above results are discussed. Psychosocial factors of perinatal care constitute important childbirth process determinants, while playing a key role for parturients ability to cope with anxiety and stress connected with childbirth complications and interventions

  19. A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dutra; G. Stathopoulou; S.L. Basden; T.M. Leyro; M.B. Powers; M.W. Otto

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite significant advances in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders, the relative success of these approaches has not been well documented. In this meta-analysis, the authors provide effect sizes for various types of psychosocial treatments, as well as abstinence and treat

  20. Use of Psychosocial Services Increases after a Social Worker-Mediated Intervention in Gynecology Oncology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Yuko; Shah, Nina R.; Ward, Kristy K.; McHale, Michael T.; Alvarez, Edwin A.; Saenz, Cheryl C.; Plaxe, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of psychosocial services to gynecologic oncology outpatients by a social worker increases service use. During the initial six weeks (phase I), patients were referred for psychosocial services by clinic staff. During the second six weeks (phase II), a nurse introduced available…

  1. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    .... This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016...

  2. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. RESUMO Transtornos alimentares são doenças psiquiátricas originadas de e perpetuadas por fatores individuais, familiares e socioculturais. A abordagem psicossocial é essencial para o tratamento e a prevenção de recaídas. Apresentar uma vis

  3. Dealing with cancer: a meta-synthesis of patients’ and relatives’ experiences of participating in psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Bente; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2017-01-01

    interventions were used to try to deal with the changes in the human conditions caused by cancer. Sharing their experiences and forming social relationships helped the participants adapt to cancer. An existential perspective may provide a nuanced understanding of patients’ and relatives’ experiences......The aim was to synthesise patients’ and relatives’ experiences of participating in a psychosocial intervention related to having cancer. The study was a meta-synthesis inspired by Noblit & Hare’s ‘meta-ethnography’ approach. We systematically searched six databases and included 33 studies...

  4. Disclosure of Financial Conflicts of Interests in Interventions to Improve Child Psychosocial Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Humphreys, David K; Wilson, Philip; Gardner, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Academic journals increasingly request a full disclosure of financial conflict of interest (CoI). The Committee for Publication Ethics provides editors with guidance about the course of action in the case of suspected non-disclosure. No prior study has examined the extent to which journal articles on psychosocial interventions disclose CoI, and how journal editors process requests to examine suspected undisclosed CoI. Four internationally disseminated psychosocial interventions were examined. 136 articles related to an intervention, co-authored by intervention developers and published in health sciences journals were retrieved as requiring a CoI statement. Two editors refused consent to be included in the study. COI disclosures and editor responses were coded for 134 articles. Overall, 92/134 (71%) of all articles were found to have absent, incomplete or partly misleading CoI disclosures. Disclosure rates for the four programs varied significantly between 11% and 73%. Journal editors were contacted about 92 published articles with no CoI disclosure or a disclosure that was considered problematic. In 65/92 (71%) of all cases the editors published an 'erratum' or 'corrigendum'. In 16 of these cases the journal had mishandled a submitted disclosure. The most frequent reason for non-publication of an erratum was that the journal had no disclosure policy at the time of the publication (16 cases). Consumers of research on psychosocial interventions published in peer-reviewed journals cannot currently assume that CoI disclosures are adequate and complete. More efforts are needed to achieve transparency.

  5. Long-term effects of methadone maintenance treatment with different psychosocial intervention models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Wang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term effects of different psychosocial intervention models in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT in Xi'an China. Patients from five MMT clinics were divided into three groups receiving MMT only, MMT with counseling psychology (CP or MMT with contingency management (CM. A five-year follow-up was carried out with daily records of medication, monthly random urine morphine tests, and tests for anti-HIV and anti-HCV every six months. Drug use behavior was recorded six months after initial recruitment using a survey. Adjusted RRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using an unconditional logistic regression model or a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 2662 patients were recruited with 797 in MMT, 985 in MMT with CP, and 880 in MMT with CM. Following six months of treatment, the injection rates of MMT with CP and MMT with CM groups were significantly lower than that of MMT (5.1% and 6.9% vs. 16.3%, x²  =  47.093 and 29.908, respectively; P<0.05. HIV incidences for MMT, MMT with CP and MMT with CM at the five year follow-up were 20.09, 0.00 and 10.02 per ten thousand person-years, respectively. HCV incidences were 18.35, 4.42 and 6.61 per hundred person-years, respectively, demonstrating that CP and CM were protective factors for HCV incidence (RR  =  0.209 and 0.414, with range of 0.146-0.300 and 0.298-0.574, respectively. MMT supplemented with CP or CM can reduce heroin use and related risk behaviors, thereby reducing the incidence of HIV and HCV.

  6. Methodological limitations of psychosocial interventions in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ockene Ira S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potentially life-saving benefits of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD, a significant group of patients experiences emotional distress after ICD implantation. Different psychosocial interventions have been employed to improve this condition, but previous reviews have suggested that methodological issues may limit the validity of such interventions. Aim: To review the methodology of previously published studies of psychosocial interventions in ICD patients, according to CONSORT statement guidelines for non-pharmacological interventions, and provide recommendations for future research. Methods We electronically searched the PubMed, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases. To be included, studies needed to be published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1980 and 2008, to involve a human population aged 18+ years and to have an experimental design. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria. Samples were generally small. Interventions were very heterogeneous; most studies used cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and exercise programs either as unique interventions or as part of a multi-component program. Overall, studies showed a favourable effect on anxiety (6/9 and depression (4/8. CBT appeared to be the most effective intervention. There was no effect on the number of shocks and arrhythmic events, probably because studies were not powered to detect such an effect. Physical functioning improved in the three studies evaluating this outcome. Lack of information about the indication for ICD implantation (primary vs. secondary prevention, limited or no information regarding use of anti-arrhythmic (9/12 and psychotropic (10/12 treatment, lack of assessments of providers' treatment fidelity (12/12 and patients' adherence to the intervention (11/12 were the most common methodological limitations. Conclusions Overall, this review supports preliminary evidence of a positive effect of psychosocial interventions

  7. The psychosocial burden of human papillomavirus related disease and screening interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, M; Ung, L; Stein, A; Conway, E L; Mast, T C; Fairley, C K; Garland, S

    2009-12-01

    (i) To assess the psychosocial burden of testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) related genital disease or of a HPV-related diagnosis; (ii) to compare an instrument specifically designed to measure HPV-related psychosocial burden with other generic quality of life (QoL) instruments. A cross-sectional design. Researchers recruited women from outpatient clinics at a major tertiary women's hospital and a sexual health centre who completed surveys within 3 months of receiving 331 women, 18-45 years, who had experienced a normal cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) result, an abnormal Pap result, biopsy confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or external genital warts (EGW). The HPV impact profile (HIP) designed to assess the psychosocial impact of HPV; two general health-related QoL surveys-the EuroQoL VAS and the Sheehan disability scale; and a HPV knowledge survey. Response rate was 78%. Significant psychosocial impacts were found for women screened for, or having a diagnosis of, HPV-related genital disease. The largest impact was in women with CIN 2/3 and EGW. This HPV-related psychosocial impact was most sensitively detected with the HIP. Relative to generic measures of QoL, the HIP provided insight into the full range of psychosocial impacts of HPV testing and diagnoses. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential psychosocial impact of testing for or diagnosing HPV-related genital disease, in particular CIN 2/3 and EGW. The HIP survey is a more sensitive measure of the psychosocial impact of HPV-related genital disease than generic QoL surveys.

  8. A randomized control trial of a psychosocial intervention for caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: Effects on distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, Mark L.; Simoneau, Teri L.; Kilbourn, Kristin; Natvig, Crystal; Philips, Sam; Spradley, Janet; Benitez, Patrick; McSweeney, Peter; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (Allo-HSCT) serve a pivotal role in patient care but experience high stress, anxiety, and depression as a result. We theorized that a stress management adapted for Allo-HSCT caregivers would reduce distress compared to treatment as usual (TAU). From 267 consecutive caregivers of Allo-HSCT patients approached, 148 (mean=53.5 years, 75.7% female) were randomized to either psychosocial intervention (n=74) or TAU (n=74). Eight 1-on-1 stress management sessions delivered across the 100 day post-transplant period focused on understanding stress, changing role(s) as caregiver, cognitive behavioral stress management, pacing respiration, and identifying social support. Primary outcomes included perceived stress (psychological) and salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) (physiological). Randomized groups were not statistically different at baseline. Mixed models analysis of covariance (intent-to-treat) showed that intervention was associated with significantly lower caregiver stress 3 months post-transplant (Mean=20.0, CI95=17.9-22.0) compared to TAU (Mean=23.0, CI95=21.0-25.0) with an effect size (ES) of 0.39 (p=0.039). Secondary psychological outcomes, including depression and anxiety, were significantly reduced with ESs of 0.46 and 0.66 respectively. Caregiver CAR did not differ from non-caregiving controls at baseline and was unchanged by intervention. Despite significant caregiving burden, this psychosocial intervention significantly mitigated distress in Allo-HSCT caregivers. PMID:25961767

  9. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  10. Formative evaluation of the STAR intervention: improving teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the pilot phase of a participatory reflection and action (PRA) study. The longitudinal investigation explores teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support within the context of HIV/AIDS following an asset-based intervention. The study ensued from our desire to understand and contribute to knowledge about the changed roles of teachers due to adversity in the community, specifically in relation to HIV/AIDS and education. The supportive teachers, assets and resilience (STAR) intervention was facilitated from November 2003 to October 2005 and consisted of the research team undertaking nine field visits and facilitating 20 intervention sessions (2-3 hours each), and 12 post-intervention research visits have been conducted to date. Ten female teachers were selected for participation through random purposeful sampling at a primary school in an informal settlement outside Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data-generation included PRA activities, observation, informal interactive interviews, and focus group discussions. The data were analysed by means of inductive thematic analysis. We found that the teachers did not view vulnerability as being related to children or HIV/AIDS in isolation, but rather that their psychosocial support to children and the school community was inclusive across a spectrum of vulnerabilities and services. We argue that teachers who are inclined to provide such support will fulfil this role irrespective of understanding policy or receiving training. We contend that teachers are well-positioned to manage school-based psychosocial support in order to create relevant and caring spaces for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

  11. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Maryann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%; 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were fully completed (where all required risk content was covered. Ninety-three percent of the subsample of intervention women had a positive view of their

  12. Do Psychosocial Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Wellbeing in Adults with Neuromuscular Disorders? A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Muse, Kate; Meyrick, Jane; Moss, Tim

    2016-08-30

    Quality of life and well-being are frequently restricted in adults with neuromuscular disorders. As such, identification of appropriate interventions is imperative. The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise quantitative studies (RCTs, controlled trials and cohort studies) of psychosocial interventions designed to improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders. A systematic review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool and results presented in a narrative synthesis. Out of 3,136 studies identified, ten studies met criteria for inclusion within the review. Included studies comprised a range of interventions including: cognitive behavioural therapy, dignity therapy, hypnosis, expressive disclosure, gratitude lists, group psychoeducation and psychologically informed rehabilitation. Five of the interventions were for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The remainder were for patients with post-polio syndrome, muscular dystrophies and mixed disorders, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, myasthenia gravis and myotonic dystrophy. Across varied interventions and neuromuscular disorders, seven studies reported a short-term beneficial effect of intervention on quality of life and well-being. Whilst such findings are encouraging, widespread issues with the methodological quality of these studies significantly compromised the results. There is no strong evidence that psychosocial interventions improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders, due to a paucity of high quality research in this field. Multi-site, randomised controlled trials with active controls, standardised outcome measurement and longer term follow-ups are urgently required.

  13. Positive Youth Development Programs Targeting Students with Greater Psychosocial Needs: Subjective Outcome Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program, 2,173 students in 52 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C, assessing their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a “reconstructed” overall profile of the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (N = 8, programs concentrated on volunteer training and services (N = 7, programs incorporating both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training elements (N = 30, and other programs with different foci (N = 7. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the experimental implementation phase.

  14. Positive youth development programs targeting students with greater psychosocial needs: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tak Lan; Shek, Daniel T L

    2010-02-12

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program (Secondary 1 Level), 9,931 participants in 212 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C) in order to assess their views of the program, workers, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a "reconstructed" overall profile on the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (n = 58), programs concentrating on volunteer training and services (n = 31), programs offering both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training activities (n = 91), and other programs with different foci (n = 32). Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the workers, and over four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the Full Implementation Phase.

  15. Positive youth development programs targeting students with greater psychosocial needs: subjective outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan; Sun, Rachel C F; Lung, Daniel W M

    2008-01-14

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program, 2,173 students in 52 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C), assessing their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a "reconstructed" overall profile of the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (N = 8), programs concentrated on volunteer training and services (N = 7), programs incorporating both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training elements (N = 30), and other programs with different foci (N = 7). Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the experimental implementation phase.

  16. Positive Youth Development Programs Targeting Students with Greater Psychosocial Needs: A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program (Secondary 1 Level, 9,931 participants in 212 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C in order to assess their views of the program, workers, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a “reconstructed” overall profile on the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (n = 58, programs concentrating on volunteer training and services (n = 31, programs offering both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training activities (n = 91, and other programs with different foci (n = 32. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the workers, and over four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the Full Implementation Phase.

  17. Systematic review of family and home-based interventions targeting paediatric overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, A P; Sharma, M

    2012-06-01

    The family and home environment is a highly influential psychosocial antecedent of paediatric obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically analyze family and home-based randomized control trials aimed at treating overweight and obesity in children ages 2-7 years. In gathering materials for this review, a search of Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, MEDLINE, Education Resources Information Center, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection and CENTRAL databases was conducted for the time frame of January 2001 to August 2011. The data extraction spanned three phases resulting in a total of nine interventions that met the specified inclusion criteria. Among the identified studies, eight produced significant outcomes. The majority of the programmes incorporated educational sessions targeting parents as the primary modality for intervention delivery. Less than one-quarter of the interventions included home visitations; however, all of the interventions included home-based activities to reinforce behaviour modification. Only three of the interventions applied social and behavioural theory, and only two interventions employed process evaluation. Additional research is needed to gauge the efficacy of the home and family milieu for treating paediatric obesity.

  18. A livelihood intervention to improve economic and psychosocial well-being in rural Uganda: Longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Kakuhikire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV and poverty are inextricably intertwined in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and livelihood intervention strategies have been suggested to help mitigate the adverse economic effects of HIV, but few intervention studies have focused specifically on HIV-positive persons. We conducted three pilot studies to assess a livelihood intervention consisting of an initial orientation and loan package of chickens and associated implements to create poultry microenterprises. We enrolled 15 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative participants and followed them for up to 18 months. Over the course of follow-up, participants achieved high chicken survival and loan repayment rates. Median monthly income increased, and severe food insecurity declined, although these changes were not statistically significant (P-values ranged from 0.11 to 0.68. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of three HIV-positive participants identified a constellation of economic and psychosocial benefits, including improved social integration and reduced stigma.

  19. Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Use and Misuse

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Personality factors have been implicated in risk for substance use disorders through longitudinal and neurobiologic studies for over four decades. Only recently, however, have targeted interventions been developed to assist individuals with personality risk factors for substance use disorders manage their risk. This article reviews current practices in personality-targeted interventions and the eight randomised trials examining the efficacy of such approaches with respect to...

  20. Intervention Targets for Youth with Disabilities in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwick, Robin; Tyre, Ashli; Beisse, Kay; Thomas, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    This article will focus on students with disabilities in foster care to help school psychologists identify effective school-based interventions for these students. We will report our findings from three independent studies and then apply the findings to suggest targeted interventions for these students that are intended to improve educational and…

  1. Targeting and Tailoring Health Communications in Breast Screening Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mehra; Engelman, Kimberly K; Mbah, Olive; Shirazi, Aida; Robbins, Irma; Bowie, Janice; Popal, Rona; Wahwasuck, Arlene; Whalen-White, Denice; Greiner, Allen; Dobs, Adrian; Bloom, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Members of underrepresented minority (URM) groups are at higher risk of disproportionately experiencing greater breast cancer-related morbidity and mortality and thus, require effective interventions that both appropriately target and tailor to their unique characteristics. We sought to describe the targeting and tailoring practices used in the development and dissemination of three breast cancer screening interventions among URM groups. Three national Community Network Programs (CNPs) funded by the National Cancer Institute have focused on breast cancer screening interventions as their major research intervention. Each targeted different populations and used participatory research methods to design their intervention tailored to the needs of their respective audience. The Alameda County Network Program (ACNP) to Reduce Cancer Disparities partnered with community members to design and conduct 2-hour "Tea Party" education sessions for Afghan women. The Kansas Community Cancer Disparities Network co-developed and deployed with community members a computerized Healthy Living Kansas (HLK) Breast Health program for rural Latina and American Indian women. The Johns Hopkins Center to Reduce Cancer Disparities employed a train-the-trainer COACH approach to educate urban African-American women about breast cancer. Each CNP program targeted diverse URM women and, using participatory approaches, tailored a range of interventions to promote breast cancer screening. Although all projects shared the same goal outcome, each program tailored their varying interventions to match the target community needs, demonstrating the importance and value of these strategies in reducing breast cancer disparities.

  2. Changeover-time in psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV and people living close to them after an HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael; Ellis, Suria

    2015-01-01

    HIV stigma continues to affect the psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV (PLWH) and people living close to them (PLC). Literature unequivocally holds the view that HIV stigma and psychosocial wellbeing interact with and have an impact on each other. This study, which is part of a larger research project funded by the South Africa Netherlands research Programme on Alternatives in Development (SANPAD), responds to the lack of interventions mitigating the impactful interaction of HIV stigma and psychosocial wellbeing and tests one such intervention. The research objectives were to test the changeover-time in the psychosocial wellbeing of PLWH and PLC in an urban and a rural setting, following a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement intervention. An experimental quantitative single system research design with a pre- and four repetitive post-tests was used, conducting purposive voluntary sampling for PLWH (n = 18) and snowball sampling for PLC (n = 60). The average age of participants was 34 years old. The five measuring instruments used for both groups were the mental health continuum short-form scale, the patient health questionnaire, the satisfaction with life scale, the coping self-efficacy scale and the spirituality wellbeing scale. No significant differences were found between the urban-rural settings and data were pooled for analysis. The findings show that initial psychosocial wellbeing changes after the intervention were better sustained (over time) by the PLC than by the PLWH and seemed to be strengthened by interpersonal interaction. Recommendations included that the intervention should be re-utilised and that its tenets, content and activities be retained. A second intervention three to six months after the first should be included to achieve more sustainability and to add focused activities for the enhancement of psychosocial wellbeing. PLWH and PLC are to be encouraged to engage with innovative community

  3. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  4. Psychosocial child adjustment and family functioning in families reached with an assertive outreach intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rots-de Vries; I. van de Goor; K. Stronks; H. Garretsen

    2011-01-01

    Families who experience a chronic complex of socio-economic and psychosocial problems are hard to reach with mainstream care. Evidence exists that the core of this problem is a problematic interaction between this type of family and current systems of care and services. To improve access to problem

  5. A Qualitative Investigation of Health Care Professionals’, Patients’ and Partners’ Views on Psychosocial Issues and Related Interventions for Couples Coping with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tim; Levesque, Janelle V.; Lambert, Sylvie D.; Kelly, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is growing evidence that cancer affects couples as an interdependent system and that couple-based psychosocial interventions are efficacious in reducing distress and improving coping skills. However, adoption of a couples-focused approach into cancer care is limited. Previous research has shown that patients and partners hold differing views from health care professionals (HCPs) regarding their psychosocial needs, and HCPs from different disciplines also hold divergent views regarding couples’ psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of HCPs and couples on the provision of couple-focused psychosocial care in routine cancer services. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 20 HCPs (medical oncologists, nurses, psycho-oncology professionals) and 20 couples where one member had been diagnosed with cancer (breast, prostate, head/neck, bowel, multiple myeloma). Interviews were analysed using the framework approach. Results Three core themes were identified: “How Do Couples Cope with Cancer?” emphasised the positive and negative coping strategies used by couples, and highlighted that partners perceived a lack of engagement by HCPs. “What Is Couple-focused Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer?” described varying perspectives regarding the value of couple-focused psychosocial care and variation in the types of support couples need among HCPs and couples. Whereas most couples did not perceive a need for specialist couple-focused support and interventions, most HCPs felt couple-focused psychosocial care was necessary. “How Can Couple-Focused Psychosocial Care be Improved?” described couples’ view of a need for better provision of information, and the importance of their relationship with oncology clinicians. HCPs identified a lack of confidence in responding to the emotional needs of couples, and barriers to providing psychosocial care, including challenges identifying

  6. A Qualitative Investigation of Health Care Professionals', Patients' and Partners' Views on Psychosocial Issues and Related Interventions for Couples Coping with Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Regan

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that cancer affects couples as an interdependent system and that couple-based psychosocial interventions are efficacious in reducing distress and improving coping skills. However, adoption of a couples-focused approach into cancer care is limited. Previous research has shown that patients and partners hold differing views from health care professionals (HCPs regarding their psychosocial needs, and HCPs from different disciplines also hold divergent views regarding couples' psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of HCPs and couples on the provision of couple-focused psychosocial care in routine cancer services.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 20 HCPs (medical oncologists, nurses, psycho-oncology professionals and 20 couples where one member had been diagnosed with cancer (breast, prostate, head/neck, bowel, multiple myeloma. Interviews were analysed using the framework approach.Three core themes were identified: "How Do Couples Cope with Cancer?" emphasised the positive and negative coping strategies used by couples, and highlighted that partners perceived a lack of engagement by HCPs. "What Is Couple-focused Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer?" described varying perspectives regarding the value of couple-focused psychosocial care and variation in the types of support couples need among HCPs and couples. Whereas most couples did not perceive a need for specialist couple-focused support and interventions, most HCPs felt couple-focused psychosocial care was necessary. "How Can Couple-Focused Psychosocial Care be Improved?" described couples' view of a need for better provision of information, and the importance of their relationship with oncology clinicians. HCPs identified a lack of confidence in responding to the emotional needs of couples, and barriers to providing psychosocial care, including challenges identifying distress (through screening and

  7. A Qualitative Investigation of Health Care Professionals', Patients' and Partners' Views on Psychosocial Issues and Related Interventions for Couples Coping with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tim; Levesque, Janelle V; Lambert, Sylvie D; Kelly, Brian

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer affects couples as an interdependent system and that couple-based psychosocial interventions are efficacious in reducing distress and improving coping skills. However, adoption of a couples-focused approach into cancer care is limited. Previous research has shown that patients and partners hold differing views from health care professionals (HCPs) regarding their psychosocial needs, and HCPs from different disciplines also hold divergent views regarding couples' psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of HCPs and couples on the provision of couple-focused psychosocial care in routine cancer services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 20 HCPs (medical oncologists, nurses, psycho-oncology professionals) and 20 couples where one member had been diagnosed with cancer (breast, prostate, head/neck, bowel, multiple myeloma). Interviews were analysed using the framework approach. Three core themes were identified: "How Do Couples Cope with Cancer?" emphasised the positive and negative coping strategies used by couples, and highlighted that partners perceived a lack of engagement by HCPs. "What Is Couple-focused Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer?" described varying perspectives regarding the value of couple-focused psychosocial care and variation in the types of support couples need among HCPs and couples. Whereas most couples did not perceive a need for specialist couple-focused support and interventions, most HCPs felt couple-focused psychosocial care was necessary. "How Can Couple-Focused Psychosocial Care be Improved?" described couples' view of a need for better provision of information, and the importance of their relationship with oncology clinicians. HCPs identified a lack of confidence in responding to the emotional needs of couples, and barriers to providing psychosocial care, including challenges identifying distress (through screening) and referring

  8. Changing meanings through art: a systematization of a psychosocial intervention with Chilean women in urban poverty situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Marianne; Haz, Ana María

    2011-06-01

    This study explores the experiences that women in urban poverty situation have about their participation in a psychosocial group intervention mediated by artistic techniques. An investigation was done using a qualitative methodology. Participants were ten women older than 21 years old who live in Santiago de Chile in poverty situation. Two group evaluations were performed during the intervention process and once it was completed, ten individual semi-structure interviews. The information was analyzed following the proposals of Grounded Theory, identifying negative experience about tiredness and sacrifice related to the circumstances they live in. It was possible, at the same time, to describe the benefits of an artistic activity including a psychosocial work over the individual well-being. The artistic creation was revealed as a way of expression, of re-viewing oneself and the environment, and relaxation. Transformation is discussed concerning self-affirmation, reparation and transference of this experience in their lives, as a preventive and protective resource to overcome their problems.

  9. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Witt, A; Fegert, J M; Keller, F; Rassenhofer, M; Plener, P L

    2017-08-01

    Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre-post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.

  10. Targeting the nucleolus for cancer intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Jaclyn E; Devlin, Jennifer R; Cameron, Donald; Hannan, Kate M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D

    2014-06-01

    The contribution of the nucleolus to cancer is well established with respect to its traditional role in facilitating ribosome biogenesis and proliferative capacity. More contemporary studies however, infer that nucleoli contribute a much broader role in malignant transformation. Specifically, extra-ribosomal functions of the nucleolus position it as a central integrator of cellular proliferation and stress signaling, and are emerging as important mechanisms for modulating how oncogenes and tumor suppressors operate in normal and malignant cells. The dependence of certain tumor cells to co-opt nucleolar processes to maintain their cancer phenotypes has now clearly been demonstrated by the application of small molecule inhibitors of RNA Polymerase I to block ribosomal DNA transcription and disrupt nucleolar function (Bywater et al., 2012 [1]). These drugs, which selectively kill tumor cells in vivo while sparing normal cells, have now progressed to clinical trials. It is likely that we have only just begun to scratch the surface of the potential of the nucleolus as a new target for cancer therapy, with "suppression of nucleolar stress" representing an emerging "hallmark" of cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease.

  11. Efficacy of additional psychosocial intervention in reducing low birth weight and preterm birth in teenage pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Wongrathanandha, Chathaya; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Dellow, Alan; Horsuwansak, Pornpot; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2015-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in reducing risk of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in teenage pregnancy. Relevant studies were identified from Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. Randomized controlled trials investigating effect of psychosocial interventions on risk of LBW and PTB, compared to routine antenatal care (ANC) were eligible. Relative risks (RR) of LBW and PTB were pooled using inverse variance method. Mean differences of birth weight (BW) between intervention and control groups were pooled using unstandardized mean difference (USMD). Five studies were included in the review. Compared with routine ANC, psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW by 40% (95%CI: 8%,62%) but not for PTB (pooled RR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.42,1.05). Mean BW of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group with USMD of 200.63 g (95% CI: 21.02, 380.25). Results of our study suggest that psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW in teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Melanoma Perception in People of Color: A Targeted Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lucy X; Patterson, Stavonnie S L; Rademaker, Alfred W; Liu, Dachao; Kundu, Roopal V

    2017-06-01

    Although melanoma is more common in non-Hispanic Whites, ethnic minorities face a greater risk of melanoma-related mortality, which may be partially attributed to presentation at atypical sites and a lack of awareness. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a melanoma educational intervention targeted towards people of color. Participants received one of two scripted melanoma educational interventions in the summer of 2015. They completed surveys before the intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 2 months post-intervention. Dermatology clinic at an academic hospital. A consecutive sample of 100 participants who self-identified as African American, Asian, or Hispanic were recruited following their dermatology visit. In total, 70 participants completed the 2-month follow-up questionnaire. The comparison intervention group received an educational intervention using a conventional pamphlet on the 'ABCDEs' (Asymmetry, Borders, Color, Diameter, Evolution) of melanoma. The targeted intervention group received a modified pamphlet that included a skin of color section, the nomenclature "melanoma skin cancer", and an image of an individual performing a skin self-examination with the help of a friend. Melanoma knowledge, perceived risk for developing melanoma, and skin self-examination practices were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. Among the 100 participants, 78% self-identified as African American, 11% as Asian, and 11% as Hispanic. Both groups experienced a similar increase in melanoma knowledge that was retained at 2 months. Perceived personal risk for developing melanoma increased more in the targeted intervention group immediately post-intervention (p = 0.015), but this difference no longer existed between the groups at the 2-month follow-up. The targeted intervention group also demonstrated a greater increase in skin self-examinations (p = 0.048) and knowledge of warning signs to look for when examining the skin (p = 0.002) at

  13. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nrupa Jani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results: For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65 and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81 from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47, knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51 and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97. For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94, knowledge of a place to test

  14. A randomized controlled clinical trial of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program for people with first-onset mental illness in psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Bressington, Daniel

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness. A single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial design was used. The study involved 180 participants with mild to moderate-severe symptoms of psychotic or mood disorders who were newly referred to two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Patients were randomly assigned to either an eight-session nurse-led psychosocial intervention program (plus usual care) or usual psychiatric outpatient care (both n=90). The primary outcome was psychiatric symptoms. Outcomes were measured at recruitment, one week and 12 months post-intervention. Patients in the psychosocial intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in symptoms compared to treatment as usual. There were also significant improvements in illness insight and perceived quality of life and reduction in length of re-hospitalizations over the 12-month follow-up. The findings provide evidence that the nurse-led psychosocial intervention program resulted in improved health outcomes in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness.

  15. Rethinking research on psychosocial interventions in biopsychosocial oncology: an essay written in honor of the scholarly contributions of Bernard H. Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temoshok, Lydia R

    2004-07-01

    In his best known contribution to the field of psychooncology, the late Dr Bernard H. Fox applied his breadth of scholarship in biopsychosocial cancer epidemiology to address the question of whether and to what extent stress and other psychosocial factors may contribute to cancer risk. Less well known but equally important to the field is his incisive critique of the 1989 study by Spiegel et al. on survival time of patients with metastatic breast cancer following a psychosocial intervention. This essay represents an attempt to take Fox's line of thought to the next logical level of rethinking research on psychosocial interventions in biopsychosocial oncology. Following an analysis of the inadequacy of randomized clinical trials (RCT) to evaluate the causal effects of psychosocial interventions on cancer outcomes and distinguish these from mere prediction, an integrated RCT design is suggested to take into account the psychogenicity of a given intervention, potential mediating mechanisms, and individual differences that could help illuminate hypothesized causal processes linking an experimental intervention and cancer outcomes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Deliverability, Acceptability, and Perceived Effect of the Macmillan Approach to Weight Loss and Eating Difficulties: A Phase II, Cluster-Randomized, Exploratory Trial of a Psychosocial Intervention for Weight- and Eating-Related Distress in People with Advanced Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkinson, Jane B; Fenlon, Debbie R; Okamoto, Ikumi; Wright, David N.M; Scott, Issy; Addington-Hall, Julia M; Foster, Claire

    2010-01-01

    .... The Macmillan Weight and Eating Studies (2000-2009) have used the Medical Research Council complex interventions framework to develop the first psychosocial intervention for weight- and eating-related distress (WRD and ERD...

  17. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  19. Family caregivers’ assessment of symptoms in persons with dementia using the GBS-scale: differences in rating after psychosocial intervention – an 18-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Dahlrup

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beth Dahlrup, Eva Nordell, Signe Andrén, Sölve ElmståhlDepartment of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if psychosocial intervention for family caregivers made any differences in describing symptoms of dementia in the persons they cared for. The study population comprised family caregivers of persons aged 70 years and older receiving social services and diagnosed with dementia disorders. A group of 129 family caregivers underwent psychosocial intervention including education, information, and provision of a support group, while 133 family caregivers did not and these formed the control group. Family caregivers were followed-up every 6 months for a total of 18 months. They rated intellectual, emotional, and activity of daily living (ADL functions in persons with dementia using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale (GBS-scale. Family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention rated the intellectual and emotional symptoms of dementia significantly higher 6 months later compared to controls and the effect was sustained during the 18-month follow-up irrespective of relationship and education. Most notably, decrease in function of recent memory, ability to increase tempo, long-windedness, distractibility, and blunting were better identified. Our findings suggest that the family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention achieved better understanding of different symptoms and the behaviors of dementia. These findings may explain earlier findings of positive effects after psychosocial intervention on family caregivers’ sense of burden, satisfaction, and ability to delay nursing home placement.Keywords: intervention, dementia, family caregivers, education, GBS-scale

  20. The pursuit of evidence-based practice: Comparisons of three guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmark Anders

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - In this article we scrutinise three prominent guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems. We pay special attention to how congruent the guidelines are in terms of the interventions recommended, and the processes used in order to identify and rank the “evidence” underpinning these recommendations. DATA - The analysed guidelines are: 1 Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Substance Use Disorders, American Psychiatric Association (2006; 2 Alcohol-Use Disorders. The NICE Guideline on Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Harmful Drinking and Alcohol Dependence (2011, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, UK; 3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Alcohol Problems, Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing (2009. The purpose is not to review the three guidelines as such, but to study them as an example of the production of evidence. All report to be based on “best available evidence”, so the guidelines were compared both regarding the actual recommendations and the guideline production procedures and differences in these procedures with related consequences. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS - Prestigious organisations in different national contexts have reached divergent conclusions about evidence-based practice and the quality of the scientific studies underpinning these conclusions. Differences in the guidelines regarding interpretations, limitations and grading illustrate the difficulties with the dilemmas of sensitivity (to include factors that are significant for how a psychological intervention is to be judged and specificity (that irrelevant studies are cleared off in the recommendations presented.

