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Sample records for psychopathology previous studies

  1. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test ...

  2. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  3. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  4. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence : Replication of a general psychopathology factor in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to replicate a study by Caspi and colleagues, which proposed that the structure of psychopathology is characterized by a general psychopathology factor, in addition to smaller internalizing and externalizing factors. Our study expanded the approach of the original by using

  5. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioni

  6. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality. The aim was to describe possible psychopathological differences between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis. In a multi-centre study, 16 psychiatric...... were linked with data concerning criminal and psychiatric history. No key characteristics were found to assist the early detection of criminal persons before first psychiatric hospital contact for a psychotic incident. However, when adjusted for sex, age, abuse, living conditions, marital status......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...

  7. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theme of a statement is called "lie motif" by the authors when schizophrenic patients say "I have lied to anybody". We tried to analyse of the psychopathological characteristics and anthropological meanings of the lie motifs in schizophrenia, which has not been thematically examined until now, based on 4 cases, and contrasting with the lie motif (Lügenmotiv) in depression taken up by A. Kraus (1989). We classified the lie motifs in schizophrenia into the following two types: a) the past directive lie motif: the patients speak about their real lie regarding it as a 'petty fault' in their distant past with self-guilty feeling, b) the present directive lie motif: the patients say repeatedly 'I have lied' (about their present speech and behavior), retreating from their previous commitments. The observed false confessions of innocent fault by the patients seem to belong to the present directed lie motif. In comparison with the lie motif in depression, it is characteristic for the lie motif in schizophrenia that the patients feel themselves to already have been caught out by others before they confess the lie. The lie motif in schizophrenia seems to come into being through the attribution process of taking the others' blame on ones' own shoulders, which has been pointed out to be common in the guilt experience in schizophrenia. The others' blame on this occasion is due to "the others' gaze" in the experience of the initial self-centralization (i.e. non delusional self-referential experience) in the early stage of schizophrenia (S. Kato 1999). The others' gaze is supposed to bring about the feeling of amorphous self-revelation which could also be regarded as the guilt feeling without content, to the patients. When the guilt feeling is bound with a past concrete fault, the patients tell the past directive lie motif. On the other hand, when the patients cannot find a past fixed content, and feel their present actions as uncertain and experience them as lies, the

  9. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  10. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben; Kramp, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality. The aim was to describe possible psychopathological differences between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis. In a multi-centre study, 16 psychiatric treatment centres included and rated 477 patients with first-episode psychosis over a 2-year period on socio-demography, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, OPerational CRITeria checklist, Global Assessment of Functioning, Premorbid Adjustment Scale and Self-report Insight Scale for psychosis. Data were linked with data concerning criminal and psychiatric history. No key characteristics were found to assist the early detection of criminal persons before first psychiatric hospital contact for a psychotic incident. However, when adjusted for sex, age, abuse, living conditions, marital status, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis, and a better screening procedure in the judicial system could detect these individuals earlier and make adequate treatment possible.

  11. Treatment of drug addiction and psychopathology: A field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Souto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of treatment and 148 in a maintenance phase in drug treatment (> 6 months, were psychopathologically assessed using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002. A field study with a 2 X 2 design (treatment: drug-free vs. drug-regime and (treatment phase: initial phase vs. maintenance in drug treatment was carried out. The results support the hypothesis of a dual diagnosis, that is, the comorbidity of psychopathology and drug addiction. On the whole, treatment for drug addiction had a significant impact on reducing associated psychopathology. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of the implications for the treatment of drug addiction.

  12. Commonly studied comorbid psychopathologies among persons with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige E

    2014-05-01

    The study of comorbid psychopathology among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is picking up steam. The purpose of this paper was to review and describe important characteristics of existing studies. Among the current crop of papers, depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been frequently evaluated. Groups studied have most frequently been children. Persons with ASD and normal intelligence quotient (IQ) scores have been studied more often than individuals with ASD and intellectual disability. Additional characteristics are discussed, and the implications of these data for future developments in the field are reviewed.

  13. Neurobiological pathways to childhood psychopathology : Population-based studies of cognition and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassabian, Akhgar

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spectrum of severity of symptoms and impairment. Second, psychopathology has been studied in the context of young children’s real life parallel to referral settings. Third, studying child psychopathol...

  14. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…

  15. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…

  16. Associations with quality of life and the effect of psychopathology in a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jonathan; Hengartner, Michael P; Angst, Jules; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is considerably impaired in mental illness and especially in depression. In this study, we aimed to determine the demographic, personality-related and psychopathological associations with QoL. In addition, we studied how the associations with QoL differ depending on the burden of psychopathology. We used a longitudinal observational cohort study, enriched for high levels of psychopathology, to examine data for QoL when the subjects were 34-35. We conducted a hierarchical linear regression analysis to determine how sex, personality, sociodemographics, somatic symptoms and psychopathology affect QoL. Once all the variables were included in the model, total psychopathology is strongly negatively associated with QoL, while mastery and income were shown to have positive associations with QoL. Sex, personality and somatic symptoms had no significant associations with QoL once the other variables had been introduced into the regression. Due to the outstanding association with psychopathology, we tested whether the relationship had any interaction with the other predictors, but none reached statistical significance. The most important association with QoL is psychopathology, regardless of sex, personality, coping resources, sociodemographics or the extent somatic symptoms. The relationship holds across the other variables included and the results are, thus, widely applicable.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL VARIABLES IN COPD AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity of illness and steroid medication. It is found that psychopathology in bronchial asthma patients are more than those of healthy controls but there is no significant difference. The psychopathology is significantly related to relate to age, marital status, occupational status, and smoking. Duration severity of illness and steroid medication.

  18. Alexithymia and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2004-04-01

    This research is an attempt to gain a comprehensive insight into alexithymia in schizophrenia. Previous studies offered clinically-descriptive and phenomenologically oriented suggestions regarding alexithymia putative contribution in shaping schizophrenic psychopathology. However, the factorial structure of the scales used to assess alexithymia had never been applied to a schizophrenic sample as a preliminary step to interpret results, thus assuming the purported dimensions of the alexithymia construct (i.e. difficulties identifying feelings, difficulties describing feelings, and externally oriented thinking) to be transnosographically stable. In order to explore the psychopathologic meaning and interrelations with other schizophrenic symptoms, we evaluated 76 chronic schizophrenic outpatients using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, standardized measures of positive, negative, disorganized and depressive symptoms, social and physical anhedonia scales, and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. The principal component analysis ofTAS-20 items revealed a 4-factor structure with multiple correlations with psychotic, disorganized, depressive, anhedonic dimensions and basic symptoms. The data suggest that alexithymia in schizophrenia is more heterogeneous than was previously recognized, and has several components, some of which are more state-related, and others of which are more like trait features. Those components are specifically correlated with both overt and subjective dimensions of schizophrenic psychopathology.

  19. Psychopathology and Mental Retardation: An Italian Epidemiological Study Using the PIMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Notarelli, Antonella; Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Bertelli, Marco; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of psychopathology was studied in 176 Italian adults with mental retardation. Prevalence of answers relating to anxiety, tendency to live apart, and body complaints in individuals with mild mental retardation was documented. For people with severe intellectual impairments, mood disturbance with inconsistent behaviors was more…

  20. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth C; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C; Lind, Penelope A; Hickie, Ian B; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2016-02-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of internet use' was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of use after 11 pm', 'using the internet to contact peers', and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between 'frequency of internet use' and 'frequency of use after 11 pm' with social phobia (SP). 'Using the internet to contact peers' was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas 'using the internet to contact peers' and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology.

  1. A cross-cultural study of the structure of comorbidity among common psychopathological syndromes in the general health care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, RF; Chentsova-Dutton, YE; Markon, KE; Goldberg, D; Ormel, J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents analyses of 7 common psychopathological syndromes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care (T. B. Ustun & N. Sartorius, 1995). Data on depression, somatization, hypochondriasis, neurasthenia, anxious worry, anxiou

  2. The Fenix II study: A longitudinal study of psychopathology among burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel-Kinori, Sara Guila; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Giannoni-Pastor, Anna; Tasqué-Cebrián, Ruth; Arguello, Jose Maria; Casas, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    Psychological symptoms are common among burn survivors. However, knowledge about epidemiology and predictors of psychopathology has shown great heterogeneity in this population. The Fenix-II Project was the first epidemiological study on the psychopathological consequences of burns developed in Spain, providing a detailed analysis of the progression of psychological symptoms during the first six months after injury. Three hundred and thirty-three patients were screened and 183 were included in this study. Posttraumatic, depression and anxiety symptoms showed a general decreasing tendency across time. At 6 months, 34 patients showed clinically significant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms (20.5% of 166 patients reached at 6 months) as assessed with the MINI Neuropsychiatric Interview. Within this group of patients, anxiety, depression and hyperarousal increased at 30 days, and avoidance 90 days after injury. The most accurate predictors of PTSD were found to be being burned in a Motor Vehicle Crash, risk of social exclusion, low body-image adjustment, anterior trunk location of the burn and life threat perception during the burn-shock period. Considering these factors, clinicians may identify patients at risk of PTSD development, allowing an adequate follow up and preventive interventions which may minimize the psychological consequences of burns.

  3. Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caraveo Anduaga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders affect up to one third of patients with non-psychiatric diseases.1-5 Nevertheless, despite the high prevalence of psychopathology in general medical patients, only between 30-50% of all cases are detected.2,6-8 Some have suggested that the difficulty in the detection and diagnosis of mental disorders among patients who seek medical attention for other reasons, lies in the lack of screening questions that might alert the physician to the possibility of a psychiatric co-morbidity.9 Such questions would identify medical patients at high risk of psychiatric problems. Previous work on clinical predictors of psychopathology have identified the following: specific physical symptoms10-11; patient report of severity of illness11; recent stress12,13; low self-perception of health status13; and age less than 50.14 Two specific studies on the detection of psychopathology in the general medical population are worth highlighting. The first, by Jackson and his research team13 updating a 2001 study evaluating a prediction model with four parameters (recent stress, severity of physical symptoms, five or more specific symptoms, self-assessment of physical condition. They found that those patients who report recent stress, have five or more physical symptoms or a low self-perception of their health state are at a higher risk of having a psychiatric disorder. The second study, by Lowe et al. published in 2003,9 examines a series of factors that could serve as indicators of psychopathology in ambulatory medical (i.e. non-psychiatric patients. After evaluating several different models they found that the combination of four of factors (taken as a group had a high sensitivity (86%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and negative predictive value (91%. This suggests that a physician could use the combination of these four indicators to evaluate for the presence of co morbid mental disorders. These factors are: self

  4. The 'Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study': a 20-year review of methods and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Asselmann, Eva; Zimmermann, Petra; Brückl, Tanja; Höfler, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The "Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP)" study is a prospective-longitudinal study program in a community sample (Munich, Germany) of adolescents and young adults. The program was launched in 1994 to study the prevalence and incidence of psychopathological syndromes and mental disorders, to describe the natural course and to identify vulnerability and risk factors for onset and progression as well as psychosocial consequences. This paper reviews methods and core outcomes of this study program. The EDSP is based on an age-stratified random community sample of originally N = 3021 subjects aged 14-24 years at baseline, followed up over 10 years with up to 3 follow-up waves. The program includes a family genetic supplement and nested cohorts with lab assessments including blood samples for genetic analyses. Psychopathology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI; embedded dimensional scales and instruments assessed vulnerability and risk factors. Beyond the provision of age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for a wide range of mental disorders, analyses of their patterns of onset, course and interrelationships, the program identified common and diagnosis-specific distal and proximal vulnerability and risk factors including critical interactions. The EDSP study advanced our knowledge on the developmental pathways and trajectories, symptom progression and unfolding of disorder comorbidity, highlighting the dynamic nature of many disorders and their determinants. The results have been instrumental for defining more appropriate diagnostic thresholds, led to the derivation of symptom progression models and were helpful to identify promising targets for prevention and intervention.

  5. Internet Addiction and Its Association with Psychopathology: A Study in School Children from Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Payal Sharma; Anup Bharati; Avinash De Sousa; Nilesh Shah

    2016-01-01

    "Background: Internet addiction is a common emerging problem amongst adolescents and students worldwide. The present research aimed at determining the prevalence of internet addiction and its correlation to psychopathology in school going adolescents in Mumbai. Methods: 603 adolescents studying in 8th-10th standard were administered a semi structured preformed, Young's Internet Addiction Test and Depression Anxiety Stress scale. 555 questionnaires were included in the final analysis using...

  6. Family structure, marital discord and offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

    2013-11-01

    With marital breakdown and discord relatively common, we examined whether family structure and the quality of marital relationship have a long-term impact on offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association of family structure and marital discord in the family with a wide range of offspring's mental health and problem behaviours at 21 years. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population based birth cohort study, which commenced in Brisbane, Australia in 1981. Mothers and children were followed up at birth, 6 months and 5, 14 and 21 years after the initial interview. Marital status and marital quality were assessed at the 14 year follow-up. Young Adult Self-Report sub-scales of mental health and problem behaviours were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Type of family structure and the quality of marital relationship (at the 14-year follow-up) predicted offspring's psychopathology at 21 years. When a selected group of confounding factors were included in the multivariate analyses, children who lived with a step-father, un-partnered mother, or in families where parents had conflict in marital relationship reported higher symptoms of psychopathology at 21 years. The association between marital problems and young adult psychopathology does not appear to be confounded by a wide range of confounding variables. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism of these associations to develop preventive programmes.

  7. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  8. Evidence That a Psychopathology Interactome Has Diagnostic Value, Predicting Clinical Needs: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Lataster, Tineke; Delespaul, Philippe; Wichers, Marieke; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    Background For the purpose of diagnosis, psychopathology can be represented as categories of mental disorder, symptom dimensions or symptom networks. Also, psychopathology can be assessed at different levels of temporal resolution (monthly episodes, daily fluctuating symptoms, momentary fluctuating mental states). We tested the diagnostic value, in terms of prediction of treatment needs, of the combination of symptom networks and momentary assessment level. Method Fifty-seven patients with a psychotic disorder participated in an ESM study, capturing psychotic experiences, emotions and circumstances at 10 semi-random moments in the flow of daily life over a period of 6 days. Symptoms were assessed by interview with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); treatment needs were assessed using the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN). Results Psychotic symptoms assessed with the PANSS (Clinical Psychotic Symptoms) were strongly associated with psychotic experiences assessed with ESM (Momentary Psychotic Experiences). However, the degree to which Momentary Psychotic Experiences manifested as Clinical Psychotic Symptoms was determined by level of momentary negative affect (higher levels increasing probability of Momentary Psychotic Experiences manifesting as Clinical Psychotic Symptoms), momentary positive affect (higher levels decreasing probability of Clinical Psychotic Symptoms), greater persistence of Momentary Psychotic Experiences (persistence predicting increased probability of Clinical Psychotic Symptoms) and momentary environmental stress associated with events and activities (higher levels increasing probability of Clinical Psychotic Symptoms). Similarly, the degree to which momentary visual or auditory hallucinations manifested as Clinical Psychotic Symptoms was strongly contingent on the level of accompanying momentary paranoid delusional ideation. Momentary Psychotic Experiences were associated with CAN unmet treatment needs, over and above PANSS

  9. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  10. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  11. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context

  12. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  13. A study of psycho-pathology and treatment of children with phagophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ayumi; Tsukamoto, Chiaki; Hosogi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Eriko; Watanabe, Kumi; Ootyou, Keiko; Morishima, Tsuneo

    2007-10-01

    Phagophobia is a disorder characterized by a conditioned excessive fear of eating and is initiated by an event such as vomiting or choking. During childhood, vomiting often occurs as a result of infection or overeating, and painful experiences bring about maladaptive eating behavior like food refusal. There have been few reports of phagophobia, and patients have sometimes been misdiagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). The objective of this study was to elucidate the psycho-pathology and current treatment of patients with phagophobia by analyzing case studies. We describe 6 cases with phagophobia. Patients with strong obsessions were refractory to treatment, indicating that evaluation of premorbid personality is crucial to the prognosis. It is important to classify this disorder according to psycho-pathology into "post-traumatic type" and "gain-from-illness type" to make a treatment plan. A solution focused approach is also effective for patients and their family. Paying close attention to these conditions and to the diagnostic concept referred as "hagophobia" is useful in achieving these aims.

  14. A Study of Psycho-pathology and Treatment of Children with Phagophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ootyou,Keiko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Phagophobia is a disorder characterized by a conditioned excessive fear of eating and is initiated by an event such as vomiting or choking. During childhood, vomiting often occurs as a result of infection or overeating, and painful experiences bring about maladaptive eating behavior like food refusal. There have been few reports of phagophobia, and patients have sometimes been misdiagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN. The objective of this study was to elucidate the psycho-pathology and current treatment of patients with phagophobia by analyzing case studies. We describe 6 cases with phagophobia. Patients with strong obsessions were refractory to treatment, indicating that evaluation of premorbid personality is crucial to the prognosis. It is important to classify this disorder according to psycho-pathology into "post-traumatic type" and "gain-from-illness type" to make a treatment plan. A solution focused approach is also effective for patients and their family. Paying close attention to these conditions and to the diagnostic concept referred as "hagophobia" is useful in achieving these aims.

  15. Psychopathological features during childhood and adolescence among adult bipolar patients: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Gurnell, Kathy; Ezeobele, Ify; Blake, Jena; Gerondale, Tiffany; Sanches, Marsal; Averill, Patricia M; Soares, Jair C

    2014-04-01

    There are still several concerns regarding the inconsistency in the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in children and adolescents. This study reviews the symptoms of youth admitted to The University of Texas Harris County Psychiatric Center (UT-HCPC) prior to a confirmed diagnosis of BD to elucidate patterns and target symptoms which may facilitate early recognition of BD. This is a retrospective review of charts of adult patients with a discharge diagnosis of BD for three consecutive admissions who were also admitted to UT-HCPC as children or adolescents (N=26). The Kiddie SADS was completed based on each patient's first admission as a child and last admission as an adult. Most of the symptoms found in adult BD were present in the child/adolescent subjects at equivalent rates, except for mood elevation, which was less common during childhood and adolescence. In spite of the psychopathological similarity, only 6 (23%) of the subjects were diagnosed with BD as youth. BD is poorly diagnosed among children and adolescents. Difficulties in the assessment of the youth, as well as particularities in the psychopathology of mood among children and adolescents may account for the low diagnostic rate. © 2014.

  16. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 11/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E;

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....

  17. Neurobiological pathways to childhood psychopathology : Population-based studies of cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ghassabian (Akhgar)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spe

  18. A hermeneutic framework for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the scope and limitations of descriptive and clinical psychopathology, this paper focuses on the method and intention of structural psychopathology. Structural psychopathology goes beyond the description of isolated symptoms and the use of some of those symptoms to establish a diagnosis. It aims to understand the meaning of a given world of experiences and actions grasping the underlying characteristic modification that keeps the symptoms meaningfully interconnected. Building on and expanding some basic phenomenological and hermeneutical principles, and applying them to the study of abnormal human subjectivity, this paper suggests the methodological guidelines for a structurally informed psychopathological interview.

  19. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  20. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  1. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  2. The relationship between social stressors and psychopathology: a short-term longitudinal study of moderating factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eileen Saczawa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale : Problematic peer relationships in adolescence have long been linked with various psychological disorders, but there remain questions as to why adolescents with similar social experiences may suffer no psychological effects or why some respond with depression or anxiety while others become aggressive. Parenting style and level of chaos in the home environment have also been shown to have protective or detrimental effects in conjunction with social stressors. Adolescence is typified by substantial hormonal changes and maturation of both the pubertal and the stress systems. Ian Goodyer has suggested that atypical ratios of stress and pubertal hormones may be indicative of vulnerability for psychopathology. High cortisol and low DHEAS have been linked to depression, whereas the opposite has been found in those with aggression. This study is the first to examine the cortisol/DHEAS ratio as a moderator of peer stress in the development of psychopathology in adolescents. This investigation uses a biopsychosocial model to test the moderating role of parenting style, environmental chaos, and adrenal hormone ratios on the association between social stress and aggression or depression over a 1-year period. Methods : Participants were 156 young adolescents (50% f; M age = 11 years, SD = 0.7, ethnically diverse, and predominantly middle to lower SES. Depressive symptoms, aggression, social stress, and environmental chaos were assessed via survey and interview reports from mothers and children. Parenting characteristics were assessed via mother survey. Saliva and urine samples were collected on multiple mornings to measure cortisol and DHEAS, respectively. Results : Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate significant main effects of parenting style, chaos, and adrenal hormone ratios in predicting depressive symptoms and aggression and significant moderating effects on the relationship between social stressors and psychopathology

  3. Psychopathological features of irritable bowel syndrome patients with and without functional dyspepsia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallotta Nadia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and functional dyspepsia (FD show considerable overlap and are both associated with psychiatric comorbidity. The present study aimed to investigate whether IBS patients with FD show higher levels of psychopathology than those without FD. As a preliminary analysis, it also evaluated the psychopathological differences, if any, between IBS patients featuring the two Rome III-defined FD subtypes, i.e. postprandial distress syndrome (PDS and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS. Methods Consecutive outpatients (n = 82, F = 67, mean age 41.6 ± 12.7 years referred to our third level gastroenterological centre, matching the Rome III criteria for IBS and, if present, for concurrent FD, were recruited. They were asked to complete a 90-item self-rating questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, in order to assess the psychological status. Comparisons between groups were carried out using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Results Patients with IBS only were 56 (68.3%, F = 43, mean age 41.6 ± 13.3 years and patients with both IBS and FD were 26 (31.7%, F = 24, mean age 41.8 ± 11.5 years, 17 of whom had PDS and 9 EPS. Patients with both IBS and FD scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R GSI and on eight out of the nine subscales than patients with IBS only (P ranging from 0.000 to 0.03. No difference was found between IBS patients with PDS and IBS patients with EPS (P ranging from 0.07 to 0.97, but this result has to be considered provisional, given the small sample size of the two subgroups. Conclusions IBS-FD overlap is associated with an increased severity of psychopathological features. This finding suggests that a substantial subset of patients of a third level gastroenterological centre with both IBS and FD may benefit from psychological assessment and treatment.

  4. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of antidepressants, but not psychopathology, on cardiac sympathetic control: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Carmilla M M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C

    2012-10-01

    Increased sympathetic activity has been hypothesized to have a role in the elevated somatic disease risk in persons with depressive or anxiety disorders. However, it remains unclear whether increased sympathetic activity reflects a direct effect of anxiety or depression or an indirect effect of antidepressant medication. The aim of this study was to test longitudinally whether cardiac sympathetic control, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP), was increased by depression/anxiety status and by antidepressant use. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were from a depression and anxiety cohort: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Baseline data of 2838 NESDA subjects (mean age 41.7 years, 66.7% female) and 2-year follow-up data of 2226 subjects were available for analyses. Included were subjects with and without depressive/anxiety disorders, using or not using different antidepressants at baseline or follow-up. The PEP was measured non-invasively by 1.5 h of ambulatory impedance cardiography. Cross-sectional analyses compared PEP across psychopathology and antidepressant groups. Longitudinal analyses compared 2-year changes in PEP in relation to changes in psychopathology and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analyses showed that antidepressant-naïve depressive/anxious subjects had comparable PEP as controls, whereas subjects using tricyclic (TCA) or combined serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants (SNRI) had significantly shorter PEP compared with controls. In contrast, subjects using selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had longer PEP than controls. Longitudinal results confirmed these findings: compared with 2-year change in PEP in continuous non-users (+2 ms), subjects who started TCA or SNRI treatment showed significantly shortened PEP (-11 ms, p=0.005 and pantidepressant use. These findings suggest that depressive and anxiety disorders are not associated with increased cardiac sympathetic control. However, results pose

  6. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wan Kim

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA levels and the severity of symptoms of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR for psychosis. Subjects of the present study consisted of 80 neuroleptic-naïve UHR patients. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated between baseline erythrocyte membrane FA levels, measured by gas chromatography, and scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS after controlling for age, sex, smoking and cannabis use. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the predominance of positive or negative symptoms based on PANSS subscale scores; membrane FA levels in the three groups were then compared. More severe negative symptoms measured by PANSS were negatively correlated with two saturated FAs (myristic and margaric acids, one ω-9 monounsaturated FA (MUFA; nervonic acid, and one ω-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; docosapentaenoic acid, and were positively correlated with two ω-9 MUFAs (eicosenoic and erucic acids and two ω-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic and docosadienoic acids. More severe positive symptoms measured by PANSS were correlated only with nervonic acid. No associations were observed between FAs and MADRS scores. In subjects with predominant negative symptoms, the sum of the ω-9 MUFAs and the ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio were both significantly higher than in those with predominant positive symptoms, whereas the sum of ω-3 PUFAs was significantly lower. In conclusion, abnormalities in FA metabolism may contribute to the neurobiology of psychopathology in UHR individuals. In particular, membrane FA alterations may play a role in negative symptoms, which are primary psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia-related disability.

  7. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bouso

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127 and controls (n = 115 at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.

  8. Personality, Psychopathology, Life Attitudes and Neuropsychological Performance among Ritual Users of Ayahuasca: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; González, Débora; Fondevila, Sabela; Cutchet, Marta; Ribeiro Barbosa, Paulo César; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Araújo, Wladimyr Sena; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Riba, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127) and controls (n = 115) at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group. PMID:22905130

  9. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; González, Débora; Fondevila, Sabela; Cutchet, Marta; Fernández, Xavier; Ribeiro Barbosa, Paulo César; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Araújo, Wladimyr Sena; Barbanoj, Manel J; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Riba, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127) and controls (n = 115) at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.

  10. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  11. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  12. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  13. Mental health problems and psychopathology in infancy and early childhood. An epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    of neurodevelopmental psychopathology than has been described hitherto. Risk factors of emotional, behavioural and eating and sleeping disorders were psycho-social adversities in parents, and parent-child relationship disturbances seem to be the key mediator in the risk mechanisms. Risk factors of relationship......UNLABELLED: The thesis includes seven published papers and an overview concerning the epidemiological aspects of mental health problems and psychopathology in children aged 0-3 years. The research behind the thesis focuses at psychopathology in the first years of life. The aim has been...... to investigate phenomenology, prevalence, risk factors and predictors, in order to contribute to the knowledge about early developmental psychopathology, and improve the scientific foundation for identification and treatment of mental illness of infants and toddlers, and optimize the foundation for prevention...

  14. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  15. Effects of Antidepressants, but not Psychopathology, on Cardiac Sympathetic Control: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Carmilla M M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C

    2012-01-01

    Increased sympathetic activity has been hypothesized to have a role in the elevated somatic disease risk in persons with depressive or anxiety disorders. However, it remains unclear whether increased sympathetic activity reflects a direct effect of anxiety or depression or an indirect effect of antidepressant medication. The aim of this study was to test longitudinally whether cardiac sympathetic control, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP), was increased by depression/anxiety status and by antidepressant use. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were from a depression and anxiety cohort: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Baseline data of 2838 NESDA subjects (mean age 41.7 years, 66.7% female) and 2-year follow-up data of 2226 subjects were available for analyses. Included were subjects with and without depressive/anxiety disorders, using or not using different antidepressants at baseline or follow-up. The PEP was measured non-invasively by 1.5 h of ambulatory impedance cardiography. Cross-sectional analyses compared PEP across psychopathology and antidepressant groups. Longitudinal analyses compared 2-year changes in PEP in relation to changes in psychopathology and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analyses showed that antidepressant-naïve depressive/anxious subjects had comparable PEP as controls, whereas subjects using tricyclic (TCA) or combined serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants (SNRI) had significantly shorter PEP compared with controls. In contrast, subjects using selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had longer PEP than controls. Longitudinal results confirmed these findings: compared with 2-year change in PEP in continuous non-users (+2 ms), subjects who started TCA or SNRI treatment showed significantly shortened PEP (−11 ms, p=0.005 and p<0.001), whereas subjects who started SSRI treatment showed significant prolongation of PEP (+9 ms, p=0.002). Reversed findings were observed among those who

  16. Study of cystic artery by arteriography. Importance of previous cholecystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, G.O.

    An oral cholecystography previously to celiac and mesenteric arteriography is performed, in order to identify the cystic artery, in 42 patients with pancreatitis, according Seldinger technique. The cystic artery was identified in all the cases, the pattern being the outlet of the cystic artery from the right hepatic artery. Infusion pump and seriography were not used.

  17. The effect of community stress and problems on psychopathology: A structural equation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Juncheng; Shi, Hong; Wang, Suzhen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This research aimed to estimate the effect of perceived social factors in the community stress and problems on the residents' psychopathology such as depression and suicidal behaviors. Subjects of this study were the informants (N=1618) in a psychological autopsy (PA) study with a case-control design. We interviewed two informants (a family member and a close friend) for 392 suicides and 416 living controls, which came from 16 rural counties randomly selected from three provinces of China. Community stress and problems were measured by the WHO SUPRE-MISS scale. Depression was measured by CES-D scale, and suicidal behavior was assessed by NCS-R scale. Multivariable liner and logistic regression models and the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were applied to probe the correlation of the depression and the suicidal behaviors with some major demographic variables as covariates. It was found that community stress and problems were directly associated with rural Chinese residents' depression (Path coefficient=0.127, Pstress and problem and suicidal behaviors, but community stress and problem can affect suicidal behaviors indirectly through depression. The path coefficient between depression and suicidal behaviors was 0.975. The current study predicts a new research viewpoint, that is, the depression is the intermediate between community stress and problem and suicidal behaviors. It might be an effective route to prevent depression directly and suicidal behaviors indirectly by reducing the community stress and problems.

  18. A longitudinal study of emotional experience, expressivity, and psychopathology in psychotherapy inpatients and psychologically healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Grande, Tilman; Faber, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    The authors investigated changes of emotional experience and expressivity in 34 inpatients undergoing psychodynamic therapy and in 29 healthy persons who were assessed at parallel time intervals. Participants completed 2 measures of psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64) and took part in relationship episode interviews. The emotional experiences they reported and their nonverbal emotional expressivity during the interviews were assessed by independent raters. Regardless of when they were assessed, the patients reported a greater number of emotions and a greater variety of emotions. Psychopathology in the patient group decreased in the course of treatment, but there were no systematic changes in the emotional domain. The findings challenge the common notion of psychopathology being associated with impaired awareness and expression of emotions.

  19. Abnormal N400 Semantic Priming Effect May Reflect Psychopathological Processes in Schizophrenia: A Twin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. Methods. We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs performing a lexical decision task. Moreover, we examined the correlation between Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS score and the N400 effect and the influence of medication status on this effect. Results. Regression yielded a significant main effect of group on the N400 effect only in the direct priming condition (p=0.003. Indirect condition and behavioral priming effect showed no significant effect of group. Planned contrasts with the control group as a reference group revealed that affected concordant twins had significantly reduced N400 effect compared to controls, and discordant affected twins had a statistical trend for reduced N400 effect compared to controls. The unaffected twins did not differ significantly from the controls. There was a trend for correlation between reduced N400 effect and higher BPRS scores, and the N400 effect did not differ significantly between medicated and unmedicated patients. Conclusions. Reduced N400 effect may reflect disease-specific processes in schizophrenia implicating frontotemporal brain network in schizophrenia pathology.

  20. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  2. Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether the temperament of behavioral inhibition is a significant marker for psychopathology in early adulthood and whether such risk is buffered by peer social networks. Participants (N = 165) were from a prospective study spanning the first two decades of life. Temperament was characterized during infancy and early childhood. Extent of involvement in peer social networks was measured during adolescence, and psychopathology was assessed in early adulthood. Latent Class Analyses generated comprehensive variables at each of three study time-points. Regressions assessed (a) the direct effect of early behavioral inhibition on adult psychopathology (b) the moderating effect of adolescent involvement in social peer networks on the link between temperamental risk and adult psychopathology. Stable behavioral inhibition in early childhood was negatively associated with adult mental health (R(2 ) = .07, p = .005, β = -.26), specifically increasing risk for adult anxiety disorders (R(2) = .04, p = .037, β = .19). These temperament-pathology relations were significantly moderated by adolescent peer group social involvement and network size (Total R(2) = .13, p = .027, β = -.22). Temperament predicted heightened risk for adult anxiety when adolescent social involvement was low (p = .002, β = .43), but not when adolescent social involvement was high. Stable behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood is a risk factor for adult anxiety disorders and interacts with adolescent social involvement to moderate risk. This is the first study to demonstrate the critical role of adolescent involvement in socially active networks in moderating long-lasting temperamental risk over the course of two decades, thus informing prevention/intervention approaches. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Buffers and Risks in Temperament and Family for Early Adolescent Psychopathology : Generic, Conditional, or Domain-Specific Effects? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the possible risk-buffering and risk-enhancing role of family characteristics on the association between temperament and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems, adjusted for familial vulnerability for psychopathology and early childhood problem behavior. Furthe

  4. Rediscovering Psychopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research....... In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature...... in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind....

  5. Combining Psychotherapy and Medication for College Students with Severe Psychopathology: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stewart E.; Nasr, Suhayl J.

    2006-01-01

    Given the extensive and increasing use of medications to augment psychotherapy in intervening with college students with more severe psychopathology, the absence of scholarship on this topic is surprising. This article briefly summarizes earlier published pieces on combining counseling with psychotropic treatment in college counseling center…

  6. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  7. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology : A combined structural and functional MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISCI) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISCI

  8. Trajectories of childhood internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and psychotic-like experiences in adolescence: A prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancefield, Kristin S; Raudino, Alessandra; Downs, Johnny M; Laurens, Kristin R

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is strongly associated with adult psychiatric morbidity, including psychotic disorders. This study examined whether internalizing or externalizing trajectories (continuity/discontinuity of symptoms) from middle childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Prospective data were collected from a community sample of 553 children (mean age = 10.4 years; 50% male) and their primary caregivers. Participants completed questionnaire reports of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and PLEs at baseline, and again approximately 2 years later. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of adolescent PLEs with four trajectories of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology (persistent, incident, remitting, and none), controlling for a range of potential confounders and sampling bias. Significant associations were identified between adolescent PLEs and the incident internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60-5.49) and externalizing psychopathology (adj. OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.11-4.14) trajectories, as well as the persistent internalizing (adj. OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.13-3.18) and externalizing (adj. OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.02-3.19) trajectories. Children with remitting psychopathology trajectories were no more likely to present later PLEs than those who never experienced psychopathology. While for many individuals symptoms and illness remit during development without intervention, this study provides important insights regarding potential targets and timing for delivery of early intervention and prevention programs.

  9. Creativity and psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Mad Genius is a recurring stereotype of contemporary cultural expression. However, starting with Lombroso’s investigation of genius and madness in 1888, recent decades have seen an increasing number of empirical studies suggesting that there really is an association between creativity and psychopathology. Still, taken together, the empirical support is unconvincing - largely due to a heavy reliance on biographical data and small cohorts. The primary aim of this thesis is t...

  10. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  11. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Zaida; Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  12. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  13. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  14. Stressful life events, psychopathology, and adolescent suicide: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, D A; Perper, J A; Moritz, G; Baugher, M; Roth, C; Balach, L; Schweers, J

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between stressful life events and adolescent suicide was assessed in 67 adolescent suicide victims and 67 matched community controls. In the year before death, suicide completers were more likely to have experienced: (1) interpersonal conflict with parents and with boy/girlfriends, (2) disruption of a romantic attachment, (3) legal or disciplinary problems. Legal or disciplinary problems were more commonly associated with suicide in conduct and substance abuse disordered youth. Interpersonal loss was more commonly associated with suicide in substance abuse as well. Even after controlling for psychopathology, legal and disciplinary problems in the past year were associated with an increased risk of suicide.

  15. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  16. A Study on the prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Cam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There has been an explosive growth of internet usage worldwide and this is expected to continue with its use becoming an integral part of everyday life. The internet provides tremendous educational benefits; however, excessive internet use can lead to negative outcomes such as psychopathological symptoms and obesity. The aim of the study was to study association with the prevalence of internet addiction and psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescent age group. Methods: A total of 1175 high school students from three high schools in Giresun City were surveyed using Internet Addiction Test, Dukes Health Profile. The Data was collected using a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Of the 1,175 adolescents who took part in the study, 588 (50.0% were female and 587 (50.0% were males. The mean age of adolescents was 15.72 +/- 1.14 years. The prevalence rate of problematic internet use was 7.1% among adolescent internet users. Those with excessive use internet had high scores on anxiety, depression, and anxiety depression. A relationship between problematic internet use and obesity was not found. Conclusions: Problematic internet use is becoming a significant public health issue that requires urgent attention. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem and interventions to prevent the effects of problematic internet use on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction should be conducted as early as possible. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 181-188

  17. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects.

  18. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology.

  19. General psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self-esteem in couples undergoing infertility treatment: a comparative study between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Romdhane, Asma Ben; Hidar, Samir; Bannour, Souhail; Ayoubi Idrissi, Khadija; Khairi, Hedi; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2013-04-01

    To compare measures of psychological distress between men and women undergoing ART in the Unit of Reproductive Medicine "UMR" in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at "Farhat Hached" Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a gender comparative study of psychological profile in infertile couples. Recruitment was done during period from January to May 2009. 100 infertile couples with primary infertility were recruited. Scores of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem were evaluated. We administrated questionnaires on psychological factors among infertile couples before starting a new infertility treatment cycle. Psychological factors included the symptom check-list (SCL-90-R), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD-S) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Infertile women had higher scores than their spouses in the three global scores of the SCL-90-R and in several items such as somatisation, obsessive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobias. Scores of HADS were higher among women for both depression and anxiety. Scores of self-esteem were lower among women. Women endorsed higher psychological distress than men across multiple symptoms domains: general psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Lahey, Benjamin B; van Hulle, Carol; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity has supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a "bifactor"; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tested a prediction, derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially-at both phenotypic and genetic levels-with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9-17 years) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors.

  1. Common Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and a General Psychopathology Factor in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Hulle, Carol Van; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a “bifactor”; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher-order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, Van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tests a prediction derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially—at both phenotypic and genetic levels—with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9–17) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors. PMID:24364617

  2. Future in psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  3. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects.