  1. The Psychosocial Work Environment, Employee Mental Health and Organizational Interventions: Improving Research and Practice by Taking a Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Moderators of the efficacy of a psychosocial group intervention for children with chronic illness and their parents: what works for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, L.; Willemen, A.M.; Napoleone, E.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Last, B.F.; Dijk-Lokkart, E.M. van; Zandbelt, N.; Ensink, E.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate psychosocial characteristics of children and parents as predictors and moderators of the effect of a group intervention for children with chronic illness and their parents. METHODS: Data from a randomized controlled trial were used, including 194 children (8-18 years) who

  3. Depression in Homebound Older Adults: Recent Advances in Screening and Psychosocial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Sirey, Jo Anne; Bruce, Martha L

    2013-03-01

    Homebound older adults are more likely than their ambulatory peers to suffer from depression. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of antidepressant medications alone in such cases is limited. Greater benefits might be realized if patients received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy to enhance their skills to cope with their multiple chronic medical conditions, isolation, and mobility impairment; however, referrals to specialty mental health services seldom succeed due to inaccessibility, shortage of geriatric mental health providers, and cost. Since a large proportion of homebound older adults receive case management and other services from aging services network agencies, the integration of mental health services into these agencies is likely to be cost-efficient and effective. This review summarizes recent advances in home-based assessment and psychosocial treatment of depression in homebound recipients of aging services.

  4. The action and the psychosocial approach of the intervention in social contexts: can we move from the fashion to the theoretical, epistemological, and methodological precision?.

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Gómez, Juan David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2012-01-01

    The following article, derived from research, poses the question about a growing issue in Colombia: the increase in projects of psychosocial intervention in diverse social sectors, particularly with victims of the armed conflict, social violence, violence of gender and family, etc., as well as population in a situation of extreme poverty, forced displacement and victims of natural disasters. In relation to this logic of intervention and action, the academic reflection tends to be scarce, uncl...

  5. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future.

  6. Should psychosocial intervention be added to pharmacological treatment for opiate abuse/dependence? An overview of systematic reviews of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Opioid abuse and dependence are major health and social issues in most societies. Different interventions are available, but the majority of heroin patients relapse and these relapses are a substantial problem to their rehabilitation. Psychosocial interventions for drug addicts have been suggested as possible instruments to overcome the difficulty of maintaining a drug-free state. The aim of this paper is to provide a summary of the available evidence of effectiveness.

    Methods: We summarised the results from two systematic reviews on psychosocial interventions combined with Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Methadone or Buprenorphine Detoxification Treatment.

    Results: For detoxification treatments, the results show that benefits can be gained from adding any psychosocial treatment to any substitution detoxification treatment in terms of completion of treatment: relative risk (RR 1.68 (95% CI 1.11-2.55, and compliance (proportion of clinical absences: RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.38-0.59; for the use of heroin during treatment, the differences were not statistically significant. For maintenance treatments, there is an additional benefit to be gained in adding any psychosocial treatment to methadone maintenance treatment in relation to the use of heroin during treatment: RR 0.69(95% CI 0.53-0.91; no statistically significant additional benefit was shown in terms of treatment retention and results at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Psychosocial treatments offered in addition to pharmacological detoxification treatments are effective in terms of completion of treatment and compliance, while adding any psychosocial support to methadone maintenance significantly improves the non-use of heroin during treatment but does not improve the other outcomes considered.

  7. Musculoskeletal, visual and psychosocial stress in VDU operators before and after multidisciplinary ergonomic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarås, A; Horgen, G; Bjørset, H H; Ro, O; Thoresen, M

    1998-10-01

    The study has a parallel group design with two intervention groups (T and S) and one control group (C) of VDU operators. Three serial interventions were carried out in the T and S groups, first a new lighting system, then new workplaces and last an optometric examination and corrections if needed. The new lighting gave significantly increased illuminance levels, increased luminances of the room surfaces and better luminance distribution. The two intervention groups reported significant improvement of the lighting conditions, as well as of the visual conditions and significantly reduced visual discomfort and glare. Significant reduction of headache was found in one of the intervention groups. Optometric corrections reduced the visual discomfort in both the intervention groups. When looking at those given new corrections, a significant reduction was found in the T group and a clear tendency was also found in the S group. The C group reported no improvements for any of these health outcomes. The workplace intervention gave the operator the possibility to support the whole forearm and hand on the table top. Before the intervention there were no significant differences between the three groups regarding shoulder pain and static trapezius electromyographic (EMG) load. Two years after the intervention, a significant reduction of shoulder pain was reported in the T and S groups in parallel with a significant reduction in static trapezius load, while no such reduction was found in the C group. At the same time, both static trapezius load and shoulder pain were significantly lower in the T and S groups compared with the C group. Pain in the forearm and hand showed no significant changes in any of the groups during the study period. However, there seem to be a relationship between pain in the forearm and hand and the time the operator used the mouse. The C group reported significantly higher intensity of pain and used the mouse significantly more than the S group.

  8. The effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for maltreated children and adolescents: an evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Geraldine; Livingstone, Nuala; Hanratty, Jennifer; McCartan, Claire; Cotmore, Richard; Cary, Maria; Glaser, Danya; Byford, Sarah; Welton, Nicky J; Bosqui, Tania; Bowes, Lucy; Audrey, Suzanne; Mezey, Gill; Fisher, Helen L; Riches, Wendy; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN For effectiveness, we included any controlled study. Other study designs were considered for economic decision modelling. For acceptability, we included any study that asked participants for their views. PARTICIPANTS Children and young people up to 24 years 11 months, who had experienced maltreatment before the age of 17 years 11 months. INTERVENTIONS Any psychosocial intervention provided in any setting aiming to address the consequences of maltreatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Psychological distress [particularly post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety, and self-harm], behaviour, social functioning, quality of life and acceptability. METHODS Young Persons and Professional Advisory Groups guided the project, which was conducted in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration and NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Departures from the published protocol were recorded and explained. Meta-analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses of available data were undertaken where possible. RESULTS We identified 198 effectiveness studies (including 62 randomised trials); six economic evaluations (five using trial data and one decision-analytic model); and 73 studies investigating treatment acceptability. Pooled data on cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for sexual abuse suggested post-treatment reductions in PTSD [standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.44 (95% CI -4.43 to -1.53)], depression [mean difference -2.83 (95% CI -4.53 to -1.13)] and anxiety [SMD -0.23 (95% CI -0.03 to -0.42)]. No differences were observed for post-treatment sexualised behaviour

  9. Adapting a Psychosocial Intervention for Smartphone Delivery to Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Gill, Lydia E; Bruce, Martha L; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    To describe the process of adapting an integrated medical and psychiatric self-management intervention to a smartphone application for middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness using an adaptive systems engineering framework and user-centered design. First, we determined the technical abilities and needs of middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illnesses using smartphones. Then, we developed smartphone content through principles of user-centered design and modified an existing smartphone platform. Finally, we conducted a usability test using "think aloud" and verbal probing. We adapted a psychosocial self-management intervention to a smartphone application and tested its usability. Ten participants (mean age: 55.3 years, SD: 6.2 years) with serious mental illness and comorbid chronic health conditions reported a high level of usability and satisfaction with the smartphone application. Middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness and limited technical abilities were able to participate in a process involving user-centered design and adaptation of a self-management intervention to be delivered by a smartphone. High usability ratings suggest that middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness have the potential to use tailored smartphone interventions. Future research is indicated to establish effectiveness and to determine the type and intensity of clinical support needed to successfully implement smartphone applications as a component of community-based services for older adults with psychiatric and medical conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effectiveness of Psychosocial Intervention for Individuals With Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Alyson; Persson, Martin; Stock, Nicola; Rumsey, Nichola; Sandy, Jonathan; Waylen, Andrea; Edwards, Zoe; Hammond, Vanessa; Partridge, Lucy; Ness, Andy

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of different psychological interventions for children and adults with cleft lip and/or palate and their parents. We searched six databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE to June 2013 and checked bibliographies. We included research that evaluated any psychological intervention in studies in which at least 90% of the participants had cleft lip and/or palate or were parents of those with cleft lip and/or palate. Studies containing less than 90% were excluded unless they reported results separately for those with cleft lip and/or palate, or raw data were available upon request from the authors. Inclusion assessment, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two reviewers. Seven studies were identified as inclusions, with only two studies being included in the full data analysis (one of which failed to meet the full inclusion criteria). The five remaining studies were included only in a narrative synthesis because data were available for people or parents of those with cleft lip and/or palate only. This highlights a distinct dearth of research into psychological intervention within the field of cleft lip and/or palate. The review found no evidence to support any specific intervention. Key uncertainties need to be identified and addressed. Adequately powered, methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to provide a secure evidence base for psychological intervention techniques in participants with cleft lip and/or palate and their parents.

  11. Protein kinases as targets for interventive biogerontology: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wing-Fu

    2012-04-01

    Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of γ phosphate from adenosine triphosphate to substrate proteins, and are important signal transduction mediators in a diversity of biological processes, ranging from apoptosis to energy metabolism. In this article, we will take this prominent class of proteins as an example to illustrate the involvement of proteins in modulation of aging and to highlight the prospects and challenges of protein-targeted interventions for anti-aging purposes. It is hoped that through this article, more empirical work on interventive gerontology will follow, and with collaborative endeavors among researchers, hurdles in anti-aging intervention development can be overcome in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategic targeting of advance care planning interventions: the Goldilocks phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle

    2014-04-01

    Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions.

  13. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future.

  14. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future. PMID:28151992

  15. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care: Review of Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsverk, John A.; Burns, Barbara J.; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Rolls Reutz, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Between one-half and three-fourths of children entering foster care exhibit behavioral or social-emotional problems warranting mental health care. This paper, condensed and updated from a technical report prepared for Casey Family Programs in 2005, reviews evidence-based and promising interventions for the most prevalent mental conditions found…

  16. Effects of a pain programme on nurses' psychosocial, physical and relaxation interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Luiken, J.B.; Garssen, B.; Huijer-Abu Saad, H.; Grypdonck, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of a continuing education programme on pain assessment and management was investigated in 106 surgical cancer nurses. It was found that the programme led to a more positive attitude towards physical and relaxation interventions (such as the use of relaxation, distraction and

  17. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MA...

  18. Effects of a pain programme on nurses' psychosocial, physical and relaxation interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Luiken, J.B.; Garssen, B.; Huijer-Abu Saad, H.; Grypdonck, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of a continuing education programme on pain assessment and management was investigated in 106 surgical cancer nurses. It was found that the programme led to a more positive attitude towards physical and relaxation interventions (such as the use of relaxation, distraction and massag

  19. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  20. Research and Psychosocial Intervention With Families of Children and Adolescents With Eating Disorders and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexina Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders and obesity in children and adolescents have been calling researchers and public health institutions’ attention due to severity and increasing incidence in the last decades. Studies on etiological factors of diseases related to alimentation are important to justify more efficient treatment methodologies. The family participation has been suggested by authors of systems theory, motivating us to study this issue from the point of view of individual, family and socio-cultural. This paper aims to present research data to construct a psychosocial attendance methodology to children and adolescents with eating disorders and obesity and their families. The method used is qualitative and includes a family life cycle interview, Multifamily Group, children and adolescents groups and the use of Rorschach test in adolescents. Partial data show that parents’ life history has influence on eating pattern of family; the genitors don’t comprehend the obesity as a multi-factorial syndrome and don’t recognize that their children are obese and have difficulty setting boundaries in general and regarding to food; conjugal and parental conflicts and grandparents interference have negative influence on children dietary and on treatment of obesity and eating disorders; the use of Rorschach test has identified: low self-esteem, anguish and distorted self and body perceptions, self-concept and self-image distortions in adolescents with eating disorders and depressive thoughts, dependency, fear of abandonment and distortion between ideal and real images in obese adolescents. These data are in accordance with bibliographic review regarding to family influence on each member’s health development and on family eating pattern. Parents and adults have a central role as in orientation and education as presenting appropriate models in terms of alimentation.

  1. Cancer caregiver quality of life: need for targeted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Maria I; Atherton, Pamela J; Kung, Simon; Sloan, Jeff A; Shahi, Varun; Clark, Matthew M; Rummans, Teresa A

    2016-12-01

    Caregiving can negatively impact well-being. Cancer caregivers face unique challenges given the intense nature of cancer and treatment, which increases their risk for burden, poor quality of life (QOL), and burnout. Studies to reduce caregiver burden demonstrate QOL improvement and distress reduction in the short term. However, few studies exist to address long-term benefits. We assessed changes in various QOL domains after participation in a QOL intervention for caregivers of patients having newly diagnosed advanced cancer. Our institutional review board-approved study randomized patient-caregiver dyads to either usual care or an in-person group intervention composed of six 90-min sessions of structured multidisciplinary QOL components delivered over 4 weeks, with 10 follow-up phone calls within 20 weeks. Caregivers attended four of the six sessions attended by patients. Sessions included physical therapy, coping and communication strategies, mental health education, spirituality, and social needs. Caregiver QOL (Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer Scale [CQOLC] and Linear Analogue Self-Assessment [LASA]) and mood (Profile of Mood States-Brief [POMS-B]) were measured at baseline and 4, 27, and 52 weeks. Wilcoxon tests and effect sizes were used to compare the caregiver groups. Of the 131 caregivers (65 intervention and 66 usual care), 116 completed the study. Caregivers post-intervention (at 4 weeks) had improved scores on LASA Spiritual Well-being; POMS-B total score, Vigor/Activity, and Fatigue/Inertia; and CQOLC Adaptation. At long term (at 27 weeks), caregivers retained improvement in POMS-B Fatigue/Inertia and gained improvements in CQOLC Disruptiveness and Financial Concerns. Caregivers who received the intervention had higher QOL ratings for specific QOL domains but not for overall QOL. Although a comprehensive intervention was helpful, more specific, targeted interventions tailored for individual needs are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley

  2. Effects of life review interventions on psychosocial outcomes among older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiuyan; Xiao, Huimin; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-26

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of life review interventions on psychosocial outcomes among older adults. We searched PubMed, Ovid, CINHAL, Cochrane library, PsycINFO, Springer Link, Oxford Journals Collection, FRMS, CBM, VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang to identify randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the effects of life review among older adults. The quality of studies included was evaluated and the relevant information was extracted. Then, a meta-analysis was carried out with RevMan software. We identified 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria, and 11 studies were allowed for meta-analysis. The combined results of the meta-analysis showed that life review significantly reduced depression (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% CI 0.73 to -0.42) and hopelessness (mean difference [MD] 4.01, 95% CI 6.13 to -1.89). There was a significant improvement in well-being (standardized mean difference 0.54, 95% CI 0.01-1.06) and specific memory (MD 1.05, 95% CI 0.07-2.03). However, other study findings did not support its effect in life satisfaction (MD 2.15, 95% CI 0.69- 5.00), self-esteem (MD 0.21, 95% CI 2.09-2.50), the quality of life (standardized mean difference 0.15, 95% CI 0.96-0.66), extended memory (MD 0.03, 95% CI 0.61-0.55), categorical memory (MD 0.48, 95% CI 1.08- 0.12) and no recall (MD 0.30, 95% CI 1.12- 0.52). Life review is a worthwhile intervention for reducing depression and hopelessness, and improving quality of life, well-being and specific memory in older adults. More well-designed trials with a large sample and long-term follow up are necessary to confirm the effects of life review on other psychosocial outcomes. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Psychosocial interventions as adjunct therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Rukmal Kumari; Bertouch, James V

    2010-10-01

    To identify the psychological interventions for which there is consistent, high quality evidence of efficacy in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A computer-aided search and manual screening of identified papers was conducted. Randomised controlled trials published in English in peer-reviewed journals, assessing the use of psychological interventions in adult patients with RA were included. Thirty-four papers published between 1981 and 2009 encompassing 31 studies with 2021 patients were included. There is consistent supportive evidence for the efficacy of disclosure therapy (four studies) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with maintenance therapy (five studies). There is supportive evidence for improvement with CBT of greater than 6 weeks duration (six studies) in the short-term but conflicting evidence for its long-term efficacy. There is some evidence for improvement with biofeedback-based interventions (two studies). There is conflicting evidence for the benefits of counselling (three studies), psychotherapy (two studies) mindfulness and meditation (two studies), and CBT of less than 6 weeks duration (six studies). There is limited evidence regarding relaxation therapy (two studies). Methodological limitations of the reviewed literature included failure of allocation concealment, blinding and conduction of intention-to-treat analysis, as well as the heterogeneity and choice of outcome measures. This review shows consistent supportive evidence for the use of disclosure therapy, and CBT with maintenance therapy as adjunct therapies in patients with RA. It also highlights methodological limitations in the current literature and the need for future research in this area.

  4. Dancing as a psychosocial intervention in care homes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-García, A; Hughes, J C; James, I A; Rochester, L

    2013-09-01

    There is a need to find meaningful and engaging interventions to improve mood and behaviour for residents of care homes. The demand on care staff might diminish opportunities for them to encourage these activities. Staff anecdotal information attests that dancing as an activity improves mood in residents and staff. Hence, the importance of investigating what dancing brings to the care home social environment. To provide a systematic review of the evidence from studies related to dancing interventions for older people with dementia living in care homes. Electronic databases were searched. Previous reviews were also included, and recognised experts were consulted up to January 2012. Inclusion criteria considered study methodology and evidence that the impact of the dance intervention had been measured. Ten studies were identified that satisfied the inclusion criteria: seven qualitative and three quantitative. Studies used different approaches such as therapeutic dance, dance movement therapy, dance therapy, social dancing and psychomotor dance-based exercise. There was evidence that problematic behaviours decreased; social interaction and enjoyment in both residents and care staff improved. A few adverse effects were also acknowledged. The evidence on the efficacy of dancing in care homes is limited in part owing to the methodological challenges facing such research. This review aims to raise awareness of the possibility of implementing dance work as an engaging activity in care homes. We shall also consider options for future dance work research as a means to encourage relationships and sensory stimulation for both residents and staff. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Positive youth development program targeting students with greater psychosocial needs: Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Sun, Rachel C F; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2011-01-01

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from 2173 participants recruited in 52 schools, 257 conclusions were reported by the program implementers in the evaluation reports. These conclusions were further analyzed via secondary data analyses. Although most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive in nature, there were also conclusions on the difficulties encountered and suggestions for improvements. Consistent with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by different stakeholders and the program was beneficial to the development of the program participants in the first year of the Experimental Implementation Phase.

  6. Effects of Psychosocial Interventions for School-aged Children's Internet Addiction, Self-control and Self-esteem: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to perform an effect size analysis of psychosocial interventions for internet addiction and to identify the intervention moderators applied to school-aged children. Methods For the meta-analysis, studies were included that were published in English or Korean until January 2015, without limitation in terms of the year. They were retrieved from 11 electronic databases and by manual searches according to predefined inclusion criteria. Results A total of 37 studies were selected, which included 11 treatment conditions and covered a total of 1,490 participants. The effect size estimates showed that psychosocial interventions had a large effect for reducing internet addiction (standardized mean difference [SMD], –1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], –1.52 to –0.87) and improving self-control (SMD, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.47) and self-esteem (mean difference, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.03 to 5.12). The moderator analyses reveals that group treatments, a selective approach, a long duration, a community setting, or higher school grade had a larger effect. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest that psychosocial intervention may be used to prevent Internet addiction in school-aged children, although further research should be conducted using a randomized controlled trial design or diverse age groups to provide evidence-based recommendations. PMID:27525163

  7. Effects of using a nursing crisis intervention program on psychosocial responses and coping strategies of infertile women during in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Hsin, Lee

    2003-09-01

    Infertility and its treatment may cause life crises in infertile women. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a crisis intervention program on improving psychosocial responses and enhancing coping strategies for infertile women attending different stages of an In-Vitro Fertilization V Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) treatment program. Using an experimental study design, infertile women attending an IVF-ET treatment program were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, infertile women completed and answered a questionnaire and received nursing crisis intervention at the initial stage of treatment (day 3). This included (1). viewing a video explaining the therapeutic process of IVF-ET, (2). self-hypnosis and muscle relaxation training, and (3). provision of cognitive-behavioral counseling. The same questionnaire was used again for subjects at the stage of embryo transfer and before taking a pregnancy test. The women in the control group were only interviewed using the same questionnaire and at the same times as the experimental group. Analysis by repeated measurement ANOVA demonstrated that there was a reduction in psychosocial response in terms of interpersonal relationships, and there was an interaction between intervention effects and stage of treatment. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the level of psychosocial responses between the experimental and control groups although some meaningful findings were made. However, in terms of state of anxiety, confrontational problems, and isolated mind/body relaxation, there were significant differences between the two groups of infertile women at some stages of IVF-ET treatment. The women in the experimental group perceived a positive effect of the nursing intervention in relieving their psychosocial responses. The results of this nursing crisis intervention could be helpful in nursing practice when dealing with infertile women attending IVF

  8. Pharmacological Augmentation of Psychosocial and Remediation Training Efforts in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Harvey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to cognitive enhancement have received considerable attention but have not had considerable success in improving their cognitive and functional targets. Other intervention strategies, such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT, have been shown to enhance cognitive performance but have not been found to improve functional outcomes without additional psychosocial interventions. Recently, several studies have attempted to enhance the effects of CRT by adding pharmacological interventions to the CRT treatments. In addition, as CRT has been shown to synergistically improve the effects of psychosocial interventions, the combination of pharmacological therapies aimed at cognition and psychosocial interventions may itself provide a promising strategy for improving functional outcomes. This review and commentary examines the current state of interventions combining CRT and psychosocial treatments with pharmacological augmentation. Our focus is on the specific level of effect of the pharmacological intervention, which could be enhancing motivation, training efficiency, or the consolidation of therapeutic gains. Different pharmacological strategies (e.g., stimulants, plasticity-inducing agents, or attentional or alertness enhancers may have the potential to lead to different types of gains when combined with CRT or psychosocial interventions. The relative potential of these different mechanisms for immediate and durable effects is considered.

  9. ADCS Prevention Instrument Project: pilot testing of a book club as a psychosocial intervention and recruitment and retention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Peter J; Rajcan, Julia L; Sami, Susie A; Patterson, Marian B; Smyth, Kathleen A; Edland, Steven D; George, Daniel R

    2006-01-01

    Both psychosocial and biologic interventions may delay or prevent Alzheimer disease. Staying mentally active may help older people maintain their cognitive abilities. In the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project a book club was introduced as a recruitment and retention device. A 3-arm study was designed and included: a nonrandomized, self-selected group (n=211) who chose not to participate in the book club, and 2 groups randomly assigned to receive 2 books per year in individual self-improvement (n=210) or community involvement (n=207) categories. Participants reported their reactions to the selections and other reading behaviors. Results from the first 2 years revealed that most book club participants agreed with Likert-type statements indicating the readings were enjoyable (Popen-ended questions in the reader survey revealed such themes as developing plans for successful aging and reflecting on attitudes and behaviors in their own lives. Further longitudinal analyses are planned to determine whether the book club influenced retention and whether participation was associated with slowing cognitive decline.

  10. Group psychosocial interventions for adults with schizophrenia and bipolar illness: the evidence base in the light of publications between 1986 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segredou, I; Xenitidis, K; Panagiotopoulou, M; Bochtsou, V; Antoniadou, O; Livaditis, M

    2012-05-01

    The treatment of major mental disorders usually combines medical and psychosocial interventions. The present study reviews research pertaining to the efficacy of group psychosocial interventions for people with psychotic illness. An electronic search was conducted through Medline and PsychINFO to identify articles relevant to group therapy for people with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Articles published in the English language, between January 1986 and May 2006, were considered. Studies were included if they had a control group and at least 20 participants. The search resulted in 23 articles concerning patients with schizophrenia and five concerning patients with bipolar affective disorder. The therapeutic approach in the majority of the studies was along the lines of cognitive behaviour therapy and psychoeducation. All studies reported improvement in at least one parameter. Most of them report improvement in skills and overall functioning.

  11. The Effects of a School-Based Psychosocial Intervention on Resilience and Health Outcomes among Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowokere, A. E.; Okanlawon, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the psychosocial health needs of the vulnerable population has been considered as a significant public health issue that must be addressed through access to public health professionals. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of a training program on nurses and teachers' knowledge of psychosocial health…

  12. Preventing child abuse: psychosocial description of clients of brief intervention programs in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gómez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study describe characteristics and risk factors for child abuse and neglect,in 591 children and adolescents, their parents and families served by eight brief intervention programs (PIB “Viviendo en Familia”, funded by the Chilean National Service of Children (SENAME and implemented by Protectora de la Infancia (a non-profit organization in Chile. The results revealed the existence of problems of moderate complexity, on the environment,parental competencies, family interactions, family safety and child well-being. About three of each four caregivers show signs of high risk for the abuse or neglect of children, especially in their mental health, a topic that must be considered by the staff to develop a plan of coordinated work with the local network of health services.

  13. Psychosocial intervention improves depression, quality of life, and fluid adherence in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Asher, Deborah Rosenthal; Coplan, Jeremy D; Weedon, Jeremy; Wyka, Katarzyna E; Saggi, Subodh J; Kimmel, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ESRD have high rates of depression, which is associated with diminished quality of life and survival. We determined whether individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces depression in hemodialysis patients with elevated depressive affect in a randomized crossover trial. Of 65 participants enrolled from two dialysis centers in New York, 59 completed the study and were assigned to the treatment-first group (n=33) or the wait-list control group (n=26). In the intervention phase, CBT was administered chairside during dialysis treatments for 3 months; participants were assessed 3 and 6 months after randomization. Compared with the wait-list group, the treatment-first group achieved significantly larger reductions in Beck Depression Inventory II (self-reported, P=0.03) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (clinician-reported, Pimprovements in quality of life, assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (P=0.04), and interdialytic weight gain (P=0.002) than the wait-list group, although no effect on compliance was evident at follow-up. In summary, CBT led to significant improvements in depression, quality of life, and prescription compliance in this trial, and studies should be undertaken to assess the long-term effects of CBT on morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD.

  14. New targets for intervention in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiecki, E Michael

    2011-09-20

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease of high bone remodeling, with an imbalance of bone resorption over bone formation, resulting in decreased bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. With our improved understanding of the molecular and cellular regulators and mediators of bone remodeling, new targets for therapeutic intervention have been identified. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is the principal regulator of osteoclast differentiation, activity, and survival; denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, inhibits bone resorption and is approved for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk of fractures. Cathepsin K is a protease produced by activated osteoclasts that degrades the protein matrix of bone. An inhibitor of cathepsin K, odanacatib, is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis; it decreases bone resorption while seeming to suppress bone formation less than other antiresorptive agents. Sclerostin is a cytokine produced by osteocytes that inhibits osteoblastic bone formation; investigational monoclonal antibodies to sclerostin, such as AMG 785, have osteoanabolic properties with the potential to improve clinical outcomes in patients with osteoporosis. These and other novel interventions that target newly recognized regulators of bone remodeling are promising agents for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  15. The cell's nucleolus: an emerging target for chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Amanda J; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The transient nucleolus plays a central role in the up-regulated synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to sustain ribosome biogenesis, a hallmark of aberrant cell growth. This function, in conjunction with its unique pathohistological features in malignant cells and its ability to mediate apoptosis, renders this sub-nuclear structure a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents. In this Minireview, structurally and functionally diverse small molecules are discussed that have been reported to either interact with the nucleolus directly or perturb its function indirectly by acting on its dynamic components. These molecules include all major classes of nucleic-acid-targeted agents, antimetabolites, kinase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, natural product antibiotics, oligopeptides, as well as nanoparticles. Together, these molecules are invaluable probes of structure and function of the nucleolus. They also provide a unique opportunity to develop novel strategies for more selective and therefore better-tolerated chemotherapeutic intervention. In this regard, inhibition of RNA polymerase-I-mediated rRNA synthesis appears to be a promising mechanism for killing cancer cells. The recent development of molecules targeted at G-quadruplex-forming rRNA gene sequences, which are currently undergoing clinical trials, seems to attest to the success of this approach.

  16. The macular degeneration and aging study: Design and research protocol of a randomized trial for a psychosocial intervention with macular degeneration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Silvia; White, Katherine; Mak, Wingyun; Zanibbi, Katherine; Tang, Wan; O'Hearn, Amanda; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-05-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible and predictable blindness among older adults with serious physical and mental health consequences. Visual impairment is associated with negative future outlook and depression and has serious consequences for older adults' quality of life and, by way of depression, on long-term survival. Psychosocial interventions have the potential to alleviate and prevent depression symptoms among older AMD patients. We describe the protocol of the Macular Degeneration and Aging Study, a randomized clinical trial of a psychosocial Preventive Problem-Solving Intervention. The intervention is aimed at enhancing well-being and future planning among older adults with macular degeneration by increasing preparation for future care. Adequate randomization and therapeutic fidelity were achieved. Current retention rates were acceptable, given the vulnerability of the population. Acceptability (adherence and satisfaction) was high. Given the high public health significance and impact on quality of life among older adults with vision loss, this protocol contributes a valid test of a promising intervention for maintaining mental and physical health in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeting IAP proteins for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, Simone; Vucic, Domagoj

    2012-02-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is one of the crucial acquired capabilities used by cancer cells to fend off anticancer therapies. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins exert a range of biological activities that promote cancer cell survival and proliferation. X chromosome-linked IAP is a direct inhibitor of caspases - pro-apoptotic executioner proteases - whereas cellular IAP proteins block the assembly of pro-apoptotic protein signalling complexes and mediate the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules. Furthermore, mutations, amplifications and chromosomal translocations of IAP genes are associated with various malignancies. Among the therapeutic strategies that have been designed to target IAP proteins, the most widely used approach is based on mimicking the IAP-binding motif of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC), which functions as an endogenous IAP antagonist. Alternative strategies include transcriptional repression and the use of antisense oligonucleotides. This Review provides an update on IAP protein biology as well as current and future perspectives on targeting IAP proteins for therapeutic intervention in human malignancies.

  18. The "Romsås in Motion" community intervention: program exposure and psychosocial mediated relationships to change in stages of change in physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenum Anne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting process evaluations of health promoting interventions, and measuring the effectiveness of specific intervention components, may help in the understanding of program failure or success. The purposes of the present study were to examine adults' exposure to and involvement in specific components of a three year long pseudo-experimental community-based physical activity intervention, and to examine the relationship between such exposure and participation and changes in stages of change in physical activity and psychosocial mediators. Methods 1497 persons in the intervention group attended the baseline survey in 2000 (50.6% and 1204 (80.4 of baseline attendees provided data on the outcome variables of the present study. In 2003, 1089 were still living in the area, and were re-invited to follow-up assessments. Current analyses are based on the 603 persons (mean age 49 ± 10 years who provided baseline and follow-up data for the current purposes (56.6% follow-up rate. Process data, stages of change in physical activity, and potential psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity were assessed by questionnaires. The theory-based intervention was composed of communication, physical activity, environmental and participatory components. Data were analysed using frequency and descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-tests, and regression analyses. Results Exposure and participation rates in the various intervention components varied greatly (1.5–92.7%. Participation in walking groups and aerobic exercise groups, as well as having seen the "Walk the stairs"-poster were significantly and positively related to change in stages of change in physical activity (β = .12, p = .011; β = .211, p Conclusion Findings revealed that particular intervention components, such as participation in physical activity groups, were more strongly related to forward transition in stages of change in physical activity than others. These

  19. Review of recent behavioral interventions targeting older adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to older adults living with HIV over the past few years given the increasing prevalence of HIV in this age group. Yet, despite numerous studies documenting psychosocial and behavioral differences between older and younger HIV-infected adults, few evidence-based behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. This review found only 12 manuscripts describing behavioral intervention studies in older HIV-positive adults published between 2011 and 2014, and they reported on a total of six interventions. Despite promising findings, there is a clear need for large-scale clinical trials to replicate these initial results and further develop additional interventions to address important clinical issues such as depression, sexual risk behaviors, cognition, and other significant issues affecting this cohort. This represents an exciting opportunity for behavioral scientists and HIV specialists to develop interventions that combine the psychological and behavioral with medical aspects of the disease.

  20. Intervention Efficacy in Trials Targeting Cannabis Use Disorders in Patients with Comorbid Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthoj, Carsten Rygaard; Baker, Amanda; Fohlmann, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis use disorders are highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses, and are probably associated with a range of poor outcomes. Several trials have been conducted on this population, the results of which have been summarized in several systematic reviews...... with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We extracted information on intervention types, efficacy, trial characteristics, and risk of bias. Results: There was no evidence of an effect on frequency of cannabis use, but intervention effects of motivational intervention with or without cognitive behavior therapy were...... observed on quantity of use and on positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychosocial intervention did not have an appreciable effect on negative symptoms. Longer interventions appear to be more efficacious, and efficacy may be better in trials with comparatively few women. Larger trials may be better...

  1. The Effect of Psychosocial Support Intervention on Depression in Patients with Dementia and Their Family Caregivers: An Assessor-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froydis Kristine Bruvik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: A three-component tailored psychosocial 12-month assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial to reduce depression in people with dementia (PWD and carers was conducted. Methods: A total of 230 home-dwelling dyads of PWD and their carers were randomized to usual care or intervention consisting of three components over 12 months. Primary outcomes were the difference between the baseline and 12-month score on the Cornell Scale of Depression in Dementia (CSDD in the PWD and on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS in the carers. Results: The intent-to-treat difference between the baseline and 12- month change score was not significant between the intervention and control groups for the CSDD (p = 0.95 or GDS (p = 0.82. Conclusions: The trial did not show a significant difference between usual care and the intervention on depressive symptoms in PWD or their family caregivers.

  2. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee-Fay; Baker, Jess R; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Camp, Cameron; Haertsch, Maggie; Skropeta, Margaret

    2013-11-16

    Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process evaluation will also be

  3. Methods of intervention in reducing the psychosocial impact while dealing with cancer as a disease: A clinician′s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: We searched for the clinically relevant suggestions, recommendations and findings amongst the papers on psycho oncology. The term clinically relevant for us meant ′practical and implemental modes of intervention that contribute but would not affect or interfere with the normal functioning of the present system and treatment modality of the patients.′ Our intention was to use the available information for the benefit of our patients. We also searched for the data that would prove the significance of these methods. In most parts of the world it is not possible to involve a psychologist at every level of cancer care. Based on the findings, we intend to carry out our own project for the psychosocial intervention in cancer patients and make suggestions that could be adopted even by those who have little or no experience in psychology. Conclusion: The field of psycho oncology is a relatively new and evolving subspecialty of oncology and psychology at the same time. Current data and papers, which would make simple and implemental modes of intervention at psychosocial level, are limited. There is a dire necessity of solid data and list of suggestion to the specialists, non-specialists and those who take care of the cancer patients, to enhance the care they provide to the cancer patients.

  4. Methods of intervention in reducing the psychosocial impact while dealing with cancer as a disease: A clinician′s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: We searched for the clinically relevant suggestions, recommendations and findings amongst the papers on Psycho-oncology. The term clinically relevant for us meant ′practical and implemental modes of intervention that contribute but would not affect or interfere with the normal functioning of the present system and treatment modality of the patients.′ Our intention was to use the available information for the benefit of our patients. We also searched for the data that would prove the significance of these methods. In most parts of the world it is not possible to involve a psychologist at every level of cancer care. Based on the findings, we intend to carry out our own project for the psychosocial intervention in cancer patients and make suggestions that could be adopted even by those who have little or no experience in psychology. Conclusion: The field of psycho oncology is a relatively new and evolving subspecialty of oncology and psychology at the same time. Current data and papers, which would make simple and implemental modes of intervention at psychosocial level, are limited. There is a dire necessity of solid data and list of suggestions to the specialists, non-specialists and to those who take care of the cancer patients, to enhance the care they provide to the cancer patients.

  5. The Influence of Exercise Training on Quality of Life and Psychosocial Functioning in Children with Congenital Heart Disease:A Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolijn Dulfer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with severe congenital heart disease. Participation in an exercise program among young people with complex congenital heart disease seemed to have positive effects on quality of life and passive leisure time spent. However, more effects of the exercise programs may have been expected. For future research it is important to critically evaluate the content of the exercise programs.

  6. Neural Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Target for Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Aeson [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Kim-Fuchs, Corina [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Department of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, University Hospital Bern, Bern 3010 (Switzerland); Le, Caroline P. [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Hollande, Frédéric [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Sloan, Erica K., E-mail: erica.sloan@monash.edu [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Cousins Center for PNI, UCLA Semel Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and UCLA AIDS Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Surgery, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia)

    2015-07-17

    The tumor microenvironment is known to play a pivotal role in driving cancer progression and governing response to therapy. This is of significance in pancreatic cancer where the unique pancreatic tumor microenvironment, characterized by its pronounced desmoplasia and fibrosis, drives early stages of tumor progression and dissemination, and contributes to its associated low survival rates. Several molecular factors that regulate interactions between pancreatic tumors and their surrounding stroma are beginning to be identified. Yet broader physiological factors that influence these interactions remain unclear. Here, we discuss a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies that highlight the important role chronic stress plays as a physiological regulator of neural-tumor interactions in driving the progression of pancreatic cancer. These studies propose several approaches to target stress signaling via the β-adrenergic signaling pathway in order to slow pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. They also provide evidence to support the use of β-blockers as a novel therapeutic intervention to complement current clinical strategies to improve cancer outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer.

  7. MicroRNA: an Emerging Therapeutic Target and Intervention Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decheng Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs with posttranscriptional regulatory functions. To date, more than 600 human miRNAs have been experimentally identified, and estimated to regulate more than one third of cellular messenger RNAs. Accumulating evidence has linked the dysregulated expression patterns of miRNAs to a variety of diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and viral infections. MiRNAs provide its particular layer of network for gene regulation, thus possessing the great potential both as a novel class of therapeutic targets and as a powerful intervention tool. In this regard, synthetic RNAs that contain the binding sites of miRNA have been shown to work as a “decoy” or “miRNA sponge” to inhibit the function of specific miRNAs. On the other hand, miRNA expression vectors have been used to restore or overexpress specific miRNAs to achieve a long-term effect. Further, double-stranded miRNA mimetics for transient replacement have been experimentally validated. Endogenous precursor miRNAs have also been used as scaffolds for the induction of RNA interference. This article reviews the recent progress on this emerging technology as a powerful tool for gene regulation studies and particularly as a rationale strategy for design of therapeutics.

  8. Cachexia and sarcopenia: mechanisms and potential targets for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argilés, Josep M; Busquets, Silvia; Stemmler, Britta; López-Soriano, Francisco J

    2015-06-01

    Cachexia is a multi-organ syndrome associated with cancer and other chronic diseases, characterized by body weight loss, muscle and adipose tissue wasting and inflammation, being often associated with anorexia. Skeletal muscle tissue represents more than 40% of body weight and seems to be one of the main tissues involved in the wasting that occurs during cachexia. Sarcopenia is a degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with healthy ageing. The molecular mechanisms behind cachexia and sarcopenia share some common trends. Muscle wasting is the result of a combination of an imbalance between synthetic and degradative protein pathways together with increased myocyte apoptosis and decreased regenerative capacity. Oxidative pathways are also altered in skeletal muscle during muscle wasting and this seems to be a consequence of mitochondrial abnormalities that include altered morphology and function, decreased ATP synthesis and uncoupling. The aim of the present review is to analyse common molecular pathways between cachexia and sarcopenia in order to put forward potential targets for intervention.

  9. Targeting Metabolic Reprogramming by Influenza Infection for Therapeutic Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Heather S.; Duan, Susu; Morfouace, Marie; Rezinciuc, Svetlana; Shulkin, Barry L.; Shelat, Anang; Zink, Erika E.; Milasta, Sandra; Bajracharya, Resha; Oluwaseum, Ajayi J.; Roussel, Martine F.; Green, Douglas R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Thomas, Paul G.

    2017-05-01

    Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production. BEZ235 treatment ablated the transient induction of c-Myc, restored PI3K/mTOR pathway homeostasis measured by 4E-BP1 and p85 phosphorylation, and reversed infection-induced changes in metabolism. Importantly, BEZ235 reduced infectious progeny but had no effect on the early stages of viral replication. BEZ235 significantly increased survival in mice, while reducing viral titer. We show metabolic reprogramming of host cells by influenza virus exposes targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Huntingtin interactions with membrane phospholipids: strategic targets for therapeutic intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel-Gleason, Kimberly B

    2013-01-01

    The Huntington's disease gene encodes the protein huntingtin (Htt), a soluble protein that largely distributes to the cytoplasm where about half the protein is found in association with membranes. Early studies on Huntington's disease patients suggested changes in membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, changes in phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes have been found in HD cell models using genetic methods. Recent investigations prove that Htt associates with membranes by direct interactions with phospholipids in membranes. Htt contains at least two membrane binding domains, which may work in concert with each other, to target to the appropriate intracellular membranes for diverse functions. Htt has a particular affinity for a specific class of phospholipids called phosphatidylinositol phosphates; individual species of these phospholipids propagate signals promoting cell survival and regulating changes in morphology. Mutant Htt fragments can disrupt synthetic phospholipid bilayers and full-length mutant Htt shows increased binding to numerous phospholipids, supporting the idea that mutant Htt can introduce pathology at the level of phospholipid interactions. There is a great potential to develop therapeutic agents since numerous enzymes regulate the both the biosynthesis/metabolism of lipids and the post-translational modifications of Htt that direct membrane interactions. Understanding the relationship of Htt with membrane phospholipids, and the impact of mutant Htt on membrane-related functions and lipid metabolism, may help identify new modes of therapeutic intervention for Huntington's disease.

  11. Targeting Metabolic Reprogramming by Influenza Infection for Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Smallwood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production. BEZ235 treatment ablated the transient induction of c-Myc, restored PI3K/mTOR pathway homeostasis measured by 4E-BP1 and p85 phosphorylation, and reversed infection-induced changes in metabolism. Importantly, BEZ235 reduced infectious progeny but had no effect on the early stages of viral replication. BEZ235 significantly increased survival in mice, while reducing viral titer. We show metabolic reprogramming of host cells by influenza virus exposes targets for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Targeting Metabolic Reprogramming by Influenza Infection for Therapeutic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Heather S; Duan, Susu; Morfouace, Marie; Rezinciuc, Svetlana; Shulkin, Barry L; Shelat, Anang; Zink, Erika E; Milasta, Sandra; Bajracharya, Resha; Oluwaseum, Ajayi J; Roussel, Martine F; Green, Douglas R; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Thomas, Paul G

    2017-05-23

    Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production. BEZ235 treatment ablated the transient induction of c-Myc, restored PI3K/mTOR pathway homeostasis measured by 4E-BP1 and p85 phosphorylation, and reversed infection-induced changes in metabolism. Importantly, BEZ235 reduced infectious progeny but had no effect on the early stages of viral replication. BEZ235 significantly increased survival in mice, while reducing viral titer. We show metabolic reprogramming of host cells by influenza virus exposes targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults in contexts of ongoing man-made violence - A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleber, Rolf; de Jong, K; Knipscheer, Jeroen; Ford, N.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to psychosocial programs implemented in post-conflict settings those executed in areas of ongoing conflicts may have different effects. Their evidence of efficacy has never been systematically reviewed. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and the Dutch Tropical Institute Literature Portal from

  14. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…

  15. The efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults in contexts of ongoing man-made violence - A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleber, Rolf; de Jong, K; Knipscheer, Jeroen; Ford, N.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to psychosocial programs implemented in post-conflict settings those executed in areas of ongoing conflicts may have different effects. Their evidence of efficacy has never been systematically reviewed. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and the Dutch Tropical Institute Literature Portal from in

  16. Development of a Patient-Centred, Psychosocial Support Intervention for Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Care in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sudeepa; Elsey, Helen; King, Rebecca; Baral, Sushil C; Bhatta, Bharat Raj; Newell, James N

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a major threat to public health worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The current long (20 month) and arduous treatment regime uses powerful drugs with side-effects that include mental ill-health. It has a high loss-to-follow-up (25%) and higher case fatality and lower cure-rates than those with drug sensitive tuberculosis (TB). While some national TB programmes provide small financial allowances to patients, other aspects of psychosocial ill-health, including iatrogenic ones, are not routinely assessed or addressed. We aimed to develop an intervention to improve psycho-social well-being for MDR-TB patients in Nepal. To do this we conducted qualitative work with MDR-TB patients, health professionals and the National TB programme (NTP) in Nepal. We conducted semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, aged 21 to 68), four family members and three frontline health workers. In addition, three focus groups were held with MDR-TB patients and three with their family members. We conducted a series of meetings and workshops with key stakeholders to design the intervention, working closely with the NTP to enable government ownership. Our findings highlight the negative impacts of MDR-TB treatment on mental health, with greater impacts felt among those with limited social and financial support, predominantly married women. Michie et al's (2011) framework for behaviour change proved helpful in identifying corresponding practice- and policy-level changes. The findings from this study emphasise the need for tailored psycho-social support. Recent work on simple psychological support packages for the general population can usefully be adapted for use with people with MDR-TB.

  17. Do psychosocial sleep interventions improve infant sleep or maternal mood in the postnatal period? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Liora; Sharpe, Louise; Miller, Christopher B; Bartlett, Delwyn J

    2016-10-01

    Sleep complaints are common amongst mothers of infants and insufficient, inefficient or fragmented sleep is associated with postnatal depression. The aim of this review is to determine whether psychosocial sleep-focused interventions offered in the perinatal period improve infant sleep or maternal mood. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and CINAHL with no date restriction. We reviewed 1097 articles, resulting in nine papers (n = 1,656) that fit the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the analyses. The primary outcome was infant sleep, defined as maternal reports of infant nocturnal total sleep time and number of night-time wakes. The secondary outcome was maternal mood. The meta-analysis indicated improvements in reported infant nocturnal total sleep time (Hedge's g = 0.204, p improvements (Hedge's g = 0.152, p = 0.014), however, this could have been influenced by publication bias. Psychosocial sleep interventions appear to impact the amount of sleep that a mother reports her baby to have, although the infants continue to wake as frequently. More research is needed to confirm whether sleep-related improvements can translate into improvements in maternal mood.

  18. Psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation in rural South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a prevalent problem among young people in Southern Africa, but prevention programs are largely absent. This survey aimed to identify the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Limpopo. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to establish a representative sample of 591 adolescents. Bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Findings show that suicidal ideation is prevalent among adolescents. The psychosocial factors perceived social support and negative feelings about the family and the behavioral factors forced sexual intercourse and physical violence by the partner were found to increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Depression mediated the relationship between these psychosocial and behavioral risk factors and suicidal ideation. This study increased our understanding of the psychosocial and behavioral predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation. The findings provide target points for future intervention programs and call for supportive structures to assist adolescents with suicidal ideation.

  19. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.

  20. Pubertal assessment: targeted educational intervention for pediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Nagarajan, Sairaman; Ravichandran, Yagnaram; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-08-18

    Background Timely and periodic pubertal assessment in children is vital to identify puberty related disorders. Pediatricians need to have working knowledge of puberty time and tempo. Pediatric residency is an important platform to acquire physical examination skills including pubertal assessment. Objective An educational intervention for teaching pubertal assessment was piloted on pediatric residents at our institution. Methods The intervention comprised of interactive lecture series, ID badge size Tanner stage cards and Tanner posters placed in residents' continuity clinics. Pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3 months post-intervention surveys for participating trainees were administered to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Attitudes, practices, knowledge scores, and barriers to Tanner staging conduct were analyzed. Results Forty-three residents participated in the intervention. Knowledge scores of PGY1 (5.95 ± 1.6 vs. 7.47 ± 1.4, p < 0.01) improved right after the intervention, as did self-reported clinical practices of all trainees 3 months post- intervention with regards to conducting external genital examination and performing pubertal assessment. Confidence levels of pediatric trainees in conducting pubertal assessment and comfort levels in assessing the need for endocrine referral based on abnormal Tanner staging improved after the intervention, although the effect was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our intervention is a worthwhile technique for teaching pubertal assessment to residents as it is simple to conduct, easily reproducible, provides baseline knowledge needed for recognition of normal pubertal development and puberty related conditions, and instills confidence in residents.

  1. Legislative, educational, policy and other interventions targeting physicians’ interaction with pharmaceutical companies: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhaled, Lina; Kahale, Lara; Nass, Hala; Brax, Hneine; Fadlallah, Racha; Badr, Kamal; Akl, Elie A

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical company representatives likely influence the prescribing habits and professional behaviour of physicians. Objective The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of interventions targeting practising physicians’ interactions with pharmaceutical companies. Eligibility criteria We included observational studies, non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and RCTs evaluating legislative, educational, policy or other interventions targeting the in...

  2. A three-year follow-up on the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their caregivers: the multicentre, rater-blinded, randomized Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, K.T.T.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the long-term efficacy at the 36-month follow-up of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme lasting 8-12 months for community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater-blinded trial....... SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics in five Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 home-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers (dyads). INTERVENTIONS: Dyads were randomised to receive intervention during the first year after diagnosis. Both intervention and control...... of Life Scale for Alzheimer's disease (QoL-AD), Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, Alzheimer's disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale, all-cause mortality and nursing home placement. RESULTS: At a 36-month follow-up, 2 years after the completion of the Danish Alzheimer...

  3. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  4. Periostin: a promising target of therapeutical intervention for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Weihong

    2011-06-01

    RNA-Periostin LNCap cells growed slowly in vitro and in vivo. The tissues of xenografts as PCa were verificated by HE staining. Additionally, the weak positive Periostin expressed tumor cells could be seen in the tissues of 6 xenografts from the group of down-regulated Periostin LNCap cells which had a significant decrease of the amount of Periostin compared to the other two group. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that sliencing Periostin could inhibit migration of LNCap cells in vitro. Conclusions Our data indicates that Periostin as an up-regulated protein in PCa may be a promising target of therapeutical intervention for PCa in future.

  5. Interventions Targeting Mental Health Self-Stigma: A Review and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T.; Lucksted, Alicia; Drapalski, Amy L.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective With growing awareness of the impact of mental illness self-stigma, interest has arisen in the development of interventions to combat it. The present article briefly reviews and compares interventions targeting self-stigma to clarify the similarities and important differences between the interventions. Methods We conducted a narrative review of published literature on interventions targeting self-stigma. Results Six intervention approaches (Healthy Self-Concept, Self-Stigma Reduction Program, Ending Self-Stigma, Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy, Coming Out Proud, and Anti-Stigma Photo-Voice Intervention) were identified and are discussed, and data is reviewed on format, group-leader backgrounds, languages, number of sessions, primary mechanisms of action, and the current state of data on their efficacy. Conclusions and Implications for Practice We conclude with a discussion of common elements and important distinctions between the interventions and a consideration of which interventions might be best suited to particular populations or settings. PMID:25313530

  6. Psychosocial intervention, as a contribution to local human development within Medellin’s public scope. Case study: project aps - “buenvivir” (good living into a family. sponsor: City hall of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about a research held on the psychosocial intervention offered from social projects such as educational formative spaces. A critical analysis is made by means of a government project conducted by the local administration of the city of Medellin known as “APS Buenvivir en Familia, 2011”, compiled by the Social Welfare Town Council Office, in association with the Municipality’s Health Department. Its purpose was to examine the logic and approach of psychosocial intervention as an input to human development. It was carried out through a qualitative focusing, taking in consideration the following categories: The psychosocial intervention has a definite impact on local human development, psychosocial praxis from the point of view of a public action strategy, community involvement taken as a true political act. The results showed that the psychosocial as a public exercise makes a contribution to local human development starting from the social involvement of communities and, in its everyday doing, presents structural and formal contradictions between the way they are designed and how the projects are planned and implemented among the people. 

  7. Non-specialist psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with intellectual disability or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Reichow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%. Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52% were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49% were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62% were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower

  8. Health service interventions targeting relatives of heart patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Madsen, Mette; Olsen Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Relatives of heart patients experience anxiety, uncertainty, and low quality of life, and the hospitalization of a heart patient is associated with increased risk of death for the partner. Relatives' physical and mental problems may be rectified by activities established by the health...... systematically reviewed to clarify what the health services do for relatives of heart patients and to assess the effects of interventions. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL database, CSA and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to March 2006. RESULTS: Only six scientific articles reported...... on interventions testing health service activities for relatives of heart patients, and one literature review scrutinized earlier studies within the field. All the interventions indicate positive effects on patients' and/or relatives' health and well-being, in accordance with nurses' assessments. Nevertheless...

  9. Revisiting rose: comparing the benefits and costs of population-wide and targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Jennifer; Jones, Matthew R; Bakshis, Erin; Galea, Sandro

    2008-12-01

    Geoffrey Rose's two principal approaches to public health intervention are (1) targeted strategies focusing on individuals at a personal increased risk of disease and (2) population-wide approaches focusing on the whole population. Beyond his discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, there is no empiric work examining the conditions under which one of these approaches may be better than the other. This article uses mathematical simulations to model the benefits and costs of the two approaches, varying the cut points for treatment, effect magnitudes, and costs of the interventions. These techniques then were applied to the specific example of an intervention on blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular disease. In the general simulation (using an inverse logit risk curve), lower costs of intervention, treating people with risk factor values at or above where the slope on the risk curve is at its steepest (for targeted interventions), and interventions with larger effects on reducing the risk factor (for population-wide interventions) provided benefit/cost advantages. In the specific blood pressure intervention example, lower-cost population-wide interventions had better benefit/cost ratios, but some targeted treatments with lower cutoffs prevented more absolute cases of disease. These simulations empirically evaluate some of Rose's original arguments. They can be replicated for particular interventions being considered and may be useful in helping public health decision makers assess potential intervention strategies.

  10. Parent Management Training Program Developed by “Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network” for Education of Family with Children in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Arslan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Parent management training programme was prepared by Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network based on ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis. The programme aims to prevent or decrease the problem behavior and to bring the children with autism in positive behaviors by educating their families. The controlled randomized clinical research of RUPP has determined that Parent Managament Training (PMT have provided meaningful improvements on childrens’ function and family relationships. The group of children on which risperidone and PMT have implemented together had statistically meaningful improvements such as increase in adaptive skills and decrease in the aggressive behaviors when compared with the children who used only risperidone. There is no such programme in Turkey for the families with children in pervasive developmet disorder. This paper aims to introduce and show the potentials of the PMT programme that has been developed by RUPP Autism Network.

  11. Interventions Targeting Attention in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elena; Watson, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to focus and sustain one's attention is critical for learning. Children with autism demonstrate unusual characteristics of attention from infancy. It is reasonable to assume that early anomalies in attention influence a child's developmental trajectories. Therapeutic interventions for autism often focus on core features of…

  12. The Need for Psychosocial Interventions to Facilitate the Transition to Extended-Release Naltrexone (XR-NTX) Treatment for Opioid Dependence: A Concise Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Susan E.; Rounsaville, Dan; Hoskinson, Randall; Park, Tae Woo; Ames, Evan G.; Neirinckx, Victor D.; Friedmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given the increase of opioid dependence and opioid-related morbidity and mortality, improving treatment options for individuals with opioid dependence warrants increased attention. This article provides a concise review of work in this area. Remission from opioid dependence can be very difficult to sustain, particularly in the absence of opioid replacement or opioid antagonist therapy. For those who wish to transition from opioid use or opioid replacement therapy to opioid antagonist therapy, a significant challenge can be the period of withdrawal symptoms that must be endured prior to the initiation of opioid antagonist therapy. Studies that have incorporated psychosocial interventions into detoxification protocols have found that they can result in improved treatment outcomes. Interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy have shown promise in the treatment of clinical disorders that present with symptoms similar to those of opioid withdrawal and have been found to positively impact outcomes among those tapering from methadone. However, the use of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based intervention has yet to be studied among opioid-dependent patients transitioning to XR-NTX, and its value to those transitioning to XR-NTX is currently unknown. PMID:27512336

  13. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  14. Intervention Integrity in the Low Countries: Interventions Targeting Social-Emotional Behaviors in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Margot; Ekels, Elles; van der Valk, Cindel; van der Molen, Maurits

    2017-01-01

    The current study presents a review of intervention studies conducted in the Low Countries (i.e., The Netherlands and Flanders) focusing on social-emotional behaviors in the school. The primary purpose of this review was to assess whether studies included an operational definition of the intervention under study and reported data on the…

  15. 精神分裂症患者的心理社会干预%Psychosocial Interventions for Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白哈拉桑; 黄楠; 陆峥

    2011-01-01

    精神分裂症的治疗不仅包括药物治疗,还包括为患者提供支持、有效的信息、心理社会干预以及康复治疗.中国的研究者在精神分裂症患者非药物治疗领域进行着各项研究,而国外研究数据一致显示心理社会干预可以降低复发率和再住院率.尽管缓解症状仍然是精神分裂症治疗的一个重要目标,但工作、学习、独立生活及社会化方面的功能损伤往往也是患者及其家属关注的重点.因此,精神分裂症患者更有可能从着重于减轻残疾的干预中获益.本文对中外有效应用于精神分裂症患者的主要心理社会干预进行综述,包括认知行为治疗、社会技能训练、家庭干预、认知纠正、心理教育、职业训练、危机干预及综合心理治疗;同时就中外心理社会干预的差异进行讨论.%This article reviews the main psychosocial interventions that have been used effectively in patients with schizophrenia in China and abroad,namely cognitive-behavioral therapy,social skills training,family intervention therapy,cognitive remediation,psycho education,vocational training,crisis intervention and integrated psychotherapy.The difference between psychosocial interventions in China and abroad has also been discussed.

  16. Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Budney

    2010-05-01

    . This article provides a review of the research evaluating potential treatments for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: A search of publication databases identified research studies and reviews of the scientific literature on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for cannabis use disorders. RESULTS: For adults, behaviorally-based interventions engender significant positive effects on abstinence and reductions in cannabis use. With adolescents, similar treatments and family-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy. Across studies, response rates appear modest even with the most potent psychosocial treatments. Evaluations of pharmacological approaches to cannabis use disorders have yet to provide clinical efficacy data for any specific medication. Agonist and antagonist approaches appear to offer the most promise. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of the cannabinoid system provide optimism that the synthesis of compounds that alter CB1 receptor site functioning may produce promising medications. CONCLUSION: Clinical research has identified effective psychosocial treatments, but has yet to yield effective pharmacotherapies. Much work remains to enhance the potency of and access to interventions for those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders.

  17. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  18. Psychostimulant and Sensory Stimulation Interventions That Target the Reading and Math Deficits of Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving…

  19. Using the Instructional Level as a Criterion to Target Reading Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David C.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The instructional hierarchy offers a useful framework for targeting academic interventions. Within this framework, the accuracy with which a student reads might function as an indicator that the student should receive an intervention that focuses either on accuracy or on fluency. The current study examined whether the instructional level for…

  20. Educational Interventions Targeted at Minors in Situations of Grave Social Vulnerability and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Rojas, Isabel Bartau

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to outline and assess an educational intervention programme targeted at improving the skills of families and the personal and social development of children living in situations of grave social vulnerability. The sample comprised 10 families during the first phase of the intervention and six during the second. The…

  1. The Use and Effectiveness of a Targeted Math Intervention for Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Gabriel M.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Carter, Deborah R.

    2013-01-01

    Students who fail to develop proficiency in math skills in the primary grades are more likely to experience difficulties in the math curriculum later on. These students may be in need of a more targeted intervention, or Tier 2 supports, in mathematic instruction. Although the instructional principles of an effective math intervention are becoming…

  2. Educational Interventions Targeted at Minors in Situations of Grave Social Vulnerability and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Rojas, Isabel Bartau

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to outline and assess an educational intervention programme targeted at improving the skills of families and the personal and social development of children living in situations of grave social vulnerability. The sample comprised 10 families during the first phase of the intervention and six during the second. The…

  3. Targeting Energy Metabolic Pathways as Therapeutic Intervention for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    observed that the cells with knockdown of eEF-2K expression exhibited a decreased glucose consumption (Fig. 1B), as measured by flow cytometric analysis of......3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2011 - 20 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Energy Metabolic Pathways as Therapeutic

  4. The Effects of Severe Psychosocial Deprivation and Foster Care Intervention on Cognitive Development at 8 Years of Age: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nathan A.; Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous reports from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project suggested that children removed from institutions and placed into intervention displayed gains in IQ relative to children randomized to remain in institutional care. Method: The current report presents data from the 8-year follow-up of these children. One hundred and three…

  5. Comprehensive psychosocial emergency management promotes recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Killorin; Clouse, Monty

    2004-01-01

    Recently published conclusions erroneously criticize early psychological interventions, and more specifically target critical incident stress debriefing (CISD), as ineffectual responses to human needs following emergencies. The assertions may influence some practitioners to reconsider current commitments to providing early crisis support, or other aspects of early psychological interventions, in the first hours and days after an emergency occurs. The arguments used are misleading in that they confuse the distinctions between CISD and other components of early psychological interventions, and seek to impugn the efficacy of CISD with research findings that have methodological flaws and limited generalizability. Theoretically sound approaches to the phenomenology of earliest reactions and early psychological interventions must build upon survivor and community needs in the aftermath of trauma, and upon an understanding of the psychobiological, evolutionarily-determined aspects of traumatic stress within attachment schema. It is now possible to postulate a broader approach to the early psychosocial needs of persons affected by trauma, whether they are survivors, rescuers, or witnesses. Comprehensive Psychosocial Emergency Management utilizes systematic study of the risk and protective factors within the phenomenology of traumatic stress that disrupt processes which otherwise result in dysfunction. Early psychological intervention enhances coping and resilience, and promotes recovery for all.

  6. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality.

  7. Neurocognition as a Predictor of Response to Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia: What is the State of the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Impairment in functional status is a hallmark of schizophrenia that has been linked to deficits in aspects of neurocognition (e.g., attention, memory, and problem-solving). A growing number of evidence-based behavioral interventions have been developed to address impairment in functional status, yet the relationships between these interventions and neurocognitive impairment are not well-understood. We conducted a synthetic, critical literature review of studies of performance on neurocognitive tests as a predictor of response to evidence-based behavioral treatment in schizophrenia. Behavioral treatments were selected based on the Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT; Dixon et al., 2010) recommendations for practice and areas of emerging interest. Comprehensive searches of PsychINFO and MEDLINE/PUBMED databases identified 20 relevant studies. Results revealed that: (1) attention and memory measured at study entry were most frequently linked to proximal measures of progress in social skill training programs, (2) composite measures of neurocognitive function, as well attention, memory and problem-solving, were linked to progress in work therapy and supported employment programs, and comprehensive, integrated programs of psychosocial rehabilitation, while (3) baseline impairment on neurocogntive tests was not shown to limit progress in treatment studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The relevance of these findings for clinical practice and future research is discussed. PMID:21482324

  8. 癌症疼痛心理社会干预治疗的研究进展%Research Progress of the Psychosocial Intervention of Cancer Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂冰; 陈永和

    2014-01-01

    Cancer pain is a complex and multidimensional experience that affects and is affected by psychological and social factors .This article reviews recent domestic and overseas research that points to a number of key psychosocial factors associated with pain ,including psychological distress ,coping ,and social support ,as well as the impact of socioeconomic factors on barriers to pain management . We also review recent research suggesting that psychosocial interventions , including education ,coping skills training ,and hypnosis ,which may be useful complement to medical management of pain ,and the antidepressants are also useful for the treatment of pain .%癌症疼痛是一种复杂和多维的感受,与心理和社会因素相互影响。本文回顾近期国内外相关研究指出,许多重要的社会心理因素与疼痛有关,包括心理压力、应对方法、社会支持以及社会经济因素,它们是疼痛管理的难点。近期的国内外研究表明缓解癌痛的心理社会干预措施包括:疼痛教育、应对技能训练和催眠等,它们对疼痛治疗管理是有益的补充,同时抗抑郁药物应用对疼痛治疗有益。

  9. No effect on survival of home psychosocial intervention in a randomized study of Danish colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Boesen, Sidsel H;

    2009-01-01

    for measurement of immune parameters. Survival was assessed 6.5-9.5 years after the first operation.Results: A total of 148 patients died during follow-up. The intervention was not significantly associated with survival (p=0.68) after adjustment for Dukes' stage, radicality of the operation, age, sex, family...... social class and marital status. Likewise, no significant interactions were found between group and these covariates (all p>/=0.08). In the substudy of the possible effect of the intervention on immune parameters, there were no differences between the two groups with respect to lymphocyte proliferation...

  10. Implementation of targeted medication adherence interventions within a community chain pharmacy practice: The Pennsylvania Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Jennifer L; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Pringle, Janice L; Maguire, Michelle A; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2014-01-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers to implementing targeted medication adherence interventions in community chain pharmacies, and describe adaptations of the targeted intervention and organizational structure within each individual pharmacy practice. Qualitative study. Central and western Pennsylvania from February to April 2012. Rite Aid pharmacists staffed at the 118 Pennsylvania Project intervention sites. Qualitative analysis of pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers experienced, targeted intervention and organizational structure adaptations implemented, and training and preparation prior to implementation. A total of 15 key informant interviews were conducted from February to April 2012. Ten pharmacists from "early adopter" practices and five pharmacists from "traditionalist" practices were interviewed. Five themes emerged regarding the implementation of targeted interventions, including all pharmacists' need to understand the relationship of patient care programs to their corporation's vision; providing individualized, continual support and mentoring to pharmacists; anticipating barriers before implementation of patient care programs; encouraging active patient engagement; and establishing best practices regarding implementation of patient care services. This qualitative analysis revealed that there are a series of key steps that can be taken before the execution of targeted interventions that may promote successful implementation of medication therapy management in community chain pharmacies.