  4. Psychopathology predicts the outcome of medial branch blocks with corticosteroid for chronic axial low back or cervical pain: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipirneni Naveen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs for chronic low back or neck pain, which involves injecting the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerves that innervate the facet joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether high levels of psychopathology are predictive of pain relief after MBB injections in the lumbar or cervical spine. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients in a pain medicine practice undergoing MBBs of the lumbar or cervical facets with corticosteroids were recruited to participate. Subjects were selected for a MBB based on operationalized selection criteria and the procedure was performed in a standardized manner. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS just prior to the procedure and at one-month follow up. Scores on the HADS classified the subjects into three groups based on psychiatric symptoms, which formed the primary predictor variable: Low, Moderate, or High levels of psychopathology. The primary outcome measure was the percent improvement in average daily pain rating one-month following an injection. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to analyze the analgesia and functional rating differences between groups, and to perform a responder analysis. Results Eighty six (86 subjects completed the study. The Low psychopathology group (n = 37 reported a mean of 23% improvement in pain at one-month while the High psychopathology group (n = 29 reported a mean worsening of -5.8% in pain (p Low group had at least 30% improvement in pain versus 10% in the High group (p Conclusion Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with diminished pain relief after a MBB injection performed with steroid at one-month follow-up. These findings illustrate the importance

  5. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Childhood Psychopathology: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework, and Recommendations for Further Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2005-01-01

    Discrepancies often exist among different informants' (e.g., parents, children, teachers) ratings of child psychopathology. Informant discrepancies have an impact on the assessment, classification, and treatment of childhood psychopathology. Empirical work has identified informant characteristics that may influence informant discrepancies.…

  6. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  7. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  8. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  9. The effects of amisulpride on five dimensions of psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia: a prospective open- label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresan Ana

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of antipsychotics can be evaluated using the dimensional models of schizophrenic symptoms. The D2/D3-selective antagonist amisulpride has shown similar efficacy and tolerability to other atypical antipsychotics. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of amisulpride on the dimensional model of schizophrenic symptoms and tolerability in latin schizophrenic patients. Method Eighty schizophrenic patients were enrolled and 70 completed a prospective open-label 3-month study with amisulpride. The schizophrenic symptoms, psychosocial functioning and side-effects were evaluated with standardized scales. Results The patients showed significant improvement in the five dimensions evaluated. Amisulpride (median final dose 357.1 mg/d was well-tolerated without treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side-effects. Conclusion Amisulpride showed efficacy on different psychopathological dimensions and was well tolerated, leading to consider this drug a first line choice for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  10. Associations among emergency room visits, parenting styles, and psychopathology among pediatric patients with sickle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between frequency of emergency room (ER) visits and various parenting styles, both conjointly and interactively, and psychopathological outcomes among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Ninety-eight parents/caregivers of 6- to 18-year-old patients with SCD completed instruments assessing parenting style, child psychopathology, and reported on the frequency of ER visits during the previous year. ER visits were found to significantly explain Withdrawn/Depressed problems and parenting styles were found to incrementally contribute to the explanation of all forms of psychopathology. Further, Permissive parenting was found to explain Rule Breaking Behavior for those patients with low ER visit frequency but not for those with high ER visit frequency. Results of the current study confirm the importance of considering both the frequency of ER visits and parenting style in the explanation of psychopathology among pediatric patients with SCD. Results have important implications for both research and treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. IMPACT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF ADULT OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER ON QUALITY OF LIFE: A PATIENT CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Aleem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the 10th leading cause of disability of all medical conditions in the industrialized world and the ‘Quality of Life’ has emerged as a valid parameter to measure the outcome of illness and effectiveness of treatment. OBJECTIVE To see the quality of life, functioning and clinical variables between the OCD patient and the ‘Patient control’ group MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 120 probands were assessed, of which 60 subjects were OCD patients and 60 stable schizophrenia patients were used as patient control group. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, WHOQOL-BREF, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale were applied as per the protocol. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. RESULTS The cost of medication was significantly higher in OCD group as compared to Schizophrenia Group. Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in OCD group. Global functioning was significantly better in schizophrenia group but quality of life better in OCD group on Physical Health domain and Environment domain of WHOQOL-BREF. CONCLUSION The Psychopathology of OCD spared satisfaction with sleep, ability to perform daily living activities, capacity to work, ability to get around, energy for everyday life, physical pain and need for any medical treatment to function in daily life, satisfaction with the conditions of your living places, access to health services, transport, opportunities for leisure activities, money to meet the needs, availability of the required information, and safety in daily life; when compared to stable schizophrenia patients The Psychopathology of OCD had as severe an impact as Schizophrenia on ‘enjoying life, finding it meaningful, level of negative

  12. Neuroticism : a non-informative marker of vulnerability to psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith; Farmer, Ann

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroticism measures are very popular in psychopathological research, but it is unclear how useful neuroticism is in studies of the aetiology of psychopathology. METHOD: A conceptual examination was made of the literature on the association of neuroticism and psychopathology, the ontolog

  13. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  14. Why Does Positive Mental Health Buffer Against Psychopathology? An Exploratory Study on Self-Compassion as a Resilience Mechanism and Adaptive Emotion Regulation Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, Hester R.; Kleine, de Elian; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situ

  15. Why Does Positive Mental Health Buffer Against Psychopathology? An Exploratory Study on Self-Compassion as a Resilience Mechanism and Adaptive Emotion Regulation Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; de Kleine, Elian; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situ

  16. Buffers and Risks in Temperament and Family for Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Generic, Conditional, or Domain-Specific Effects? The Trails Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the possible risk-buffering and risk-enhancing role of family characteristics on the association between temperament and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems, adjusted for familial vulnerability for psychopathology and early childhood problem behavior. Furthermore, it explored whether these effects were…

  17. Spasmodic Torticollis—A Multicentre Study on Behavioural Aspects IV: Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Scheidt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The GSI (General Symptom Index of the Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL 90 R (as a global indicator of the severity of psychiatric symptoms of 27% of the spasmodic torticollis (ST sample fell outside the 95% range of the normal control group (two standard deviations. Patients with a higher GSI were younger, more functionally disabled and subject to higher psychosocial stress due to the illness. The highest scores were reached on the subscales of somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and depression. On the depression scale, 23% of the patients' scores were abnormal. This scale correlated significantly with the neurological signs, particularly the TSUI-index and laterocollis. A statistically significant correlation also existed between psychiatric morbidity and a family history of mental disorder. More than 50% of the patients reported that stressful life events had triggered their illness. In order of frequency, a death came first, followed by marital strife, changes in employment and family arguments. The data suggest that psychopathology in ST should generally be considered as a result of a variety of interacting factors, biological, psychological and social.

  18. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders.

  19. Psychopathology predicts the outcome of medial branch blocks with corticosteroid for chronic axial low back or cervical pain: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Ajay D; Jamison, Robert N; Pham, Loc; Tipirneni, Naveen; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2009-01-01

    Background Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs) for chronic low back or neck pain, which involves injecting the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerves that innervate the facet joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether high levels of psychopathology are predictive of pain relief after MBB injections in the lumbar or cervical spine. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients in a pain medicine practice undergoing MBBs of the lumbar or cervical facets with corticosteroids were recruited to participate. Subjects were selected for a MBB based on operationalized selection criteria and the procedure was performed in a standardized manner. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) just prior to the procedure and at one-month follow up. Scores on the HADS classified the subjects into three groups based on psychiatric symptoms, which formed the primary predictor variable: Low, Moderate, or High levels of psychopathology. The primary outcome measure was the percent improvement in average daily pain rating one-month following an injection. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to analyze the analgesia and functional rating differences between groups, and to perform a responder analysis. Results Eighty six (86) subjects completed the study. The Low psychopathology group (n = 37) reported a mean of 23% improvement in pain at one-month while the High psychopathology group (n = 29) reported a mean worsening of -5.8% in pain (p < .001). Forty five percent (45%) of the Low group had at least 30% improvement in pain versus 10% in the High group (p < .001). Using an analysis of covariance, no baseline demographic, social, or medical variables were significant predictors of pain improvement, nor did they mitigate

  20. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  1. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of pravastatin as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia patients: effect on inflammation, psychopathology, cognition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Brenda; Stock, Shannon; Borba, Christina P C; Cleary, Sarah M; Oppenheim, Claire E; Petruzzi, Liana J; Fan, Xiaoduo; Copeland, Paul M; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corinne; Henderson, David C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pravastatin, as an adjunctive therapy, on inflammatory markers, lipid and glucose metabolism, psychopathology, and cognition in subjects with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia or schizoaffective subjects (N=60) were randomized to receive either a 12-week supply of pravastatin 40 mg/day or placebo treatment. Anthropometric measures, lipids and glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, psychopathology and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Pravastatin use was associated with a significant decrease in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and LDL particle number levels, but was not associated with any significant changes in cognition or psychopathology in the participants, except a significant decrease in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive symptom score from baseline to week 6. However, this decrease failed to remain significant at 12 weeks. Interestingly, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL particle number, small LDL particle number, large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle number and C-reactive protein (CRP) followed a similar pattern at 6 and 12 weeks as psychopathology. These results suggest that a randomized trial with a larger sample size and a higher dosage of pravastatin would be helpful in further evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of pravastatin, its association with improvements in cognitive symptoms, and its potential to reduce positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do Dimensional Psychopathology Measures Relate to Creative Achievement or Divergent Thinking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya eZabelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.

  3. Do dimensional psychopathology measures relate to creative achievement or divergent thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya L; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.

  4. Birth Weight and Adult IQ, but Not Anxious-Depressive Psychopathology, Are Associated with Cortical Surface Area: A Study in Twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Córdova-Palomera

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that low birth weight (BW induces reduced brain cortical surface area (SA which would persist until at least early adulthood. Moreover, low BW has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychological distress, and to altered neurocognitive profiles.We present novel findings obtained by analysing high-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins; specifically, we aimed: i to test the BW-SA association in a middle-aged adult sample; and ii to assess whether either depression/anxiety disorders or intellectual quotient (IQ influence the BW-SA link, using a monozygotic (MZ twin design to separate environmental and genetic effects.Both lower BW and decreased IQ were associated with smaller total and regional cortical SA in adulthood. Within a twin pair, lower BW was related to smaller total cortical and regional SA. In contrast, MZ twin differences in SA were not related to differences in either IQ or depression/anxiety disorders.The present study supports findings indicating that i BW has a long-lasting effect on cortical SA, where some familial and environmental influences alter both foetal growth and brain morphology; ii uniquely environmental factors affecting BW also alter SA; iii higher IQ correlates with larger SA; and iv these effects are not modified by internalizing psychopathology.

  5. Birth Weight and Adult IQ, but Not Anxious-Depressive Psychopathology, Are Associated with Cortical Surface Area: A Study in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Alemany, Silvia; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Nenadic, Igor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that low birth weight (BW) induces reduced brain cortical surface area (SA) which would persist until at least early adulthood. Moreover, low BW has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychological distress, and to altered neurocognitive profiles. Aims We present novel findings obtained by analysing high-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins; specifically, we aimed: i) to test the BW-SA association in a middle-aged adult sample; and ii) to assess whether either depression/anxiety disorders or intellectual quotient (IQ) influence the BW-SA link, using a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to separate environmental and genetic effects. Results Both lower BW and decreased IQ were associated with smaller total and regional cortical SA in adulthood. Within a twin pair, lower BW was related to smaller total cortical and regional SA. In contrast, MZ twin differences in SA were not related to differences in either IQ or depression/anxiety disorders. Conclusion The present study supports findings indicating that i) BW has a long-lasting effect on cortical SA, where some familial and environmental influences alter both foetal growth and brain morphology; ii) uniquely environmental factors affecting BW also alter SA; iii) higher IQ correlates with larger SA; and iv) these effects are not modified by internalizing psychopathology. PMID:26086820

  6. Evaluating Computer Screen Time and Its Possible Link to Psychopathology in the Context of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Ross, Sharon; Silman, Zmira; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that high levels of computer use are linked to psychopathology. However, there is ambiguity about what should be considered normal or over-use of computers. Furthermore, the nature of the link between computer usage and psychopathology is controversial. The current study utilized the context of age to address these questions. Our hypothesis was that the context of age will be paramount for differentiating normal from excessive use, and that this context will allow a better understanding of the link to psychopathology. In a cross-sectional study, 185 parents and children aged 3-18 years were recruited in clinical and community settings. They were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding demographics, functional and academic variables, computer use as well as psychiatric screening questionnaires. Using a regression model, we identified 3 groups of normal-use, over-use and under-use and examined known factors as putative differentiators between the over-users and the other groups. After modeling computer screen time according to age, factors linked to over-use were: decreased socialization (OR 3.24, Confidence interval [CI] 1.23-8.55, p = 0.018), difficulty to disengage from the computer (OR 1.56, CI 1.07-2.28, p = 0.022) and age, though borderline-significant (OR 1.1 each year, CI 0.99-1.22, p = 0.058). While psychopathology was not linked to over-use, post-hoc analysis revealed that the link between increased computer screen time and psychopathology was age-dependent and solidified as age progressed (p = 0.007). Unlike computer usage, the use of small-screens and smartphones was not associated with psychopathology. The results suggest that computer screen time follows an age-based course. We conclude that differentiating normal from over-use as well as defining over-use as a possible marker for psychiatric difficulties must be performed within the context of age. If verified by additional studies, future research should integrate

  7. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  8. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-09-10

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding.

  9. Psychopathology: Differences among Adults with Intellectually Disabled, Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically examine group differences among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), comorbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy through a detailed exploration of the characteristics that these disorders present in the area of psychopathology. Previous studies indicating that individuals with ID have…

  10. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  11. Psychopathology and clinical definition of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Honorio; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Dementia praecox or schizophrenia, psychosis common in youth and fundamentally conditioned by heredity age has an external cause appear without evident and manifest a special set of organic and mental symptoms. Among the latter are some characteristic. Hence the interest of psychopathological study of this psychosis. The most important psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia are the following: 1 In the field of perceptual activity: the impression of strangeness of the world, pseudo...

  12. Rejection and acceptance across contexts : parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover

  13. Rejection and acceptance across contexts : parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously.

  14. Attachment Theory as a Framework for Understanding Sequelae of Severe Adolescent Psychopathology: An 11-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined long-term sequelae of severe adolescent psychopathology from the perspective of adult attachment theory. Compared 66 upper-middle-class adolescents who were psychiatrically hospitalized at age 14 for problems other than thought or organic disorders, to 76 socio-demographically similar high school students. When reviewed at age 25,…

  15. Rejection and acceptance across contexts : parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover

  16. Integrating Autism-Related Symptoms into the Dimensional Internalizing and Externalizing Model of Psychopathology. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhof, Arjen; Krueger, Robert F.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2015-01-01

    Problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occur frequently in the general population and often co-occur with problems in other domains of psychopathology. In the research presented here these co-occurrence patterns were investigated by integrating a dimensional approach to ASDs into th

  17. Integrating autism-related symptoms into the dimensional internalizing and externalizing model of psychopathology: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhof, A.; Krueger, R.F.; Ormel, J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Hartman, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occur frequently in the general population and often co-occur with problems in other domains of psychopathology. In the research presented here these co-occurrence patterns were investigated by integrating a dimensional approach to ASDs into th

  18. The psychopathology of musical hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, R

    2007-02-01

    Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in neurological and psychiatric patients. There are clinical case reports and a few studies which describe the condition. Musical hallucinations have a heterogeneous clinical and pathophysiological aetiology, and have been reported in the elderly and in those with hearing impairment, central nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders. The psychopathology is reviewed and three cases seen in a psychiatric setting are reported.

  19. [Pica: nosographical and psychopathological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Gennaro; Prisco, Vincenzo; Iorio, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The authors, after examining a clinical case of obsessive-compulsive disorder, associated to Pica syndrome, analyse psychopathological development of the symptomatology in its complex, refuting some statements of published studies, that include Pica within obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum. On the contrary, they think the coexistence of the two symptomatologies simply as an expression of a comorbidity, explaining why they are prone to link Pica with eating disorders.

  20. An exploratory study of the heterogeneity of the jealousy phenomenon and its associations with affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions in a large Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Amanda B; Köhler, Cristiano A; Stubbs, Brendon; Quevedo, João; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Koyanagi, Ai; Marazziti, Donatella; Soares, Jair C; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2017-04-01

    Jealousy is a heterogenous emotion on a spectrum from normality to psychopathology. The relationship between different jealousy subtypes/dimensions and affective temperaments remain unknown. In addition, few large surveys have investigated the associations between jealousy subtypes and psychopathological dimensions. A Brazilian Portuguese version of the "Questionario della Gelosia" (QUEGE) was developed. We obtained data from an anonymous web-based research platform. Socio-demographic data was obtained and participants answered the QUEGE, the TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). 2042 participants (29% men, 71% female, mean age+SD: 28.9±8.8 years), took part in this survey. Confirmatory factor analysis provided a five-factor model for the QUEGE with self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessive dimensions. The anxious, irritable, cyclothymic, and depressive temperaments were independently associated with jealousy dimensions, whereas the hyperthymic temperament was associated with lower scores on the self-esteem jealousy dimension (N=2042, P<0.001). Jealousy subtypes were dissimilarly associated with SCL-90R psychopathological dimensions, whereas the 'obsessive' jealousy dimension was not significantly associated with SCL-90R dimension scores. We found no independent influence of gender across any jealousy dimension. A convenience web-based sample was employed. Cross-sectional design precludes the establishment of causal inferences. Our data indicate that a five-factor solution may provide the best-fit model for the QUEGE. Different jealousy subtypes were independently associated with affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions. These associations reported herein should be confirmed in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders.

  2. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L

    2013-12-15

    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; pTBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  3. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H

    1999-01-01

    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  4. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. Lifetime psychopathology among the offspring of Bipolar I parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Zappitelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.

  6. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  7. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  8. Xploring social cognitive pathways to psychopathology: Studies with Klinefelter (XXY) men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, S. van

    2007-01-01

    De novo occurring genetic variations provide an opportunity the study the effects of genes on brain development and behavior. In this regard, Klinefelter syndrome, characterized by a XXY chromosomal pattern, is of significant interest. Although intelligence in XXY men is within the normal range,

  9. Xploring social cognitive pathways to psychopathology: Studies with Klinefelter (XXY) men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, S. van

    2007-01-01

    De novo occurring genetic variations provide an opportunity the study the effects of genes on brain development and behavior. In this regard, Klinefelter syndrome, characterized by a XXY chromosomal pattern, is of significant interest. Although intelligence in XXY men is within the normal range, spe

  10. The IMAGEN study: reinforcement-related behaviour in normal brain function and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G; Loth, E; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Dalley, J W; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Itterman, B; Lathrop, M; Mallik, C; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Poline, J-B; Robbins, T W; Rietschel, M; Reed, L; Smolka, M; Spanagel, R; Speiser, C; Stephens, D N; Ströhle, A; Struve, M

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental function of the brain is to evaluate the emotional and motivational significance of stimuli and to adapt behaviour accordingly. The IMAGEN study is the first multicentre genetic-neuroimaging study aimed at identifying the genetic and neurobiological basis of individual variability in impulsivity, reinforcer sensitivity and emotional reactivity, and determining their predictive value for the development of frequent psychiatric disorders. Comprehensive behavioural and neuropsychological characterization, functional and structural neuroimaging and genome-wide association analyses of 2000 14-year-old adolescents are combined with functional genetics in animal and human models. Results will be validated in 1000 adolescents from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study. The sample will be followed up longitudinally at the age of 16 years to investigate the predictive value of genetics and intermediate phenotypes for the development of frequent psychiatric disorders. This review describes the strategies the IMAGEN consortium used to meet the challenges posed by large-scale multicentre imaging-genomics investigations. We provide detailed methods and Standard Operating Procedures that we hope will be helpful for the design of future studies. These include standardization of the clinical, psychometric and neuroimaging-acquisition protocols, development of a central database for efficient analyses of large multimodal data sets and new analytic approaches to large-scale genetic neuroimaging analyses.

  11. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  12. Psychopathological features and suicidal ideation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Sorarù, Gianni; Albertini, Elisa; Semenza, Carlo; Vottero-Ris, Francesca; D'Ascenzo, Carla; Querin, Giorgia; Zennaro, Alessandro; Pegoraro, Elena; Angelini, Corrado

    2010-12-01

    Psychopathological diagnosis has become increasingly important in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), since the recent emphasis on the comprehensive management and end-of-life decisions. Rorschach test is the third most commonly used psychological instrument worldwide and can offer a different approach from self-reporting questionnaires, mainly providing information on issues of which individuals may be unaware or unwilling to admit to. Forty-two ALS patients underwent a psychopathological assessment with the Rorschach test. Psychopathological data were also correlated with skeletal muscle strength as measured by MRC scale and functional evaluation as ALSFRSr and FVC values. Psychopathological features, including suicidial ideation, were more frequent in the recently diagnosed ALS patients. These features were observed to be different according to the kind of functional impairment. Rorschach test may be an useful tool to assess psychopathological features in ALS. Results of our study highlight the need of an early psychopathological diagnosis and specific psychotherapeutic treatment in patients with ALS.

  13. Childhood Separation Anxiety and the Risk of Subsequent Psychopathology: Results from a Community Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brückl, Tanja M.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Pfister, Hildegard; Schneider, Silvia; Lieb, Roselind

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and mental disorders in a community sample and to evaluate whether separation anxiety is specifically related to panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Method: The data come from a 4-year, prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort of adolescents and young adults aged 14–24 years at baseline in Munich, Germany. The present analyses are based on a subsample of the younger cohort that comple...