  11. Involvement and targeted intervention of dysregulated Hedgehog signaling in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Winnie W; Wunder, Jay S; Dickson, Brendan C; Campbell, Veronica; McGovern, Karen; Alman, Benjamin A; Andrulis, Irene L

    2014-02-15

    During development, the Hedgehog pathway plays important roles regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, providing a template for growing bone. In this study, the authors investigated the components of dysregulated Hedgehog signaling as potential therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. Small-molecule agonists and antagonists that modulate the Hedgehog pathway at different levels were used to investigate the mechanisms of dysregulation and the efficacy of Hedgehog blockade in osteosarcoma cell lines. The inhibitory effect of a small-molecule Smoothened (SMO) antagonist, IPI-926 (saridegib), also was examined in patient-derived xenograft models. An inverse correlation was identified in osteosarcoma cell lines between endogenous glioma-associated oncogene 2 (GLI2) levels and Hedgehog pathway induction levels. Cells with high levels of GLI2 were sensitive to GLI inhibition, but not SMO inhibition, suggesting that GLI2 overexpression may be a mechanism of ligand-independent activation. In contrast, cells that expressed high levels of the Hedgehog ligand gene Indian hedgehog (IHH) and the target genes patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 were sensitive to modulation of both SMO and GLI, suggesting ligand-dependent activation. In 2 xenograft models, active autocrine and paracrine, ligand-dependent Hedgehog signaling was identified. IPI-926 inhibited the Hedgehog signaling interactions between the tumor and the stroma and demonstrated antitumor efficacy in 1 of 2 ligand-dependent models. The current results indicate that both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent Hedgehog dysregulation may be involved in osteosarcoma. It is the first report to demonstrate Hedgehog signaling crosstalk between the tumor and the stroma in osteosarcoma. The inhibitory effect of IPI-926 warrants additional research and raises the possibility of using Hedgehog pathway inhibitors as targeted therapeutics to improve treatment for osteosarcoma. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  12. Reactions to caregiving during an intervention targeting frailty in community living older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggar Christina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demands and consequences of caregiving are considerable. However, such outcomes are not commonly investigated in the evaluation of interventions targeting frailty. This study aims to explore family carers’ reactions to caregiving during an intervention targeting frailty in community living older people. Method A study of carers (n=119 embedded in a 12 month randomised controlled intervention targeting frailty in people 70 years or older, compared to usual care. Reactions to caregiving were measured in the domains of health, finance, self-esteem, family support and daily schedule. Anxiety and depression levels were also evaluated. Carer outcomes were measured at baseline, 6 months and 12 months and at 3 months post frailty intervention. Results Carers of frail older people in the intervention group showed a sustained improvement in health scores during the intervention targeting frailty, while health scores for carers of the frail older people in the control group, decreased and therefore their health worsened (F=2.956, p=0.034. The carers of the frail older people in the intervention group reported overall better health (F=5.303, p=0.023 and self-esteem (F=4.158, p=0.044, and co-resident carers reported higher self-esteem (F=4.088, p=0.046. Anxiety levels increased for carers in both intervention and control groups (F=2.819, p=0.04. Conclusion The inclusion of carers in trials targeting frail older people may assist in the identification of at-risk carers and facilitate the provision of information and support that will assist them to continue providing care. Further research that explores the features of frailty interventions that impact on the caregiving experience is recommended. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000565347

  13. Hypusine: a new target for therapeutic intervention in diabetic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Bernhard; Tersey, Sarah A; Mirmira, Raghavendra G

    2010-07-01

    Diabetes, a disorder of glucose homeostasis, has risen to near epidemic proportions world-wide and may be the single most important risk factor for cardiovascular, kidney, and eye disease. Dysfunction and destruction of islet beta cells, caused in part by the systemic or local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, underlies all forms of diabetes. A major effort in diabetes research in recent years has been to identify new factors or pathways that can be therapeutically targeted to reduce cytokine action on the beta cell. Recent studies have suggested that an ancient and poorly understood protein, eIF5A, may be critical to cytokine release and signaling. Interestingly, eIF5A is the only protein to contain the unique amino acid hypusine, which is a polyamine-derived modification of amino acid lysine residue. This modification is catalyzed by the sequential actions of the inhibitable enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. Because the hypusine modification is absolutely required for eIF5A action in cytokine signaling, we propose that this modification could serve as a new drug target for islet beta cell protection in the setting of diabetic inflammation.

  14. Assessing Change in Psychosocial Functioning of Incarcerated Girls with a Substance Use Disorder: Gender Sensitive Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia L.; Jackson, Mary S.; Kirk, Raymond; Pharr, O. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the effectiveness of a female gender-specific substance abuse treatment intervention (Holistic Enrichment for At-Risk Teens, or HEART) in improving problems related to personal and social functioning. A quasi-experimental, 2-group pretest and posttest repeated measures design was used to…

  15. Psychosocial interventions for perinatal common mental disorders delivered by providers who are not mental health specialists in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Clarke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs are a major cause of disability among women. Psychosocial interventions are one approach to reduce the burden of PCMDs. Working with care providers who are not mental health specialists, in the community or in antenatal health care facilities, can expand access to these interventions in low-resource settings. We assessed effects of such interventions compared to usual perinatal care, as well as effects of interventions based on intervention type, delivery method, and timing.We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. We searched databases including Embase and the Global Health Library (up to 7 July 2013 for randomized and non-randomized trials of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist mental health care providers in community settings and antenatal health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries. We pooled outcomes from ten trials for 18,738 participants. Interventions led to an overall reduction in PCMDs compared to usual care when using continuous data for PCMD symptomatology (effect size [ES] -0.34; 95% CI -0.53, -0.16 but not binary categorizations for presence or absence of PCMDs (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.35, 1.080 [corrected]. We found a significantly larger ES for psychological interventions (three studies; ES -0.46; 95% CI -0.58, -0.33 than for health promotion interventions (seven studies; ES -0.15; 95% CI -0.27, -0.02. Both individual (five studies; ES -0.18; 95% CI -0.34, -0.01 and group (three studies; ES -0.48; 95% CI -0.85, -0.11 interventions were effective compared to usual care, though delivery method was not associated with ES (meta-regression β coefficient -0.11; 95% CI -0.36, 0.14. Combined group and individual interventions (based on two studies had no benefit compared to usual care, nor did interventions restricted to pregnancy (three studies. Intervention timing was not associated with ES (β 0.16; 95% CI -0.16, 0.49. The small number

  16. Risks and Targeted Interventions: Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed.

  17. Intervenções psicossociais em comunidades: contribuições da psicanálise Psychosocial interventions in communities: psychoanalyses contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Lara Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão de cunho teórico-metodológico sobre as formas de intervenção psicossocial em comunidades e as contribuições que a psicanálise freudo-lacaniana pode oferecer a esse campo. Para tanto, nosso ponto de partida será, além de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema na psicologia social comunitária, a nossa experiência profissional e acadêmica. Nosso objetivo é fundamentar uma proposta praxiológica de intervenção com comunidades e para isso utilizaremos alguns conceitos e ideias relevantes pautadas na psicanálise que nos possibilitam refletir sobre a prática interventiva dos psicólogos e também de outros profissionais que atuam na área social. Neste texto dialogamos com autores como Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Zizek e Chantal Mouffe.This article proposes a theoretical-methodological reflection on the forms of psychosocial intervention in communities and the contributions that Freud-Lacanian psychoanalyzes can offer to this field. Therefore we will have a bibliographic revision on the topic according to the Community Social Psychology and our professional and academic experience. However our objective is to found a praxiological proposal of intervention in communities and, to do so, we will use some concepts and relevant ideas based in Psychoanalyses, which enable the reflection on the intervention practices of the psychologist, and also of other professionals who work in the social area. In this text, we dialogue with authors like: Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Zizek e Chantal Mouffe.

  18. The effect of a diabetes education, coping skills training, and care intervention on physiological and psychosocial outcomes in black women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo Melkus, Gail; Chyun, Deborah; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Newlin, Kelley; Jefferson, Vanessa; Langerman, Susan

    2010-07-01

    An 11-week culturally relevant group diabetes self-management training (DSMT), coping skills training (CST), and diabetes care intervention was compared to a 10-week usual diabetes education and diabetes care intervention on physiological and psychosocial outcomes in 109 Black women (aged 48 +/- 10 years) with type 2 diabetes in primary care (PC). Strong time effects for hemoglobin A1c improvement were seen in both groups from baseline to 3 months and remained similar at 12 and 24 months (p < .0001). Systolic blood pressure (p =.01) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p = .05) improved in both groups from baseline to 24 months. Baseline quality of life ([QOL]; Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36) was low. Social function, role-emotional, and mental health domains increased initially in both groups then declined slightly, with less decline for the experimental group at 12 months. At 24 months, experimental group scores increased. General health (p = .002), vitality (p = .01), role-physical, and bodily pain (p = .02) domains increased in both groups over time. Perceived provider support for diet (p = .0001) and exercise (p = .0001) increased in both groups over time. Diabetes-related emotional distress decreased in the experimental compared to the control group (group x time, p = .01). Findings suggest that both methods of diabetes education combined with care can improve metabolic control, QOL, and perceptions of provider care. CST may further assist in long-term improvements in health outcomes. Behavioral interventions are needed in addition to routine diabetes care, particularly in PC.

  19. Stages of HIV replication and targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözsér, József

    2003-01-01

    The replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is divided into an early and a late phase. Most of the steps of the cycle have been targeted in antiviral therapy, although the drugs currently available for clinical use are only effective against two replication enzymes of the virus, either against the reverse transcriptase or against the viral protease. The introduction of combination anti-retroviral therapy changed the prognosis of HIV infection. HIV-related morbidity and mortality rates in patients with advanced HIV infection have significantly declined. However, there are severe limits of HAART. Current anti-retroviral therapy do not allow viral eradication, therefore long-term use of the drugs is required. As a consequence, resistance develops in a significant portion of patients. Furthermore, several adverse metabolic side effects have been observed associated with the therapy. Therefore new approaches are required to control or eradicate this deadly virus infection.

  20. Atrial fibrillation: what are the targets for intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Das, Mithilesh K

    2003-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a difficult and growing problem in the population. While medical therapy controls symptoms in many patients, a proportion of individuals with this common arrhythmia cannot be optimally managed with drugs alone. However, truly curative therapy for AF has always been one of the "holy grails" of electrophysiology. The surgical maze procedure was the first to offer permanent maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with AF but subjected the patient to open heart surgery; a catheter-based translation of the maze procedure served as proof of concept that a catheterization technique could be used to treat AF. Subsequent experience has narrowed the electrophysiologist's attention to ablation of triggers of AF, most often residing in the pulmonary veins, rather than requiring more extensive ablation lines to control the arrhythmia. The following discussion deals with the development and current status of techniques for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, focusing on determination of appropriate target sites for ablation.

  1. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  2. Intervention development to reduce musculoskeletal disorders: Is the process on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Rothmore, Paul; Tappin, David

    2016-09-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders remain an intractable OHS problem. In 2002, Haslam proposed applying the stage of change model to target ergonomics interventions and other health and safety prevention activities. The stage of change model proposes that taking into account an individual's readiness for change in developing intervention strategies is likely to improve uptake and success. This paper revisits Haslam's proposal in the context of interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorders. Effective MSD interventions require a systematic approach and need to take into account a combination of measures. Research evidence suggests that in practice, those charged with the management of MSDs are not consistently adopting such an approach. Consequently, intervention development may not represent contemporary best practice. We propose a potential method of addressing this gap is the stage of change model, and use a case study to illustrate this argument in tailoring intervention development for managing MSDs.

  3. Anti-schistosomal Intervention Targets Identified by Lifecycle Transcriptomic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Jennifer M.; Peak, Emily; Perally, Samirah; Chalmers, Iain W.; Barrett, John; Yoshino, Timothy P.; Ivens, Alasdair C.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Novel methods to identify anthelmintic drug and vaccine targets are urgently needed, especially for those parasite species currently being controlled by singular, often limited strategies. A clearer understanding of the transcriptional components underpinning helminth development will enable identification of exploitable molecules essential for successful parasite/host interactions. Towards this end, we present a combinatorial, bioinformatics-led approach, employing both statistical and network analyses of transcriptomic data, for identifying new immunoprophylactic and therapeutic lead targets to combat schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilisation of a Schistosoma mansoni oligonucleotide DNA microarray consisting of 37,632 elements enabled gene expression profiling from 15 distinct parasite lifecycle stages, spanning three unique ecological niches. Statistical approaches of data analysis revealed differential expression of 973 gene products that minimally describe the three major characteristics of schistosome development: asexual processes within intermediate snail hosts, sexual maturation within definitive vertebrate hosts and sexual dimorphism amongst adult male and female worms. Furthermore, we identified a group of 338 constitutively expressed schistosome gene products (including 41 transcripts sharing no sequence similarity outside the Platyhelminthes), which are likely to be essential for schistosome lifecycle progression. While highly informative, statistics-led bioinformatics mining of the transcriptional dataset has limitations, including the inability to identify higher order relationships between differentially expressed transcripts and lifecycle stages. Network analysis, coupled to Gene Ontology enrichment investigations, facilitated a re-examination of the dataset and identified 387 clusters (containing 12,132 gene products) displaying novel examples of developmentally regulated classes (including 294 schistosomula and

  4. Reporting and understanding the safety and adverse effect profile of mobile apps for psychosocial interventions: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Gire, Nadeem; Xiang, Shuo; Yang, Megan; Syed, Yumeen; Shokraneh, Farhad; Adams, Clive; Farooq, Saeed

    2016-06-22

    Recent years have seen a rapidly increasing trend towards the delivery of health technology through mobile devices. Smartphones and tablet devices are thus becoming increasingly popular for accessing information and a wide range of services, including health care services. Modern mobile apps can be used for a variety of reasons, ranging from education for the patients and assistance to clinicians to delivery of interventions. Mobile phone apps have also been established to benefit patients in a scope of interventions across numerous medical specialties and treatment modalities. Medical apps have their advantages and disadvantages. It is important that clinicians have access to knowledge to make decisions regarding the use of medical apps on the basis of risk-benefit ratio. Mobile apps that deliver psycho social interventions offer unique challenges and opportunities. A number of reviews have highlighted the potential use of such apps. There is a need to describe, report and study their side effects too. The adverse effects associated with these apps can broadly be divided into: (1) those resulting from the security and safety concerns; (2) those arising from the use of a particular psycho social intervention; and (3) those due to the interaction with digital technology. There is a need to refine and reconsider the safety and adverse effects in this area. The safety profile of a mobile PSI app should describe its safety profile in: (1) privacy and security; (2) adverse effects of psychotherapy; and (3) adverse effects unique to the use of apps and the internet. This is, however, a very new area and further research and reporting is required to inform clinical decision making.

  5. Improving Student Outcomes in Higher Education: The Science of Targeted Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M; Priniski, Stacy J

    2017-09-20

    Many theoretically based interventions have been developed over the past two decades to improve educational outcomes in higher education. Based in social-psychological and motivation theories, well-crafted interventions have proven remarkably effective because they target specific educational problems and the processes that underlie them. In this review, we evaluate the current state of the literature on targeted interventions in higher education with an eye to emerging theoretical and conceptual questions about intervention science. We review three types of interventions, which focus on the value students perceive in academic tasks, their framing of academic challenges, and their personal values, respectively. We consider interventions that (a) target academic outcomes (e.g., grades, major or career plans, course taking, retention) in higher education, as well as the pipeline to college, and (b) have been evaluated in at least two studies. Finally, we discuss implications for intervention science moving forward. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 69 is January 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  7. Targeting Cell Death Pathways for Therapeutic Intervention in Kidney Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Jay P; Vucic, Domagoj

    2016-05-01

    Precise regulation of cell death and survival is essential for proper maintenance of organismal homeostasis, development, and the immune system. Deregulated cell death can lead to developmental defects, neuropathies, infections, and cancer. Kidney diseases, especially acute pathologies linked to ischemia-reperfusion injury, are among illnesses that profoundly are affected by improper regulation or execution of cell death pathways. Attempts to develop medicines for kidney diseases have been impacted by the complexity of these pathologies given the heterogeneous patient population and diverse etiologies. By analyzing cell death pathways activated in kidney diseases, we attempt to differentiate their importance for these pathologies with a goal of identifying those that have more profound impact and the best therapeutic potential. Although classic apoptosis still might be important, regulated necrosis pathways including necroptosis, ferroptosis, parthanatos, and mitochondrial permeability transition-associated cell death play a significantly role in kidney diseases, especially in acute kidney pathologies. Although targeting receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase appears to be the best therapeutic strategy, combination with inhibitors of other cell death pathways is likely to bring superior benefit and possible cure to patients suffering from kidney diseases.

  8. Cost effectiveness of targeted HIV prevention interventions for female sex workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Rudra, Shalini; Gupta, Indrani; Kaur, Manmeet; Mehendale, S M; Chatterjee, Susmita; Panda, Samiran; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-06-01

    To ascertain the cost effectiveness of targeted interventions for female sex workers (FSW) under the National AIDS Control Programme in India. A compartmental mathematical Markov state model was used over a 20-year time horizon (1995-2015) to estimate the cost effectiveness of FSW targeted interventions, with a health system perspective. The incremental costs and effects of FSW targeted interventions were compared against a baseline scenario of mass media for the general population alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed at a 3% discount rate using HIV infections averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) as benefit measures. It was assumed that the transmission of the HIV virus moves from a high-risk group (FSW) to the client population and finally to the general population (partners of clients). Targeted interventions for FSW result in a reduction of 47% (1.6 million) prevalent and 36% (2.7 million) cumulative HIV cases, respectively, in 2015. Adult HIV prevalence in India, with and without (mass media only) FSW interventions, would be 0.25% and 0.48% in 2015. Indian government and development partners spend an average US $104 (INR4680) per HIV infection averted and US $10.7 (INR483) per DALY averted. Discounting at 3%, FSW targeted interventions cost US $105.5 (INR4748) and US $10.9 (INR490) per HIV case and DALY averted, respectively. At the current gross domestic product in India, targeted intervention is a cost-effective strategy for HIV prevention in India.

  9. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  10. Outcome of a Targeted Nutritional Intervention Among Older Adults With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: The Nutrition Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Reid, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    A 6-month dietary intervention program was designed for community-dwelling older adults with Alzheimer's disease. Sixty-seven persons aged 70 years and above were recruited with their caregivers from six hospital memory and geriatric outpatient clinics, and allocated to intervention (n = 34 dyads) or control group (n = 33 dyads). Usual diet was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire and current diet by two nonconsecutive diet recalls or records corroborated by caregivers, at recruitment (T1) and exit from the study (T2). Intervention participants received targeted dietary recommendations; control participants received Canada's Food Guide leaflets. The program was assessed using paired and independent t tests and nonparametric statistics. Fat intakes increased at T2 within intervention participants (54 ± 16 vs. 67 ± 23 g, p = .013), and there was a tendency for higher energy, protein, and calcium intakes at T2 within this group. Proportions with adequate protein intakes almost doubled from T1 to T2 in intervention group women (p = .028) but decreased in female controls (p = .030). Longer follow-up is necessary to determine persistence of benefits.

  11. Long Term Follow-Up after a Randomized Integrated Educational and Psychosocial Intervention in Patient-Partner Dyads Affected by Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Liljeroos

    Full Text Available To date, contemporary heart failure care remains patient-focused, but awareness of the partners' and families' situation is increasing. Randomized studies have mainly evaluated the short-term effects of dyadic interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the 24-month effects of an intervention with psych-educational support in dyads of heart failure patients and their partners.This study used a randomized study design and 155 patient-partner dyads were enrolled. The intervention included a nurse-led program of three sessions addressing psychoeducational support.The intervention did not have any effect on health, depressive symptoms or perceived control among the patient-partner dyads after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control patients.This study may be regarded as a first step in trying to understand dyads' need for supportive care. Individualized and more targeted interventions seem necessary to achieve a higher impact on dyad outcomes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02398799.

  12. Psycho-social consequences in everyday life of patients of diabetes mellitus and the potential for the improvement of health-care interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsounis A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic illness with multiple medical, psychological, social and economic consequences, both in macro-social and individual level. Aim: The aim of the present task is το study the multiple consequences of the illness in patients’ and their social environment life and tο search for ways of coping that will take into account all the involvement parts (patients, health-professionals, health-care system. Method: the methodology which was used included a literature review of Greek and international bibliography with the help of keywords. Conclusions: The meeting of an individual with a chronic illness like Diabetes Mellitus brings rapid changes to his/her everyday life. The constraints that emerge in all social activities, the effects on the quality of social contacts, the development of psychological clinical symptoms, the social stigma, the impact on self-image and self-esteem cause significant psychosocial burden. For their effective treatment, holistic interventions on the part of health professionals and exploitation of the potential of the patient’s social environment are imposed.

  13. The role of psychosocial stress in the onset and progression of bipolar disorder and its comorbidities: the need for earlier and alternative modes of therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R M; Leverich, G S

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocial stress plays an important role at multiple junctures in the onset and course of bipolar disorder. Childhood adversity may be a risk factor for vulnerability to early onset illness, and an array of stressors may be relevant not only to the onset, recurrence, and progression of affective episodes, but the highly prevalent substance abuse comorbidities as well. A substantial group of controlled studies indicate that various cognitive behavioral psychotherapies and psychoeducational approaches may yield better outcomes in bipolar disorder than treatment as usual. Yet these approaches do not appear to be frequently or systematically employed in clinical practice, and this may contribute to the considerable residual morbidity and mortality associated with conventional treatment. Possible practical approaches to reducing this deficit (in an illness that is already underdiagnosed and undertreated even with routine medications) are offered. Without the mobilization of new clinical and public health approaches to earlier and more effective treatment and supportive interventions, bipolar illness will continue to have grave implications for many patients' long-term well being.

  14. Adherence to the obesity-related lifestyle intervention targets in the IDEFICS study

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kovács; Siani, A; Konstabel, K; Hadjigeorgiou, C; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Eiben, G.; Lissner, L.; Gwozdz, W; Reisch, L.; Pala, V.; Moreno, LA; Pigeot, I; Pohlabeln, H; Ahrens, W.; Molnár, D

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: To address behaviours associated with childhood obesity, certain target values are recommended that should be met to improve children's health. In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study such lifestyle recommendations were conveyed as six key messages. Here, we investigate the adherence of European children to these messages. Methods: The IDEFICS intervention was based on the intervention...

  15. Community-based, acute posttraumatic stress management: a description and evaluation of a psychosocial-intervention continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Robert D; Behar, Lenore; Paulson, Robert; Delman, Jon; Schmid, Lisa; Smith, Stefanie F

    2004-01-01

    Much of today's psychological trauma can be identified as resulting from sudden and seemingly random events, and particularly from events that involve the loss of human life. This article presents a perspective on how behavioral health providers may approach the design, development, and implementation of community-based psychological trauma interventions. These interventions allow those community members most affected by the trauma to play a central role in the resolution of, and community adaptation to, traumatic losses. After a brief discussion of "critical incident stress debriefing"--a common form of psychological "first aid" that is sometimes used following traumatic events that affect a community--the article turns to the description of a community-based trauma-response program that provides a continuum-of-care model for the care and management of individual and group reactions to shared, traumatic events. A recent evaluation of that program, which was developed by the Community Services Program of the Trauma Center in Boston, is presented as an important first step toward determining the types of community-based responses that show promise in our efforts to ameliorate the impact of traumatic events in communities nationwide and internationally.

  16. Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Multi-Element Psychosocial Intervention for First-Episode Psychosis: Results From the Cluster-Randomized Controlled GET UP PIANO Trial in a Catchment Area of 10 Million Inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Bonetto, Chiara; Lasalvia, Antonio; Fioritti, Angelo; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pileggi, Francesca; Neri, Giovanni; Ghigi, Daniela; Giubilini, Franco; Miceli, Maurizio; Scarone, Silvio; Cocchi, Angelo; Torresani, Stefano; Faravelli, Carlo; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Pratelli, Michela; Bellini, Francesca; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Bissoli, Sarah; Poli, Sara; Ira, Elisa; Zoppei, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Bislenghi, Laura; Patelli, Giovanni; Cristofalo, Doriana; Meneghelli, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Integrated multi-element psychosocial interventions have been suggested to improve the outcomes of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but they have been studied primarily in experimental settings and in nonepidemiologically representative samples. Thus, we performed a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an integrated multi-element psychosocial intervention, comprising cognitive behavioral therapy, family intervention, and case management, with treatment as usual (TAU) for FEP patients in 117 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in a large area of northern Italy (10 million inhabitants). The randomized units (clusters) were the CMHCs, and the units of observation the patients (and, when available, their family members). The primary hypotheses were that add-on multicomponent intervention: (1) results in greater improvements in symptoms, as assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale and (2) reduces in-hospital stay, based on days of hospitalization over the 9-month follow-up. Four hundred and forty-four FEP patients received the intervention or TAU and were assessed at baseline and 9 months. Based on the retention rates of patients (and families) in the experimental arm, multi-element psychosocial interventions can be implemented in routine mental health services. Regarding primary outcomes, patients in the experimental arm showed greater reductions in overall symptom severity, while no difference could be found for days of hospitalization. Among the secondary outcomes, greater improvements were detected in the experimental arm for global functioning, emotional well-being, and subjective burden of delusions. No difference could be found for service disengagement and subjective burden of auditory hallucinations. These findings support feasibility and effectiveness of early interventions for psychosis in generalist mental health services.

  17. Developing Internet interventions to target the individual impact of stigma in health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of health problems are associated with significant stigma, a social phenomenon in which individuals become the object of negative stereotypes. In addition to experiencing negative reactions from others, stigmatised individuals and groups can experience harmful consequences when they internalise these negative prevailing attitudes. The objective of this paper was to consider the potential to develop Internet-based health-related interventions explicitly targeting the effects of stigma on the individual. A review of the literature was conducted to synthesise current conceptualisations of stigma and self-stigma across a number of groups, and to identify current intervention developments. Self-stigma reduction strategies developed for in-person services include cognitive reframing, myth busting, contact with other members of the stigmatised group, and disclosure promotion. The development and provision of interventions targeting self-stigma within an online environment is in its infancy. Our review considers there to be particular potential of online interventions for this target, associated with the capacity of the Internet to promote having contact with peers within one’s stigmatised group, and for user interaction and empowerment. We conclude that self-stigma is a domain in which there is significant potential for innovation with health-related interventions, and provide a number of recommendations for online intervention development.

  18. Posture and Locomotion Coupling: A Target for Rehabilitation Interventions in Persons with Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Mille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of posture, balance, and gait are debilitating motor manifestations of advancing Parkinson's disease requiring rehabilitation intervention. These problems often reflect difficulties with coupling or sequencing posture and locomotion during complex whole body movements linked with falls. Considerable progress has been made with demonstrating the effectiveness of exercise interventions for individuals with Parkinson's disease. However, gaps remain in the evidence base for specific interventions and the optimal content of exercise interventions. Using a conceptual theoretical framework and experimental findings, this perspective and review advances the viewpoint that rehabilitation interventions focused on separate or isolated components of posture, balance, or gait may limit the effectiveness of current clinical practices. It is argued that treatment effectiveness may be improved by directly targeting posture and locomotion coupling problems as causal factors contributing to balance and gait dysfunction. This approach may help advance current clinical practice and improve outcomes in rehabilitation for persons with Parkinson's disease.

  19. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.

    2007-01-01

    -14 months. Outcome measures focused on patients' acceptance of screening and intervention and their self-reported alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Patient acceptance of screening and intervention -10.3% (N = 794) of the target population (N = 7, 691) explicitly refused screening. All intervention group...... general practice performed on the basis of systematic questionnaire screening may fall short of theoretical expectations. When applied to non-selected groups in everyday general practice SBI may have little effect and engender diverse outcome. Women may be more susceptible to defensive reactions than men...

  20. The effectiveness of interventions targeting the stigma of mental illness at the workplace: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Sabine E; Twomey, Conal D; Szeto, Andrew C H; Birner, Ulrich W; Nowak, Dennis; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-01-06

    The majority of people experiencing mental-health problems do not seek help, and the stigma of mental illness is considered a major barrier to seeking appropriate treatment. More targeted interventions (e.g. at the workplace) seem to be a promising and necessary supplement to public campaigns, but little is known about their effectiveness. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting the stigma of mental illness at the workplace. Sixteen studies were included after the literature review. The effectiveness of anti-stigma interventions at the workplace was assessed by examining changes in: (1) knowledge of mental disorders and their treatment and recognition of signs/symptoms of mental illness, (2) attitudes towards people with mental-health problems, and (3) supportive behavior. The results indicate that anti-stigma interventions at the workplace can lead to improved employee knowledge and supportive behavior towards people with mental-health problems. The effects of interventions on employees' attitudes were mixed, but generally positive. The quality of evidence varied across studies. This highlights the need for more rigorous, higher-quality evaluations conducted with more diverse samples of the working population. Future research should explore to what extent changes in employees' knowledge, attitudes, and supportive behavior lead to affected individuals seeking help earlier. Such investigations are likely to inform important stakeholders about the potential benefits of current workplace anti-stigma interventions and provide guidance for the development and implementation of effective future interventions.

  1. Advances in psychosocial interventions on quality of life of cancer survivors%心理社会干预对癌症生存者生命质量改善的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学芬; 王继伟; 宫霄欢; 余金明

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,there has been increasing recognition of the importance of psychosocial interventions' studies on quality of life in cancer survivors because of improving cancer survival rate.This paper was an integrative literatures review of various psychosocial interventions including cognitive behavioral therapy,group-based supportive therapy,counseling or psychotherapy,education or psychoeducation and music therapy et al,and analyzing the complexity of psychosocial interventions' RCTs in oncology and the current characteristic of these studies in china.%随着癌症生存率提高,对癌症生存者生命质量改善的心理社会研究越来越受到关注,本文综述了近年来常见的心理社会干预措施如认知行为干预、支持性小组干预、咨询或心理疗法和音乐疗法等,分析了心理社会干预RCT研究的复杂性以及我国心理社会研究现状.

  2. Psychosocial Interventions for the Acute Treatment of Late-life Major Depression: A Systematic Review of Evidence-based Treatments, Predictors of Treatment Outcomes and Moderators of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Areán, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for the acute treatment of late-life depression and identify predictors of treatment outcomes and moderators of treatment effects. The results of the systematic review may help to advance the development of personalized psychosocial treatments for late-life major depression. Based on our criteria, Problem Solving Therapy (PST), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Treatment Initiation and Participation Program (TIP) have supportive evidence of efficacy, pending replication. Even though the data on the predictors of treatment outcomes and moderators of treatment effects are still preliminary, it appears that baseline anxiety and stress level, personality pathology, endogenous depression, and reduced self-rated health are associated with worse depression outcomes. More research is also recommended to examine the moderating effects of baseline depression severity; for instance, our review indicates that Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) may work better in participants with high baseline depression severity than in participants with low depression severity. Recommendations for future novel psychosocial interventions for the acute treatment of late-life major depression include application of these interventions in non-traditional settings, involvement of the caregivers in the treatment of cognitively and functionally impaired older adults with major depression, and expansion of research to include more racially and ethnically diverse populations as the samples of the examined studies is highly selective, i.e. overly healthy, cognitively intact, Caucasian, and highly educated. PMID:21536164

  3. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

  4. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784.

  5. Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  6. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention...2015 – 31 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0032 Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast...carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to identify peptides that specifically recognize premalignant lesions in the mammary tissue. To achieve this goal, we

  7. Intervenções psicossociais na comunidade: desafios e práticas Psychosocial interventions in community: challenges and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Ansara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos os desafios teórico-práticos que os profissionais de diferentes áreas sociais têm encontrado em suas práticas de intervenção psicossocial em comunidades de diversos municípios de São Paulo. Entre os grandes desafios estão os limites dos programas sociais propostos pelo poder público, as dificuldades dos agentes externos em desenvolver um trabalho que leve ao fortalecimento da comunidade e a ausência de referenciais teórico-metodológicos que fundamentem as práticas desses agentes. A fim de ilustrar tais desafios, relatamos a experiência de um curso de Psicologia Comunitária e da Libertação no qual discutimos propostas de intervenção comunitária a partir de conceitos desenvolvidos por Martín-Baró (1998 e da contribuição de Maritza Montero (2004 com o Paradigma da Construção e Transformação Crítica. Com base nesses referenciais teóricos, analisamos a relação entre Estado, Programas e Organizações, assim como as contradições existentes entre uma prática social comunitária e as exigências dos planos e programas governamentais.In this article we present the theoretical-practical challenges that professionals from different social fields face in their practices of social psychological intervention in communities in various cities of São Paulo. Among the largest challenges are the limitations of social programs offered by public authorities, the difficulties of external agents in developing actions that lead to the strengthening of the community, and the absence of theoretical-methodological references that support the practices of these agents. In order to illustrate these challenges, we narrate the experience of a course on Community Psychology and Psychology of Liberation in which we discussed propositions for community intervention from the perspective of concepts developed by Martín-Baró (1998 and the contributions of Maritza Montero (2004 with the Paradigm of Construction and

  8. Empirically Based Psychosocial Therapies for Schizophrenia: The Disconnection between Science and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn D. Shean

    2013-01-01

    Empirically validated psychosocial therapies for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were described in the report of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT, 2009). The PORT team identified eight psychosocial treatments: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight manageme...