  14. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between effortful control, current psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Clarkin, John F

    2013-07-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between low effortful control (EC), general psychopathology and interpersonal maladjustment previously reported among children extends to adulthood. Two hundred and forty undergraduate students were assessed using the EC scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, the General Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI) and the interpersonal distress index of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-distress). Both the BSI-GSI and the IIP-distress scores were related to low levels of EC. Furthermore, interpersonal distress mediated the association between low EC and greater psychopathology severity. These results suggest that deficits in regulatory temperament among adults may be associated with experiencing greater psychopathology distress, and that this relationship may be explained by an impairment in interpersonal adjustment. Such preliminary findings may constitute a useful starting point for investigating this hypothesis among clinical populations.

  16. Pretty patient - healthy patient? A study of physical attractiveness and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P J; Friedmeyer, M H; Moore, J E

    1977-10-01

    Recent research has shown that physically attractive persons are viewed by others, and by themselves, as "better" in many ways than less attractive persons. The trend in research findings is pervasive, and a stereotype has been proposed: "what is beautiful is good." This study explored the relationship between physical attractiveness and emotional adjustment of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. It was hypothesized (1) that judges would consider attractive patients better adjusted than unattractive patients; and (2) that attractive patients would appear healthier or better adjusted than unattractive patients on standard diagnostic measures. The results of multivariate analyses supported the first hypothesis, but consistently failed to support the second. Limitations of the present findings and of the "beautiful is good" stereotype are discussed.

  17. Psychopathological factors that can influence academic achievement in early adolescence: a three-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2014-12-30

    This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.

  18. Is nocturnal eating in restless legs syndrome linked to a specific psychopathological profile? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Sara; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Rizzo, Giovanni; Antelmi, Elena; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Brugnoli, Roberto; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Provini, Federica

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate psychological comorbidity in drug-naive or drug-free primary restless legs syndrome (p-RLS) patients with nocturnal eating disorder (NED), and to analyze the association of comorbid p-RLS and NED with obsessive-compulsive, mood and anxiety symptoms, and personality. Participants comprised 20 consecutive female outpatients with p-RLS, 10 without NED and 10 with NED, and 10 female controls matched for age. Both patients and controls were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression and the Anxiety Rating Scales, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory and the temperament and character inventory-revised. Compared to controls, p-RLS patients without and with NED had higher trait anxiety and current anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. p-RLS patients with NED also had significantly higher doubting compared to p-RLS patients without NED. Furthermore, groups differed for harm avoidance (HA), with p-RLS patients with and without NED having higher scores than controls. Untreated p-RLS patients, particularly those with nocturnal eating, report anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perceive stressful situations as dangerous and threatening and tend to respond with anxiety to such situations. They have higher tendency to respond intensely to aversive stimuli, inhibiting behavior to avoid punishment, novelty, and frustrative omission of expected rewards. We hypothesize that higher levels of HA, a biologically determined personality trait, might constitute a diathesis predisposing individuals to display obsessive-compulsive symptoms, namely increasingly severe compulsive nocturnal eating.

  19. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  20. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  1. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  2. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  3. A cohort study on psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Isabela Ribeiro; Castro, Marta; Sarmento, Sofia Lourenço; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose was to study psychosocial adjustment and psychiatric morbidity of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion. Clinical data was obtained through the patient's clinical records. Setting A teaching and tertiary care facility in Porto, Portugal. Participants We evaluated 110 CHD patients (62 male) aged from 12 to 26 years (mean=18.00±3.617), 58 cyanotic. All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion in a tertiary hospital. Demographic information and clinical history were collected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Questionnaires regarded topics such as social support, family educational style, self-image and physical limitations, a standardised psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version (SADS-L), and a self-report questionnaire on psychosocial adjustment, youth self-report or adult self-report. One of the relatives completed an observational version of the same questionnaire (child behaviour checklist (CBCL) or ABCL (adult behaviour checklist)). Results We found a 21.8% lifetime prevalence of psychopathology, 31.3%, in females, 14.5% in males, showing a somewhat increased proneness in CHD patients. Females also showed worse psychosocial adjustment, with more somatic complaints (u=260 000; p=0.011), anxiety/depression (u=984 000; p=0.002), aggressive behaviour (u=920 500; p=0.001), attention problems (u=1123 500; p=0.027), thought problems (u=1069 500; p=0.010), internalisation (u=869 000; p=0.0) and externalisation (u=1163 000; p=0.05). Patients with severe CHD (u=939 000; p=0.03) and surgical repair (u=719 000; p=0.037) showed worse psychosocial adjustment. Those with poor social support showed more withdrawal (u=557 500; p=0.0) and social problems (u=748 500; p=0.023), and patients with unsatisfactory school performance revealed more anxiety/depression (u=916

  4. [Psychopathology and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Klonowska, Paulina; Patrzała, Amelia; Jaracz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a concept has been presented stating that the process of creativity may be connected with psychopathological features such as mood disorders, mainly bipolar, and psychosis-like thought abnormalities. Biographic studies point to a more frequent occurrence of affective disorders in creative subjects and members of their families. There is also data concerning the occurrence of schizophrenia in the families of prominent persons. A number of studies have demonstrated a similarity of patients with bipolar affective illness and members of their families to creative persons, as to increased indexes of creativity as well as such temperamental features as cyclothymia, neuroticism and openness. An association has been also found between the dimension of"psychoticism", schizotypal features and the measures of creativity. A reduction of the so called "latent inhibition" mechanism, resulting in perception of seemingly irrelevant external stimuli is connected with a predisposition to both increased creativity and schizophrenia-like disturbances. A neurobiological model of generating ideas and creative drive assumes a dominant role of three brain structures: frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the mesolimbic system. The neurotransmission system mostly connected with elevated mood and psychotic thinking is the dopaminergic system, especially its mesolimbic and cortical pathways. Both neurobiological and pharmacological evidence has been accumulated for an association of these pathways with motivational, emotional and cognitive processes, and indirectly, with the processes of creativity. In recent years, a number of interesting results has also been obtained from molecular-genetic studies about genetic determinants of creativity processes in association with bipolar mood changes and psychotic conditions.

  5. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  6. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced

  7. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting : Criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and v

  8. Sourcing quality-of-life weights obtained from previous studies: theory and reality in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SeungJin; Bae, Eun Young; Lim, Sang Hee

    2014-01-01

    The quality-of-life weights obtained in previous studies are frequently used in cost-utility analyses. The purpose of this study is to describe how the values obtained in previous studies are incorporated into the industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI), focusing on the issues discussed in theoretical studies and national guidelines. The industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean NHI from January 2007 until December 2009 were evaluated by two independent researchers at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Specifically, we observed the methods that were used to pool, predict joint health state utilities, and retain consistency within submissions in terms of the issues discussed in methodological research papers and recommendations from national guidelines. More than half of the submissions used QALY as an outcome measure, and most of these submissions were sourced from prior studies. Heterogeneous methodologies were frequently used within a submission, with the inconsistent use of upper and lower anchors being prevalent. Assumptions behind measuring joint health state utilities or pooling multiple values for single health states were omitted in all submissions. Most national guidelines were rather vague regarding how to predict joint health states, how to select the best available value, how to maintain consistency within a submission, and how to generalize values obtained from prior studies. Previously-generated values were commonly sourced, but this practice was frequently related to inconsistencies within and among submissions. Attention should be paid to the consistency and transparency of the value, especially if the value is sourced from prior studies.

  9. Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.

  10. Infanticide or murder in a forensic psychiatric assessment. A case study 5-fold infanticide – the search of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitzman, Janusz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The difficulties to distinguish between infanticide and murder of the woman own child, experienced by both experts and the court, have been discussed on the example of the psychopathological description of the perpetrator killing five of her children, and data from the literature. Case. This paper describes an extremely rare case of the woman who has killed five of her children immediately after their birth over several years. Comment. It is very difficult to decide whether the seemingly rational motivation to kill her own child shortly after their birth can be a proof of specific psychopathological state which is a consequence of childbirth or an assassination planned in cold blood. The act of killing a child by their own mother is so contrary to nature that it seems easy to find the ground for psychosis or a state of emergency. However, when neither of them has been proven the experts are left with the conviction of both diagnostic deficiency and inexplicability of human behaviour.

  11. Childhood psychopathology and development of adult schizotypal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and t

  12. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  13. Are assisted reproduction technologies associated with categorical or dimensional aspects of psychopathology in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood? Results from a Danish prospective nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, T; Juul Hansen, K; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Mohr-Jensen, C

    2017-01-24

    An increasing number of children are conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), but little is known about the long-term risk in terms of mental health outcomes. All twin and singleton children conceived via ART and born in 1995 were sampled from the Danish in vitro fertilization registry and matched to four spontaneously conceived (SC) children. The children were followed-up at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry, to estimate the prevalence of all possible psychiatric diagnoses; dimensional aspects of psychopathology were assessed at the age of 14 years, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The study included 858 ART children and 3436 SC children. ART and SC children were not clinically distinguishable on either the categorical measures of psychopathology at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years, or on CBCL scale scores at the age of 14 years. The findings remained nonsignificant after controlling for sample differences. This large, prospective, nationwide cohort study provides evidence to support that ART exposure does not increase the risk of adverse mental health outcomes considered as a whole, while power was limited to discard an effect of ART on specific mental health disorders.

  14. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  15. Vibrations of twisted cantilevered plates - Summary of previous and current studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissa, A. W.; Macbain, J. C.; Kielb, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    This work summarizes a comprehensive study made of the free vibrations of twisted, cantilevered plates of rectangular planform. Numerous theoretical and experimental investigations previously made by others have resulted in frequency results which disagree considerably. To clarify the problem a joint industry/government/university research effort was initiated to obtain comprehensive theoretical and experimental results for models having useful ranges of aspect ratios, thickness ratios and twist angles. Theoretical data came from 19 independent computer analyses, including finite element, shell theory and beam theory idealizations. Two independent sets of experimental data were also obtained. The theoretical and experimental results are summarized and compared.

  16. Suicidal Ideation vs. Suicide Attempts: Clinical and Psychosocial Profile Differences Among Depressed Patients: A Study on Personality Traits, Psychopathological Variables, and Sociodemographic Factors in 228 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Spirling, Sina; Ritter, Dirk; Smolka, Michael; Goodday, Sarah; Bauer, Michael; Felber, Werner; Bschor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated whether personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors in depressed patients differentiate patients with only suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide. We investigated two groups of patients with an affective disorder: 198 patients with a suicide attempt within the last 3 months (sex ratio male to female, 1:1.3; mean age male to female, 44.8/44.7 years) and 30 patients without a suicide attempt but with suicidal thoughts (sex ratio male to female, 1:2; mean age male to female, 39.4/42.6 years) using a comprehensive measurement (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Axis II disorders, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Beck-Hopelessness Scale, Scale for Suicide Ideation, Impulsivity Rating Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Inventory for the Assessment of Aggression Factors, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Ways of Coping Checklist). Several differences distinguished the two groups, namely, in personality traits such as anxiety or coping strategies and sociodemographics (e.g., education level). Personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors are useful tools for assessing suicidal risk. Our findings encourage us to suggest that clinicians pay particular attention to sociodemographic variables such as separation/divorce and a lower education level when conducting risk assessments on suicidal patients.

  17. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  18. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  19. Interaction effects in comorbid psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W; Chmielewski, Michael S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity in psychopathology is the norm. Despite some initial evidence, few studies have examined if the presence of comorbid conditions changes the expression of the pathology, either through increased severity of the syndrome(s) or by expanding to symptoms beyond the syndrome(s) (i.e., symptom overextension). The following report provides an illustration of interactive effects and overextension in comorbid pathology. A large pool of patients from a university hospital were assessed using SCID-I/P interviews. Of these, 230 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, social phobia, or both were included in the study. Symptoms not belonging to either index condition (major depressive disorder or social phobia) reliably overextended in comorbid cases (odds ratios between 2.82 and 15.75). Current research methodologies (e.g., structured interviews) do not allow for the examination of overextended symptoms. The authors make a call for future psychopathological research to search systematically for interactive effects by adopting more inclusive or flexible assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  1. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  2. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  3. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  4. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  5. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young wom

  6. STUDY OF OBSTETRIC AND FETAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous caesarean section sparks an area of controversy in Obstetrics. The management of women with previous caesarean section regarding the mode of delivery whether to opt for repeat caesarean section or vaginal delivery, is an area of debate. Very often the decision on management is not made on Principle of sound reasoning and many who choose the elective repeat caesarean section do so to circumvent the anxious moment that arise during conduct ion of labour. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal and fetal outcome in relation to type of delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A 18 month prospective observational study was conducted where in 150 patients who had a term pregnancy with a history of prior LSCS were included after obtaining their consent for participation. The obstetric and fetal outcomes of these patients in the present pregnancy were analyzed by Z test. RESULTS: Out of the 150 subjects 78 ( 52% were in age group of 26 - 30 years, 106 ( 70.67% patients belonged to the urban population, 116 ( 77.33% were booked patie nts, 107 ( 71.33% were housewives, 122 ( 81.33% belonged to middle class and 22 ( 14.67% were from high socio economic status. 67 ( 44.67% were second gravid, 112 ( 74.67% were para 1. Out of total 134 patients 29 ( 21.64% had elective caesarean section and 5 ( 3 .73% patients came as emergency admission and underwent caesarean section. Out of 134 patients, with one previous caesarean section. 32 had spontaneous onset of labour. Out of which 20 ( 68.97% had vaginal delivery and 9 ( 31.03% had repeat caesarean section. 13 patients had augmentation, 11 ( 84.62% had vaginal delivery and 2 ( 15.38% had caesarean section. In 58 patients labour was induced 29 ( 50% had section. 14 patients out of 50 who had previous 2 caesarean section only 1 ( 7.69% patient had spontane ous onset of labour and had caesarean section. 3 ( 92.86% patients had elective caesarean section. There were only 2 patients with previous 3 caesarean

  7. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  8. Hidden Wounds? Inflammatory Links Between Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R

    2017-01-03

    Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. In turn, these "hidden wounds" of childhood trauma can affect brain development, key behavioral domains (e.g., cognition, positive valence systems, negative valence systems), reactivity to subsequent stressors, and, ultimately, risk for psychopathology. Further research is needed to better characterize the inflammatory links between childhood trauma and psychopathology. Detecting and healing these hidden wounds may help prevent and treat psychopathology emerging after childhood trauma.

  9. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  10. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50......-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured during pregnancy, postpartum, and at follow-up 5-11 years later. At follow-up, the women were also examined with a 75-g OGTT or an intravenous glucagon test. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (30%) of the women with previous GDM had abnormal glucose tolerance...... response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive...

  11. Creativity and psychopathology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Relationship of Internet addiction with impulsivity and severity of psychopathology among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Topcu, Merve; Aldemir, Secil; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Bilge; Canbal, Metin

    2013-12-30

    The previous studies have found a relationship between IA and both impulsivity and psychopathology when they were considered separately. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) with impulsivity and severity of psychopathology among Turkish university students. We also wanted to control the effect of impulsivity dimensions on the relationship between IA and psychopathology. A total of 319 university students from two universities in Ankara participated to the study. Students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Correlational analyses revealed that severity of IA was related to both SCL-90-R and BIS-11 scores. Among SCL-90-R subscales, severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) was the only predictor for IAS score. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that interpersonal sensitivity, additional to attentional and motor impulsiveness, was the predictor of IAS score. Although severity of IA is associated with wide range of psychopathology, particularly OCS, interpersonal sensitivity seems to be the main dimension that predict severity of IAS additional to impulsiveness (attentional and motor). Impulsivity seems to be an important construct when considering IA and its treatment among Turkish university students.

  13. Aggression and psychopathology in detained adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlynck, Sannie M J J; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres M C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2008-05-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate a group of detained females with regard to aggression and psychopathology and to examine the relationship between the two conditions. For this purpose, a representative sample of 216 detained adolescent females aged 12-18 (mean 15.5) was studied with a standard set of self-report instruments, while a subgroup of 73 parents was interviewed by telephone on the participants' externalizing psychopathology. Based on aggression items derived from the Conduct Disorder section of the Kiddie-SADS, the following three aggression subgroups were identified: (1) non-aggressive (NA; 41%), (2) mildly aggressive (MA; 39%), and (3) severely aggressive (SA; 20%). In addition to high levels of psychopathology for the group as a whole, differences were found between aggression groups, with the NA group demonstrating the lowest levels, the MA group intermediate levels, and the SA group the highest levels. These differences were most pronounced for externalizing psychopathology, and were also found for post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and suicidality. The clinical implications of these findings should be investigated in the future, but may well relate to issues of diagnostic identification and administration of adequate and targeted treatment, especially with regard to PTSS and suicidality. Since the current study was cross-sectional, the predictive effect of the investigated relationships should be the focus of further study.

  14. [Crime and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.

  15. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  16. The influence of affective temperaments and psychopathological traits on the definition of bipolar disorder subtypes: a study on bipolar I Italian national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, G; Toni, C; Maremmani, I; Tusini, G; Ramacciotti, S; Madia, A; Fornaro, M; Akiskal, H S

    2012-01-01

    Affective temperament and psychopathological traits such as separation anxiety (SA) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS) are supposed to impact on the clinical manifestation and on the course of Bipolar Disorder (BD); in the present study we investigated their influence on the definition of BD subtypes. : Among 106 BD-I patients with DSM-IV depressive, manic or mixed episode included in a multi-centric Italian study and treated according to the routine clinical practice, 89 (84.0%) were in remission after a follow-up period ranging from 3 to 6 months (Clinical Global Impression-BP [CGI-BP] data are consistent with the hypothesis that affective temperaments, and in particular cyclothymia, could be utilized as quantitative, intermediate phenotypes in order to identify BD susceptibility genes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  18. Shame and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L

    2000-08-01

    The origins of the word "shame" recall the concept of the infraction of integrity both as scandal and as individualization. The human experience of shame stretches along a continuum from modesty to disabling interpersonal terror. Unlike other basic affects, its emergence is a fundamental moment in the process of self-awareness and self-object differentiation. Neglected by psychiatry because it was regarded as a moral concept, today it is possible to hypothesize that it has a biologic basis that one can attempt to describe in terms of corticothalamic pathways. In this respect, like other affects, it could be considered as a cognitive shortcut to activate specific and evolutionally useful behavioral patterns, such as concealment or a request for affiliation. It is fairly ubiquitous in psychopathology, but is clinically much more structured in its abnormal expressions in anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and even in bipolar mood disorder. In schizophrenia it has been described as being one stage in the construction of delusion. Its presence is connected to interpersonal relationship (altruism) though it seems absent in autism. The assessment of shame experiences in psychiatric patients could be useful for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies, and could provide a categorization of a new psychopathology based on abnormal affects.

  19. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  20. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  1. Religious Identity in Iranian Society: A Systematic Review of Previous Studies (2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    literature on identity, evidence suggests that the role of religion in shaping individuals' and group's identity is widely ignored. However, a growing number of studies have begun to take into consideration the key role of religion (Arweck & Nesbitt 2010, King and Boyatzis 2004, Peek 2005. This article has attempted to review systematically previous research and conceptualizations on the religious identity based on national studies and surveys and academic dissertations.     Materials and Methods   As mentioned, the purpose of this study was to review the results of some influential researches in the field of religious identity. To get this purpose, one of the best known methods for reviewing previous studies, a systematic review, was applied. Systematic review deals with establishing and synthesizing of researches and evidences with focus on a specific question. This occurs through the organized, transparent, formal, clear and flexible procedures and processes. A systematic review of research is not limited to review the history and this overview and review can be used in different levels, fields and goals. During the first phase of the study, terms of "religious identity", "Islamic identity", "Iranian identity" and "religious identity" was searched at libraries and research centers and in databases such as Center for Scientific Information Database (SID, a database of Iranian journals and magazines (Magiran, Noor specialized journals database, and Science and Information Technology Institute (IrnaDoc. After reviewing the gathered documents and specifying its relationship with the object and purpose of the study, a total of 47 documents were selected. Documents based on the five major parameter were summarized and reviewed: 1-general information, 2-goals and research questions, 3-research methodology, 4-variables, 5-findings     Discussion of Results and Conclusion   Findings show that in the highest percentage (38.2% of researches, religious identity has been

  2. Childhood sexual abuse moderates the relationship between sexual functioning and eating disorder psychopathology in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Lelli, Lorenzo; Godini, Lucia; Vignozzi, Linda; Rellini, Alessandra H; Faravelli, Carlo; Maggi, Mario; Ricca, Valdo

    2013-09-01

    Sexual dysfunctions that affect all aspects of sexuality are common in patients with eating disorders. However, only few studies have provided longitudinal information on sexual functioning in patients with eating disorders. To evaluate the longitudinal course of sexual functioning, and how changes in psychopathology and history of childhood abuse interact with sexual functioning in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). A total of 27 patients with AN and 31 with BN were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up after a standard individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Subjects were studied by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90, and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. After treatment, both patients with AN and BN showed a significant improvement in the FSFI total score (P < 0.01 for both AN and BN) and all FSFI subscales, without significant between groups differences. Patients reporting childhood sexual abuse did not show a significant improvement in sexual functioning (β = 0.05; P = 0.58). Reduction in eating disorder severity was directly associated with FSFI improvement, but only in those subjects with no history of sexual abuse (β = 0.28; P = 0.01). Eating disorder-specific psychopathology could be considered as a specific maintaining factor for sexual dysfunction in eating disorders subjects. Subjects reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse represent a subpopulation of patients with a profound uneasiness, involving body perception, as well as sexual functioning, which appeared not to be adequately challenged during standard CBT intervention. The results, though original, should be considered as preliminary, given the relatively small sample size

  3. Fathers, fathering and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Beth; Iles, Jane E; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2017-06-01

    The last few years have seen a steady increase in research addressing the potential influence of fathers on their children's development. There has also been a clearer acknowledgement of the need to study families as a complex system, rather than just focusing on individual aspects of functioning in one or other parent. Increased father involvement and more engaged styles of father-infant interactions are associated with more positive outcomes for children. Studies of paternal depression and other psychopathology have begun to elucidate some of the key mechanisms by which fathers can influence their children's development. These lessons are now being incorporated into thinking about engaging both mothers and fathers in effective interventions to optimise their children's health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral Problems in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Controlled Study to Examine the Risk of Psychopathology in a Chronic Pediatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanara, Elham; Raeeskarami, Seyed-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are prone to the problems that can delay their psychosocial development; however, the existing literature has not reached a consensus on the psychological problems related to JIA. A total of 51 children and adolescents with JIA and 75 healthy controls aged 6 to 18 years were examined using the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Our results represented that 70 percent of JIA group reached “borderline clinical” range or “clinical” range in internalizing problems, while this percentage in the control group was 18 percent. In addition, our results indicated that JIA group has gotten significantly higher scores (more than twofold) in externalizing behaviors compared to control group. Furthermore, children with JIA showed higher rate of anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, somatic complaints, rule breaking behaviors, and aggressive behaviors as well as thought and social problems compared to control group (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy controls may show higher rate of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, our novel findings on externalizing, social, and thought problems in JIA warrant further investigation on affected children who may be at greater risk of future psychopathologies. PMID:27656678

  5. Migrants Examined for Determinants of psychopathology through INternet Assessment ( MEDINA) study : a cross-sectional study among visitors of an Internet community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Madelien Hermina; van der Krieke, Lian; Schoevers, Robert Anton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Migration is a risk factor for the onset of psychopathology. A range of social factors may play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders in migrants. A better understanding of these associations is needed to develop preventive interventions to reduce the disease burden in the

  6. Migrants Examined for Determinants of psychopathology through INternet Assessment ( MEDINA) study : a cross-sectional study among visitors of an Internet community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Madelien Hermina; van der Krieke, Lian; Schoevers, Robert Anton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Migration is a risk factor for the onset of psychopathology. A range of social factors may play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders in migrants. A better understanding of these associations is needed to develop preventive interventions to reduce the disease burden in the mi

  7. Phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus vinorelbine in breast cancer with previous anthracycline exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; García-Donas, Jesus; Casado, Antonio; de la Gándara, Isabel; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; García-Saenz, Jose-Angel; Ibáñez, Gabriel; Loboff, Belen; García-Ledo, Gemma; Moreno, Fernando; Grande, Enrique; Diaz-Rubio, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-five patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) entered a phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 35 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1 plus vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 every 4 weeks. Patients were required to have measurable disease, previous chemotherapy with an anthracycline-containing regimen, and a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Thirty-four patients were assessable for response and toxicity. The overall response rate (on an intent-to-treat basis) was 35% (12 of 34; 95% CI, 20%-54%). One complete response and 11 partial responses were noted. In addition, 14 patients (41%) had stable disease of > 4 months duration, and 7 patients (20.5%) had disease progression. The response rates to the combination when it was used as first- and second-line chemotherapy were 31% (4 of 13) and 38% (8 of 21), respectively. Median time to disease progression was 7 months (range, 1-35 months) and median overall survival was 13 months (range, 2 to > 62 months). Neutropenia was the most frequent toxicity (grade 4 in 44% of patients and 19% of cycles), but neutropenic fever was seen in only 3 cases. No septic deaths occurred. Nonhematologic grade 3 side effects included skin toxicity (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, 6%) and mucositis (15%). Late alopecia was seen in 53% of patients (grade 1 in 41%, and grade 2 in 12%). The median LVEFs were 64% (range, 50%-81%) at baseline and 62% (range, 37%-70%) after treatment. Three patients presented an LVEF decrease to < 50%; however, no clinical heart failure was noted, and 2 of these patients recovered normal values after cessation of therapy. The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and vinorelbine can be safely administered to patients with anthracycline-pretreated MBC and is active in this population.

  8. Self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio; Mozaz, María

    2008-02-01

    This study has two objectives: 1) to analyse the characteristics of self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in accordance with age and gender in a representative sample from the Basque Country; and 2) to explore the relationships of self-concept and self-esteem with psychopathological symptoms. The sample is made up of 1,579 participants, aged 12 to 65, of whom 732 are males (46.4%) and 847 are females (53.6%). The study uses a descriptive and correlational methodology. For the measurement of psychopathological symptoms, self-concept and self-esteem, three assessment instruments are applied. The ANOVAs indicated significant differences associated with age in self-concept, self-esteem, and quantity of psychopathological symptoms. As regards gender, no significant differences were found for self-concept and self-esteem, but there were differences in psychopathological symptoms, with females scoring higher in various disorders (somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and total quantity of symptoms). The results of the correlational analyses confirmed significant inverse relationships between self-concept/self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion considers the potential role of intervention programmes that promote self-concept and self-esteem in the prevention of psychopathological problems.

  9. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  10. Isotretinoin and psychopathology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havaki-Kontaxaki Beata J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isotretinoin, a synthetic oral retinoid that is used against severe nodulocystic acne, has been associated with various psychiatric side effects such as depression, suicidality and psychotic symptoms. A great number of reports on its effects have been published since its introduction into the market. However, a causal relationship has not been established and the link between isotretinoin use and psychiatric events remains controversial. The present paper reviews the available evidence regarding the association of isotretinoin and psychiatric side effects. All published material reporting psychiatric side effects following isotretinoin treatment, including case reports, case series, reports from adverse drug event reporting systems, prospective surveys and retrospective case-control studies, are presented. In addition, the neurobiology of the retinoids and possible biological mechanisms that may lead to psychopathology are described.

  11. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  12. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  13. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between stereotype awareness, childhood trauma and psychopathology: a study in people with psychosis, their siblings and controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine van Zelst

    Full Text Available Stereotype awareness--or an individual's perception of the degree to which negative beliefs or stereotypes are held by the public--is an important factor mediating public stigma, self-stigma and their negative consequences. Research is required to assess how individuals become more sensitive to perceive stereotypes, pointing the way to therapeutic options to reduce its negative effects and increase stigma resilience. Because perception and interpretation can be guided by belief systems, and childhood trauma (CT is reported to impact such beliefs, CT is explored in relation to stereotype awareness (SA in persons with psychosis, their siblings and controls.Data from the GROUP project (Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis were analyzed. SA was measured by devaluation scales which assess a respondent's perception of the degree to which stereotypes about people with mental illness and about their families are held by the public. CT was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (short form.In patients, symptoms of disorganization and emotional distress were associated with SA about people with mental illness. In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA. In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA, independent of symptoms (patients or schizotypy (siblings.CT in people with psychosis and their siblings may sensitize to SA. Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process. CT-induced SA may indicate a heightened sensitivity to threat, which may also impact psychopathology.

  15. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability....... To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between...

  16. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone. To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between the individual development of the child and demands and expectations in the specific relations and institutions in which the child participates. This incongruence creates and strengthens negative factors for the child with disability and results in a higher risk of psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  18. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  19. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha

  20. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  1. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  2. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha

  3. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha

  4. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Schuppert; C.J. Albers; R.B. Minderaa; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; M.H. Nauta

    2014-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha

  5. Relative deprivation and psychopathology of Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Mengke

    2013-09-25

    Previous researchers have studied the relationship between mental disorder and major demographic variables, but the study on the relationship between relative poverty or relative deprivation, a subjectively perceived status in comparison with people around, and psychopathology is rare. Data for this study were obtained from a survey research conducted on a university campus in Beijing China, between 2007 and 2011, with a total of 5925 college students who participated in the surveys over the past five years. According to the Strain Theory of suicide we hypothesized that the stronger the relative deprivation, the higher the level of depression for the students and the higher the degree of suicidal ideation the students would experience. Findings indicated that relative deprivation is significantly correlated with suicidal ideation, positively related with depression and negatively related to social support. It is proposed that reduction of psychological strains might be an effective procedure to reduce college students' psychopathology and increase their positive psychological feelings such as self-perceived social support. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...

  7. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  8. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis.

  9. Do Dimensional Psychopathology Measures Relate to Creative Achievement or Divergent Thinking?

    OpenAIRE

    Darya eZabelina; David eCondon; Mark eBeeman

    2014-01-01

    Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomani...

  10. Do dimensional psychopathology measures relate to creative achievement or divergent thinking?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomani...

  11. [Alterity in psychopathologic languages. 3: the sex of words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zoïla, A

    1983-03-01

    This study of alterity in psychopathological language includes three parts: 1) The double without dialogue; 2) The ego(s) in the soliloguy; and here: 3) The sex of words. Two clinical cases (an asexuation delusion, an agressive misogyny) show the systemic interrelations in one of their sides only. The relations between neurosis, perversion, psychosis are operating into the sexuation and into the insatured dialogical structure of language. Enclosed alterity in language is the specific fact of psychopathology.

  12. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  13. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  14. Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology: Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura Elvira; Fabris, Matteo Angelo; Settanni, Michele

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the risk of muscle dysmorphia and psychopathological symptoms in an Italian sample of male bodybuilders. The sample was recruited online (145 men with a mean age of 30.0 years) and participants were asked to fill out the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), Symptom Cheklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and to provide other socio-demographic data. Bodybuilders at risk of muscle dysmorphia display greater global psychopathology and present higher scores on all SCL-90-R dimensions when compared to bodybuilders not at risk of muscle dysmorphia. Furthermore, risk of muscle dysmorphia is positively associated to dissociative symptoms. The Competitiveness dimension and anabolic steroid intake were not related to muscle dysmorphia, while age appeared to be more significant. Findings are discussed based upon previous studies and directions for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of psychopathology across and within cultures: issues and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2003-07-01

    Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability.

  16. Attachment and Emotion Regulation Strategies in Predicting Adult Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Pascuzzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested a 10-year longitudinal model examining the role of adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies on adult symptoms of psychopathology. Fifty individuals completed a measure of attachment security to parents and peers at age 14, measures of romantic attachment and emotion regulation at age 22, and a measure of psychopathology at age 24. Results revealed that attachment insecurity to parents in adolescence was associated with greater symptoms of psychopathology in adulthood, and emotion-focused strategies partially mediated this association. Anxious romantic attachment was also related to psychopathology, an association that was fully mediated by emotion-focused strategies. The long-term mechanism involved in the association between earlier attachment and future adaptation will be discussed.

  17. A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.

  18. Disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed.

  19. ''Ecstasy''-induced changes of cerebral glucose metabolism and their correlation to acute psychopathology. A 18-FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Zimny, M.; Zeggel, T.; Wagenknecht, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of the 'Ecstasy' analogue MDE (3,4-methylene dioxyethamphetamine) on cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers and to correlate neurometabolism with acute psychopathology. In a radomized double-blind trial, 15 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) 110-120 min after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=7) or placebo (n=8). Two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, constant cognitive stimulation was started and maintained for 32 min using a word repetition paradigm to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral glucose uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed by manual regionalization into 108 regions of interest and PET/MRI overlay. After absolute quantification of rMR-Glu and normalization to global metabolism, normalized rMRGlu under MDE was compared to placebo using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Acute psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and rMRGlu was correlated to PANSS scores according to Spearman. MDE subjects showed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: left frontal posterior (-7.1%, P<0.05) and right prefrontal superior (-4.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, rMR-Glu was significantly increased in the bilateral cerebellum (right: +10.1%, P<0.05; left: +7.6%, P<0.05) and in the right putamen (+6.2%, P<0.05). There were positive correlations between rMRGlu in the middle right cingulate and grandiosity (r=0.87; P<0.05), both the right amygadala (r=0.90, P<0.01) and the left posterior cingulate (r=0.90, P<0.01) to difficulties in abstract thinking, and the right frontal inferior (r=0.85, P<0.05), right anterior cingulate (r=0.93, P<0.01), and left anterior cingulate (r=0.85, P<0.05) to attentional deficits. A

  20. Does psychopathology at admission predict the length of inpatient stay in psychiatry? Implications for financing psychiatric services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Uwe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate on appropriate financing systems in inpatient psychiatry is ongoing. In this context, it is important to control resource use in terms of length of stay (LOS, which is the most costly factor in inpatient care and the one that can be influenced most easily. Previous studies have shown that psychiatric diagnoses provide only limited justification for explaining variation in LOS, and it has been suggested that measures such as psychopathology might be more appropriate to predict resource use. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between LOS and psychopathological syndromes or symptoms at admission as well as other characteristics such as sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods We considered routine medical data of patients admitted to the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich in the years 2008 and 2009. Complete data on psychopathology at hospital admission were available in 3,220 inpatient episodes. A subsample of 2,939 inpatient episodes was considered in final statistical models, including psychopathology as well as complete datasets of further measures (e.g. sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related and psychosocial variables. We used multivariate linear as well as logistic regression analysis with forward selection procedure to determine the predictors of LOS. Results All but two syndrome scores (mania, hostility were positively related to the length of stay. Final statistical models showed that syndromes or symptoms explained about 5% of the variation in length of stay. The inclusion of syndromes or symptoms as well as basic treatment variables and other factors led to an explained variation of up to 25%. Conclusions Psychopathological syndromes and symptoms at admission and further characteristics only explained a small proportion of the length of inpatient stay. Thus, according to our sample, psychopathology might not be suitable as a primary indicator for estimating LOS and contingent

  1. Epigenetic modifications of the glucocorticoid receptor gene are associated with the vulnerability to psychopathology in childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, K M; Schauer, M; Gunter, H M; Ruf-Leuschner, M; Sill, J; Meyer, A; Elbert, T

    2015-05-26

    Stress, particularly when experienced early in life, can have profound implications for mental health. Previous research covering various tissues such as the brain, suggests that the detrimental impact of early-life stress (ELS) on mental health is mediated via epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis--in particular, the glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene--stand out as key targets for ELS. Even though the link between hGR methylation and either ELS or psychopathology is fairly well established, the mutually dependent relationships between ELS, DNA methylation and psychopathology remain to be uncovered. The specific psychopathology an individual might develop in the aftermath of stressful events can be highly variable, however, most studies investigating hGR methylation and psychopathology suffer from being limited to a single symptom cluster of mental disorders. Here, we screened volunteers for childhood maltreatment and analyzed whether it associates with hGR methylation in lymphocytes and a range of measures of psychological ill-health. hGR methylation in lymphocytes most likely reflects methylation patterns found in the brain and thus provides valuable insights into the etiology of psychopathology. We find the interaction between childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation to be strongly correlated with an increased vulnerability to psychopathology providing evidence of epigenome × environment interactions. Furthermore, our results indicate an additive effect of childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation in predicting borderline personality disorder (BPD)-associated symptoms, suggesting that the combination of both ELS and DNA methylation that possibly represents unfavorable events experienced even earlier in life poses the risk for BPD.

  2. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Gregory A. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored the...

  3. A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; Zald, David H

    2017-02-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the 3 levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  5. Protection or Vulnerability? : A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between the Positive and Negative Components of Self-Compassion and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, Peter; Petrocchi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Self-compassion is increasingly explored as a protective factor in relation to psychopathology. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and its Short Form variant (SCS-SF) are the most widely used instruments for measuring this psychological construct, and previous studies have indeed shown that the total s

  6. Association of Eating Disorder Symptoms with Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions of Psychopathology among Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A large body of factor analytic research supports the idea that common mental disorders are organized along correlated latent dimensions termed internalizing and externalizing. Eating disorders (EDs) have been associated with both internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisocial personality disorder) forms of psychopathology. Previous studies found that EDs are best classified as internalizing disorders. However, no previous factor analytic studies of EDs and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions have evaluated if the EDs align with these spectra similarly for men and women. We examined the location of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms within this model of psychopathology among a sample of veterans, a population traditionally understudied in EDs. Method Data were from two studies of veterans and their intimate partners (N = 453 men and 307 women). Participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV without skip-outs. Lifetime symptom severity scores were used in confirmatory factor analytic models. Results A model with AN, BN, and BED symptoms loading onto the distress sub-factor of the internalizing domain fit the data best in the full sample and the male and female subsamples. This model was statistically equivalent for men and women. Discussion All three EDs loaded onto distress, indicating that these conditions overlap with psychopathology characterized by negative affect. Investigating latent dimensions of psychopathology is one approach to identifying common factors that partially account for patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders which may aid in translating research findings into clinical practice. PMID:24849585

  7. Protection or Vulnerability? A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between the Positive and Negative Components of Self-Compassion and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Petrocchi, Nicola

    2016-02-19

    Self-compassion is increasingly explored as a protective factor in relation to psychopathology. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and its Short Form variant (SCS-SF) are the most widely used instruments for measuring this psychological construct, and previous studies have indeed shown that the total score of this scale is negatively associated with psychopathology. In this article, we point out that half of the items of the SCS and SCS-SF are positive indicators of self-compassion and directly refer to the three key components of self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness, while the other half of the items are negative indicators of the construct and reflect the precise opposite of the key components, namely self-judgment, isolation and over-identification. A meta-analysis was conducted including 18 studies that reported on the positive and negative indicators of self-compassion as indexed by the SCS/SCS-SF and their relations to various types of psychopathology. Results showed that positive indicators of self-compassion were negatively associated with psychopathology, which confirms their hypothesized protective influence. However, the negative indicators were positively linked to psychopathology, suggesting that these scales tap increased vulnerability to mental health problems. Moreover, tests comparing the strength of the relations between various SCS/SCS-SF counterparts (i.e., self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation and mindfulness versus over-identification) and psychopathology showed that the negative indicators were significantly stronger linked to mental health problems than the positive indicators. This provides support for the idea that the use of a total self-compassion score of the SCS or SCS-SF, which typically includes the reversely scored negative subscales, will probably result in an inflated relationship with symptoms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-07

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205.