  9. Effect of a Targeted Women's Health Intervention in an Inner-City Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Houry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of an Emergency Department (ED based, educational intervention for at-risk health behaviors. Methods. A randomized trial over a one-year period. African American women, aged 21–55, presenting to the ED waiting room were eligible. Each participant took a computer-based survey on health risk behaviors. Participants who screened positive on any of four validated scales (for IPV, nicotine, alcohol, or drug dependence were randomized to standard information about community resources (control or to targeted educational handouts based upon their screening results (intervention. Participants were surveyed at 3 months regarding contacts with community resources and harm-reduction actions. Results. 610 women were initially surveyed; 326 screened positive (13.7% for IPV, 40.1% for nicotine addiction, 26.6% for alcohol abuse, and 14.4% for drug abuse. 157 women were randomized to intervention and 169 to control. Among women who completed follow-up (=71, women in the Intervention Group were significantly more likely to have contacted local resources (37% versus 9%, =0.04 and were more likely to have taken risk-reducing action (97% versus 79%, =0.04. Conclusion. Targeted, brief educational interventions may be an effective method for targeting risk behaviors among vulnerable ED populations.

  10. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  11. Vowel Targeted Intervention for Children with Persisting Speech Difficulties: Impact on Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jane; Stackhouse, Joy; Pascoe, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the treatment of consonant segments, the treatment of vowels is infrequently described in the literature on children's speech difficulties. Vowel difficulties occur less frequently than those with consonants but may have significant impact on intelligibility. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of vowel targeted intervention (VTI)…

  12. Long-Term Effects of a Personality-Targeted Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of a personality-targeted intervention on drinking quantity and frequency (QF), problem drinking, and personality-specific motivations for alcohol use in early adolescence. Method: A randomized control trial was carried out with 364 adolescents (median age 14) recruited from 13 secondary schools with…

  13. Vowel Targeted Intervention for Children with Persisting Speech Difficulties: Impact on Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jane; Stackhouse, Joy; Pascoe, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the treatment of consonant segments, the treatment of vowels is infrequently described in the literature on children's speech difficulties. Vowel difficulties occur less frequently than those with consonants but may have significant impact on intelligibility. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of vowel targeted intervention (VTI)…

  14. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d

  15. Implementation of a neuropsychological intervention in secondary school: Targeting executive problems in young adolescent boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Gemmink, Michelle; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Dekker, S. J., Krabbendam, L., Gemmink, M. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2011, June). Implementation of a neuropsychological intervention in secondary school: Targeting executive problems in young adolescent boy. Poster presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference of the International Mind, Brai

  16. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  17. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d

  18. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the gen

  19. The need for a systematic approach to disaster psychosocial response: a suggested competency framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robin S; Danford, Taryn

    2014-04-01

    Competency models attempt to define what makes expert performers "experts." Successful disaster psychosocial planning and the institutionalizing of psychosocial response within emergency management require clearly-defined skill sets. This necessitates anticipating both the short- and long-term psychosocial implications of a disaster or health emergency (ie, pandemic) by developing effective and sustained working relationships among psychosocial providers, programs, and other planning partners. The following article outlines recommended competencies for psychosocial responders to enable communities and organizations to prepare for and effectively manage a disaster response. Competency-based models are founded on observable performance or behavioral indicators, attitudes, traits, or personalities related to effective performance in a specific role or job. After analyzing the literature regarding competency-based frameworks, a proposed competency framework that details 13 competency domains is suggested. Each domain describes a series of competencies and suggests behavioral indicators for each competency and, where relevant, associated training expectations. These domains have been organized under three distinct categories or types of competencies: general competency domains; disaster psychosocial intervention competency domains; and disaster psychosocial program leadership and coordination competency domains. Competencies do not replace job descriptions nor should they be confused with performance assessments. What they can do is update and revise job descriptions; orient existing and new employees to their disaster/emergency roles and responsibilities; target training needs; provide the basis for ongoing self-assessment by agencies and individuals as they evaluate their readiness to respond; and provide a job- or role-relevant basis for performance appraisal dimensions or standards and review discussions. Using a modular approach to psychosocial planning, service

  20. Decreasing antibiotic use through a joint intervention targeting physicians and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Fátima; Teixeira-Rodrigues, António; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Piñeiro-Lamas, Maria; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa

    2016-07-01

    To decrease population antibiotic use through an educational intervention targeting primary care physicians' and community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge. We designed a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial covering all National Health System primary care physicians and all community pharmacists' in a region in the north of Portugal. The study protocol was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02173509). After adjustment for baseline values and comparison with the control group, the intervention was associated with a significant reduction in overall antibiotic use in the year following the intervention. The effect was most marked for tetracyclines, macrolides and cephalosporins. No statistically significant differences were observed for fluoroquinolone consumption. Multifaceted interventions involving physicians, pharmacists and general public proved effective in reducing antibiotic consumption in the population.

  1. Cognitive behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy versus a brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Psychological treatments for adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder are associated with diagnostic remission within 28 weeks in 65-70% of patients. We aimed to assess the medium-term effects and costs of psychological therapies on maintenance of reduced depression symptoms 12 months after treatment. We did this multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial (IMPACT) at 15 National Health Service child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinics in three regions in England. Adolescent patients (aged 11-17 years) with a diagnosis of DSM IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a web-based randomisation service, to receive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytical therapy versus a reference brief psychological intervention. Randomisation was stochastically minimised by age, sex, self-reported depression sum score, and region. Patients and clinicians were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. Patients were followed up and reassessed at weeks 6, 12, 36, 52, and 86 post-randomisation. The primary outcome was self-reported depression symptoms at weeks 36, 52, and 86, as measured with the self-reported Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Because our aim was to compare the two psychological therapies with the brief psychosocial intervention, we first established whether CBT was inferior to short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the same outcome. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN83033550. Between June 29, 2010, and Jan 17, 2013, we randomly assigned 470 patients to receive the brief psychosocial intervention (n=158), CBT (n=155), or short-term psychoanalytical therapy (n=157); 465 patients comprised the intention-to-treat population. 392 (84%) patients had available data for primary analysis by the end of follow-up. Treatment fidelity and

  2. The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with hematological cancers: Are we doing enough high quality research, and what is it telling us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Mansfield, Elise; Hall, Alix; Waller, Amy; Boyes, Allison; Jayakody, Amanda; Dodd, Natalie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review assessed the quantity and quality of research examining the psychosocial outcomes among hematological cancer patients. Studies were categorised as either measurement, descriptive or intervention. Intervention studies were further assessed according to Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) methodological criteria. A total of 261 eligible papers were identified. The number of publications increased by 8.8% each year (95% CI=7.5-10.2%; pEPOC design criteria, however only two interventions, one targeted at individuals with Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one targeted at individuals with leukaemia, lymphoma or myelomatosis were successful in improving patients' psychosocial outcomes. Despite an increasing volume of research examining psychosocial outcomes of hematological cancer patients, there is a need for robust measurement and methodologically rigorous intervention research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  4. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  5. Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention Targeting HIV-Infected Prisoners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Michael M.; Tunku, Noor; Ezeabogu, Ifeoma; Potrepka, Jessica; Zahari, Muhammad Muhsin A.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia represent a critical target population for secondary HIV risk reduction interventions and care. We report on the process and outcome of our formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI designed to reduce secondary HIV risk and improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among soon-to-be-released HIV-infected prisoners. Our formative work involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders, members of the target population, and their family members. Based on all information, we adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+), an EBI, to consist of eight 2-hour sessions that cover a range of specified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to accommodate their particular substance abuse, HIV risk, and antiretroviral adherence issues. This study provides a complete example of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI—taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members and their families—for use in real world prison settings where high-risk populations are concentrated. PMID:21860786

  6. A Camp-based Intervention Targeting Independence Among Individuals with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Mahar, Kerry; Jandasek, Barbara; Zukerman, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Objective To design and evaluate a camp-based intervention, the goal of which was to increase independence among children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida. Methods An intervention targeting independence was embedded within a typical week long camp experience. The intervention consisted of the following: collaborative (i.e., parent and camper) goal identification, group sessions consisting of psycho-education and cognitive tools, and goal monitoring by camp counselors. Camper and parent report of demographic variables, goal attainment, spina bifida knowledge, and independence were gathered. Interventionist report of adherence to the treatment manual was also collected. Results Campers made significant gains in individual goals, management of spina bifida responsibilities, and independence with general spina bifida tasks, with medium effect sizes observed in goal attainment. Conclusions Results indicated that significant progress was made on individually oriented goals from pre- to post-camp. Design issues are discussed. PMID:20026569

  7. Developing Targeted Health Service Interventions Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model: Two Australian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. This paper provides an overview of the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted nursing led chronic illness interventions. Background. Changing health care practice is a complex and dynamic process that requires consideration of social, political, economic, and organisational factors. An understanding of the characteristics of the target population, health professionals, and organizations plus identification of the determinants for change are also required. Synthesizing this data to guide the development of an effective intervention is a challenging process. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model has been used in global health care settings to guide the identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation of various health improvement initiatives. Design. Using a reflective case study approach, this paper examines the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted chronic care improvement interventions for two distinct Australian populations: a rapidly expanding and aging rural population with unmet palliative care needs and a disadvantaged urban community at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Results. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model approach demonstrated utility across diverse health settings in a systematic planning process. In environments characterized by increasing health care needs, limited resources, and growing community expectations, adopting planning tools such as PRECEDE-PROCEED Model at a local level can facilitate the development of the most effective interventions. Relevance to Clinical Practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model is a strong theoretical model that guides the development of realistic nursing led interventions with the best chance of being successful in existing health care environments.

  8. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  9. Systematic review of public-targeted communication interventions to improve antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Elizabeth Louise Anne; Tolfree, Robert; Kipping, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Excessive use of antibiotics accelerates the acquisition/spread of antimicrobial resistance. A systematic review was conducted to identify the components of successful communication interventions targeted at the general public to improve antibiotic use. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched. Search terms were related to the population (public, community), intervention (campaign, mass media) and outcomes (antibiotic, antimicrobial resistance). References were screened for inclusion by one author with a random subset of 10% screened by a second author. No date restrictions were applied and only articles in the English language were considered. Studies had to have a control group or be an interrupted time-series. Outcomes had to measure change in antibiotic-related prescribing/consumption and/or the public's knowledge, attitudes or behaviour. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies. Narrative synthesis was performed. Fourteen studies were included with an estimated 74-75 million participants. Most studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and targeted both the general public and clinicians. Twelve of the studies measured changes in antibiotic prescribing. There was quite strong ( P  antibiotic prescribing; the majority of these studies reported reductions of greater than -14% with the largest effect size reaching -30%. Multi-faceted communication interventions that target both the general public and clinicians can reduce antibiotic prescribing in high-income countries but the sustainability of reductions in antibiotic prescribing is unclear.

  10. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.

  11. Pilot evaluation of a web-based intervention targeting sexual health service access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K E; Newby, K; Caley, M; Danahay, A; Kehal, I

    2016-04-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among 13-19-year olds are reported. A pre-post questionnaire-based design was used. Matched baseline and follow-up data were identified from 148 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome measures were self-reported service access, self-reported intention to access services and beliefs about services and service access identified through needs analysis. Objective service access data provided by local sexual health services were also analyzed. Analysis suggests the intervention had a significant positive effect on psychological barriers to and antecedents of service access among females. Males, who reported greater confidence in service access compared with females, significantly increased service access by time 2 follow-up. Available objective service access data support the assertion that the intervention may have led to increases in service access. There is real promise for this novel digital intervention. Further evaluation is planned as the model is licensed to and rolled out by other local authorities in the United Kingdom.

  12. School-based interventions targeting stigma of mental illness: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Catriona

    2014-08-01

    Aims and method To systematically review the published literature on the effectiveness of classroom-based interventions to tackle the stigma of mental illness in young people, and to identify any consistent elements within successful programmes. Results Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. A minority of studies reported a positive impact on stigma or knowledge outcomes at follow-up and there were considerable methodological shortcomings in the studies reviewed. These interventions varied substanitally in content and delivery. It was not possible to use this data to draw out what aspects make a successful intervention. There is currently no strong evidence to support previous conclusions that these types of intervention work for children and adolescents. Clinical implications When anti-stigma interventions for young people are rolled out in the future, it is important that the programme design and method of delivery have evidence to prove their effectiveness, and that the audience and setting are the most appropriate to target. There is a current lack of strong evidence to inform this.

  13. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Jull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study. Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.

  14. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes.

  15. Educational interventions targeted at minors in situations of grave social vulnerability and their families

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Bartau Rojas, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this article is to outline and assess an educational intervention programme targeted at improving the skills of families and the personal and social development of children living in situations of grave social vulnerability. The sample comprised 10 families during the first phase of the intervention and six during the second. The design, intervention and assessment process of this study was carried out in two phases over a period of a year and a half. For both phases, three different groups—of men/fathers, women/mothers and children—were established. Study variables (parenting skills and children's personal and social development) were evaluated before and after the intervention in every group, as well as during the entire process. The results, taking into account the improvements reported by all the participants (social workers, group monitors, fathers, mothers, children) show that inter-professional involvement and coordination at all phases of the intervention is vital in order to achieve small but significant improvements.

  16. A novel cognitive intervention for compulsive checking: Targeting maladaptive beliefs about memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolado, Gillian M; Radomsky, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Compulsive checking is one of the most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recently it has been proposed that those who check compulsively may believe their memory is poor, rather than having an actual memory impairment. The current study sought to develop and assess a brief cognitive intervention focused on improving maladaptive beliefs about memory, as they pertain to both checking symptoms and memory performance. Participants (N = 24) with a diagnosis of OCD and clinical levels of checking symptomatology were randomly assigned either to receive two weekly 1-hour therapy sessions or to self-monitor during a similar waitlist period. Time spent checking, checking symptoms, maladaptive beliefs about memory, and visuospatial memory were assessed both pre- and post-treatment/waitlist. Results showed that compared to the waitlist condition, individuals in the treatment condition displayed significant decreases in their maladaptive beliefs about memory and checking symptoms from pre- to post-intervention. They also exhibited increased recall performance on a measure of visuospatial memory. Changes in beliefs about memory were predictors of reduced post-intervention checking, but were not predictive of increased post-intervention memory scores. The lack of long term follow-up data and use of a waitlist control leave questions about the stability and specificity of the intervention. Findings provide preliminary evidence that strategies targeting beliefs about memory may be worthy of inclusion in cognitive-behavioural approaches to treating compulsive checking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  18. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and upp

  19. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  20. Feasibility of a Psychosocial Rehabilitation Intervention to Enhance the Involvement of Relatives in Cancer Rehabilitation: Pilot Study for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledderer, Loni; la Cour, Karen; Mogensen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer often affects the quality of life and well-being of patients as well as their relatives. Previous studies have suggested that relatives should be involved in psychosocial rehabilitation to address the needs for an interpersonal relationship with others in the disease trajectory...

  1. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and

  2. Advocacy Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Violence and Promote the Physical and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Abuse: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, C

    2016-01-01

    - 0.12, 95% CI - 0.37 to 0.14, agreeing with the change score (MD - 0.07, 95% CI - 0.30 to 0.16 from a third study and the OR (0.96, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.12 from a fourth antenatal, multi-component study. Emotional abuse One study in antenatal care, rated at low risk of bias, showed reduced emotional abuse at ≤ 12-month follow-up (MD (change score - 4.24, 95% CI - 6.42 to - 2.06; n = 110. Psychosocial health Quality of life Meta-analysis of two studies (high risk of bias showed intensive advocacy slightly improved overall quality of life of women recruited from shelters (MD 0.23, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.46; n = 343 at 12-month follow-up, with greater improvement in perceived physical quality of life from a primary care study (high risk of bias; MD 4.90, 95% CI 0.98 to 8.82 immediately postintervention. Depression Meta-analysis of two studies in healthcare settings, one at high risk of bias and one at moderate risk, showed that fewer women developed depression (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.65; n = 149; NNT = 4 with brief advocacy. One study at high risk of bias reported a slight reduction in depression in pregnant women immediately after the intervention (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.29; n = 103; NNT = 8. There was no evidence that intensive advocacy reduced depression at ≤ 12-month follow-up (MD - 0.14, 95% CI - 0.33 to 0.05; 3 studies; n = 446 or at two years (SMD − 0.12, 95% CI − 0.36 to 0.12; 1 study; n = 265. Adverse effects Two women died, one who was murdered by her partner and one who committed suicide. No evidence links either death to study participation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Results suggest some benefits from advocacy. However, most studies were underpowered. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity largely precluded pooling of trials. Therefore, there is uncertainty about the magnitude of benefit, the impact of abuse severity, and the setting. Based on the evidence reviewed, intensive advocacy may improve short-term quality of life and reduce physical abuse one to

  3. Why use of interventions targeting outdoor biting mosquitoes will be necessary to achieve malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicodem James Govella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available By definition, elimination of malaria means permanent reduction to zero of locally incidence of infections. Achieving this goal among other reasons, it requires fully understanding on where and when persons are most exposed to malaria vectors as these are fundamental for targeting interventions to achieve maximum impact. While elimination can be possible in some settings with low malaria transmission intensity and dominated with late and indoor biting of vectors using Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRs, it’s difficult and even impossible in areas with high and where majority of human exposure to transmission occurs outside human dwellings. Recently in response to wide spread use of LLIN and IRS, human risk of exposure to transmission is increasingly spread across the entire night so that much of it occurs outdoors and before bed time. This modification of vector populations and behaviour has now been reported from across Africa, Asia and from the Solomon Islands. Historical evidence shows that even in areas with intervention coverage exceeding 90% of human population it was so hard to even push prevalence down below the pre elimination threshold of 1% being compromised mainly with the outdoor residual transmission. Malaria control experts must however continue to deliver interventions that tackle indoor transmission but considerable amount of resources that target mosquitoes outside of houses and outside of sleeping hours will therefore be required to sustain and go beyond existing levels of malaria control and achieve elimination.

  4. Generating political priority for regulatory interventions targeting obesity prevention: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    rationales to defer political priority. Overcoming these challenges may be important to future collective action efforts attempting to generate and sustain political priority for regulatory interventions targeting obesity.

  5. Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

  6. A Narrative Review of Social Media and Game-Based Nutrition Interventions Targeted at Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Monica; Yeung, Sin Hang; Partridge, Stephanie; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-05-01

    The increased popularity of social media and mobile gaming among young adults provides an opportunity for innovative nutrition programs. This review evaluated the efficacy of these strategies in interventions targeted at 18- to 35-year-olds. The protocol was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ten scientific databases, information technology conference proceedings, and gray literature were searched. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessments. Interventions were included if they used social media or electronic games. Comparisons were made pre- to post-intervention, or between intervention and control arms. Outcomes of interest included change in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behavior, or weight and/or body composition. Eleven social media-based (randomized controlled trials [RCT] n=7) and six game-based [RCT n=1]) interventions were included. Overall quality of studies was low. Social media-based strategies included forum/blogs (n=5), Facebook (n=5), Twitter (n=1), YouTube (n=1), and chat rooms (n=1). Eight (RCT n=6) of 11 social media-based studies demonstrated improvements in outcomes. Findings suggested that social media may be more effective when combined with other strategies. Virtual reality games (n=3), web-based games (n=2), and a mobile application (n=1) were used in the gaming interventions. While a significant increase in knowledge was reported by three gaming studies (RCT=1), two used nonvalidated tools and longer-term measures of weight and behavioral outcomes were limited. The use of social media and gaming for nutrition promotion is in its infancy. Preliminary evidence suggests that these strategies have some utility for intervening with young adults. Further research using high-quality study designs is required, with measurement of outcomes over longer time periods. The systematic review protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42015025427

  7. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  8. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E.; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Annette L. Stanton

    2013-01-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set ...

  9. The quality and effectiveness of interventions that target multiple risk factors among young people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alice; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Havard, Alys; Maple, Myfanwy; Foley, Catherine; Shakeshaft, Bernie

    2017-02-01

    To identify evaluations of interventions that target multiple risk factors in high-risk young people, describe their characteristics, critique their methodological quality and summarise their effectiveness. A search of the literature published between 2009 and 2014 identified 13 evaluations of interventions that targeted multiple risk factors, compared to 95 evaluations that targeted single risk factors. The methodological adequacy of the 13 evaluation studies was analysed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and information regarding characteristics and intervention effectiveness was extracted and summarised. There were very few outcome evaluation studies of interventions that targeted multiple risk factors, relative to single risk factors, among high-risk young people. Of the identified studies, half were methodologically weak. Interventions delivered in community settings targeted a greater number of risk factors, while those delivered in a school or health setting reported a higher proportion of statistically significant outcomes. No economic analyses were conducted. Conclusions and Implications for Public Health: More methodologically rigorous evaluations of interventions targeting multiple risk factors among high-risk young people are required, especially for those delivered in community settings. Four key areas for improvement are: i) more precisely defining the risk factors experienced by high-risk young people; ii) achieving greater consistency across interventions; iii) standardising outcome measures; and iv) conducting economic analyses. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Molecular Targets Related to Inflammation and Insulin Resistance and Potential Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro M. Hirabara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and insulin resistance are common in several chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies show a relationship between these two factors, although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood yet. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of insulin resistance and inflammation and the molecular aspects on inflammatory pathways interfering in insulin action. Moreover, we explore interventions based on molecular targets for preventing or treating correlated disorders, advances for a better characterization, and understanding of the mechanisms and mediators involved in the different inflammatory and insulin resistance conditions. Finally, we address biotechnological studies for the development of new potential therapies and interventions.

  11. Interventional value of total flavonoids from Rhizoma Drynariae on Cathepsin K, a potential target of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Kang; Wu, Lian-Guo

    2011-07-01

    Osteoporosis, the sixth most common disease in the world, is bringing increasingly serious harm to people's health. Cathepsin K, which plays an important role in bone resorption, is a potential target in the treatment of osteoporosis. Total flavonoids, the active ingredients in Rhizoma Drynariae, have shown obvious, therapeutic effect on osteoporosis. In previous studies, it was presumed that the mechanism for the therapeutic effect was through inhibiting the expression of Cathepsin K. However, there are still no detailed reports on some key issues such as the specific inhibitory results of total flavonoids on Cathepsin K and the pathway of inhibition and so on. Based on previous studies on total flavonoids from Rhizoma Drynariae, the pathway for the effect of, total flavonoids inhibiting Cathepsin K and their interventional value on Cathepsin K were analyzed in this paper, so as to explore the interventional feasibility and value of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Drynariae on Cathepsin K.

  12. Molecular Targets Related to Inflammation and Insulin Resistance and Potential Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabara, Sandro M.; Gorjão, Renata; Vinolo, Marco A.; Rodrigues, Alice C.; Nachbar, Renato T.; Curi, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and insulin resistance are common in several chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies show a relationship between these two factors, although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood yet. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of insulin resistance and inflammation and the molecular aspects on inflammatory pathways interfering in insulin action. Moreover, we explore interventions based on molecular targets for preventing or treating correlated disorders, advances for a better characterization, and understanding of the mechanisms and mediators involved in the different inflammatory and insulin resistance conditions. Finally, we address biotechnological studies for the development of new potential therapies and interventions. PMID:23049242

  13. Adherence to the obesity-related lifestyle intervention targets in the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, E; Siani, A; Konstabel, K; Hadjigeorgiou, C; de Bourdeaudhuij, I; Eiben, G; Lissner, L; Gwozdz, W; Reisch, L; Pala, V; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Pohlabeln, H; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-09-01

    To address behaviours associated with childhood obesity, certain target values are recommended that should be met to improve children's health. In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study such lifestyle recommendations were conveyed as six key messages. Here, we investigate the adherence of European children to these messages. The IDEFICS intervention was based on the intervention mapping approach with the following six targets: increase water consumption (to replace sugar-containing beverages), increase fruit/vegetable consumption, reduce daily screen time, increase daily physical activity, improve the quality of family life and ensure adequate sleep duration. Internationally recommended target values were applied to determine the prevalence of children meeting these targets. In a cohort of 18,745 children participating in the IDEFICS baseline survey or newly recruited during follow-up, data on the above lifestyle behaviours were collected for a varying number of 8302 to 17,212 children. Information on all six behaviours was available for 5140 children. Although 52.5% of the cohort was classified in the highest category of water consumption, only 8.8% met the target of an intake of fruits/vegetables five times a day. The prevalence of children adhering to the recommendation regarding total screen time-below 1 h for pre-school children and 2 h for school children-was 51.1%. The recommended amount of at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day was fulfilled by 15.2%. Family life of the child measured by various indicators was considered as satisfactory in 22.8%. Nocturnal sleep duration of 11 (10) hours or more in pre-school (school) children was achieved by 37.9%. In general, children in northern countries and younger children showed better adherence to the recommendations. Only 1.1% of the children adhered to at least five of these recommendations. Current

  14. Using GIS Mapping to Target Public Health Interventions: Examining Birth Outcomes Across GIS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O

    2017-08-01

    With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.

  15. Social capital interventions targeting older people and their impact on health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Planas, Laura; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Puig, Teresa; Urrútia, Gerard; Solà, Ivan; Monteserín, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    Observational studies show that social capital is a protective health factor. Therefore, we aim to assess the currently unclear health impact of social capital interventions targeting older adults. We conducted a systematic review based on a logic model. Studies published between January 1980 and July 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science. We included randomised controlled trials targeting participants over 60 years old and focused on social capital or its components (eg, social support and social participation). The comparison group should not promote social capital. We assessed risk of bias and impact on health outcomes and use of health-related resources applying a procedure from the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) based on vote-counting and standardised decision rules. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (reference number CRD42014015362). We examined 17 341 abstracts and included 73 papers reporting 36 trials. Trials were clinically and methodologically diverse and reported positive effects in different contexts, populations and interventions across multiple subjective and objective measures. According to sufficiently reported outcomes, social capital interventions showed mixed effects on quality of life, well-being and self-perceived health and were generally ineffective on loneliness, mood and mortality. Eight trials with high quality showed favourable impacts on overall, mental and physical health, mortality and use of health-related resources. Our review highlights the lack of evidence and the diversity among trials, while supporting the potential of social capital interventions to reach comprehensive health effects in older adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Impact of targeted interventions on heterosexual transmission of HIV in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risbud Arun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted interventions (TIs have been a major strategy for HIV prevention in India. We evaluated the impact of TIs on HIV prevalence in high HIV prevalence southern states (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Methods A quasi-experimental approach was used to retrospectively compare changes in HIV prevalence according to the intensity of targeted intervention implementation. Condom gap (number of condoms required minus condoms supplied by TIs was used as an indicator of TI intensity. Annual average number of commercial sex acts per female sex worker (FSW reported in Behavioral Surveillance Survey was multiplied by the estimated number of FSWs in each district to calculate annual requirement of condoms in the district. Data of condoms supplied by TIs from 1995 to 2008 was obtained from program records. Districts in each state were ranked into quartiles based on the TI intensity. Primary data of HIV Sentinel Surveillance was analyzed to calculate HIV prevalence reductions in each successive year taking 2001 as reference year according to the quartiles of TI intensity districts using generalized linear model with logit link and binomial distribution after adjusting for age, education, and place of residence (urban or rural. Results In the high HIV prevalence southern states, the number of TI projects for FSWs increased from 5 to 310 between 1995 and 2008. In high TI intensity quartile districts (n = 30, 186 condoms per FSW/year were distributed through TIs as compared to 45 condoms/FSW/year in the low TI intensity districts (n = 29. Behavioral surveillance indicated significant rise in condom use from 2001 to 2009. Among FSWs consistent condom use with last paying clients increased from 58.6% to 83.7% (p Conclusion Targeted interventions are associated with HIV prevalence decline.

  17. Flexible guided self-determination intervention for younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes, decreased HbA1c and psychosocial distress in women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, V; Vistisen, D; Due-Christensen, M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report results from an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of a flexible guided self-determination (GSD) intervention on glycaemic control and psychosocial distress in younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Between January 2010...... and February 2012, we randomly allocated two hundred 18-35-year-olds [mean age 25.7 (5.1) years, 50% men] with Type 1 diabetes for ≥ 1 year [mean duration 13.7 (6.8) years] and HbA1c ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%) to either an immediate GSD (intervention; n = 134) or 18-months delayed GSD group (control; n = 66). Group...

  18. Interstitial cells of Cajal as targets for pharmacological intervention in gastrointestinal motor disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, J D; Thuneberg, L; Vanderwinden, J M

    1997-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) have recently been identified as the pacemaker cells for contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract. These cells generate the electrical 'slow-wave' activity that determines the characteristic frequency of phasic contractions of the stomach, intestine an...... through the gut organs. Here Jan Huizinga, Lars Thuneberg, Jean-Marie Vanderwinden and Jüri Rumessen, suggest that, as ICCs are unique to the gut, they might be ideal targets for pharmacological intervention in gastrointestinal motility disorders, which are very common and costly....

  19. Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures An Analysis of Outcome Studies of Youth Interventions Targeting Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, Pauline; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom; Stams, Geert-Jan; van Laar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates the implementation of treatment integrity procedures in outcome studies of youth interventions targeting behavioral problems. The Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures Scale (ITIPS), developed by Perepletchikova, Treat, and Kazdin (2007), was adapted

  20. Implementation of treatment integrity procedures: an analysis of outcome studies of youth interventions targeting externalizing behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, P.; Boendermaker, L.; van Yperen, T.; Stams, G.J.; van Laar, J.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates the implementation of treatment integrity procedures in outcome studies of youth interventions targeting behavioral problems. The Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures Scale (ITIPS), developed by Perepletchikova, Treat, and Kazdin (2007), was adapted

  1. Optimising impact and sustainability: a qualitative process evaluation of a complex intervention targeted at compassionate care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jackie; May, Carl; Fuller, Alison; Griffiths, Peter; Wigley, Wendy; Gould, Lisa; Barker, Hannah; Libberton, Paula

    2017-09-15

    Despite concerns about the degree of compassion in contemporary healthcare, there is a dearth of evidence for health service managers about how to promote compassionate healthcare. This paper reports on the implementation of the Creating Learning Environments for Compassionate Care (CLECC) intervention by four hospital ward nursing teams. CLECC is a workplace educational intervention focused on developing sustainable leadership and work-team practices designed to support team relational capacity and compassionate care delivery. To identify and explain the extent to which CLECC was implemented into existing work practices by nursing staff, and to inform conclusions about how such interventions can be optimised to support compassionate care in acute settings. Process evaluation guided by normalisation process theory. Data gathered included staff interviews (n=47), observations (n=7 over 26 hours) and ward manager questionnaires on staffing (n=4). Frontline staff were keen to participate in CLECC, were able to implement many of the planned activities and valued the benefits to their well-being and to patient care. Nonetheless, factors outside of the direct influence of the ward teams mediated the impact and sustainability of the intervention. These factors included an organisational culture focused on tasks and targets that constrained opportunities for staff mutual support and learning. Relational work in caregiving organisations depends on individual caregiver agency and on whether or not this work is adequately supported by resources, norms and relationships located in the wider system. High cognitive participation in compassionate nursing care interventions such as CLECC by senior nurse managers is likely to result in improved impact and sustainability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Improving medication adherence with a targeted, technology-driven disease management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David B; Allison, Wanda; Chen, Joyce C; Demand, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Treatment adherence is critical in managing chronic disease, but achieving it remains an elusive goal across many prevalent conditions. As part of its care management strategy, BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina (BCBSSC) implemented the Longitudinal Adherence Treatment Evaluation program, a behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence among members with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes. The objectives of this study were to 1) assess the effectiveness of telephonic intervention in influencing reinitiation of medication therapy, and 2) evaluate the rate and timing of medication reinitiation. BCBSSC applied algorithms against pharmacy claims data to identify patients prescribed targeted medications who were 60 or more days overdue for refills. This information was provided to care managers to address during their next patient contact. Care managers received focused training on techniques for medication behavior change, readiness to change, motivational interviewing, and active listening. Training also addressed common barriers to adherence and available resources, including side effect management, mail order benefits, drug assistance programs, medication organizers, and reminder systems. Overdue refills were tracked for 12 months, with medication reinitiation followed for an additional 3 months. In the intervention group, 94 patients were identified with 123 instances of late medication refills. In the age- and gender-matched comparison group, 61 patients were identified with 76 late refills. The intervention group had a significantly higher rate of medication reinitiation (59.3%) than the control group (42.1%; P management intervention promoting patient behavior change increased the number of patients who reinitiated therapy after a period of nonadherence and decreased the time from nonadherence to adherence.