  9. A STUDY OF THE OUTCOME OF SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY FOLLOWING PREVIOUS C ESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the world - wide rising trend of caesarean delivery (CD, modern obstetric practice deals with a new group of mothers carrying reproductive performance upon a scarred uterus with obvious risk in feto - maternal outcome. AIMS: (1 To analyse the maternal & neonatal outcome in post - caesarean pregnancy. (2 To evaluate the factors influencing outcome in such cases. Design : Observational analytical study. MATERIALS & METHODS: The present study was carried out over two years (2010 - 11 taking consecutive 100 p ost - caesarean cases as admitted on my admission days & delivered in BR Singh Hospital. Data collection was done by interview technique along with hospital records. ANALYSIS USED: Percentage analysis was most often done. Categorical variables were compared with chi - square test; P value was calculated with 2012 Graphpad Software. Relative risk (RR & Odd ratio (OR were calculated with 1993 - 2012 Medcalc Software bvba (Version 12.3.0. All statistical tests were evaluated at the 0.05 significance level. RESULT S: Post - caesarean pregnancy rate was 26.02%. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC incidence was 22% whereas VBAC success on trial of labour was 55%. VBAC gave best morbidity outcome (18.18% & 27.27%. But failed VBAC cases result more significant maternal morbidity (RR=3.97, P=0.0037 & NICU admission was also found highest in failed VBAC cases (38.89%. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were significantly high when scar integrity was lost; also significantly co - related with elderly mothers (>35 yrs., un - boo ked cases & non - admitted cases undergone repeat CD. CONCLUSIONS: Post - caesarean cases need meticulous antenatal check - up & mandatory institutional delivery with proper selection of mode of confinement to have a better maternal & neonatal outcome

  10. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices.

  11. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers’ psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238

  12. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  13. Experimental bluetongue virus infection of sheep; effect of previous vaccination: clinical and immunologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, C R; Osburn, B I

    1986-06-01

    Clinical and immunologic responses of sheep to vaccination and subsequent bluetongue virus (BTV) challenge exposure were studied and compared with those of non-vaccinated sheep. Sheep were vaccinated with inactivated BTV administered with aluminum hydroxide and cimetidine or levamisole. After sheep were vaccinated, precipitating group-specific antibodies to BTV were detected, but serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies were not detected. Cellular immune responses (lymphocyte blastogenesis) to BTV were not detected. After virulent BTV challenge exposure, vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep developed acute clinical disease of similar severity. Clinical signs included hyperemia and petechiae of oral mucosa and coronary bands of the feet, excess salivation, nasal discharge with crusting, ulceration of the muzzle, and edema of lips and intermandibular space. Marked increases in serum creatine kinase activity were associated with stiff gait, reluctance to move, and vomiting. Fever and leukopenia were detected in most of the challenge-exposed sheep. Viremia and neutralizing antibodies were detected in vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep after challenge exposure. Bluetongue virus-specific reaginic antibodies were not detected in sera from any of the sheep when the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was used.

  14. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Dennison, Meg; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC), a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC) between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  15. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: A 4-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Vijayakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC, a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  16. Phase III Randomized Study of Bendamustine Compared With Chlorambucil in Previously Untreated Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfgang U. Knauf; Toshko Lissichkov; Ali Aldaoud; Anna Liberati; Javier Loscertales; Raoul Herbrecht; Gunnar Juliusson; Gerhard Postner; Liana Gercheva; Stefan Goranov; Martin Becker; Hans-Joerg Fricke; Francoise Huguet; Ilaria Del Giudice; Peter Klein; Lothar Tremmel; Karlheinz Merkle; Marco Montillo

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C...

  17. Unintentional role models : links between maternal eating psychopathology and the modelling of eating behaviours\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between maternal modelling of eating behaviours with reported symptoms of maternal eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Mothers (N = 264) with a child aged 1.5 to 8 years completed three self-report measures designed to assess modelling of eating behaviours, eating psychopathology and levels of anxiety and depression. The study found that higher levels of maternal eating psychopathology were positively associated with eating behaviours that wer...

  18. Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R; van der Mast, Roos C; Wassenaar, Moniek J E; Middelkoop, Huub A M; Pereira, Alberto M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2010-12-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with psychopathology, personality changes, and cognitive dysfunction. It is unknown whether, and to what extent, these effects are present after long-term cure of acromegaly. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathology, personality traits, and cognitive function in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly. This was a cross-sectional study. We studied 68 patients after long-term cure (13±1 yr) of acromegaly and 68 matched controls. We compared these data with 60 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMAs) and 60 matched controls. Psychopathology was assessed using the Apathy Scale, Irritability Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire short-form, and personality was assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form (DAPPs). Cognitive function was assessed by 11 tests. Compared with matched controls, patients cured from acromegaly scored significantly worse on virtually all psychopathology questionnaires and on several subscales of the DAPPs. Compared with NFMA patients, patients cured from acromegaly scored worse on negative affect (P=0.050) and somatic arousal (P=0.009) and seven of 18 subscales of the DAPPs (Pmaladaptive personality traits but not cognitive dysfunction, compared with matched controls and patients treated for NFMA. These results suggest irreversible effects of previous GH excess, rather than effects of pituitary adenomas per se and/or their treatment, on the central nervous system.

  19. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associated factors of self-reported psychopathology and health related quality of life among men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV/AIDS in Dalian, China: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Wang, Feng; Lolokote, Sainyugu; Jia, Yong; Chen, Min; Tong, Wei; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Despite the availability of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART), the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HIVMSM) in China remains poor. This study aimed to explore the relationship between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL among HIVMSM in Dalian, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 112 HIVMSM. Symptom check list 90 (SCL 90): a measure of psychopathology and World Health Organization quality of life in HIV infection (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref): a measure of HRQoL were used. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were employed to explore the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in HIVMSM. Out of the total 112 HIVMSM cases, 9 (8 %) cases were homosexuals and 103 (92 %) ones were bisexuals. The participants who had low family income (P = 0.001), perceived discrimination (P = 0.001) and lack of regular attendance in medical follow-ups (P = 0.014) reported poorer HRQoL than their counterparts. Somatization, obsession, depression, phobia and overall SCL 90 scores in self-reported psycholpathology had a negative impact on the domains of HRQoL among HIVMSM. Total quality of life was predicted by family income, perceived discrimination, and medical follow-up attendance. Self-reported psychopathology was negatively correlated with HRQoL in HIVMSM. The Strategies that target MSM focusing on linking and engaging HIV-positive patients in medical care is the key step to improve their HRQoL. More emphasis is needed on the newly diagnosed HIVMSM in Dalian in order to develop a more targeted intervention to prevent perceived discrimination and lack of proper medical follow-up services. The trial registration number does not require for this manuscript. The study is cross-sectional design that do not involve intervention at all, it is not a clinical trial.

  1. A skin-picking disorder case report: a psychopathological explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.

  2. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  3. The handbook of forensic psychopathology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment explores the relationship between psychopathology and criminal behaviour in juveniles and adults. It provides a detailed explanation of the developmental pathway from the process of increasing criminal behaviour and becoming a forensic patient,

  4. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  5. CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.; Malhotra, Anil

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is propo...

  6. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  7. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G

    2014-01-01

    The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  8. Fundamental concepts of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Debajit Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.

  9. Personality profiles and psychopathology among students exposed to dating violence at theObafemi AwolowoUniversity, Ile-Ife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boladale, Mapayi; Yetunde, Oladimeji; Adesanmi, Akinsulore; Olutayo, Aloba; Olanrewaju, Ibigbami

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence is a complex phenomenon, and researchers continue to examine a wide range of precursors and contributing factors. Evidence indicates that violent intimate partners may be more likely to have personality disorders and dependency and attachment problems compared with non-violent ones. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the interaction between the personality profiles, pattern of psychopathology, and dating violence among university students in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. The study utilized a cross-sectional survey design with a total of 400 students selected using a multistage sampling technique. They completed the Sociodemographic Data Schedule, the Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Univariate analysis was used to determine the prevalence of dating violence, psychopathology, and personality traits, and these were expressed in percentages. Association at bivariate level was assessed using chi-square and at multivariate level using logistic regression and correlations as was appropriate depending on the type of variable. The age of the respondents ranged between 18 and 35 years (M = 21.44, SD = 2.99). The prevalence of dating violence in the previous 12 months was 34%, and the prevalence of psychopathology was 15%. In the logistic regression model constructed, it was found that the significant predictors of dating violence were the psychoticism and neuroticism personality traits, which were also found to be positive correlates of psychopathology. The magnitude of dating violence found in this study is comparable with those found in other countries of the world. This study found an association between dating violence and personality in the study population and also between certain personality traits and psychopathology. The personality profiles of students could affect their interpersonal relationships greatly, and this fact must feature in dating violence

  10. The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders.

  11. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed.

  12. A 10-year prospective-longitudinal study of daily hassles and incident psychopathology among adolescents and young adults: interactions with gender, perceived coping efficacy, and negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-09-09

    To prospectively examine whether higher daily hassles predict a variety of incident mental disorders and respective associations vary by gender, age, perceived coping efficacy and number of negative life events. Data comes from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology Study (EDSP), a prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults from the community (n = 2797, aged 14-24 at baseline) followed up in up to 3 assessment waves over 10 years. Mental disorders were assessed at each wave using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Daily hassles, perceived coping efficacy, and negative life events were assessed at baseline using the Daily Hassles Scale, Scale for Self-Control and Coping Skills, and Munich Life Event List. In logistic regressions adjusted for gender, age, other mental disorders, perceived coping efficacy and number of negative life events at baseline, higher daily hassles at baseline predicted the incidence of any anxiety disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, any affective disorder, and major depressive episodes at follow-up (OR 1.2-1.9 per standard deviation). Daily hassles interacted with perceived coping efficacy at baseline in predicting incident panic attacks (OR 1.3) and panic disorder (OR 1.3) at follow-up, i.e., higher daily hassles only predicted incident panic pathology among individuals with low perceived coping efficacy (OR 1.6-2.0) but not high perceived coping efficacy. Moreover, the associations between daily hassles and incident mental disorders partially varied by gender and age but not by negative life events at baseline. Targeted stress management interventions among individuals with increased daily hassles might be useful to prevent the onset of anxiety and affective disorders.

  13. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  14. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathology is mental illness that has often suffered by human being. There are several factors that causes this illness, some of which are modern life characterized by materialistic, hedonistic and egoistic lives. In Islam, psychopathology which is described as a form of deviation from norms or moral values, spiritual and religion. Psychopathology is divided into three parts, namely those associated with faith, humanity and psychopathology which is associated with combination of faith and human being.Meanwhile psychotherapy is an effort to cure mental and psychiatric disorders suffered by individuals. Psychotherapy is a solution to cure various problems of mental disorders. Al-Qur’an, as the principles of Islamic teachings, contain information about psychotherapy for those who suffer from mental disorders. Religious approach is completely needed for therapy and it helps the psychopath recover from his/her mental disorders.TheQur’an could be used as a treatment as well as a preventive step, so that all human being will not suffer from mental disorders, and religious approach can bring the psychopaths closer to God, theAlmighty.

  15. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a

  16. Psychopathology in Sickle Cell Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are genetic disorders of the blood that most often affect people of ... approximately 5% of carriers develop benign hematuria. ... direct consequences of the illness on brain function and emotional ... disease, children and adolescents may have known relatives that ... to healthy children may also lead to psychopathology.

  17. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem

  18. Effects of childhood trauma on HPA-axis reactivity in women free of lifetime psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassens, Ellen R; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; van Pelt, Johannes; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to childhood trauma may induce persistent changes in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning even in the absence of current psychopathology. Because previous studies did not systematically exclude subjects with lifetime psychiatric morbidity, prevalent psychopathology may have confounded the association. In this study we investigated whether women exposed to childhood trauma, but without a history of psychiatric disorders, show alterations in HPA-axis functioning. We included 10 women exposed to significant childhood trauma and 12 non-exposed women. All women were between 29 and 64 years old,mentally and physically healthy, and without current or lifetime psychopathology. HPA-axis functioning was assessed as 1) basal activity with salivary cortisol patterns over 8 time points on two consecutive sampling days and 2) plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) reactivity over 7 time points after the combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (dex/CRH) challenge test. Basal salivary cortisol output did not differ between trauma-exposed compared to non-exposed women. Significantly blunted plasma cortisol and ACTH responses in response to dex/CRH administration were found in the trauma exposed compared to the non-exposed women (F(1,20)=5.08, p=0.04 and F(1,20)=5.23, p=0.03 respectively). Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), oral contraceptive use, and menopausal status,somewhat weakened the associations for cortisol as well as ACTH (F(1,16)=3.30, p=0.09) and F(1,16)=2.17, p=0.16 respectively), but for cortisol absolute differences in point estimates were largely unaffected.Although basal cortisol patterns were similar in the two groups, exposure to childhood trauma seemed to be related to a blunted HPA-axis reactivity in women who were free of current or lifetime psychopathology.

  19. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...... with Hazard Ratios ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 for current use compared to never use. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that it is possible to estimate the effect of never, current and previous use of HT on breast cancer using prescription data.......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  20. A Psychopathological Comparison between Delusional Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Negro, José Eduardo; Ibáñez-Casas, Inmaculada; de Portugal, Enrique; Lozano-Gutiérrez, Vanessa; Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2017-01-01

    To contribute to a better differential clinical categorisation of delusional disorder (DD) versus schizophrenia (SZ) and to add and complete evidence from previous clinical studies of DD compared to schizophrenia. A cross-sectional study using a clinical sample of 275 patients (132 patients with DD) was studied. Patients were consecutively attending public clinics located in urban and rural areas in both Andalusia and Catalonia (Spain). All participants met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for either DD or SZ. Data were gathered on sociodemographics, illness duration, Barona-Index estimation of intelligence quotient (IQ), and global functioning, along with a thorough psychopathological assessment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Comparisons between both groups were calculated using χ(2), Student t, and multivariate analysis of covariance tests. Patients with DD were older (mean [SD], 50.3 [14.6] years vs. 36.6 [11.1] years; t = 8.597; P ≤ 0.0001), were more frequently married (45.4% vs. 10.8%; χ(2) = 38.569; P ≤ 0.0001), and had a higher mean estimated premorbid IQ (111.4 vs. 105.4; t = 2.609; P ≤ 0.01). On the other hand, SZ patients were predominantly male (71.4% vs. 48.9%; χ(2) = 14.433; P ≤ 0.0001) and had greater work-related disability than DD patients (20.5% vs. 50.3%; χ(2) = 19.564; P ≤ 0.001). Overall, the DD group showed a less severe PANSS psychopathology than SZ group. Thus, total mean (SD) PANSS scores for schizophrenia and delusional disorder, respectively, were 76.2 (22.4) versus 54.1 (18.4) ( t = -8.762; P ≤ 0.0001). Moreover, patients with DD showed a better global functioning than those with SZ (62.7 [13.2] vs. 51.9 [16.9]; F = 44.114; P ≤ 0.0001). DD is a milder and distinct disorder compared to SZ in terms of psychopathology and global functionality.

  1. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  2. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  3. Commentary: How can family-based quasi-experimental designs and national registers be used to address confounding in risk factor studies of psychopathology? A reflection on Obel et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Standard observational studies have reported a robust correlation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD in offspring. In the accompanying article, Obel et al. used sibling-comparisons to explore the extent to which unmeasured familial confounding explains this association. This commentary highlights three important implications of the study. At a general level, Obel et al. illustrates how (1) family-based quasi-experimental designs and (2) national registers can be used to address confounding in risk factor studies of psychopathology. At a more specific level, the study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is probably not a causal risk factor for ADHD.

  4. The stress connection : neuroimaging studies of emotion circuits in social stress, personality, and stress-related psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, Ilya Milos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify the neural mechanisms that enable a person to adaptively respond to, and recover from stress, which was studied in healthy controls, in people with increased vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders, and in people with depression or PTSD, using m

  5. Similarities and differences in emotion regulation and psychopathology in Iranian and German school-children: A cross-cultural study

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    Niloufar Tahmouresi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: A main result of the study showed that children in Iran report more internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Culture and emotional expression may explain differences between Iranian and German children. It seems to be difficult for young children in Iran to express themselves, this may be because they are expected to show respect to maintain harmony in the family.

  6. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  7. Self-Reported Psychopathological Symptoms in Young Females with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Findings from a Cross-sectional Study

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    Varvara Laggari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS have been associated with disturbances in youths’ psychological functioning and psychosexual development. We examined self-reported psychopathological symptoms in young females with MRKHS and those with PCOS at the time of diagnosis, compared with healthy adolescents. Methods: Self-reported questionnaires to measure depression, anxiety and general psychopathological symptoms were obtained from 70 young females aged 11-20 years. Of the total sample, 24 adolescents presented with MRKHS (mean age ± SD: 17.2 ± 1.5, 22 with PCOS (mean age ± SD: 16.9±2.00 and 24 subjects were recruited as healthy age-matched controls (mean age ± SD: 17.3 ±2.2. Results: The MRKHS group showed significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms compared with the control group. Also, older MRKHS patients (18-20 years old presented significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety symptoms, phobic anxiety symptoms, and hostility than PCOS patients of the same age group. Older PCOS patients (18-20 years old reported significantly less attention problems and more somatic complaints compared with MRKHS patients and controls of the same age group. Conclusion: Young females with PCOS and especially with MRKHS appear to be a psychologically vulnerable group. A biopsychosocial approach should emphasize the assessment and treatment of the psychopathological symptoms of these patients alongside somatic treatments.

  8. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to modera

  9. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…

  10. The New Look of Behavioral Genetics in Developmental Psychopathology: Gene-Environment Interplay in Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral-genetic research to show how it can help address questions of causation in developmental psychopathology. The article focuses on studies of antisocial behavior, because these have been leading the way in investigating environmental as well as genetic influences on psychopathology. First, the article illustrates how…

  11. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  12. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  13. Preserving Subjective Wellbeing in the Face of Psychopathology : Buffering Effects of Personal Strengths and Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H; Snippe, Evelien; de Jonge, Peter; Jeronimus, Bertus F

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies on resilience have shown that people can succeed in preserving mental health after a traumatic event. Less is known about whether and how people can preserve subjective wellbeing in the presence of psychopathology. We examined to what extent psychopathology can co-exist with

  14. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  15. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  16. Does experiential avoidance mediate the effects of maladaptive coping styles on psychopathology and mental health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to

  17. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up.

  18. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    (connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world....... The distinction between mind and body or organism and environment is a matter of observational perspective. These models from empirical sciences are compatible with fundamental tenets of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics. They imply consequences for research in psychopathology: symptoms cannot...

  19. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Gadoev

    Full Text Available TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010.Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%, adolescents (4% and elderly patients (19%. Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure.Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB

  20. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

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    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  1. Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    Research in the field of pediatric sleep has grown significantly in the past 25 years. However, because much remains to be learned about the complex and dynamic relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology was created to provide an influx of cutting-edge research on this important topic. This introduction provides an overview of the special issue, with articles focusing on what different measurement approaches tells us about the intersection of sleep and developmental psychopathology; the overlap between interventions for sleep and anxiety; sleep as a potential mechanism for the development of social, emotional, and behavioral problems; and how population-based studies can be used to consider the interaction between sleep, well-being, and symptoms of psychopathology.

  2. Parental Reports of Prodromal Psychopathology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariely; Marangoni, Ciro; Grant, Marie C; Estrada, Jezelle; Faedda, Gianni L

    2017-04-01

    Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology. Stability and comorbidity of diagnoses were evaluated, and severity of symptoms for each subject was assessed by identifying the earliest occurrence of the reported symptoms causing impairment. Severe mood instability, temper tantrums, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances and aggression were among the most common signs of psychopathology reported in children diagnosed with BD before puberty. Symptoms were already apparent in the first three years in 28%, and formal diagnoses were made before the age of 8 y in the majority of cases. Retrospective parental reports of early symptoms of psychopathology in pre-pubertal children with BD revealed a very early occurrence of affective precursors (irritability and mood dysregulation) and clinical risk factors like impulsive aggression and anxiety that can precede the syndromal onset of mania by several years. These findings support previous reports suggesting a progression of symptoms from abnormal, non-specific presentations to sub-threshold and finally syndromal BD. The importance of early identification and intervention is discussed.

  3. Psychotic illness in first-time mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations: a population-based study.

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    Unnur Valdimarsdóttir

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596. Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7; high birth weight (> or = 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0; and diabetes (hazard ratio 0. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.

  4. Fundamental concepts of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology

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    Debajit Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.

  5. Parenting and Psychopathology in Sibling Pairs

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    Jiri Modestin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study explored the relationship between parenting experience in childhood as a specific aspect of the non-shared environment and the amount of psychopathology in adulthood. Sampling and Methods: 27 same-sex sibling pairs were studied. In each pair, one proband was a psychiatric outpatient, the other proband a non-patient. All probands filled in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The patients rated higher on practically all SCL-90-R scales whereas no significant differences were found with regard to the PBI ratings. With only one exception, there were no significant correlations between PBI and SCL-90-R ratings in the group of patients. In contrast, all SCL-90-R subscales correlated negatively with paternal care and half of them positively with paternal control in patients' healthy siblings. Conclusions: The degree of paternal care seems to be most closely related with lack of mental symptoms in psychiatric non-patients. In contrast, parenting does not seem to play a substantial role in patients, presenting with a higher degree of psychopathology. Obviously, environmental factors become less important, the more pronounced the pathology.

  6. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  7. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  8. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  9. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús

    2003-11-01

    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  10. Parental psychopathology and expectations for the futures of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul Andrew; King, Jake S; Mendelson, Jenna L; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2017-02-16

    The influence of parental psychopathology and parental expectations on child well-being is well documented among typically developing populations. However, to date little research has examined the relationship among these factors in families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines an observed relationship between parental psychopathology and expectations in families with children with ASD in the light of research in other populations. Twenty-four parents of children diagnosed with ASD were assessed for symptoms of psychopathology. Parents completed measures of child ASD severity as well as their expectations for possible outcomes of their child. Two main effects were found: higher parental psychopathology and ASD severity were both related to lower expectations. Interaction of ASD severity and parental psychopathology in relation to parent expectations was not observed. These results emphasize the necessity of providing services not only to individuals diagnosed with ASD, but to caregivers as well. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  12. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  13. Distress, demoralization and psychopathology: Diagnostic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. de Figueiredo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychopathology in Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD.

  15. Distress, demoralization and psychopathology: Diagnostic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.

  16. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.

  17. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  18. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00]. CONCLUSIONS: A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  19. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  20. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one´s daily life? Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Senechal de Goffredo Filho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001 of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6, regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  1. Psychopathological Development across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Daniel Offer's seminal writings in the 1960s led to a realization that normal adolescence was not characterized by turmoil and upheaval, the then prevailing view that derived from studies of clinical samples. In this paper, the research findings that have appeared over the last four decades are reviewed with respect to the overall features of…

  2. Comparative study between patients with infarction and angina about the fear of pain, anxiety pain symptoms, heart focused anxiety, psychopathology and hostility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakella P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the fear of pain, anxiety pain symptoms, heart focused anxiety, psychopathology and hostility between patients with infarction and angina. Method: Subjects were 104 patients with infarction or angina, who completed the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 and the Fear of Pain Questionnaire – III. Results: For all patients higher levels of fear and anxiety of pain, heart-focused anxiety psychopathology, and a tendency to develop a hostile attitude were observed. For angina group higher levels of fearfull thinking and total PASS-20, avoidance CAQ, somatization and anxiety (SCL-90. In addition, all patients were found to be significantly correlated (P< .005 with sex, fearfull PASS-20, physiological responses PASS-20, total PASS-20, avoidance CAQ, somatization SCL-90, anxiety SCL-90 Conclusion: There is a variety of general factors that may promote the development of cardiophobia. These processes are likely nonspecific in the sense that they increase the chance of negative emotional responding and poor affect regulatory strategies. For persons exposed to cardiac-related illnesses or persons who model the potential dangers of cardiac-related sensations, there may be an enhanced specificity to that general vulnerability.

  3. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  4. Psychopathology in the adolescent offspring of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, CG; Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA; Verhulst, FC

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and 14-months incidence of psychopathology in adolescent offspring of a bipolar parent. Method: Parent, teacher and self-report rating scales and Kiddie-SADS were used to assess 132 13-23-year-old offspring of bipolar parents. Results

  5. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  6. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  7. Effects of community stress and problems on residents' psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Jie

    2014-02-28

    The connection between community stress and problems and community residents' psychopathology is an understudied area, and a limited number of studies have reported inconsistent findings. This research aimed to estimate the effect of perceived social factors in the community environment on the residents' self-reported psychopathology. The study sample consisted of 2034 men and women from 16 selected rural counties in three provinces of China. The social factors in the village community were measured by the World Health Organization Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behaviors (WHO SUPRE-MISS) scale of Community Stress and Problems. The sychological and mental health of the individuals was assessed by (1) suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts (National Comorbidity Survey Replication or NCS-R), (2) pro-suicide attitudes (General Social Survey or GSS), (3) depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale or CES-D) and (4) suicide ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation or SSI). Multiple regressions were performed separately for each of the four psychopathologic traits with the scale of Community Stress and Problems as the major predicting variable and age, gender, education years, marital status, family annual income, family status in village and religion as the confounding correlates. It is found that community stress and problems generally increase rural Chinese residents' psychopathologies, especially issues in health care, housing and transportation, which play more important roles than others. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissociative experiences and psychopathology among Italian and Portuguese inmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattini, G.C.; Garofalo, C.; Velotti, P.; Saggino, A.; Romanelli, R.; Espírito Santo, H.; Costa, M.; Saggino, A.

    2017-01-01

    The association between dissociation and psychopathological symptoms is well established, yet studies with inmates are lacking. If higher rates of dissociation and psychiatric symptoms are reported in inmate samples, it is not clear whether they represent two separate, albeit related, characteristic

  9. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  10. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

  11. Preadolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology : a developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mesman (Judi)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the field of child psychopathology research, a growing number of longitudinal studies have investigated early developmental precursors of maladaptive outcomes (see for reviews: Campbell, 1995; Koot, 1995; Sameroff and Seifer, 1990). The multitude of theoretical assumptions and related

  12. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  13. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  14. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeyers Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling, informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are

  15. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muller, Ueli C

    2011-04-07

    Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling), informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners\\' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are used. These

  16. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  17. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  18. Psychopathology in hearing-impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Stephanie Carla Petra Maria

    2013-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to objectify levels of psychopathology in hearing-impaired children, and to investigate the influence of

  19. Developmental Psychopathology: Pathways to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…

  20. Characterizing the magnitude of the relation between self-reported childhood parentification and adult psychopathology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Decoster, Jamie; White, Nyshetia; Voltz, Mukesha L

    2011-10-01

    Several decades of research have shown that people who experience parentification in childhood are at an increased risk of experiencing psychopathology in adulthood. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the magnitude of the relation between self-reported parentification experienced in childhood and psychopathology evidenced in adulthood. Results from 12 nonoverlapping studies (N = 2,472), which were conducted between 1984 and 2010, revealed a small significant but reliable effect (r = .14; 95% confidence interval = .10 to .18). Moderator analyses were performed to explore possible explanations for the variance evidenced between parentification and psychopathology. Moderators that were examined include population factors, methodological factors, and type of psychopathology. The present findings indicate that four factors-types of psychopathology, type of sample, race, and parentification measure used-moderated the relation between parentification and psychopathology. The meta-analytic findings that emerged highlight the need for additional empirical research. Possible explanations and clinical

  1. [Psychopathology of schizophrenia and brain imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    2008-05-01

    separated from idiopathic schizophrenias as symptomatic by neurohistopathological findings of post mortem examinations and e.g. diagnosed as sporadic, atypical encephalitis. The cenesthetic type had a pilot function for the development of the BSC, because in its course the basic symptomatology determined as well the prodromes before the first psychotic episode, as after that the reversible postpsychotic basic stages respectively the irreversible pure defect syndromes, into which two thirds of cenesthetic schizophrenias terminate; then, because with this type the first time has been observed, that from initially quite uncharacteristic basic symptoms (BS) (level 1 BS), qualitatively peculiar basic symptoms (level 2 BS) and then distinct psychotic symptoms, i.e. bodily hallucinations arise; and because in patients with persisting pure deficiency syndromes neuromorphological changes in the sense of a basal ganglia syndrome could be proved. The clinical neuroradiological correlation study in 195 schizophrenic patients with slight residues or full remissions and 212 chronic schizophrenias as well as in 535 patients with organic psychosyndromes of different diagnostic groups reveal that brain imaging and biological-psychiatric research are only promising in close connection with clinical psychopathology and observation of the course, if they aim to assign certain structural or functional cerebral disturbances with certain clinical symptoms and syndromes. In this respect schizophrenic, schizoaffective and affective idiopathic psychosyndromes do not differ from somatically based psychoses in definable brain diseases. With functional-dynamic parameters the differentiation in process active and inactive stages has to be made guided by the actual clinical psychopathological syndrome at the moment of the collecting of the electroencephalographic, neurochemical, fMRI or PET findings. The reasons of inconsistencies of the EEG, PEG, CT, MRI, PET findings are analysed and it is shown that

  2. Alemtuzumab as rescue therapy in a cohort of 16 aggressive multiple sclerosis patients previously treated by Mitoxantrone: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Emmanuelle; Deburghgraeve, Véronique; Lester, Marie-Antoinette; Cardiet, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Edan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe safety and neurological impact of alemtuzumab as last-line rescue therapy in aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, previously treated by Mitoxantrone (MITOX). Between June 2004 and October 2013, 13 patients received alemtuzumab at 20 mg/day and 3 at 12 mg/day for 5 days. EDSS, relapses, secondary progression were prospectively assessed 12 and 6 months before treatment, at baseline and every 3 months. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years [1-10]. Mean age at alemtuzumab start was 40 years [26-49] for 8 Secondary Progressive (SP) and 30 years [26-35] for 8 Relapsing-Remitting (RR) patients. MS duration was 13.7 (± 3) and 8.3 (± 4) years, respectively. During the 12 months before alemtuzumab, annual relapse rate was 0.75 and 3.14, respectively and the 16 patients accumulated 2-30 new gadolinium enhancing lesions. 4 patients (suboptimal responders) received alemtuzumab during MITOX and 12 patients 1-7.8 years after MITOX. Out of 8 SPMS, 2 were disease free up to last visit (4.7 and 8 years), 5 improved or stabilized but only transiently and 1 worsened. Out of 8 RRMS, 1 remained stable up to last visit (8.7 years) despite 1 relapse and active MRI at 18 months and 7 improved (1-4 point EDSS): 4 remained disease free up to last visit (12, 24, 38 months and 7 years), 2 were successfully retreated at 25 and 33 months and 1 worsened progressively 24 months after alemtuzumab. 2 patients developed Grave's disease and 1 hypothyroidism. Alemtuzumab controls aggressive RRMS despite previous use of MITOX.

  3. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  4. Recall of threat and submissiveness in childhood and psychopathology: the mediator effect of self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Paula; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Amaral, Vânia; Duarte, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Research has robustly shown that early negative parenting experiences are associated with psychopathology and self-criticism in adulthood. This study investigates recall of personal feelings of perceived threat and subordination in childhood and its relation to psychopathology. In addition, we explore the mediator role of self-criticism in this association. A sample of 193 subjects from the general population completed self-report questionnaires measuring the study variables. The mediator analyses suggested that the impact of submissiveness experiences in childhood on depression and anxiety is mediated by self-criticism. Our findings highlight the route through which the recall of personal feelings of perceived involuntary subordination to parents contributes to depression and anxiety in adulthood. Although the relation between early experiences of abuse and later psychological problems is now well established, there has been less study on subtler forms of threat and subordinate behaviour in childhood. Given ours and previous findings, therapists should be aware of, and prone to explore, these early experiences. Most studies exploring early negative experiences mainly refer to attachment theory-related constructs (e.g., attachment style). We also highlight the importance of noting rank structure and rank style in the family. Self-criticism seems to be a key process in the relation between early aversive experiences of subordination and psychopathology. Given the idea that self-reassuring operates through a different affect system, helping people develop inner warmth and compassion for the self may be important to counteract feelings of self-hatred and self-attack. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A phase I study of imatinib mesylate in combination with chlorambucil in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebb, Jonathan; Assouline, Sarit; Rousseau, Caroline; Desjardins, Pierre; Caplan, Stephen; Egorin, Merrill J; Amrein, Lilian; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence

    2011-09-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, has the potential to indirectly inhibit DNA repair. This mechanism of action has been shown to mediate sensitization to chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate this effect in vivo, we performed a phase I study of chlorambucil combined with imatinib in relapsed CLL patients. The three dose levels studied included imatinib at 300, 400, or 600 mg/day. Imatinib was given on days 1-10, and chlorambucil (8 mg/m(2) daily) was given on days 3-7 of a 28-day cycle (up to 6 cycles). Eleven patients participated in this study. Low-grade gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Forty-five percent of patients responded (two unconfirmed CRs and three PRs). Two responding patients were fludarabine refractory. The in vitro IC(50) of chlorambucil alone or in the presence of 5 μM imatinib in CLL lymphocytes correlated with the decrease in lymphocyte counts on day 15. Imatinib plasma concentrations achieved in patients were in the range of those effective in in vitro sensitization studies. The combination of chlorambucil and imatinib in patients with previously treated CLL was well tolerated and showed evidence of clinical efficacy. Based on our results, we recommend the 400 mg daily dose of imatinib on days 1-10 with 8 mg/m(3) chlorambucil on days 3-7 every 28 days as the phase II dose. This represents the first clinical trial examining the potential synergy between a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a conventional alkylating agent for the treatment of CLL.

  6. Self-centrality, basic symptoms model and psychopathology in schizophrenia.

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    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The study's aim was to empirically derive the psychopathological constellation associated with self-centrality (i.e. non-delusional self-referential attitude) by seeking an interpretation in the light of the 'Basic Symptoms Model' of schizophrenic psychopathology. Eighty-four patients with an established schizophrenic illness receiving maintenance treatment at the Psychiatry Section of the Parma University Neuroscience Department were examined. The Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were administered to all subjects to determine levels of positive, disorganized, negative and depressive symptoms, as well as alexithymia. Subjective experiences, including non-delusional self-centrality, were explored by means of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. Logistic regression detected three different psychopathological domains (delusional, alexithymic, and basic body symptoms) strongly associated with self-centrality. Among these the most influential independent variable was basic body symptoms. These results suggest that impaired lived body experience (i.e. protopathic body disattunement) is a psychopathologic condition concomitant with the emergence of autocentric polarization of experience (i.e. self-centrality).

  7. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

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    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed.

  8. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  9. Psychopathology and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetes

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    Francesco Rotella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.

  10. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

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    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  11. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

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    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response.

  12. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism.

  13. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  14. Phase III randomized study of bendamustine compared with chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Wolfgang U; Lissichkov, Toshko; Aldaoud, Ali; Liberati, Anna; Loscertales, Javier; Herbrecht, Raoul; Juliusson, Gunnar; Postner, Gerhard; Gercheva, Liana; Goranov, Stefan; Becker, Martin; Fricke, Hans-Joerg; Huguet, Francoise; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Klein, Peter; Tremmel, Lothar; Merkle, Karlheinz; Montillo, Marco

    2009-09-10

    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients (chlorambucil 0.8 mg/kg (Broca's normal weight) orally on days 1 and 15; treatment cycles were repeated every 4 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. The response to treatment was assessed according to National Cancer Institute Working Group criteria, and the final determination of response was made by a blinded independent review committee. A total of 319 patients were randomly assigned (162 bendamustine, 157 chlorambucil). Complete or partial responses were achieved in 110 (68%) of 162 bendamustine-treated and 48 (31%) of 157 chlorambucil-treated patients (P chlorambucil (31% v 2%). Median progression-free survival was 21.6 months with bendamustine and 8.3 months with chlorambucil (P chlorambucil (median, 21.8 v 8.0 months). Hematologic National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more common with bendamustine than with chlorambucil (occurring in 40% v 19% of patients). Severe infections (grade 3 to 4) occurred in 8% of bendamustine-treated patients and 3% of chlorambucil-treated patients. Bendamustine offers significantly greater efficacy than chlorambucil, and a manageable toxicity profile, when used as first-line therapy in patients with advanced CLL.

  15. Integrating Sonography Training Into Undergraduate Medical Education: A Study of the Previous Exposure of One Institution's Incoming Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Davis, Joshua; Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Heil, Daniel; Berg, Katherine; Davis, Robyn; Berg, Dale

    2015-07-01

    Sonography is a crucial and versatile tool within the field of medicine. Recent advancements in technology have led to increased use of point-of-care sonography. We designed a survey to assess prior point-of-care sonography training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2012 and 2013, we surveyed incoming interns (n = 154 and 145, respectively) regarding point-of-care sonography training received during medical school. The survey questions included formal didactic sessions, bedside instruction, and the use of simulation technology. One-fourth (26.3% in 2012 and 23.4% in 2013) of responding interns reported having never done an ultrasound scan at the bedside. In 2012 and 2013, 55.0% and 55.6% of respondents reported never having done an ultrasound scan in a simulation center, respectively. Interns agreed that sonography education should be provided during medical school. On average, interns disagreed with the statement that sonography should be taught in residency only. There was no significant difference in the sex or general previous experience with sonography across both intern classes. Point-of-care sonography is inconsistently taught in medical school. The interns in our study also thought that sonography education should begin in medical school, and sonography should be taught by using simulation and at the bedside. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

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    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  17. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  18. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

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    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  19. [Music, composers and psychopathology: the psychiatrist's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, E

    2011-01-01

    A first reason for the psychiatrist to be interested in music, musicians and their artistic work, comes from the strong biographical and scientific evidence linking mood disorders and in particular, bipolar disorder, to artistic creativity. Moreover, a family association between psychopathology and creativity has been found in several studies. Important changes in mood, but also cognition, personality and behaviour can occur during all phases of manic-depressive illness and these changes have potentially important effects on creativity and productivity. Those changes are usually opposite in mania and depression. Many bipolar artists see emotional turmoil as essential to their creativity, which has therapeutical but also ethical consequences. A second area of interest is the impaired emotional recognition in schizophrenic patients, not only for visual material (faces or contextual scenes) but also for auditive material (voice or music) leading to impaired social interactions in this condition.

  20. Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action. The pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A

    2014-09-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cognitive fusion (CF-BI) on the relationship between body dissatisfaction, unfavourable social comparisons, and eating psychopathology in a sample of 345 female students. Results from path analyses show that the impact of unfavourable social comparisons on eating psychopathology is fully mediated by CF-BI. Moreover, CF-BI also revealed a mediational effect on the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and the severity of eating symptoms, in spite of the fact that a direct effect of body dissatisfaction still exists. The tested model highlights the crucial role that cognitive fusion, in the specific domain of body image, plays in the relationship between risk factors and the severity of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Furthermore, these findings present empirical support for the relevance of addressing acceptance and cognitive defusion techniques to prevent and treat eating disorders.

  1. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  2. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  3. Exploring the complexity of the childhood trait-psychopathology association: Continuity, pathoplasty, and complication effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; De Caluwé, Elien; Verbeke, Lize

    2016-02-01

    Four different models have been generally proposed as plausible etiological explanations for the relation between personality and psychopathology, namely, the vulnerability, complication, pathoplasty, and spectrum or continuity model. The current study entails a joint investigation of the continuity, pathoplasty, and complication models to explain the nature of the associations between early maladaptive traits and psychopathology over time in 717 referred and community children (54.4% girls), aged from 8 to 14 years. Across a 2-year time span, maladaptive traits and psychopathology were measured at three different time points, thereby relying on comprehensive and age-specific dimensional operationalizations of both personality symptoms and psychopathology. The results demonstrate overall compelling evidence for the continuity model, finding more focused support for pathoplasty and complication effects for particular combinations of personality symptoms and psychopathology dimensions. As expected, the continuity associations were found to be more robust for those personality-psychopathology associations that are conceptually closer, such as the emotional instability/introversion-internalizing problems association and the disagreeableness-externalizing problems association. Continuity associations were also stronger when personality was considered from a maladaptive rather than from a general trait perspective. The implication of the findings for the treatment of psychopathology and personality symptoms are briefly discussed.