  3. JOINT MARKETING AS A FRAMEWORK FOR TARGETING MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHINA : A PILOT INTERVENTION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Jingguang; Cai, Rui; Lu, Zuxun; Cheng, Jinquan; de Vlas, Sake J.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    To apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing was carried ou

  4. Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: A pilot intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tan (Jingguang); R. Cai (Rui); Z. Lu (Zhongbing); J. Cheng (Jianguo); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTo apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/ AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing w

  5. Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: A pilot intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tan (Jingguang); R. Cai (Rui); Z. Lu (Zhongbing); J. Cheng (Jianguo); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTo apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/ AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing

  6. JOINT MARKETING AS A FRAMEWORK FOR TARGETING MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHINA : A PILOT INTERVENTION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Jingguang; Cai, Rui; Lu, Zuxun; Cheng, Jinquan; de Vlas, Sake J.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    To apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing was carried ou

  7. Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: A pilot intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tan (Jingguang); R. Cai (Rui); Z. Lu (Zhongbing); J. Cheng (Jianguo); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTo apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/ AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing w

  8. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay Uptake of Drinking and Decrease Risk of Alcohol-Related Problems when Delivered by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mackie, Clare J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Al-Khudhairy, Nadia; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This trial examined the efficacy of teacher-delivered personality-targeted interventions for alcohol-misuse over a 6-month period. Method: This randomized controlled trial randomly allocated participating schools to intervention (n = 11) or control (n = 7) conditions. A total of 2,506 (mean age, 13.7 years) were assessed for elevated…

  9. Frameworks for Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trials of Interventions That Target Fundamental Aging Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Jamie; Miller, Jordan D; Newman, John C; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Halter, Jeffrey; Austad, Steve N; Barzilai, Nir; Kirkland, James L

    2016-11-01

    Therapies targeted at fundamental processes of aging may hold great promise for enhancing the health of a wide population by delaying or preventing a range of age-related diseases and conditions-a concept dubbed the "geroscience hypothesis." Early, proof-of-concept clinical trials will be a key step in the translation of therapies emerging from model organism and preclinical studies into clinical practice. This article summarizes the outcomes of an international meeting partly funded through the NIH R24 Geroscience Network, whose purpose was to generate concepts and frameworks for early, proof-of-concept clinical trials for therapeutic interventions that target fundamental processes of aging. The goals of proof-of-concept trials include generating preliminary signals of efficacy in an aging-related disease or outcome that will reduce the risk of conducting larger trials, contributing data and biological samples to support larger-scale research by strategic networks, and furthering a dialogue with regulatory agencies on appropriate registration indications. We describe three frameworks for proof-of-concept trials that target age-related chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, or resilience to stressors. We propose strategic infrastructure and shared resources that could accelerate development of therapies that target fundamental aging processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  10. Follow-up two years after diagnosis of diabetes in patients with psychosocial problems receiving an intervention by a medical social worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gåfvels, Catharina; Rane, Kristina; Wajngot, Alexandre; Wändell, Per Erik

    2014-01-01

    We followed up the psychosocial situation two years after diabetes diagnosis in patients (n = 82) aged 18-65 years, with psychosocial problems (PSP; n = 27) or not (NPSP; n = 55). We used a social questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), the Sense of Coherence scale (SOC), and the General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ). The PSP group had a more difficult situation with more strained economy, lower social support, more anxiety and depression, and lower SOC on both occasions. Being in the PSP group predicted experiencing a strong negative influence of the disease at follow-up. Regarding coping strategies, "problem focusing" decreased in both PSP and NPSP over time. "Social trust" and "intrusion" decreased only in NPSP. Otherwise the coping pattern was unchanged, with PSP showing lower scores on "self-trust" and "minimization" and higher scores on "protest," "isolation," and "intrusion." The most influenced areas at follow-up in the PSP group were work, relationship to partner and economy, and in the NPSP leisure-time activities, sexual life and work. Our findings underline the need to identify patients with psychosocial problems early.

  11. Gut microbiota: A player in aging and a target for anti-aging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Koliada, Alexander K; Marotta, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance. Recently, a high effectiveness and safety of novel therapeutic application such as fecal microbiota transplantation in the prevention and treatment of age-related pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease has been demonstrated. In this review, recent research findings are summarized on the role of gut micribiota in aging processes with emphasis on therapeutic potential of microbiome-targeted interventions in anti-aging medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychostimulant and sensory stimulation interventions that target the reading and math deficits of students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving sensory stimulation. A comprehensive examination of the literature was conducted on children with ADHD with and without co-occurring disabilities, summarizing their reading and math achievement and the effects of psychostimulant and sensory stimulant interventions on these academic areas. Students without co-occurring disabilities (ADHD-) had fewer deficits in reading than in math and than students with co-occurring disabilities (ADHD+). Furthermore, students with ADHD+ demonstrated greater responsiveness to psychostimulants through improved reading recognition and math calculations, with limited gains in literal reading comprehension. Added sensory stimulation produced differential gains for both groups in reading recognition and comprehension and in math calculations and problem solving. The efficacy of psychostimulants was documented on specific areas of achievement for the ADHD+ group, but this review did not support the administration of psychostimulants for students with ADHD-. For both groups of students, differential gains, losses, and habituation were documented in response to sensory stimulation for both subareas within reading and math, which were interpreted as support for the optimal stimulation theory.

  13. Interventions Targeting Sensory Challenges in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitlauf, Amy S; Sathe, Nila; McPheeters, Melissa L; Warren, Zachary E

    2017-06-01

    Sensory challenges are common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interventions targeting sensory challenges in ASD. Databases, including Medline and PsycINFO. Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. One investigator extracted data with review by a second. Investigators independently assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence (SOE), or confidence in the estimate of effects. Twenty-four studies, including 20 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), were included. Only 3 studies had low risk of bias. Populations, interventions, and outcomes varied. Limited, short-term studies reported potential positive effects of several approaches in discrete skill domains. Specifically, sensory integration-based approaches improved sensory and motor skills-related measures (low SOE). Environmental enrichment improved nonverbal cognitive skills (low SOE). Studies of auditory integration-based approaches did not improve language (low SOE). Massage improved symptom severity and sensory challenges in studies with likely overlapping participants (low SOE). Music therapy studies evaluated different protocols and outcomes, precluding synthesis (insufficient SOE). Some positive effects were reported for other approaches, but findings were inconsistent (insufficient SOE). Studies were small and short-term, and few fully categorized populations. Some interventions may yield modest short-term ( and ASD symptom severity-related outcomes; the evidence base is small, and the durability of the effects is unclear. Although some therapies may hold promise, substantial needs exist for continuing improvements in methodologic rigor. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Targeted home visiting intervention: the impact on mother-infant relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anne Marie; Johnson, Rebecca; Banner, Catherine; Delaney, Jill; Farley, Rita; Ford, Margaret; Lake, Helen; Douglas, Hazel

    2008-03-01

    This paper reviews and reflects on six papers, which describe various early home visiting interventions that resulted in positive outcomes, particularly in relation to the mother-infant relationship. The papers were published in a special issue of the Infant Mental Health Journal in 2006. We provide a brief overview of each paper, highlighting the conclusions drawn across the six papers. Key learning points for health visitors in the UK are explored throughout. Suggestions are described for improvements to the way in which health visiting services in the UK are structured in order to further enhance mother-infant relationships. The overall finding is that mother-infant relationships and interactions can be improved through early home visiting interventions over a period of time, and that this prevents childhood problems later on. It is recommended that specific patient groups be targeted and offered tailored programmes of interventions that have a relevant theoretical base, by trained nursing staff who are supported by an infant mental health consultant.

  15. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2011-01-01

    Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dún Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these strategies was devised after interviews with both the residential and commercial sectors to help make optimal waste management the norm for both sectors. Strategy (b), (e) and (f) are detailed in this paper. By integrating a human element into accepted waste management approaches, these strategies will make optimal waste behaviour easier to achieve. Ultimately this will help divert waste from landfill and improve waste management practice as a whole for the region. This method of devising

  16. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Watkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.

  17. Masculinity beliefs predict psychosocial functioning in African American prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa C; Keefe, Francis J; McKee, Daphne C; Waters, Sandra J; Moul, Judd W

    2012-09-01

    Research examining psychosocial functioning in African American prostate cancer survivors has been limited, in spite of documented higher mortality from prostate cancer and worse long-term physical and emotional outcomes from prostate cancer treatment reported by this group of survivors. In addition, the role of masculinity in psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer survivors is not well understood. In this study, 59 African American prostate cancer survivors completed a questionnaire assessing masculinity beliefs related to self-reliance, emotional control, and dominance, as well as measures of psychosocial functioning (i.e., symptom distress, negative mood, and functional and social well-being). Results of regression analyses indicated that masculinity beliefs predicted negative mood, functional well-being, and social well-being, controlling for age, income, and medical comorbidities. The findings reported here, although preliminary, suggest that masculinity beliefs could be important therapeutic targets for improving the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for men adjusting to prostate cancer survivorship.

  18. The "Robustness" of Vocabulary Intervention in the Public Schools: Targets and Techniques Employed in Speech-Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention--in terms of targets and techniques--for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of…

  19. Psychosocial and pharmacological management of pain in pediatric sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Daly, Brian P; Marsac, Meghan L; Tarazi, Reem; Deepti, Raybagkar

    2014-03-01

    For children with sickle cell disease (SCD), pain is associated with significant current and future morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, few evidence-based guidelines exist for the management of pain episodes in children with SCD. To inform empirically based treatment strategies for pain management in pediatric SCD, this review integrates and evaluates the extant literature on psychosocial and pharmacological approaches to the management of pain. Findings reveal a paucity of rigorous investigations of psychosocial and pharmacological pain management interventions in children with SCD. Psychosocial interventions included were primarily cognitive-behavioral in nature, whereas pharmacological approaches targeted non-opioid analgesics (ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids) and opioid medications (ie, morphine and oxycodone). However, to date there is not a "gold standard" for pain management among children with SCD. Because psychosocial and physiological processes each play a role in the etiology and experience of pain, effective pain management requires multidimensional, comprehensive treatment approaches. Considering the significant impact of pain on functional outcomes and quality of life among children with SCD, additional clinical trials are warranted to ensure that interventions are safe and efficacious.

  20. Complement therapeutics in inflammatory diseases: promising drug candidates for C3-targeted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellos, D C; Ricklin, D; Hajishengallis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Lambris, J D

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing appreciation that complement dysregulation lies at the heart of numerous immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders. Complement inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as new therapeutic options in various clinical translation programs and the first clinically approved complement-targeted drugs have profoundly impacted the management of certain complement-mediated diseases. Among the many members of the intricate protein network of complement, the central component C3 represents a 'hot-spot' for complement-targeted therapeutic intervention. C3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and is linked to diverse immunomodulatory systems and biological processes that affect human pathophysiology. Compelling evidence from preclinical disease models has shown that C3 interception may offer multiple benefits over existing therapies or even reveal novel therapeutic avenues in disorders that are not commonly regarded as complement-driven, such as periodontal disease. Using the clinically developed compstatin family of C3 inhibitors and periodontitis as illustrative examples, this review highlights emerging therapeutic concepts and developments in the design of C3-targeted drug candidates as novel immunotherapeutics for oral and systemic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel

    2011-01-01

    interventions have made critics proclaim that Western psychosocial expertise subjects the bereaved of the Third World to repressive administrative power by objectifying and colonizing their minds. Meanwhile, advocates of psychosocial rehabilitation maintain that such criticisms fail to appreciate the ability...... of local healing strategies to actually empower torture victims through rehabilitation programmes. Inspired by Michel Foucault's concept of government, this article argues that both these assessments of torture rehabilitation overlook forms of power that work through the constitution of subjectivities...

  2. Psychosocial aspects of 'mixedness' in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    The increasing number of interethnic married couples and their children in Scandinavia, challenges the stereotypes about us and others. However, these are relatively unresearched, invisible social categories against the backdrop of societal hegemonic homogeneity. This paper covers some psychosoci...... regarding the complex negotiation processes of identity through both ‘celebratory’ and ‘critique’ perspectives to ‘mixedness’, are presented along with implications for psychosocial support– and intervention services....

  3. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  4. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  5. Targeting IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) proteins for therapeutic intervention in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Domagoj

    2008-03-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a cell suicide process with a major role in development and homeostasis in vertebrates and invertebrates. Dysregulation of apoptosis leading to early cell death or the absence of normal cell death contributes to a number of disease conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Inhibition of apoptosis enhances the survival of cancer cells and facilitates their escape from immune surveillance and cytotoxic therapies. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, a family of anti-apoptotic regulators that block cell death in response to diverse stimuli through interactions with inducers and effectors of apoptosis are among the principal molecules contributing to this phenomenon. IAP proteins are expressed in the majority of human malignancies at elevated levels and play an active role in promoting tumor maintenance through the inhibition of cellular death and participation in signaling pathways associated with malignancies. Herein, the role of IAP proteins in cancer and strategies toward targeting IAP proteins for therapeutic intervention will be discussed.

  6. Toll-like receptor modulation in cardiovascular disease: a target for intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földes, Gábor; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D

    2006-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form a family of pattern recognition receptors that have emerged as key mediators of innate immunity. These receptors sense invading microbes and initiate the immune response. TLR-mediated inflammation is an important pathogenic link between innate immunity and a diverse panel of clinical disorders. Among the processes in which TLRs play a role are cardiovascular disorders such as cardiac ischaemia, coronary artery disease, ventricular remodelling, cancer angiogenesis or transplant rejection. From these, many important opportunities for disease modification through TLR signalling manipulation can be imagined. Their role as potential targets for therapeutic intervention is just beginning to be appreciated and this article reviews the current status of these treatment strategies for cardiovascular disease.

  7. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Zaytseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement.

  8. Interventions targeting child undernutrition in developing countries may be undermined by dietary exposure to aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sinead; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Child undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, is a major public health burden in developing countries. Supplementation interventions targeting the major micronutrient deficiencies have only reduced the burden of child undernutrition to a certain extent, indicating that there are other underlying determinants that need to be addressed. Aflatoxin exposure, which is also highly prevalent in developing countries, may be considered an aggravating factor for child undernutrition. Increasing evidence suggests that aflatoxin exposure can occur in any stage of life, including in utero through a trans-placental pathway and in early childhood (through contaminated weaning food and family food). Early life exposure to aflatoxin is associated with adverse effects on low birth weight, stunting, immune suppression, and the liver function damage. The mechanisms underlying impaired growth and aflatoxin exposure are still unclear but intestinal function damage, reduced immune function, and alteration in the insulin-like growth factor axis caused by the liver damage are the suggested hypotheses. Given the fact that both aflatoxin and child undernutrition are common in sub-Saharan Africa, effective interventions aimed at reducing undernutrition cannot be satisfactorily achieved until the interactive relationship between aflatoxin and child undernutrition is clearly understood, and an aflatoxin mitigation strategy takes effect in those vulnerable mothers and children.

  9. What works with men? A systematic review of health promoting interventions targeting men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Garth

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging men to make more effective use of (preventive health services is considered one way of improving their health. The aim of this study was to appraise the available evidence of effective interventions aimed at improving men's health. Methods Systematic review of relevant studies identified through 14 electronic databases and other information resources. Results were pooled within health topic and described qualitatively. Results Of 11,749 citations screened, 338 articles were assessed and 27 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies were male sex-specific, i.e. prostate cancer screening and testicular self-examination. Other topics included alcohol, cardiovascular disease, diet and physical activity, skin cancer and smoking cessation. Twenty-three interventions were effective or partially effective and 18 studies satisfied all quality criteria. Conclusion Most of the existing evidence relates to male sex-specific health problems as opposed to general health concerns relevant to both men and women. There is little published evidence on how to improve men's uptake of services. We cannot conclude from this review that targeting men works better than providing services for all people. Large-scale studies are required to help produce evidence that is sufficiently robust to add to the small evidence base that currently exists in this field.

  10. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandri Pretorius

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of young people (ages 10–24 are living with HIV (YPLWH in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR. Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Objective: Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. Design: We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Results: Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1 all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change – while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2 ‘significant others’ were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3 interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4 none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. Conclusions: There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges.

  11. Review of Interventions to Reduce Ultraviolet Tanning: Need for Treatments Targeting Excessive Tanning, an Emerging Addictive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Hillhouse, Joel; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Manne, Sharon L

    2017-06-22

    Millions of Americans engage in tanning each year, defined as intentional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the form of sunbathing or the use of indoor tanning beds. An emerging body of research suggests that UVR has addictive properties and some tanners engage in excessive tanning. This article provides an overview of the evidence of tanning addiction and a systematic review of existing tanning interventions with the goal of evaluating their potential to impact addicted tanners. Our search identified 24 intervention studies that were summarized and discussed according to 3 primary themes. First, there is a dearth of tanning interventions that target excessive tanning or are designed as treatments for tanning addiction. Second, tanning interventions are primarily educational interventions designed to increase knowledge of the risks of tanning. Third, there are notable aspects of existing tanning interventions that are relevant to addiction science, including the use of brief motivational and cognitive-behavioral-based interventions. Future directions are considered including recommendations for utilizing the existing evidence base to formulate interventions targeting excessive tanners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Factors affecting ambulance utilization for asthma attack treatment: understanding where to target interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raun, L H; Ensor, K B; Campos, L A; Persse, D

    2015-05-01

    Asthma is a serious, sometimes fatal condition, in which attacks vary in severity, potentially requiring emergency medical services (EMS) ambulance treatment. A portion of asthma attacks requiring EMS ambulance treatment may be prevented with improved education and access to care. The aim of this study was to identify areas of the city with high rates of utilization of EMS ambulance for treatment, and the demographics, socio-economic status, and time of day associated with these rates, to better target future interventions to prevent emergencies and reduce cost. A cross-sectional study was conducted on individuals in Houston, TX (USA) requiring ambulance treatment for asthma attacks from 2004 to 2011. 12,155 EMS ambulance-treated asthma attack cases were linked to census tracts. High rate treatment areas were identified with geospatial mapping. Census tract demographic characteristics of these high rate areas were compared with the remainder of the city using logistic regression. The association between case level demographics and the time of day of asthma attack within the high rate area was also assessed with logistic regression. EMS ambulance-treated high rate areas were identified and found to have a utilization incidence rate over six times higher per 100,000 people than the remainder of the city. There is an increased risk of location in this high rate area with a census tract level increase of percent of population: earning less than $10,000 yearly income (RR 1.21, 1.16-1.26), which is black (RR 1.08, 1.07-1.10), which is female (RR 1.34, 1.20-1.49) and have obtained less than a high school degree (RR 1.02, 1.01-1.03). Within the high rate area, case level data indicates an increased risk of requiring an ambulance after normal doctor office hours for men compared with women (RR 1.13, 1.03-1.22), for black compared with Hispanic ethnicity (RR 1.31, 1.08-1.59), or for adults (less than 41 and greater than 60) compared with children. Interventions to prevent

  13. Successful treatment of hypovascular advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with lipiodol-targetting intervention radiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of hypovascular advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) successfully treated with a novel combination therapy of percutaneous ethanollipiodol injection (PELI) and intervention radiology (IVR),lipiodol-targetting IVR (Lipi-IVR). The present case had a hypovascular HCC (3 cm in diameter) located in the S6 region of the liver. Although the tumor was not detectable at all by both of early and late phase of helical dynamic computed tomography (CT), it could be detected by ultrasonography (US) as a low echoic space occupying lesion (SOL) beside the gallbladder and right kidney. Serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP)and AFP-L3 were extremely high. Combination therapy of PELI, firstly reported in our department, and IVR (PELI and IVR, lipiodol-targetting IVR) was performed twice for the treatment. PELI could effectively visualize the location of the tumor for IVR treatment and show the presence of a thin blood vessel branching from the right hepatic artery flowing into the lipiodol deposit.After treatment, the serum levels of AFP and AFP-L3 were rapidly decreased to normal and maintained for more than eight months. Thus, this case expressing the tremendous effect might give us insight into the effectiveness of the novel combination therapy of PELI and IVR for the treatment of hypovascular HCC.

  14. Metabolic Control of Type 2 Diabetes by Targeting the GLUT4 Glucose Transporter: Intervention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahmida; Islam, Md Asiful; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the most common form of diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance in the hepatic and peripheral tissues. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Its defective expression or translocation to the peripheral cell plasma membrane in T2DM patients hinders the entrance of glucose into the cell for energy production. In addition to suitable drugs, an appropriate diet and/or exercise can be implemented to target the increase in GLUT4 expression, GLUT4 concentrations and GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface when managing the glucose metabolism of T2DM patients. In this review, we discussed successful intervention strategies that were individually administered or coupled with diet and/or exercise and affected the expression and translocation of GLUT4 in T2DM while reducing the excess glucose load from the blood. Additionally, some potentially good synthetic and natural compounds, which can activate the insulin-independent GLUT4 signaling pathways for the efficient management of T2DM, are highlighted as possible targets or emerging alternative sources for future anti-diabetic drug development.

  15. Effects on the family context of a complex psychosocial intervention in children with TDAH - Efectos sobre el contexto familiar de una intervención psicosocial compleja en niños con TDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Miranda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder has a complex negative impact on the family system that has not been thoroughly examined. This study analyzes the effects of psychosocial treatment on a wide range of aspects of family dynamics, such as to what degree the families overcome the difficulties they experience in the social and economic areas, improvements in the feelings and attitudes of the parents, or the tension between siblings or the within the couple. The purpose is also to analyze whether the presence of associated behavioral problems modulates the effects of the intervention.The participants in the study were 42 families divided into two groups, with and without treatment. The intervention included 3 programs differentiated according to the context in which they were implemented: directly with the children, with the parents and with the teachers. Each program included techniques of behavior modification, self-regulation, academic accommodations and social skills. The results show the beneficial effect of the multi-component intervention performed on all the family aspects analyzed, especially for the group of children without associated behavior problems.

  16. Intervention study on psychosocial adaptptation of freshmen in medical university%医科大学新生心理社会适应干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳芳; 吴晓兵; 郭巍伟; 邢玉梅; 石倩; 马艳艳; 何丽玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨改善医科大学新生心理社会适应能力干预实验的方法、内容和效果,为制定干预措施提供依据.方法 采用心理测验量表评价被试的心理社会适应能力.在对560名新生进行基线问卷测查的基础上,通过分层整群随机抽样对223名学生进行了"学校生活技能"干预,对照组为其余337人.干预实验以班为单位进行,每周2学时,共进行5次.干预实验结束后,采用基线测查时所用相同心理测验问卷进行复测.结果 干预后干预组的社会适应和人际关系测验总得分均显著高于干预前(P值均<0.05),且干预组均显著高于对照组(P>0.05).但干预前、后2组学生的应对方式总得分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 学校生活技能干预对改善医科大学新生的社会适应能力和人际关系状况有一定的效果,但对应对方式的改善效果不明显.%Objective To set up valid, feasible and reliable intervention to improve psychosocial adaptation of freshmen in medical university, and to provide bases for the intervention measurement. Methods Psychological test scales were used to measure the psychosocial adaptation ability of the subjects. Based on baseline questionnaire survey among 560 freshmen, we conducted school life-skill intervention on 223 students who were selected by stratified cluster random sampling,control group included other 337 students. Intervention was conducted in class two hours a week and totally 5 times. After intervention post-test was completed using the same questionnaires as base line. Results After intervention the total scores of social adaptation and interpersonal relations were significantly improved in intervention group comparing to pre-test ( P < 0.05 ), and the scores were significantly higher in intervention group than those in control group( P <0.05 ). However the total score of coping style between two groups was not different before and after intervention ( P > 0

  17. Effective psychological and psychosocial approaches to reduce repetition of self-harm: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Spittal, Matthew J; Carter, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions for reductions in repeated self-harm. Design We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression to examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions to reduce repeat self-harm in adults. We included a sensitivity analysis of studies with a low risk of bias for the meta-analysis. For the meta-regression, we examined whether the type, intensity (primary analyses) and other components of intervention or methodology (secondary analyses) modified the overall intervention effect. Data sources A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycInfo and EMBASE (from 1999 to June 2016) was performed. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials of psychological and psychosocial interventions for adult self-harm patients. Results Forty-five trials were included with data available from 36 (7354 participants) for the primary analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant benefit of all psychological and psychosocial interventions combined (risk ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96; number needed to treat=33); however, sensitivity analyses showed that this benefit was non-significant when restricted to a limited number of high-quality studies. Meta-regression showed that the type of intervention did not modify the treatment effects. Conclusions Consideration of a psychological or psychosocial intervention over and above treatment as usual is worthwhile; with the public health benefits of ensuring that this practice is widely adopted potentially worth the investment. However, the specific type and nature of the intervention that should be delivered is not yet clear. Cognitive–behavioural therapy or interventions with an interpersonal focus and targeted on the precipitants to self-harm may be the best candidates on the current evidence. Further research is required. PMID:27660314

  18. The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousema Teun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous in most settings, resulting in the formation of recognizable malaria hotspots. Targeting these hotspots might represent a highly efficacious way of controlling or eliminating malaria if the hotspots fuel malaria transmission to the wider community. Methods/design Hotspots of malaria will be determined based on spatial patterns in age-adjusted prevalence and density of antibodies against malaria antigens apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-1. The community effect of interventions targeted at these hotspots will be determined. The intervention will comprise larviciding, focal screening and treatment of the human population, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. The impact of the intervention will be determined inside and up to 500 m outside the targeted hotspots by PCR-based parasite prevalence in cross-sectional surveys, malaria morbidity by passive case detection in selected facilities and entomological monitoring of larval and adult Anopheles populations. Discussion This study aims to provide direct evidence for a community effect of hotspot-targeted interventions. The trial is powered to detect large effects on malaria transmission in the context of ongoing malaria interventions. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine the effect of individual components of the interventions and the cost-effectiveness of a hotspot-targeted approach, where savings made by reducing the number of compounds that need to receive interventions should outweigh the costs of hotspot-detection. Trial registration NCT01575613. The protocol was registered online on 20 March 2012; the first community was randomized on 26 March 2012.

  19. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Bergsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP and shoulder pain (SP were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW by 30% (low back and 18% (shoulders, and intense pain (PINT occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99 and 2.68 (1.09–6.61 while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49 and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65 and 2.11 (1.08–4.12. Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

  20. Clinical perspective: Linking psychosocial care to the disease continuum in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabora, James; Buzaglo, Joanne; Kennedy, Vicki; Richards, Tiffany; Schapmire, Tara; Zebrack, Brad; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2015-08-01

    A model of psychosocial care specific for patients with multiple myeloma and their caregivers has not yet been proposed. We sought to develop a model of care that considers the specific profile of this disease. The authors, representing a multidisciplinary care team, met in December of 2012 to identify a model of psychosocial care for patients with multiple myeloma and their caregivers. This model was determined by consensus during the meeting and via total agreement following the meeting. The meeting was sponsored by Onyx Pharmaceuticals. The need for targeted psychosocial care for the multiple myeloma patient and caregiver throughout the disease process is essential to ensure quality of life and optimal treatment outcomes. We propose herein the first known model of care for the treatment of multiple myeloma that engages both the patient and their caregivers. Innovative partnerships between psychosocial providers and other entities such as pharmaceutical companies can maximize resources for comprehensive program development. This manuscript proposes a model of care that promotes active engagement in therapies for multiple myeloma while engaging the individual patient and their family caregivers. This treatment approach must be evidence based in terms of distress screening tools, comprehensive psychosocial assessments, and, most importantly, in the interventions and measurements of response that clinicians apply to this population.

  1. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  2. Preventing pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury: targeting risky life circumstances through community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Ashwini; Clark, Florence; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to sensitize practitioners working with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to the complex life circumstances that are implicated in the development of pressure ulcers (PrUs) and to document the ways that interventions can be adapted to target individual needs. This study was a content analysis of weekly fidelity/quality control meetings that were undertaken as part of a lifestyle intervention for PrU prevention in community-dwelling adults with SCI. Four types of lifestyle-relevant challenges to ulcer prevention were identified: risk-elevating life circumstances, communication difficulties, equipment problems, and individual personality issues. Intervention flexibility was achieved by changing the order of treatment modules, altering the intervention content or delivery approach, or going beyond the stipulated content. Attention to recurrent types of individual needs, along with explicit strategies for tailoring interventions published in a manual, has the potential to enhance PrU prevention efforts for adults with SCI.

  3. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  4. A cross sectional evaluation of an alcohol intervention targeting young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn; Jancey, Jonine; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Portsmouth, Linda; Longo, Janelle

    2016-07-20

    Hazardous drinking has been found to be higher among young university students compared to their non-university peers. Although young university students are exposed to new and exciting experiences, including greater availability and emphasis on social functions involving alcohol there are few multi strategy comprehensive interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Random cross sectional online surveys were administered to 18-24 year old students studying at the main campus of a large metropolitan university in Perth, Western Australia. Prior to the completion of the second survey an alcohol intervention was implemented on campus. Completed surveys were received from 2465 (Baseline; T1) and 2422 (Post Year 1: T2) students. Students who consumed alcohol in the past 12 months were categorised as low risk or hazardous drinkers using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Due to the cross sectional nature of the two samples two-tailed two-proportion z-test and two sample t-tests were employed to determine statistical significance between the two time periods for categorical and continuous variables respectively. At T1 and T2 89.1 % and 87.2 % of the total sample reported drinking alcohol in the past month respectively. Hazardous levels of alcohol consumption reduced slightly between T1 (39.7 %) and T2 (38 %). In both time periods hazardous drinkers reported significantly higher mean scores for experienced harm, second-hand harm and witnessed harm scores compared to low risk drinkers (p alcohol consumption and to report more positive alcohol expectations than low risk drinkers at both time periods (p students who report hazardous drinking are of concern and efforts should be made to ensure integrated and targeted strategies reach higher risk students and focus on specific issues such as driving while intoxicated and alcohol related unplanned sexual activity. However there is also a need for universal strategies targeting all students and

  5. Interventions that target improvements in mental health for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A narrative review.

    OpenAIRE

    Da Paz, NS; Wallander, JL

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest that one in 68 children is affected. With convincing evidence that parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and mental health problems, researchers have begun to investigate treatments that directly target parents' psychological well-being. We conducted a narrative review of studies that empirically tested the effects of interventions targeting improvements in the mental health of parents of children with ASD. Follow...

  6. Psychosocial changes as correlates of weight regain vs. continued loss within 2-year trials of a self-regulation-focused community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, J J; Mareno, N

    2017-02-01

    Although health-enhancing weight reductions are associated with behavioural treatments initially, a trajectory towards full regain typically begins within 6-9 months. Women with obesity (body mass index = 30-40 kg m(-2) ) who lost at least 3% of their baseline weight within two trials of a new cognitive-behavioural treatment incorporating physical activity prior to changes in eating behaviours, and either regained ≥50% of that weight over 2 years (Regain group, n=32) or continued to lose weight (ContinuedLoss group, n = 34), were assessed from months 6 to 24 on changes in weight-loss behaviours and psychosocial predictors of those behaviours derived from established behavioural theories. For the Regain group, significant decreases in physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake during months 12-24, from both months 6 to 24 and 12 to 24 in eating- and physical activity-related self-regulation and from months 6 to 24 in eating-related self-efficacy (i.e. feelings of ability), were found. No significant behavioural or psychosocial changes were found over those times in the ContinuedLoss group. Changes in self-regulation and self-efficacy completely mediated the relationship between changes in fruit/vegetable intake and group (Regain vs. ContinuedLoss) (McFadden's R (2)  = 0.19 and 0.20, respectively), with self-regulation independently contributing to the explained variance. Changes over both months 6-24 and 12-24 in self-regulation significantly mediated the relationship between changes in physical activity and group membership (McFadden's R (2)  = 0.24 and 0.27, respectively). Findings suggested that approximately 6 months after treatment initiation would be a suitable time to intervene with some bolstering methods, while approximately 12 months post-initiation would be most applicable for others. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. PGC-1{alpha}, A Potential Therapeutic Target for Early Intervention in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, B.; Liao, Z.; Locascio, J.J.;

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients with sympt......Parkinson's disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients...... with symptomatic Parkinson's and subclinical disease and healthy controls. We analyzed 6.8 million raw data points from nine genome-wide expression studies, and 185 laser-captured human dopaminergic neuron and substantia nigra transcriptomes, followed by two-stage replication on three platforms. We found 10 gene...... by mutant α-synuclein or the pesticide rotenone in cellular disease models. Our systems biology analysis of Parkinson's disease identifies PGC-1α as a potential therapeutic target for early intervention....

  8. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals.

  9. Inflammatory neuropathies: pathology, molecular markers and targets for specific therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory neuropathies encompass groups of heterogeneous disorders characterized by pathogenic immune-mediated hematogenous leukocyte infiltration of peripheral nerves, nerve roots or both, with resultant demyelination or axonal degeneration or both. Inflammatory neuropathies may be divided into three major disease categories: Guillain-Barré syndrome (particularly the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy variant), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy (or peripheral nerve vasculitis). Despite major advances in molecular biology, pathology and genetics, the pathogenesis of these disorders remains elusive. There is insufficient knowledge on the mechanisms of hematogenous leukocyte trafficking into the peripheral nervous system to guide the development of specific molecular therapies for immune-mediated inflammatory neuropathies compared to disorders such as psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis. The recent isolation and characterization of human endoneurial endothelial cells that form the blood-nerve barrier provides an opportunity to elucidate leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory neuropathies at the interface between the systemic circulation and peripheral nerve endoneurium. This review discusses our current knowledge of the classic pathological features of inflammatory neuropathies, attempts at molecular classification and genetic determinants, the utilization of in vitro and in vivo animal models to determine pathogenic mechanisms at the interface between the systemic circulation and the peripheral nervous system relevant to these disorders and prospects for future potential molecular pathology biomarkers and targets for specific therapeutic intervention.

  10. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening...

  12. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  13. School-Based Interventions Targeting Challenging Behaviors Exhibited by Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose R.; Werch, Brittany L.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically examine and summarize the impact of school-based interventions designed to decrease challenging behaviors in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Reviewed studies employed a single-case experimental design, targeted challenging behaviors, included children 3-8 years old with ASD, and took…

  14. Live Webcam Coaching to Help Early Elementary Classroom Teachers Provide Effective Literacy Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…

  15. Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jingguang; Cai, Rui; Lu, Zuxun; Cheng, Jinquan; de Vlas, Sake J; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    To apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing was carried out by the CDC in Shenzhen, China, in MSM social venues. A self-designed questionnaire of HIV knowledge, condom use, and access to HIV-related services was used before and after the pilot intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The CDC supported gatekeepers of MSM social venues in running their business and thereby increasing their respectability and income. In return, the gatekeepers cooperated with the CDC in reaching the MSM at the venues with health promotion messages and materials. Thus a win-win situation was created, bringing together two noncompetitive parties in reaching out to a shared customer, the MSM. The pilot intervention succeeded in demonstrating acceptability and feasibility of the joint marketing approach targeting MSM. HIV knowledge, the rate of condom use, and access to HIV-related services of participants in the pilot intervention increased significantly. The joint marketing intervention is an innovative way to create synergies between the gatekeepers of MSM social venues and public health officials for reaching and potentially changing HIV high-risk behaviors among MSM.

  16. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuraiskangas, Salla; Harjumaa, Marja; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ermes, Miikka

    2016-05-11

    relief in stressful situations. The app was perceived as a toolkit for personal well-being that gives concrete instructions on how mindfulness can be practiced. However, many barriers to participate in the intervention were identified at the individual level, such as lack of time, lack of perceived need, and lack of perceived benefits. The findings suggest that neither the setting nor the approach used in this study were successful in adopting new digital interventions at the target organizations. Barriers were faced at both the organizational as well as the individual level. At the organizational level, top management needs to be involved in the intervention planning for fitting into the organization policies, the existing technology infrastructure, and also targeting the organizational goals. At the individual level, concretizing the benefits of the preventive intervention and arranging time for app use at the workplace are likely to increase adoption.

  17. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermes, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    use experienced many benefits such as relief in stressful situations. The app was perceived as a toolkit for personal well-being that gives concrete instructions on how mindfulness can be practiced. However, many barriers to participate in the intervention were identified at the individual level, such as lack of time, lack of perceived need, and lack of perceived benefits. Conclusions The findings suggest that neither the setting nor the approach used in this study were successful in adopting new digital interventions at the target organizations. Barriers were faced at both the organizational as well as the individual level. At the organizational level, top management needs to be involved in the intervention planning for fitting into the organization policies, the existing technology infrastructure, and also targeting the organizational goals. At the individual level, concretizing the benefits of the preventive intervention and arranging time for app use at the workplace are likely to increase adoption. PMID:27170553

  18. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Lumley, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions-expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)-had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women's physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students.

  19. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Nidia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using “reduction of the vector population” as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.. The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. Results At baseline (during the dry season a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae. After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed in 970 study

  20. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Nidia; Gramajo, Rodrigo; Escobar, Maria Cabrera; Arana, Byron; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Petzold, Max

    2012-10-30

    In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using "reduction of the vector population" as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods) and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices) at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material) and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.). The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. At baseline (during the dry season) a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae). After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed) in 970 study households, tropical rains occurred in the area and

  1. Successful malaria elimination strategies require interventions that target changing vector behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Tanya L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultimate long-term goal of malaria eradication was recently placed back onto the global health agenda. When planning for this goal, it is important to remember why the original Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, conducted with DDT-based indoor residual spraying (IRS, did not achieve its goals. One of the technical reasons for the failure to eliminate malaria was over reliance on a single intervention and subsequently the mosquito vectors developed behavioural resistance so that they did not come into physical contact with the insecticide. Hypothesis and how to test it Currently, there remains a monolithic reliance on indoor vector control. It is hypothesized that an outcome of long-term, widespread control is that vector populations will change over time, either in the form of physiological resistance, changes in the relative species composition or behavioural resistance. The potential for, and consequences of, behavioural resistance was explored by reviewing the literature regarding vector behaviour in the southwest Pacific. Discussion Here, two of the primary vectors that were highly endophagic, Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, virtually disappeared from large areas where DDT was sprayed. However, high levels of transmission have been maintained by Anopheles farauti, which altered its behaviour to blood-feed early in the evening and outdoors and, thereby, avoiding exposure to the insecticides used in IRS. This example indicates that the efficacy of programmes relying on indoor vector control (IRS and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets [LLINs] will be significantly reduced if the vectors change their behaviour to avoid entering houses. Conclusions Behavioural resistance is less frequently seen compared with physiological resistance (where the mosquito contacts the insecticide but is not killed, but is potentially more challenging to control programmes because the intervention effectiveness

  2. Behavioral and psychosocial interventions for HIV prevention in floating populations in China over the past decade: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liu (Xiaona); V. Erasmus (Vicky); Q. Wu (Qing); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Floating populations have been repeatedly characterized as "the tipping point" for the HIV epidemic in China. This study aims to systematically summarize and assess the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in floating populations in China over the past decade. Method

  3. Behavioral and psychosocial interventions for HIV prevention in floating populations in China over the past decade: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Liu

    Full Text Available Floating populations have been repeatedly characterized as "the tipping point" for the HIV epidemic in China. This study aims to systematically summarize and assess the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in floating populations in China over the past decade.We conducted a systematic search in three international databases for literature published between 2005 and 2012 with condom use as the primary outcome, and knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and stigma towards HIV-infected individuals as secondary outcomes. The impact of interventions on changing the primary and secondary outcomes was calculated by risk difference (RD. We also performed subgroup analyses and meta-regression based on different study characteristics, using Stata 12.0, for the primary outcome.Sixteen studies (out of 149 involved 19 different programs and a total of 10,864 participants at entry from 11 provinces in China. The pooled effect estimate of all studies indicated that people participating in HIV-related interventions were 13% more likely to use condoms (95%CI: 0.07, 0.18, however, the effects on increasing condom use exhibited significant heterogeneity across programs (P<0.01, I2 = 0.93. The meta-regression results suggest that interventions have been significantly less successful in changing condom use in more recent studies (β, 0.14; 95%CI: 0.01, 0.27, adjusted for sexual relationship, study design and follow-up period. Regarding the secondary outcomes, HIV-related interventions were successful at improving knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention (RD, -0.26; 95%CI: -0.36, -0.16 and RD, -0.25; 95%CI: -0.33, -0.16, respectively, and decreasing stigma (RD, 0.18; 95%CI: 0.09, 0.27.The included studies between 2005 and 2012 indicate that HIV prevention interventions among Chinese floating populations in the past decade were only marginally effective at increasing condom use, but relatively successful at increasing HIV knowledge and

  4. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  5. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S; Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a 1-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem, respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. There were 657 adolescents who completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, gender, and weight status at baseline, whereas self-esteem differences were demonstrated for gender, ethnicity, and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12 months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p = .02) over time compared with subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self-esteem were not

  6. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescents undergoing an Intervention Targeting Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Background Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Objective To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Methods Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a one-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. Results 657 adolescents completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, sex and weight status at baseline, while self-esteem differences were demonstrated for sex, ethnicity and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12-months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p=0.02) over time compared to subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Conclusions Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self

  7. Psychosocial rehabilitation in a chronic care hospital in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychosocial interventions for persons disabled by mental health ... Medicine, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, .... Of the participants 69 (60.5%) were women and 42 (36.8%).

  8. Post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe: The TENTS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witteveen, A. B.; Bisson, J. I.; Ajdukovic, D.

    2012-01-01

    of a cross-sectional web-based survey completed in 2008 by two hundred and eighty-six representatives of organizations involved in psychosocial responses to trauma and disaster from thirty-three different countries across Europe. The survey addressed planning and delivery of psychosocial care after disaster......, methods of screening and diagnosis, types of interventions used, and other aspects of psychosocial care after trauma. The findings showed that planning and delivery of psychosocial care was inconsistent across Europe. Countries in East Europe seemed to have less central coordination of the post......At present post-disaster activities and plans seem to vary widely. An adequate estimation of the availability of post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe is needed in order to compare them with recently developed evidence-informed psychosocial care guidelines. Here we report on the results...

  9. A trial of an iPad™ intervention targeting social communication skills in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher-Watson, Susan; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; Mcconachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years old with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of developmental level, and was rated highly by parents. There were no significant group differences in parent-report measures post-intervention, nor in a me...

  10. Individuals With Disabilities Who Have Diabetes: Do We Have Targeted Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer-HaGans, DeLawnia; Austin, Shamly; Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo

    2016-04-01

    According to 2010 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. It is assumed that various diabetes interventions are available to help individuals manage this chronic disease, but that is not the case. The literature is scant regarding interventions focused on people with disabilities who have diabetes. The purpose of this article is to review interventions specifically focused on people with disabilities who have diabetes and to discuss the effect of these interventions on this population.

  11. Psychosocial intervention proposal in self-determination, social skills and entrepreneurial capacity: contribution from psychology to the integration of entrepreneurs women with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Poblete Toloza, Yohanna del Pilar; Universidad de Talca; Jiménez Figueroa, Andrés Eduardo; Universidad de Talca

    2013-01-01

    It constructs an intervention on subjective well-being, self-determination, social skills and entrepreneurship in women microentrepreneurs with intellectual disabilities from a diagnosis realized in 20 women with intellectual disabilities.It administered a battery of five instruments: Satisfaction Scale life Diener et ál (1984), subjective happiness scale Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999), Self-Concept Scale (La Rosa y Díaz, 1999), Questionnaire social skills Goldstein (1999) and En...

  12. The 'robustness' of vocabulary intervention in the public schools: targets and techniques employed in speech-language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention-in terms of targets and techniques-for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of rich vocabulary intervention. Participants were forty-eight 5-7-year-old children participating in kindergarten or the first-grade year of school, all of whom had vocabulary-specific goals on their individualized education programmes. Two therapy sessions per child were coded to determine what vocabulary words were being directly targeted and what techniques were used for each. Study findings showed that the majority of words directly targeted during therapy were lower-level basic vocabulary words (87%) and very few (1%) were academically relevant. On average, three techniques were used per word to promote deep understanding. Interpreting findings against empirical descriptions of rich vocabulary intervention indicates that children were exposed to some but not all aspects of this empirically supported practice.

  13. A multi-element psychosocial intervention for early psychosis (GET UP PIANO TRIAL) conducted in a catchment area of 10 million inhabitants: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Bonetto, Chiara; Lasalvia, Antonio; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Fioritti, Angelo; Rucci, Paola; Santonastaso, Paolo; Neri, Giovanni; Pileggi, Francesca; Ghigi, Daniela; Miceli, Maurizio; Scarone, Silvio; Cocchi, Angelo; Torresani, Stefano; Faravelli, Carlo; Zimmermann, Christa; Meneghelli, Anna; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Gennarelli, Massimo; Brambilla, Paolo; Bissoli, Sarah; Bertani, Maria Elena; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Poli, Sara; Cristofalo, Doriana; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella; Mirella, Maria Elena; Bissoli, Sarah; Bonetto, Chiara; Cristofalo, Doriana; De Santi, Katia; Lasalvia, Antonio; Lunardi, Silvia; Negretto, Valentina; Poli, Sara; Tosato, Sarah; Zamboni, Maria Grazia; Ballarin, Mario; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Fioritti, Angelo; Neri, Giovanni; Pileggi, Francesca; Rucci, Paola; Bocchio Chiavetto, Luisella; Scasselatti, Catia; Zanardini, Roberta; Brambilla, Paolo; Bellani, Marcella; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Marinelli, Veronica; Negretto, Valentina; Perlini, Cinzia; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Bardella, Sonia; Gardellin, Francesco; Lamonaca, Dario; Lasalvia, Antonio; Lunardon, Marco; Magnabosco, Renato; Martucci, Marilena; Nicolau, Stylianos; Nifosì, Francesco; Pavanati, Michele; Rossi, Massimo; Piazza, Carlo; Piccione, Gabriella; Sala, Alessandra; Sale, Annalisa; Stefan, Benedetta; Zotos, Spyridon; Balbo, Mirko; Boggian, Ileana; Ceccato, Enrico; Dall'Agnola, Rosa; Gardellin, Francesco; Girotto, Barbara; Goss, Claudia; Lamonaca, Dario; Lasalvia, Antonio; Leoni, Roberta; Mai, Alessia; Pasqualini, Annalisa; Pavanati, Michele; Piazza, Carlo; Piccione, Gabriella; Roccato, Stefano; Rossi, Alberto; Sale, Annalisa; Strizzolo, Stefania; Zotos, Spyridon; Urbani, Anna; Ald, Flavia; Bianchi, Barbara; Cappellari, Paola; Conti, Raffaello; De Battisti, Laura; Lazzarin, Ermanna; Merlin, Silvia; Migliorini, Giuseppe; Pozzan, Tecla; Sarto, Lucio; Visonà, Stefania; Brazzoli, Andrea; Campi, Antonella; Carmagnani, Roberta; Giambelli, Sabrina; Gianella, Annalisa; Lunardi, Lino; Madaghiele, Davide; Maestrelli, Paola; Paiola, Lidia; Posteri, Elisa; Viola, Loretta; Zamberlan, Valentina; Zenari, Marta; Tosato, Sarah; Zanoni, Martina; Bonadonna, Giovanni; Bonomo, Mariacristina; Santonastaso, Paolo; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Veronese, Angela; Anderle, Patrizia; Angelozz, Andrea; Amalric, Isabelle; Baron, Gabriella; Candeago, Enrico Bruttomesso Fabio; Castelli, Franco; Chieco, Maria; Cremonese, Carla; Di Costanzo, Enrico; Derossi, Mario; Doriguzzi, Michele; Galvano, Osvaldo; Lattanz, Marcello; Lezzi, Roberto; Marcato, Marisa; Marcolin, Alessandro; Marini, Franco; Matranga, Manlio; Scalabrin, Donato; Zucchetto, Maria; Zadro, Flavio; Austoni, Giovanni; Bianco, Maria; Bordino, Francesca; Dario, Filippo; De Risio, Alessandro; Gatto, Aldo; Granà, Simona; Favero, Emanuele; Franceschin, Anna; Friederici, Silvia; Marangon, Vanna; Pascolo, Michela; Ramon, Luana; Scocco, Paolo; Veronese, Angela; Zambolin, Stefania; Riolo, Rossana; Buffon, Antonella; Cremonese, Carla; Di Bortolo, Elena; Friederici, Silvia; Fortin, Stefania; Marcato, Marisa; Matarrese, Francesco; Mogni, Simona; Codemo, Novella; Russi, Alessio; Silvestro, Alessandra; Turella, Elena; Viel, Paola; Dominoni, Anna; Andreose, Lorenzo; Boemio, Mario; Bressan, Loretta; Cabbia, Arianna; Canesso, Elisabetta; Cian, Romina; Dal Piccol, Claudia; Dalla Pasqua, Maria Manuela; Di Prisco, Anna; Mantellato, Lorena; Luison, Monica; Morgante, Sandra; Santi, Mirna; Sacillotto, Moreno; Scabbio, Mauro; Sponga, Patrizia; Sguotto, M Luisa; Stach, Flavia; Vettorato, M Grazia; Martinello, Giorgio; Dassiè, Francesca; Marino, Stefano; Cibiniel, Linda; Masetto, Ilenia; Marcato, Marisa; Cabianca, Oscar; Valente, Amalia; Caberlotto, Livio; Passoni, Alberto; Flumian, Patrizia; Daniel, Luigino; Gion, Massimo; Stanziale, Stanziale; Alborino, Flora; Bortolozzo, Vladimiro; Bacelle, Lucio; Bicciato, Leonarda; Basso, Daniela; Navaglia, Filippo; Manoni, Fabio; Ercolin, Mauro; Neri, Giovanni; Giubilini, Franco; Imbesi, Massimiliano; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Semrov, Enrico; Giovanni, Castel S; Taro e Ceno, Valli; Ovest, Polo; Anelli, Silvio; Amore, Mario; Bigi, Laura; Britta, Welsch; Anna, Giovanna Barazzoni; Bonatti, Uobes; Borziani, Maria; Crosato, Isabella; Galluccio, Raffaele; Galeotti, Margherita; Gozzi, Mauro; Greco, Vanna; Guagnini, Emanuele; Pagani, Stefania; Maccherozzi, Malvasi; Marchi, Francesco; Melato, Ermanno; Mazzucchi, Elena; Marzullo, Franco; Pellegrini, Pietro; Petrolini, Nicoletta; Volta, Paolo; Anelli, Silvio; Bonara, Franca; Brusamonti, Elisabetta; Croci, Roberto; Flamia, Ivana; Fontana, Francesca; Losi, Romina; Mazzi, Fausto; Marchioro, Roberto; Pagani, Stefania; Raffaini, Luigi; Ruju, Luca; Saginario, Antonio; Tondelli, M Grazia; Marrama, Donatella; Bernardelli, Lucia; Bonacini, Federica; Florindo, Annaluisa; Merli, Marina; Nappo, Patrizia; Sola, Lorena; Tondelli, Ornella; Tonna, Matteo; Torre, M Teresa; Tosatti, Morena; Venturelli, Gloria; Zampolla, Daria; Bernardi, Antonia; Cavalli, Cinzia; Cigala, Lorena; Ciraudo, Cinzia; Di Bari, Antonia; Ferri, Lorena; Gombi, Fabiana; Leurini, Sonia; Mandatelli, Elena; Maccaferri, Stefano; Oroboncoide, Mara; Pisa, Barbara; Ricci, Cristina; Poggi, Enrica; Zurlini, Corrado; Malpeli, Monica; Colla, Rossana; Teodori, Elvira; Vecchia, Luigi; D'Andrea, Rocco; Trenti, Tommaso; Paolini, Paola; Mazzi, Fausto; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Pileggi, Francesca; Ghigi, Daniela; Gagliostro, Mariateresa; Pratelli, Michela; Rucci, Paola; Lazzaro, S; Antonelli, Antonio; Battistini, Luana; Bellini, Francesca; Bonini, Eva; Capelli, Caterina Bruschi Rossella; DiDomizio, Cinzia; Drei, Chiara; Fucci, Giuseppe; Gualandi, Alessandra; Grazia, Maria Rosaria; Losi, Anna M; Mazzoni, Federica Mazzanti Paola; Marangoni, Daniela; Monna, Giuseppe; Morselli, Marco; Oggioni, Alessandro; Oprandi, Silvio; Paganelli, Walter; Passerini, Morena; Piscitelli, Maria; Reggiani, Gregorio; Rossi, Gabriella; Salvatori, Federica; Trasforini, Simona; Uslenghi, Carlo; Veggetti, Simona; Bartolucci, Giovanna; Baruffa, Rosita; Bellini, Francesca; Bertelli, Raffaella; Borghi, Lidia; Ciavarella, Patrizia; DiDomizio, Cinzia; Monna, Giuseppe; Oggioni, Alessandro; Paltrinieri, Elisabetta; Rizzardi, Francesco; Serra, Piera; Suzzi, Damiano; Carlo, Uslenghi; Piscitelli, Maria; Arienti, Paolo; Aureli, Fabio; Avanzi, Rosita; Callegari, Vincenzo; Corsino, Alessandra; Host, Paolo; Michetti, Rossella; Pratelli, Michela; Rizzo, Francesco; Simoncelli, Paola; Soldati, Elena; Succi, Eraldo; Bertozzi, Massimo; Canetti, Elisa; Cavicchioli, Luca; Ceccarelli, Elisa; Cenni, Stefano; Marzola, Glenda; Gallina, Vanessa; Leoni, Carla; Olivieri, Andrea; Piccolo, Elena; Ravagli, Sabrina; Russo, Rosaria; Tedeschini, Daniele; Verenini, Marina; Abram, Walter; Granata, Veronica; Curcio, Alessandro; Guerra, Giovanni; Granini, Samuela; Natali, Lara; Montanari, Enrica; Pasi, Fulvia; Ventura, Umbertina; Valenti, Stefania; Francesca, Masi; Farneti, Rossano; Ravagli, Paolo; Floris, Romina; Maroncelli, Otello; Volpones, Gianbattista; Casali, Donatella; Miceli, Maurizio; Bencini, Andrea; Cellini, Massimo; De Biase, Luca; Barbara, Leonardo; Charles, Liedl; Pratesi, Cristina; Tanini, Andrea; Cellini, Massimo; Miceli, Maurizio; Loparrino, Riccardo; Pratesi, Cristina; Ulivelli, Cinzia; Cussoto, Cristina; Dei, Nico; Fumanti, Enrico; Pantani, Manuela; Zeloni, Gregorio; Bellini, Rossella; Cellesi, Roberta; Dorigo, Nadia; Gullì, Patrizia; Ialeggio, Luisa; Pisanu, Maria; Rinaldi, Graziella; Konze, Angela; Cocchi, Angelo; Meneghelli, Anna; Bianco, Mario; Modignani, Litta; Frova, Maria; Monzani, Emiliano; Zanobio, Alberto; Malagoli, Marina; Pagani, Roberto; Barbera, Simona; Morganti, Carla; Monzani, Emiliano; Amadè, Elisabetta Sarzi; Brambilla, Virginia; Montanari, Anita; Caterina, Giori; Lopez, Carmelo; Marocchi, Alessandro; Moletta, Andrea; Sberna, Maurizio; Cascio, M Teresa; Scarone, Silvio; Manzone, Maria Laura; Barbara, Barbera; Mari, Luisa; Manzone, Maria L; Razzini, Edoardo; Bianchi, Yvonne; Pellizzer, M Rosa; Verdecchia, Antonella; Sferrazza, M Gabriella; Manzone, M Laura; Pismataro, Rosa; D'Eril, Gian Vico Melzi; Barassi, Alessandra; Pacciolla, Rosana; Faraci, Gloria; Torresani, Stefano; Rosmini, Bolzano; Carpi, Fabio; Soelva, Margit; Anderlan, Monica; De Francesco, Michele; Duregger, Efi; Torresani, Stefano; Vettori, Carla; Doimo, Sabrina; Kompatscher, Erika; Soelva, Margit; Torresani, Stefano; Forer, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Helene; Gampe, Anna; Nicoletti, Maira; Acerbi, Chiara; Aquilino, Daniele; Azzali, Silvia; Bensi, Luca; Bissoli, Sarah; Cappellari, Davide; Casana, Elisa; Campagnola, Nadia; Dal Corso, Elisa; Di Micco, Elisabetta; Gobbi, Erika; Ferri, Laura; Gobbi, Erika; Mairaghi, Laura; Malak, Sara; Mesiano, Luca; Paterlini, Federica; Perini, Michela; Puliti, Elena Maria; Rispoli, Rosaria; Rizzo, Elisabetta; Sergenti, Chiara; Soave, Manuela; Alpi, Andrea; Bislenghi, Laura; Bolis, Tiziana; Colnaghi, Francesca; Fascendini, Simona; Grignani, Silvia; Meneghelli, Anna; Patelli, Giovanni; Faravelli, Carlo; Casale, Silvia; Zimmermann, Christa; Deledda, Giuseppe; Goss, Claudia; Mazzi, Mariangela; Rimondini, Michela; Gennarelli, Massimo; Scassellati, Catia; Bonvicini, Cristian; Longo, Sara; Bocchio Chiavetto, Luisella; Zanardini, Roberta; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Squitti, Rosanna; Frisoni, Giovanni; Pievani, Michela; Balestrieri, Matteo; Brambilla, Paolo; Perlini, Cinzia; Marinelli, Veronica; Bellani, Marcella; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Atzori, Manfredo; Mazzi, Fausto; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Beltramello, Alberto; Alessandrini, Franco; Pizzini, Francesca; Zoccatelli, Giada; Sberna, Maurizio; Konze, Angela; Politi, Pierluigi; Emanuele, Enzo; Brondino, Natascia; Martino, Gianvito; Bergami, Alessandra; Zarbo, Roberto; Riva, Marco Andrea; Fumagalli, Fabio; Molteni, Raffaella; Calabrese, Francesca; Guidotti, Gianluigi; Luoni, Alessia; Macchi, Flavia; Artioli, Stefania; Baldetti, Marco; Bizzocchi, Milena; Bolzon, Donatella; Bonello, Elisa; Cacciari, Giorgia; Carraresi, Claudia; Cascio, M Teresa; Caselli, Gabriele; Furlato, Karin; Garlassi, Sara; Gavarini, Alessandro; Lunardi, Silvia; Macchetti, Fabio; Marteddu, Valentina; Plebiscita, Giorgia; Poli, Sara; Totaro, Stefano; Bebbington, Paul; Birchwood, Max; Dazzan, Paola; Kuipers, Elisabeth; Thornicroft, Graham; Pariante, Carmine; Lawrie, Steve; Pariante, Carmine; Soares, Jair C

    2012-05-30

    Multi-element interventions for first-episode psychosis (FEP) are promising, but have mostly been conducted in non-epidemiologically representative samples, thereby raising the risk of underestimating the complexities involved in treating FEP in 'real-world' services. The Psychosis early Intervention and Assessment of Needs and Outcome (PIANO) trial is part of a larger research program (Genetics, Endophenotypes and Treatment: Understanding early Psychosis - GET UP) which aims to compare, at 9 months, the effectiveness of a multi-component psychosocial intervention versus treatment as usual (TAU) in a large epidemiologically based cohort of patients with FEP and their family members recruited from all public community mental health centers (CMHCs) located in two entire regions of Italy (Veneto and Emilia Romagna), and in the cities of Florence, Milan and Bolzano. The GET UP PIANO trial has a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled design. The randomized units (clusters) are the CMHCs, and the units of observation are the centers' patients and their family members. Patients in the experimental group will receive TAU plus: 1) cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, 2) psycho-educational sessions for family members, and 3) case management. Patient enrollment will take place over a 1-year period. Several psychopathological, psychological, functioning, and service use variables will be assessed at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcomes are: 1) change from baseline to follow-up in positive and negative symptoms' severity and subjective appraisal; 2) relapse occurrences between baseline and follow-up, that is, episodes resulting in admission and/or any case-note records of re-emergence of positive psychotic symptoms. The expected number of recruited patients is about 400, and that of relatives about 300. Owing to the implementation of the intervention at the CMHC level, the blinding of patients, clinicians, and raters is not possible, but every effort will be made

  14. 心理社会干预对首发老年抑郁症患者1年结局的影响%Effects of psychosocial intervention on one-year outcome of the first fall geriatric depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘苗; 张三强; 王长虹; 李玉凤; 马振武; 于洪岩; 李欣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of antidepressants alone versus combination with psychosocial intervention on one-year outcome of the first fall geriatric depression. Methods Two hundred and eighty first fall geriatric depression patients were randomly assigned to receive medication treatment alone(140 cases) or medication combined psychosocial intervention (140 cases) for twelve months.The psychosocial intervention consisted of psycho-education,family intervention,skills training and cognitive-behavioral therapy.The main outcome measures were the rates of discontinuation due to any cause, relapse or re-hospitalization.Secondary outcomes were assessed by the insight and treatment attitudes questionnaire(ITAQ), medical outcome study short-form 36-time questionnaire(SF-36), global assessment scale(GAS) and social treatment due to any cause was 22.14% in combined treatment group and 45.71% in medication treatment alone group, and the difference between two groups was significant(P<0.01).The rate of relapse was 11.43% in combined treatment group and 23.57% in medication treatment alone group, and the difference between two groups was significant(P<0.05). The rate of being hospitalized was 5.71% in combined treatment group and 15.8% in medication treatment alone group, the difference between the two groups was significant(P<0.05). The rate of drug compliance was 84.3% in combined treatment group and 63.6% in medication treatment alone group, the difference between two groups was than in medication treatment alone(P<0.01). Patients receiving combined treatment showed greater improvement in 7 domains of SF-36. Mean change of SDSS and GAS score was more in combined treatment than in medication treatment alone(P<0.01). Conclusions In the first fall geriatric depression patients, antidepressants combination with psychosocial intervention is useful to prove insight and treatment adherence, quality of life and social function and prevent relapse.%目的 比较抗抑郁

  15. Psychosocial Approaches for Sexual Health and Intimate Relationships Among Patients With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu-Brown, Paula; Aranda, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The sexual health and behavior and the intimate relationships of patients diagnosed with a serious mental illness (SMI) have been described as ongoing and often ignored concerns in mental health treatment. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions have emerged as effective complimentary approaches to address symptoms of SMI in conjunction with psychopharmacology, yet rarely do they address sexual concerns in a targeted manner. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of psychosocial interventions designed to address sexual health and behavior and intimate relationship concerns in patients with SMI. The search was conducted in four targeted databases and identified 967 articles with four of those meeting inclusion criteria for this review. The data extracted included setting, study sample, study design, outcome measures, data analysis, and results. The measures utilized in the studies assess mental and sexual health-related outcomes. All four studies reported an improvement in sexual and mental health outcomes. Given the lack of psychosocial approaches and culturally sensitive adaptations, this review highlights a gap in literature that should be addressed, particularly emphasizing their combined treatment with psychotropic medication and efficacy testing with diverse populations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A three-year follow-up on the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their caregivers: the multicentre, rater-blinded, randomized Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, K.T.T.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the long-term efficacy at the 36-month follow-up of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme lasting 8-12 months for community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater-blinded trial...... groups had follow-up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes for the patients assessed at 36-month follow-up were changes from baseline in global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), depressive symptoms (Cornell Depression Scale) and proxy-rated Euro...... of Life Scale for Alzheimer's disease (QoL-AD), Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, Alzheimer's disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale, all-cause mortality and nursing home placement. RESULTS: At a 36-month follow-up, 2 years after the completion of the Danish Alzheimer...

  17. A Trial of an iPad™ Intervention Targeting Social Communication Skills in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of…

  18. A Trial of an iPad™ Intervention Targeting Social Communication Skills in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of…

  19. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  20. Adaptation of Critical Time Intervention for use in Brazil and its implementation among users of psychosocial service centers (CAPS) in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tavares Cavalcanti; Maria Cecília de Araújo Carvalho; Elie Valência; Catarina Magalhães Dahl; Flávia Mitkiewicz de Souza

    2011-01-01

    A Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira propõe um modelo de atenção baseado na implantação de uma rede comunitária no qual os Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS) detêm papel fundamental. Neste artigo são apresentados os resultados do estudo piloto que visou adaptar para o contexto brasileiro a "Critical Time Intervention" (CTI) e testar sua viabilidade com pessoas com transtornos do espetro esquizofrênico em tratamento nos CAPS do município do Rio de Janeiro. O desenho da pesquisa incluiu três f...

  1. Adaptation Of Critical Time Intervention For Use In Brazil And Its Implementation Among Users Of Psychosocial Service Centers (caps) In The Municipality Of Rio De Janeiro [adaptação Da "critical Time Intervention" Para O Contexto Brasileiro E Sua Implementação Junto A Usuários Dos Centros De Atenção Psicossocial Do Município Do Rio De Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti M.T.; Carvalho M.C.A.; Valencia E.; Dahl C.M.; de Souza F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Brazilian Psychiatric Reform proposes a mental healthcare model based on the implementation of a community-based service network, in which Psychosocial Service Centers (CAPS) play a fundamental role. The report presents the results of a pilot study which aimed to adapt Critical Time Intervention to the Brazilian context, and to test its feasibility to provide it to persons with schizophrenic spectrum disorders who are enrolled in CAPS of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: The research design included t...

  2. Economic assessments of small-scale drinking-water interventions in pursuit of MDG target 7C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, John; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R; Pedley, Steve; Pond, Katherine

    2011-12-01

    This paper uses an applied rural case study of a safer water intervention in South Africa to illustrate how three levels of economic assessment can be used to understand the impact of the intervention on people's well-being. It is set in the context of Millennium Development Goal 7 which sets a target (7C) for safe drinking-water provision and the challenges of reaching people in remote rural areas with relatively small-scale schemes. The assessment moves from cost efficiency to cost effectiveness to a full social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) with an associated sensitivity test. In addition to demonstrating techniques of analysis, the paper brings out many of the challenges in understanding how safer drinking-water impacts on people's livelihoods. The SCBA shows the case study intervention is justified economically, though the sensitivity test suggests 'downside' vulnerability.

  3. Stakeholder engagement analysis - a bioethics dilemma in patient-targeted intervention: patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Demerjian, Gary; Jan, Allison; Sama, Nateli; Nguyen, Mia; Du, Angela; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-20

    Modern health care in the field of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing is grounded in fundamental philosophy and epistemology of translational science. Recently in the U.S major national initiatives have been implemented in the hope of closing the gaps that sometimes exist between the two fundamental components of translational science, the translational research and translational effectiveness. Subsequent to these initiatives, many improvements have been made; however, important bioethical issues and limitations do still exist that need to be addressed. One such issue is the stakeholder engagement and its assessment and validation. Federal, state and local organizations such as PCORI and AHRQ concur that the key to a better understanding of the relationship between translational research and translational effectiveness is the assessment of the extent to which stakeholders are actively engaged in the translational process of healthcare. The stakeholder engagement analysis identifies who the stakeholders are, maps their contribution and involvement, evaluates their priorities and opinions, and accesses their current knowledge base. This analysis however requires conceptualization and validation from the bioethics standpoint. Here, we examine the bioethical dilemma of stakeholder engagement analysis in the context of the person-environment fit (PE-fit) theoretical model. This model is an approach to quantifying stakeholder engagement analysis for the design of patient-targeted interventions. In our previous studies of Alzheimer patients, we have developed, validated and used a simple instrument based on the PE-fit model that can be adapted and utilized in a much less studied pathology as a clinical model that has a wide range of symptoms and manifestations, the temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the jaw joint endowed with sensory and motor innervations that project from within the central nervous system and its dysfunction can

  4. Targeting children's dietary behaviors in a family intervention: 'Entre familia: reflejos de salud'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lucy A; Parada, Humberto; Slymen, Donald J; Arredondo, Elva; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2013-01-01

    This intervention sought to promote healthy eating with the ultimate goal of reducing childhood obesity risk. Three hundred and sixty-one Latino families living on the US-Mexico border with at least one child between 7-13 years of age were eligible to participate. Families randomly assigned to the four-month intervention received 14 contacts with a promotora (community health worker), consisting of 11 home visits and three telephone calls; the control condition was a delayed treatment intervention. Children reported on their dietary intake at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at the six month follow-up visit. The intervention reduced weekly consumption of fast food (p<0.05). A dose-response relationship was observed such that for every seven hours of promotora contact, monthly variety of fruits (p<0.01) and vegetables (p<0.01) increased by one. No other intervention effects were observed. Family-based interventions can improve children's eating habits, with the amount of contact with the promotora being key to success.

  5. Protocol for the atWork trial: a randomised controlled trial of a workplace intervention targeting subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Indahl, Aage; Baste, Valborg; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2016-08-19

    Subjective health complaints, such as musculoskeletal and mental health complaints, have a high prevalence in the general population, and account for a large proportion of sick leave in Norway. It may be difficult to prevent the occurrence of subjective health complaints, but it may be possible to influence employees' perception and management of these complaints, which in turn may have impact on sick leave and return to work after sick leave. Long term sick leave has many negative health and social consequences, and it is important to gain knowledge about effective interventions to prevent and reduce long term sick leave. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of the modified atWork intervention, targeting non-specific musculoskeletal complaints and mental health complaints. This intervention will be compared to the original atWork intervention targeting only non-specific musculoskeletal complaints. Kindergartens in Norway are invited to participate in the study and will be randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Estimated sample size is 100 kindergartens, with a total of approximately 1100 employees. Primary outcome is sick leave at unit level, measured using register data from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. One kindergarten equals one unit, regardless of number of employees. Secondary outcomes will be measured at the individual level and include coping, health, job satisfaction, social support, and workplace inclusion, collected through questionnaires distributed at baseline and at 12 months follow up. All employees in the included kindergartens are eligible for participating in the survey. The effect evaluation of the modified atWork intervention is a large and comprehensive project, providing evidence-based information on prevention of long-term sick leave, which may be of considerable benefit both from a societal, organisational, and individual perspective. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797

  6. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change.

  7. Effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral behavior to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention in dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpp, Carola M E; Graff, Maud J L; Teerenstra, Steven; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J

    2013-05-30

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral rate to and knowledge on the community occupational therapy in dementia program (COTiD program). A cluster randomized controlled trial with 28 experimental and 17 control clusters was conducted. Cluster included a minimum of one physician, one manager, and two occupational therapists. In the control group physicians and managers received no interventions and occupational therapists received a postgraduate course. In the experimental group physicians and managers had access to a website, received newsletters, and were approached by telephone. In addition, physicians were offered one outreach visit. In the experimental group occupational therapists received the postgraduate course, training days, outreach visits, regional meetings, and access to a reporting system. Main outcome measure was the number of COTiD referrals received by each cluster which was assessed at 6 and 12 months after the start of the intervention. Referrals were included from both participating physicians (enrolled in the study and received either the control or experimental intervention) and non-participating physicians (not enrolled but of whom referrals were received by participating occupational therapists). Mixed model analyses were used to analyze the data. All analyses were based on the principle of intention-to-treat. At 12 months experimental clusters received significantly more referrals with an average of 5,24 referrals (SD 5,75) to the COTiD program compared to 2,07 referrals in the control group (SD 5,14). The effect size at 12 months was 0.58. Although no difference in referral rate was found for the physicians participating in the study, the number of referrals from non-participating physicians (t -2,55 / 43 / 0,02) differed significantly at 12 months. Passive dissemination strategies are less likely to result in changes in professional behavior. The amount of physicians exposed to

  8. Pesquisas brasileiras psicossociais e operacionais face às metas da UNGASS Brazilian psychosocial and operational research vis-à-vis the UNGASS targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available São analisados itens do documento "Draft Declaration of Commitment for the UNGASS on HIV/AIDS, 2001". Discute-se a experiência brasileira em novos métodos de testagem e aconselhamento para populações vulneráveis, métodos preventivos controlados por mulheres, prevenção, suporte psicossocial a pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids e transmissão materno-infantil. Os itens foram operacionalizados sob a forma de "palavras-chave" em buscas sistemáticas nos bancos de dados padrão em biomedicina, incluindo ainda o Web of Science, nas suas subdivisões referentes às ciências naturais e sociais. A experiência brasileira referente a estratégias de testagem e aconselhamento vem-se consolidando, no emprego de algoritmos visando à estimação da incidência e identificação de recém-infectados, testagem e aconselhamento de grávidas, e aplicação de testes rápidos. A introdução de métodos alternativos e de novas tecnologias para coleta de dados em populações vulneráveis vem permitindo ágil monitoramento da epidemia. A avaliação do suporte psicossocial a pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids ganhou impulso no Brasil, provavelmente, em decorrência do aumento da sobrevida e da qualidade de vida dessas pessoas. Foram observados avanços substanciais no controle da transmissão materno-infantil, uma das mais importantes vitórias no campo de HIV/Aids no Brasil, mas deficiências no atendimento pré-natal ainda constituem um desafio. Em relação aos métodos de prevenção femininos, a resposta brasileira é ainda tímida. A ampla implementação de novas tecnologias para captura e manejo de dados depende de investimentos em infra-estrutura e capacitação profissional.Items from the UNGASS Draft Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001 are analyzed. The Brazilian experience of new methods for testing and counseling among vulnerable populations, preventive methods controlled by women, prevention, psychosocial support for people living with HIV

  9. Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…

  10. Targeting persons with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins with lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that the development of cardiometabolic diseases can be partly prevented or postponed by the combination of a healthy diet and physical activity. Cardiometabolic diseases and their risk factors are particularly prevalent among individuals with low

  11. Targeting reperfusion injury in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of reperfusion therapy by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has resulted in improved outcomes for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Despite the obvious advantages of primary PCI, acute restoration of blood flow paradoxically also...

  12. Direct and Indirect Psychosocial Outcomes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Parents Following a Parent-involved Social Skills Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Viecili, Michelle A; Sloman, Leon; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect outcomes of a social skills group intervention for children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders and their parents. Thirty-five children and their parents participated in the program evaluation. Children and parents completed measures of child social skills and problem behaviors. Children reported on their self-concept, and parents reported on their psychological acceptance and empowerment. Results indicate significant increases in overall child social skills according to parent and child report, in child general self-worth, and in parent service empowerment and psychological acceptance. While past program evaluations of social skills groups highlight changes in social competence, taking a broader perspective on the types of positive outcomes suggests potential benefits for both child and parent.

  13. Targeting persons with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins with lifestyle interventions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that the development of cardiometabolic diseases can be partly prevented or postponed by the combination of a healthy diet and physical activity. Cardiometabolic diseases and their risk factors are particularly prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status and some ethnic minorities, and therefore these groups especially may benefit from participating in lifestyle interventions. Although individuals with low socioeconomic status and ethnic...

  14. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Jull; Dawn Stacey; Sarah Beach; Alex Dumas; Irene Strychar; Lee-Anne Ufholz; Stephanie Prince; Joseph Abdulnour; Denis Prud’homme

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausa...

  15. Future directions for interventions targeting PTSD in HIV-infected adults

    OpenAIRE

    Applebaum, Allison J.; Bedoya, C. Andres; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Wilkinson, Jesse L.; Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall

    2014-01-01

    Although studies consistently report high rates of comorbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and HIV infection, development and testing of PTSD treatment interventions in HIV-infected adults is limited. As such, the purpose of this review was twofold. First, this review augments the 3 existing reviews of research for PTSD in HIV-infected adults conducted within the past 10 years. We found 2 empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based interventions for the treatment of ...

  16. Partner violence and psychosocial distress among female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW, most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. FINDINGS: About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.

  17. Systematic Review of Behavioral Interventions Targeting Social Communication Difficulties After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emma; Copley, Anna; Cornwell, Petrea; Kelly, Crystal

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether behavioral interventions are beneficial for adults with social communication difficulties after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Electronic databases were searched through October 2013 to find behavioral intervention trials. Keywords used in our search were intervention, therapy, treatment, and program combined with pragmatic disorder, pragmatic impairment, social communication disorder/impairment, conversation disorder/impairment, social disorder/impairment, cognitive-linguistic and cognitive-communication deficit; adult; and traumatic brain injury, head injury, and brain injury. Hand searches of the reference lists of relevant articles were also conducted. To be selected for detailed review, articles found in the initial search were assessed by 2 reviewers and had to meet the following criteria: (1) population (adults with TBI); (2) intervention (behavioral intervention); and (3) outcomes (changes in social communication). Articles needed to describe interventions that were delivered directly to adults with TBI with or without other people (such as significant others) involved. Of the 2181 articles initially identified, 15 were selected for detailed review. Data were independently extracted by members of the research team, then collated and reviewed by the team. Of the 15 publications that met the study criteria, 7 were single-case design studies, 3 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a nonrandomized controlled trial, and 4 were cohort studies. The methodological qualities of eligible articles were examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database and Single-Case Experimental Design rating scales. The interventions described in the studies fell into 2 broad categories: those addressing a specific impairment in social communication, and context-specific interventions with a holistic focus on social communication skills. Studies using context-sensitive approaches had been published more recently and were generally group studies with higher

  18. Smoking cessation intervention during pregnancy in a Polish urban community – what is the target population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broszkiewicz M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of intensive individual anti-smoking counselling among pregnant women from a Polish urban community with a large representation of socially underprivileged women. The study was conducted between 1 December 2000 and 31 December 2001. Out of 204 women who were asked to take part in a midwives-assisted program of educational counselling to stop smoking, 152 (74.5% agreed to participate. The intervention program included four visits of a midwife trained in smoking cessation techniques to the home of a smoking pregnant woman. The control group were 145 pregnant women who on the first visit to a maternity unit received only a standard written information on the health risk from maternal smoking to the foetus. The percentage of pregnant women who quitted smoking during the project was 46.1% in the intervention group and 23.4% among the controls (p < 0.001. After combining the intervention group with the women who refused to participate in the project, the rate of quitting was 36.3%, still significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.01. The strongest influence of the intervention was found among women smoking more than 5 cigarettes/day. Women covered by the intervention programme, who reported smoking in previous pregnancies, were found to quit smoking to a much higher extent than the controls with a similar background. Such pattern was also observed for women whose husbands were smokers. The benefits of the intervention, especially for the socially underprivileged women, seem to result from an increased proportion of subjects who undertook a quitting attempt, rather than the effectiveness of these attempts. In the intervention group, among the subjects who did not manage to quit smoking during pregnancy, the number of women who at least slightly reduced their smoking rate was twice as high as in the controls.

  19. Neuro-intensive treatment targeting intracranial hypertension improves outcome in severe bacterial meningitis: an intervention-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Glimåker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of early intracranial pressure (ICP-targeted treatment, compared to standard intensive care, in adults with community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (ABM and severely impaired consciousness. DESIGN: A prospectively designed intervention-control comparison study of adult cases from September 2004 to January 2012. PATIENTS: Included patients were confirmed ABM-cases, aged 16-75 years, with severely impaired mental status on admission. Fifty-two patients, given ICP-targeted treatment at the neuro-intensive care unit, and 53 control cases, treated with conventional intensive care, were included. All the patients received intensive care with mechanical ventilation, sedation, antibiotics and corticosteroids according to current guidelines. Additional ICP-treatment in the intervention group included cerebrospinal fluid drainage using external ventricular catheters (n = 48, osmotherapy (n = 21, hyperventilation (n = 13, external cooling (n = 9, gram-doses of methylprednisolone (n = 3 and deep barbiturate sedation (n = 2 aiming at ICP 50 mmHg. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was mortality at two months and secondary endpoint was Glasgow outcome score and hearing ability at follow-up at 2-6 months. OUTCOMES: The mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to controls, 5/52 (10% versus 16/53 (30%; relative risk reduction 68%; p<0.05. Furthermore, only 17 patients (32% in the control group fully recovered compared to 28 (54% in the intervention group (relative risk reduction 40%; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Early neuro-intensive care using ICP-targeted therapy, mainly cerebrospinal fluid drainage, reduces mortality and improves the overall outcome in adult patients with ABM and severely impaired mental status on admission.

  20. Psychosocial challenges before and after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz KH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Heinz Schulz,1,2 Sylvia Kroencke,1,2 1Department of Medical Psychology, 2University Transplant Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany Abstract: This review addresses psychosocial challenges before and after solid organ transplantation. Stressors, corresponding psychosocial changes of the recipient, and psychological interventions in the different phases of the transplant process are described. Furthermore, important aspects of the preoperative psychosocial evaluation are presented with a special focus on living donors and patients with alcoholic liver disease. For the postoperative period, adherence, quality of life, and return to work are highlighted. Finally, research and clinical implications are presented. Keywords: adherence, alcoholic liver disease, evaluation, living donation, quality of life, return to work

  1. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

  2. Nrf2: A Novel Biomarker of Disease Severity and Target for Therapeutic Intervention in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    suppression of disease symptoms in EAE (Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis). In the current report we: 1) characterize the Nrf2-targeted antioxidant ...including their potential to suppress disease symptoms in EAE. In current report we first characterized the Nrf2 targeted antioxidant properties of...sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis4 and skin inflammation.5 Further it has been reported that Celastrol can inhibit inflammatory reactions between

  3. Target Gutahuka: The UN’s Strategic Information Intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Udo-Udo Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature and impacts of two information intervention radio programmes broadcast on Radio Okapi—the radio service of the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A matched randomization technique was used to assign Rwandan Hutus and Congolese autochthons in South Kivu to listen to either of the two programmes within their naturalistic contexts for 13 months. At the end of the treatment, participants’ perceptions of barriers to peace; descriptive and prescriptive interventions; victimhood and villainity; opportunities for personal development and civic engagement; and knowledge of repatriation processes were assessed in 16 focus groups across four contexts. The study concludes that international media intervention programmes that provide robust information and a platform for objective analyses within a multiple narrative and participatory framework can enhance greater engagement with nascent democratic reforms, positive perception of long term opportunities for personal development and empathy with the ethnic Other.

  4. Psychosocial interventions affect on students with high risk of suicide%心理社会干预对中学生自杀高危人群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红涛; 王琦; 孙莉; 周丹; 贾颖婕; 王祖承

    2014-01-01

    adolescent life events before and after intervention (F = 1. 320,P = 0. 264);there were significant differences in the other scales between 6 and 18 months after in-tervention(P ﹤ 0. 02),while there was no significant difference between 6 months after intervention and 12 months after intervention(P ﹥ 0. 02). Conclusion:The psychosocial intervention project is effective in impro-ving suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors in middle school students in a short time.

  5. 脑卒中患者的社会心理现状及急诊护理干预%Psychosocial Status Quo and Emergency Nursing Intervention of Patients with Cerebral Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨脑卒中患者的社会心理现状,分析急诊护理干预对不良心理状况的影响.方法:180名脑卒中患者根据调查顺序平分为两组:治疗组与对照组各90例,两组都开始依据相关原则建立了常规急诊措施,治疗组患者在此基础上加用积极的护理干预措施,干预内容包括知识教育和认知行为干预两大方面.结果:两组护理干预前的四项心身功能指标无明显差异,护理干预后,治疗组的躯体功能和生活质量评分比对照组明显增高(P0.05).在行为功能变化方面,治疗组的逃避和屈服评分均高于干预前,差异具有显著意义(均P0.05),而对照组的各项指标干预前后差异均无显著意义(均P>0.05).结论:脑卒中患者的心理以负面为主,急诊护理干预可降低焦虑抑郁情绪,提高生活质量和躯体功能方,同时使患者积极寻求一切可能的社会支持,有利于心理健康的恢复.%Objective:To explore psychosocial status quo of patients with cerebral apoplexy.Methods and analyze negative effect of emergency nursing intervention on their unhealthy psychological status.Methods:One hundred and eighty patients with cerebral apoplexy were evenly divided into Treatment Group and Control Group (each 90 cases) as per investigation sequence.Routine emergency measures had been established for both groups by the principle. On this basis,Treatment Group was protected by more positive nursing intervention precautions,composed of knowledge education and cognition behavior intervention.Results:Both showed no significant difference in 4 indexes of somatic and mental functions before nursing intervention.After that,Treatment Group was significantly higher than Control Group in somatic function and scores of quality of life;however,anxiety and depression scores of Treatment Group decreased significantly (P0.05).In change of behavioural function,Treatment Group showed higher scores of avoidance and resignation than before

  6. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  7. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM.

  8. Interventions that target improvements in mental health for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Paz, Nikko S; Wallander, Jan L

    2017-02-01

    Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest that one in 68 children is affected. With convincing evidence that parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and mental health problems, researchers have begun to investigate treatments that directly target parents' psychological well-being. We conducted a narrative review of studies that empirically tested the effects of interventions targeting improvements in the mental health of parents of children with ASD. Following a range of search strategies, a total of 13 studies, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six pre-post test designs, met inclusion criteria. We calculated and reported effect sizes for all RCTs. On average, treatment produced medium to large effect sizes with improvements in parenting stress and general health, and reductions in depression and anxiety. Interventions that appeared promising included: Stress Management and Relaxation Techniques, Expressive Writing, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. However, only one study conducted a follow-up assessment >3months post intervention. Study populations primarily consisted of English-speaking mothers, ages 39 to 42years. Conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, homogeneity of sample population, and reliance on self-report. Therefore, this body of research contains significant limitations in need of improvement for this field to move forward and benefit a sizable number of parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-benefit of infection control interventions targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, L; Avni, T; Rubinovitch, B; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2013-12-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incur significant costs. We aimed to examine the cost and cost-benefit of infection control interventions against MRSA and to examine factors affecting economic estimates. We performed a systematic review of studies assessing infection control interventions aimed at preventing spread of MRSA in hospitals and reporting intervention costs, savings, cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness. We searched PubMed and references of included studies with no language restrictions up to January 2012. We used the Quality of Health Economic Studies tool to assess study quality. We report cost and savings per month in 2011 US$. We calculated the median save/cost ratio and the save-cost difference with interquartile range (IQR) range. We examined the effects of MRSA endemicity, intervention duration and hospital size on results. Thirty-six studies published between 1987 and 2011 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Fifteen of the 18 studies reporting both costs and savings reported a save/cost ratio >1. The median save/cost ratio across all 18 studies was 7.16 (IQR 1.37-16). The median cost across all studies reporting intervention costs (n = 31) was 8648 (IQR 2025-19 170) US$ per month; median savings were 38 751 (IQR 14 206-75 842) US$ per month (23 studies). Higher save/cost ratios were observed in the intermediate to high endemicity setting compared with the low endemicity setting, in hospitals with 6 months. Infection control intervention to reduce spread of MRSA in acute-care hospitals showed a favourable cost/benefit ratio. This was true also for high MRSA endemicity settings. Unresolved economic issues include rapid screening using molecular techniques and universal versus targeted screening.

  10. Screen-time Weight-loss Intervention Targeting Children at Home (SWITCH: A randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Midi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one third of New Zealand children and young people are overweight or obese. A similar proportion (33% do not meet recommendations for physical activity, and 70% do not meet recommendations for screen time. Increased time being sedentary is positively associated with being overweight. There are few family-based interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this trial is to determine the effects of a 24 week home-based, family oriented intervention to reduce sedentary screen time on children's body composition, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet. Methods/Design The study design is a pragmatic two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and seventy overweight children aged 9-12 years and primary caregivers are being recruited. Participants are randomized to intervention (family-based screen time intervention or control (no change. At the end of the study, the control group is offered the intervention content. Data collection is undertaken at baseline and 24 weeks. The primary trial outcome is child body mass index (BMI and standardized body mass index (zBMI. Secondary outcomes are change from baseline to 24 weeks in child percentage body fat; waist circumference; self-reported average daily time spent in physical and sedentary activities; dietary intake; and enjoyment of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Secondary outcomes for the primary caregiver include change in BMI and self-reported physical activity. Discussion This study provides an excellent example of a theory-based, pragmatic, community-based trial targeting sedentary behavior in overweight children. The study has been specifically designed to allow for estimation of the consistency of effects on body composition for Māori (indigenous, Pacific and non-Māori/non-Pacific ethnic groups. If effective, this intervention is imminently scalable and could be integrated within existing weight

  11. A Comparison of Recruitment Methods for an mHealth Intervention Targeting Mothers: Lessons from the Growing Healthy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Rachel A; Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth A; Russell, Catherine G; Taki, Sarah; Ong, Kok-Leong; Elliott, Rosalind M; Lymer, Sharyn J; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-09-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) programs hold great promise for increasing the reach of public health interventions. However, mHealth is a relatively new field of research, presenting unique challenges for researchers. A key challenge is understanding the relative effectiveness and cost of various methods of recruitment to mHealth programs. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effectiveness of various methods of recruitment to an mHealth intervention targeting healthy infant feeding practices, and (2) explore factors influencing practitioner referral to the intervention. The Growing healthy study used a quasi-experimental design with an mHealth intervention group and a concurrent nonrandomized comparison group. Eligibility criteria included: expectant parents (>30 weeks of gestation) or parents with an infant Recruitment to the mHealth program consisted of: (1) practitioner-led recruitment through Maternal and Child Health nurses, midwives, and nurses in general practice; (2) face-to-face recruitment by researchers; and (3) online recruitment. Participants' baseline surveys provided information regarding how participants heard about the study, and their sociodemographic details. Costs per participant recruited were calculated by taking into account direct advertising costs and researcher time/travel costs. Practitioner feedback relating to the recruitment process was obtained through a follow-up survey and qualitative interviews. A total of 300 participants were recruited to the mHealth intervention. The cost per participant recruited was lowest for online recruitment (AUD $14) and highest for practice nurse recruitment (AUD $586). Just over half of the intervention group (50.3%, 151/300) were recruited online over a 22-week period compared to practitioner recruitment (29.3%, 88/300 over 46 weeks) and face-to-face recruitment by researchers (7.3%, 22/300 over 18 weeks). No significant differences were observed in participant sociodemographic characteristics

  12. A Comparison of Recruitment Methods for an mHealth Intervention Targeting Mothers: Lessons from the Growing Healthy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth A; Russell, Catherine G; Taki, Sarah; Ong, Kok-Leong; Elliott, Rosalind M; Lymer, Sharyn J; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) programs hold great promise for increasing the reach of public health interventions. However, mHealth is a relatively new field of research, presenting unique challenges for researchers. A key challenge is understanding the relative effectiveness and cost of various methods of recruitment to mHealth programs. Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effectiveness of various methods of recruitment to an mHealth intervention targeting healthy infant feeding practices, and (2) explore factors influencing practitioner referral to the intervention. Methods The Growing healthy study used a quasi-experimental design with an mHealth intervention group and a concurrent nonrandomized comparison group. Eligibility criteria included: expectant parents (>30 weeks of gestation) or parents with an infant advertising costs and researcher time/travel costs. Practitioner feedback relating to the recruitment process was obtained through a follow-up survey and qualitative interviews. Results A total of 300 participants were recruited to the mHealth intervention. The cost per participant recruited was lowest for online recruitment (AUD $14) and highest for practice nurse recruitment (AUD $586). Just over half of the intervention group (50.3%, 151/300) were recruited online over a 22-week period compared to practitioner recruitment (29.3%, 88/300 over 46 weeks) and face-to-face recruitment by researchers (7.3%, 22/300 over 18 weeks). No significant differences were observed in participant sociodemographic characteristics between recruitment methods, with the exception that practitioner/face-to-face recruitment resulted in a higher proportion of first-time parents (68% versus 48%, P=.002). Less than half of the practitioners surveyed reported referring to the program often or most of the time. Key barriers to practitioner referral included lack of time, difficulty remembering to refer, staff changes, lack of parental engagement

  13. State of the art: psychotherapeutic interventions targeting the psychological factors involved in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Daniela; Menichetti, Julia; Fiorino, Gionata; Vegni, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to review the literature on the relationship between psychology and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the first section is dedicated to explore the role of psychological factors in the etiopathology of the disease, its development and the efficacy of treatments, while the second analyzes existing literature on the role of psychological interventions in the care of IBD patients. Although the role of psychological factors in IBD appears controversial, literature seems to distinguish between antecedents of the disease (stress and lifestyle behavior), potential mediators of disease course (family functioning, attachment style, coping strategies, and illness perception), outcomes of IBD and concurrent factors (anxiety, depression and quality of life). Four types of psychological interventions are described: Stress management, Psychodynamic, Cognitive behavioral and Hypnosis based. Data on the role and efficacy of psychological interventions in IBD patients show little evidence both on reduction of the disease activity and benefits on psychological variables. Psychological interventions seem to be beneficial in the short term especially for adolescents. The importance of considering the connections between psychology and IBD from a broader perspective reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon at multiple levels is discussed.

  14. Promoting physical activity in a low socioeconomic area: results from an intervention targeting stair climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jacquelyn; Lyon, Katie; Webb, Oliver J; Eves, Frank F; Ryan, Cormac G

    2011-05-01

    To compare rates of stair climbing in a high and low socioeconomic (SE) area, and to assess the efficacy of a stair climbing intervention in each area. From March to May 2009 ascending stair/escalator choices (N=20,315) were observed in two underground train stations located in a high, and low, SE area of Glasgow. Baseline observations preceded a 4-week intervention in which posters, promoting stair choice, were installed. Follow-up observations were collected 1 week after poster removal. Baseline stair climbing rates were 12.2% and 7.1% at the high and low SE stations, respectively. Overall, pedestrians at the high SE station were around twice as likely to climb the stairs as those at the low SE station (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.70-2.15). Across sites, the rate of stair climbing was higher during the intervention relative to baseline (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.34-1.63) and remained elevated at follow-up (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.11-1.39). Absolute increase in stair climbing was similar at both stations (high SE, +4.7%; low SE, +4.5%), indicating equivalent poster effects in each area. Pedestrians in lower SE areas appear less likely to climb stairs than pedestrians in high SE areas. Nevertheless, a stair climbing intervention was equally effective in both areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychoeducational interventions targeting core symptoms to achieve remission and prevent relapses and recurrence in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2008-01-01

    Depressive disorders have a high prevalence and incidence, and are associated with a huge burden of disease and economic costs. Most respond satisfactorily to drug therapy and/or psychological intervention, in particular to psychoeducation. By far the best-studied example of this approach is the Cop

  16. Targeting persons with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins with lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that the development of cardiometabolic diseases can be partly prevented or postponed by the combination of a healthy diet and physical activity. Cardiometabolic diseases and their risk factors are particularly prevalent among individuals with low socioecono

  17. Psychoeducational interventions targeting core symptoms to achieve remission and prevent relapses and recurrence in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2008-01-01

    Depressive disorders have a high prevalence and incidence, and are associated with a huge burden of disease and economic costs. Most respond satisfactorily to drug therapy and/or psychological intervention, in particular to psychoeducation. By far the best-studied example of this approach is the Cop

  18. Targeting persons with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins with lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that the development of cardiometabolic diseases can be partly prevented or postponed by the combination of a healthy diet and physical activity. Cardiometabolic diseases and their risk factors are particularly prevalent among individuals with low socioecono

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Targeting Personality Risk Factors for Youth Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Comeau, Nancy; Maclean, A. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness are personality risk factors for alcohol use disorders, each associated with specific risky drinking motives in adolescents. We developed a set of interventions and manuals that were designed to intervene at the level of personality risk and associated maladaptive coping strategies,…

  20. Towards a psychosocial psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frosh, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    From its beginning, psychoanalysis has always been a 'personal' affair. This paper presents an autobiographical account of engagement with psychoanalysis as an academic discipline, exploring particularly how it has become central to my concerns in psychosocial studies.

  1. An intervention study targeting energy and nutrient intake in worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Butryn, Meghan L; Annunziato, Rachel A; Coletta, Maria C; Ochner, Christopher N; Rolls, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees' calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n=96, BMI=29.7+/-6.0 kg/m(2)) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p<.01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p<.001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake.

  2. Psychosocial facets of resilience: implications for preventing posttrauma psychopathology, treating trauma survivors, and enhancing community resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Iacoviello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a range of potential responses to stress and trauma. Whereas, on one extreme, some respond to stress and trauma by developing psychiatric disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD, on the other extreme are the ones who exhibit resilience. Resilience is broadly defined as adaptive characteristics of an individual to cope with and recover from adversity. Objective: Understanding of the factors that promote resilience is warranted and can be obtained by interviewing and learning from particularly resilient individuals as well as empirical research. In this paper, we discuss a constellation of factors comprising cognitive, behavioral, and existential elements that have been identified as contributing to resilience in response to stress or trauma. Results: The psychosocial factors associated with resilience include optimism, cognitive flexibility, active coping skills, maintaining a supportive social network, attending to one's physical well-being, and embracing a personal moral compass. Conclusions: These factors can be cultivated even before exposure to traumatic events, or they can be targeted in interventions for individuals recovering from trauma exposure. Currently available interventions for PTSD could be expanded to further address these psychosocial factors in an effort to promote resilience. The cognitive, behavioral, and existential components of psychosocial factors that promote individual resilience can also inform efforts to promote resilience to disaster at the community level.

  3. Modelo de intervención psicosocial en las organizaciones frente al estrés laboral: estrategia operativa Model of psychosocial intervention in organizations opposed to job stress: operational strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Navarro Aparicio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un modelo de actuación frente a los factores de riesgo psicosociales derivados del estrés laboral. Primeramente relaciona los principales efectos que ocasiona en toda organización el estrés laboral. Al mismo tiempo establece sus prioridades de actuación, para acto seguido indicar las actividades que deben ejecutarse. Dentro de esta fase de actuación, diferencia aquellas que van dirigidas a la organización de forma colectiva, cuya prioridad es manifiesta, frente a las acciones que deben ofrecerse a los afectados de forma individualizada. Así pues, se trata de un modelo de intervención que interactúa tanto en las medidas organizativas generales como en aquellas específicas y de perfil individual, en la lucha de un fenómeno en auge como es el estrés laboral.The article presents a model for action against the risk factors derived from psychosocial stress. The first lists the main effects on any organization that causes stress at work. At the same time establishing their priorities for action, then to indicate the activities to be implemented. Within this stage of action, unlike those that are directed to the organization of a collective, whose priority is obvious, compared to shares to be offered to the affected individual. Thus, it is an intervention model that interacts both in general and organizational measures in those specific and individual profile in the struggle of a growing phenomenon as is the stress at work.

  4. Effect of a targeted education intervention on the incidence of waste-burning injuries in a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, David S; Baer, David G

    2009-01-01

    The burning of waste is a common cause of accidental injury on the battlefield. This study was devised to determine the incidence of burns incurred while burning waste during U.S. military operations prior to and following an intervention targeted at reducing such injuries. The intervention consisted of memoranda outlining potential dangers and suggesting improved safety procedures. It was distributed to the combat theater (Iraq and Afghanistan) in March 2004. We reviewed military burn center records from March 2003 to March 2005. Demographics, injury data, and outcomes were recorded and compared between those casualties injured prior to and following the initiative. Twenty-four patients were injured while burning waste, 10% of military casualties admitted to the burn center during the study period. From March 2003 to March 2004, 20 patients were admitted with such injuries. The incidence of 1.67 per month was significantly (Pimportance of continued military burn surveillance and prevention efforts.

  5. Smoking cessation intervention during pregnancy in a Polish urban community – what is the target population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polańska K

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of intensive individual anti-smoking counselling among pregnant women from a Polish urban community with a large representation of socially underprivileged women. The study was conducted between 1 December 2000 and 31 December 2001. Out of 204 women who were asked to take part in a midwives-assisted program of educational counselling to stop smoking, 152 (74.5% agreed to participate. The intervention program included four visits of a midwife trained in smoking cessation techniques to the home of a smoking pregnant woman. The control group were 145 pregnant women who on the first visit to a maternity unit received only a standard written information on the health risk from maternal smoking to the foetus. The percentage of pregnant women who quitted smoking during the project was 46.1% in the intervention group and 23.4% among the controls (p

  6. Targeting Appropriate Interventions to Minimize Deterioration of Drinking-water Quality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Trevett, Andrew F.; Carter, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, it has been observed that drinking-water frequently becomes recontaminated following its collection and during storage in the home. This paper proposes a semi-quantified ‘disease risk index' (DRI) designed to identify communities or households that are ‘most at risk' from consuming recontaminated drinking-water. A brief review of appropriate physical and educational intervention measures is presented, and their effective use is discussed. It is concluded that incorpor...

  7. Adoption of workplaces and reach of employees for a multi-faceted intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2014-05-01

    Workplace adoption and reach of health promotion are important, but generally poorly reported. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the adoption of workplaces (organizational level) and reach of employees (individual level) of a multi-faceted workplace health promotion and work environment intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides in elderly care. Percentage