  4. Hysteria, hypnosis, psychopathology. History and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L

    1975-12-01

    A historical outline is given of the search for an explanation of the still elusive nature of hysteria and hypnosis, their mutual relationship, and that which they bear to psychopathology. Charcot regarded hypnosis as an artificially induced hysterical neurosis, and it was he who first introduced Freud to these two states. Freud was the first to see in hypnosis an experimental instrument for understanding psychopathological mechanisms. His subsequent conceptualization of psychoanalysis derived from these two phenomena at this decisive period. In 1895 Freud attempted to achieve a psychophysiological synthesis of the mental apparatus in his "Project for a Scientific Psychology," but then decided not to publish it. Whether or not recent advance in neurophysiology are sufficiently important bo bring about this synthesis remains an open question. In recent years some psychoanalysts have become interested in hypnosis, which one of them described as a focus for psychophysiological and psychoanalytic investigations. Any theory of the psychical apparatus which does not account for such an obvious psychical phenomenon must necessarily be incomplete. Since Charcot, hysteria presents hardly any new openings for experimental work. It is suggested that the solution of psyche-soma interaction might be sought in the study of hypnosis. It is postulated that hypnosis is a "fourth organismic state," not as yet objectifiable (in contradistinction to the waking state, sleep, and dreaming): a kind of natural or inborn mechanism which acts as one of the regulators of man's relationships with the environment. The author discusses briefly the aims and methodology of future interdisciplinary research on hypnosis, and the study of the transition from one state of consciousness to another, and their potential application to a wide range of subjects, namely, wherever man's relations with the environment are involved.

  5. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Persistence of cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous preeclampsia: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, Fatma; Solak, Yalcin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Bulut, Kadir; Dogan, Selcuk; Sarli, Bahadr; Acmaz, Gokhan; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, and lifestyle modifications are recommended. It was suggested that preeclampsia may increase the prevalence of various CV disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. Here, we investigate the role of serum uric acid in preeclampsia in the development of CV complications. This was an observational case-control study that compared women with history of preeclampsia (n = 25) with age-matched controls with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 20) who were followed for at least 5 years. Measurements included clinical and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound-measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid, as well as clinical and demographic features. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were compared in women with and without previous preeclampsia. At the time of index gestation, preeclamptic women had higher serum uric acid values (4.36 ± 0.61 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 mg/dL, P preeclampsia were more likely to have hypertension and had higher serum uric acid levels, higher microalbuminuria and CIMT levels, and lower FMD values than did the patients who did not have preeclampsia. The 2 groups were similar with regard to various ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Univariate associates of FMD were history of preeclampsia and the current hypertension status. Microalbuminuria correlated with gestational uric acid levels (coefficient of correlation of 0.40, P = 0.01 for FMD and coefficient of correlation of 0.37, P = 0.01 for CIMT, respectively). Preeclampsia might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular risk factors at least 5 years after index pregnancy. Serum uric acid and microalbuminuria may be mechanistic mediators of heightened risk, along with impaired endothelial function in preeclampsia.

  7. Sitagliptin added to previously taken antidiabetic agents on insulin resistance and lipid profile: a 2-year study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Ragonesi, Pietro Dario; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Bianchi, Lucio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control and insulin resistance were maintained also after 2 years of therapy and whether sitagliptin could be effective also in improving lipid profile. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 205 patients with type 2 diabetes in therapy with different antidiabetic drugs were randomized to add sitagliptin 100 mg once a day or placebo to their current therapy. We evaluated at the baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months the following parameters: body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (Tg). Sitagliptin, added to previously taken antidiabetic agents, proved to be effective in improving glycemic profile, reducing HbA1c by -17.5%, FPG by -12.7%, PPG by -20.5%. Regarding insulin resistance, sitagliptin decreased FPI by -8.3% and HOMA-IR by -20.0%, confirming that what have been already reported in short-term studies can be applied also after 2 years of treatment. Sitagliptin also reduced body weight by -4.3%. Our study also showed the positive effect of sitagliptin on lipid profile; in particular, sitagliptin decreased TC by -13.3%, LDL-C by -20.4%, and Tg by -32.3%, and also increased HDL-C by + 13.6%. Sitagliptin proved to be effective on glycemic profile and insulin resistance even after 2 years of therapy and to be effective in improving body weight and lipid profile. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Comorbidity Among Dimensions of Childhood Psychopathology: Converging Evidence from Behavior Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. We also discuss the implications of research in the search for specific genes that influence childhood psychopathology and suggest avenues for new research.

  9. [Psychopathology in children with dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, E

    2010-08-01

    The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential. Next we focus on co-morbidity. Firstly, we look at psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, dyscalculia/math disability, dyslexia/reading difficulties, dysphasia accompanied by verbal dyspraxia, intelligence deficiency, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Secondly, we examine psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia. Children with developmental coordination disorder are less inclined to participate in collective games. As a result, there is a greater risk of them becoming lonely and isolated. They have higher child behaviour checklist (CBCL) scores in the somatic problems scale as well as for anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. They have low self-perception in sports as well as at school, which is related to their physical appearance and their self-esteem, attention deficit and externalized behaviour. These children are often at risk of academic failure and they suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and functional disorders. And finally, we believe that it is important to touch on the impact of these disorders on the family.

  10. Substance use or abuse, internet use, psychopathology and suicidal ideation in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousoño Serrano, Matilde; Al-Halabí, Susana; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Díaz-Mesa, Eva María; Galván, Gonzalo; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Bousoño, Manuel; García-Portilla, María Paz; Iglesias, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio

    2017-01-12

    Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women). This study adds to the possibility of knowing whether the SEYLE data is confirmed in a relatively isolated and recession hit province of Spain. In the present study the following consumption rates were obtained: a) alcohol 11.89% in males and 7.86% in females; b) tobacco: 4.15% and 5.44 % in males and females respectively; c) other drugs: 6.98% in males and 4.44% in females; d) maladaptive or pathological Internet use: 14.53% and 20.77% in males and females respectively. The variables that predict suicide ideation in the logistic regression model were: previous suicide attempts, depression, maladaptive or pathological Internet use, peer problems and alcohol consumption.

  11. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  13. Examining Differences between Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Those with Specific Language Disorders on Cognition, Emotions and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Sideridis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences between students with LD and SLI on emotional psychopathology and cognitive variables. In particular, the study examined whether cognitive, emotional, and psychopathology variables are significant discriminatory variables of speech and language disordered groups versus those…

  14. Examining Differences between Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Those with Specific Language Disorders on Cognition, Emotions and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Sideridis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences between students with LD and SLI on emotional psychopathology and cognitive variables. In particular, the study examined whether cognitive, emotional, and psychopathology variables are significant discriminatory variables of speech and language disordered groups versus those…

  15. Adolescent Emotionality and Effortful Control : Core Latent Constructs and Links to Psychopathology and Functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart's temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains 3 main components: positive emotionalit

  16. Central Arctic atmospheric summer conditions during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS: contrasting to previous expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tjernström

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as that described in this paper: the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as some key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean, the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of

  17. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  18. A post-earthquake psychopathological investigation in Armenia: methodology, summary of findings, and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachadourian, Vahe; Armenian, Haroutune; Demirchyan, Anahit; Melkonian, Arthur; Hovanesian, Ashot

    2016-07-01

    The post-earthquake psychopathological investigation (PEPSI) was designed to probe the short-and long-term effects of the earthquake in northern Armenia on 7 December 1988 on survivors' mental and physical health. Four phases of this study have been conducted to date, and, overall, more than 80 per cent of a sub-sample of 1,773 drawn from an initial cohort of 32,743 was successfully followed during 2012. This paper describes the methodology employed in the evaluation, summarises previous findings, details the current objectives, and examines the general characteristics of the sample based on the most recent follow-up phase outcomes. Despite a significant decrease in psychopathology rates between 1990 and 2012, prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among study participants in 2012 were greater than 15 and 26 per cent, respectively. The paper also notes the strengths and limitations of the study vis-à-vis future research and highlights the importance and potential practical implications of similar assessments and their outcomes.

  19. EXCESSIVE INTERNET USE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: THE ROLE OF COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.

  20. The Bender-Gestalt psychopathology scale: failure to infer validity in a school-aged sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, E D

    1993-06-01

    The concurrent validity of Hutt's (1977) empirical psychopathology scale of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test was evaluated among three groups of younger school-aged children within the 7-to-10- year age range (M = 109.1): adjustment disordered, conduct disordered, and nonclinical controls (n = 40/group). Excellent interscorer reliability was achieved with approximately 2 hr of self-study of the scoring manual. Although the conduct-disordered group was significantly more immature on Koppitz' Developmental Scoring System, there were no significant differences among groups on the psychopathology scale when visual-motor development was covaried (M = 50.5). This was an unexpected result, given Hutt's initial validation study among school-aged children. The psychopathology scale was not inferred to be valid among adolescents in the only known concurrent validation study. Pending supportive validation research, the psychopathology scale should not be employed in the clinical assessment of younger school-aged children.

  1. The RDoC initiative and the structure of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; DeYoung, Colin G

    2016-03-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project represents a welcome effort to circumvent the limitations of psychiatric categories as phenotypes for psychopathology research. Here, we describe the hierarchical and dimensional structure of phenotypic psychopathology and illustrate how this structure provides phenotypes suitable for RDoC research on neural correlates of psychopathology. A hierarchical and dimensional approach to psychopathology phenotypes holds great promise for delineating connections between neuroscience constructs and the patterns of affect, cognition, and behavior that constitute manifest psychopathology.

  2. Relationship between internet addiction, psychopathology and self-esteem among university students

    OpenAIRE

    Budak, Ersin; Taymur, Ibrahim; Askin, Rustem; Gungor, Buket Belkiz; Demirci, Hakan; Akgul, Almila Ikra; Sahin, Zeynep Anil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Internet addiction is closely associated with general psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between internet addiction, psychopathology and selfesteem among university students. Methods. One hundred and eighty-five volunteer university students were involved in this study. The participants are evaluated with socio-demographic data form, Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Symptom Check List (SCL-90), Rosenberg Self-Est...

  3. Current Cognitive Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)

  4. Discussion on further studies to measure and evaluate fitness and motor performance for preschool children; summary and previous studies in Japan and future consideratin

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Tomohiko; Demura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses and summarizes previous studies dealing with fitness and motor performance in preschool children from the viewpoint of measurement and evaluation, and determines topics for further studies. The studies reviewed in this article were mainly published in the “Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences” (edited by the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences), and the “Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine” (edite...

  5. Broadening the scope of research on emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in the study of emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology, researchers have predominantly focused on covert emotion regulation strategies-that is, those strategies that occur within the individual (e.g., cognitive reappraisal, suppression). Conversely, less attention has been devoted to the examination of the relationship between psychopathology and overt emotion regulation strategies (e.g., drinking alcohol, seeking advice). This has resulted in a limited understanding of the complex repertoire of emotion regulation strategies that individuals possess, and how patterns in the use of strategies might relate to psychopathology. We asked 218 undergraduates to report on their habitual use of 15 covert and overt emotion regulation strategies and symptoms of seven different mental disorders. Overt strategies were associated with symptoms and, at times, they predicted psychopathology above and beyond the more frequently studied covert strategies. These findings have implications for developing a more sophisticated understanding of patterns of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  6. Differential relationships in the association of the Big Five personality traits with positive mental health and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Sanne M.A.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Kovács, Viktòria; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the two continua model of mental health, psychopathology and positive mental health (emotional, psychological, and social well-being) are related but distinct continua. This study investigates the two continua model by examining whether psychopathology and positive mental health show di

  7. School Attendance Problems and Youth Psychopathology: Structural Cross-Lagged Regression Models in Three Longitudinal Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Langer, David A.; Wood, Patricia A.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Eddy, J. Mark; Ialongo, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using 3 longitudinal datasets (Ns = 20,745, 2,311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or biannually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged…

  8. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  9. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…

  10. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  11. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…

  12. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  13. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  14. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression.

  15. Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Oulis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.

  16. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  17. Randomized, multicenter, phase 2 study (EVOLUTION) of combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide in previously untreated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shaji; Flinn, Ian; Richardson, Paul G; Hari, Parameswaran; Callander, Natalie; Noga, Stephen J; Stewart, A Keith; Turturro, Francesco; Rifkin, Robert; Wolf, Jeffrey; Estevam, Jose; Mulligan, George; Shi, Hongliang; Webb, Iain J; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2012-05-10

    Combinations of bortezomib (V) and dexamethasone (D) with either lenalidomide (R) or cyclophosphamide (C) have shown significant efficacy. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated VDC, VDR, and VDCR in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM). Patients received V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11) and D 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15), with either C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8) and R 15 mg (days 1-14; VDCR), R 25 mg (days 1-14; VDR), C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8; VDC) or C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15; VDC-mod) in 3-week cycles (maximum 8 cycles), followed by maintenance with V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15, 22) for four 6-week cycles (all arms)≥very good partial response was seen in 58%, 51%, 41%, and 53% (complete response rate of 25%, 24%, 22%, and 47%) of patients (VDCR, VDR, VCD, and VCD-mod, respectively); the corresponding 1-year progression-free survival was 86%, 83%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Common adverse events included hematologic toxicities, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, and gastrointestinal disturbances. All regimens were highly active and well tolerated in previously untreated MM, and, based on this trial, VDR and VCD-mod are preferred for clinical practice and further comparative testing. No substantial advantage was noted with VDCR over the 3-drug combinations. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00507442).

  18. Mentalization and dissociation in the context of trauma: Implications for child psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Ensink, K.; Bégin, M; Normandin, L.; Godbout, N.; Fonagy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Dissociation is a common reaction subsequent to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and has been identified as a risk factor for child psychopathology. There is also evidence that mentalization contributes to resilience in the context of abuse. However, at this stage little is known regarding the relationship between mentalization and dissociation, and their respective contributions to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to examine pathways from CSA to depressive symptoms, externalizing behav...

  19. [Clinico-psychopathological characteristics of a group of mental patients identified at the internal medicine clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1990-01-01

    The authors provide the clinico-psychopathological characteristics of mental patients revealed for the first time during a clinico-epidemiological study of the district therapeutic population. The predominance among them of the somatic psychopathological syndromes was established. The overwhelming majority of those conditions were found to belong to multifactorial mental diseases in whose etiology and pathogenesis the key role is played by interaction between exogenous (psychogenous) and endogenous (thymopathic) factors.

  20. Interparental conflicts and the development of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to analyze to what extent inter parental conflicts and divorce act as predictors of psychopathological development in young people from intact and divorced families. The participants were 827 Portuguese young people between 13 and 25 years of age. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory were used. Significant difference in the psychopathology were found with regard to gender, age and family structure. As verified, the intensity and lack of solution of the inter parental conflicts positively predict the development of psychopathology. In conclusion, the children whose parents are separated or divorced perceive the frequency and intensity of inter parental conflicts more highly, but present a higher solution level of the inter parental conflicts and higher psychopathology levels. Nevertheless, the family structure has no moderating effect on the interaction between the inter parental conflicts and the development of pyschopathology.

  1. Perfectionism and eating psychopathology among dancers: the role of high standards and self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Huw; Arcelus, Jon; Geach, Nicole; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the associations between conscientious perfectionism (high standards), self-evaluative perfectionism (self-criticism) and eating psychopathology among dancers. A sample of 244 female dancers, with a mean age of 20.11 years (standard deviation=1.97) completed the Perfectionism Inventory and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Self-evaluative perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology (eating restraint, eating concern, weight concern and shape concern). This relationship was not moderated by conscientious perfectionism. The mediation analyses showed that although conscientious perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology, this relationship was fully mediated by self-evaluative perfectionism. These findings demonstrate the greater influence of self-evaluative perfectionism, rather than conscientious perfectionism, on eating psychopathology in dancers.

  2. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general.

  3. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-09-12

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  4. Psychopathology and Parenting Practices of Parents of Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth; Stoessel, Brian; Herbert, Sharonne

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations among different types of parental psychopathology and several specific parenting practices. Design Mothers (n = 182) and fathers (n = 126) of preschool-aged children with behavior problems completed questionnaires assessing parental psychopathology and parenting practices, and participated in observed parent-child interactions. Results Maternal depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and several different personality disorder traits were related to maternal negativity, laxness, and lack of warmth. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorder symptoms predicted mothers’ parenting practices, even when statistically controlling for other types of psychopathology. For fathers, those same symptoms, dependent and avoidant symptoms, and substance abuse symptoms were associated with self-reported lax parenting. Evidence emerged that psychopathology in one parent was associated with less overreactivity in the other parent. Conclusions Many aspects of parents’ psychological functioning play a role in determining specific parenting practices, including personality disorder symptoms. PMID:22737040

  5. Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory as a framework for research on personality-psychopathology associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Beck, Ilse; Claes, Laurence; Vandereycken, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) presupposes individual differences in the sensitivity of basic brain systems that respond to punishing and reinforcing stimuli. These differences are thought to underlie the personality dimensions of anxiety and impulsivity, and to have relevance for psychopathology. The present article aims at reviewing RST-based research on personality-psychopathology associations. First, RST and its revisions are described and the link between RST systems and personality dimensions is discussed. Second, studies investigating associations between RST systems and specific types of psychopathology are summarized. Although the available research yields a rather consistent picture with respect to constellations of BIS/BAS sensitivity that are associated with specific types of psychopathology, it also provides a clear indication that much work remains to be done. The discussion section highlights several topics that deserve future research attention.

  6. Exposure to Community Violence, Psychopathology, and Personality Traits in Russian Youth

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    Roman Koposov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research with the US inner-city youth demonstrated the hazardous effects of community violence exposure. It remains unclear, however, whether these findings are generalizable to other cultures and populations. Furthermore, the role of factors influencing the processing of traumatic events such as personality has not been investigated. Two groups of Russian adolescents (community youth (=546 and male delinquents (=352 completed questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, conduct problems, internalizing psychopathology and personality. The study demonstrates that the relationships between exposure to violence and psychopathology are similar across different populations within the same culture (community youth and juvenile delinquents, suggesting similar mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The patterns of these relationships were also similar for boys and girls, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms across gender. Hence, the effects of community violence exposure are generalizable to other cultures outside the US. The associations between personality traits and specific types of behaviors also tend to be similar across different populations. Higher levels of novelty seeking were related to more severe problem behaviors and to higher levels of witnessing and victimization, whereas higher levels of harm avoidance were related to higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress.

  7. Spatial proximity and the risk of psychopathology after a terrorist attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Emch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with the relation of proximity to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent psychopathology have produced conflicting results. The goals of this analysis are to assess the appropriateness of using Bayesian hierarchical spatial techniques to answer the question of the role of proximity to a mass trauma as a risk factor for psychopathology. Using a set of individual-level Medicaid data for New York State, and controlling for age, gender, median household income and employment-related exposures, we applied Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods for spatially-aggregated data. We, we found that distance from the World Trade Center site in the post-attack time period was associated with increased risk of anxiety-related diagnoses. In the months following the attack, each two mile increment in distance closer to the World Trade Center site was associated with a seven percent increase in anxiety-related diagnoses in the population. No similar association was found during a similar time period in the year prior to the attacks. We conclude that spatial variables help more fully describe post-terrorism psychiatric risk and may help explain discrepancies in the existing literature about these attacks. These methods hold promise for the characterization of disease risk where spatial patterning of ecologic-level exposures and outcomes merits consideration. PMID:20079543

  8. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,Mage=43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (Omax), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drinking to ease the burden: a cross-sectional study on trauma, alcohol abuse and psychopathology in a post-conflict context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Verena; Saile, Regina; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2016-06-24

    It is likely that alcohol use and abuse increase during and after violent conflicts. The most prominent explanation of this phenomenon has been referred to as self-medication hypothesis. It predicts that psychotropic substances are consumed to deal with conflict-related psychic strains and trauma. In northern Uganda, a region that has been affected by a devastating civil war and is characterized by high levels of alcohol abuse we examined the associations between war-trauma, childhood maltreatment and problems related to alcohol use. Deducing from the self-medication hypothesis we assumed alcohol consumption moderates the relationship between trauma-exposure and psychopathology. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey targeting war-affected families in post-conflict northern Uganda included data of male (n = 304) and female (n = 365) guardians. We used standardized questionnaires in an interview format to collect data on the guardians' socio-demography, trauma-exposure, alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol abuse, PTSD and depression. Symptoms of current alcohol use disorders were present in 46 % of the male and 1 % of the female respondents. A multiple regression model revealed the unique contributions of emotional abuse in the families of origin and trauma experienced outside the family-context in the prediction of men's alcohol-related symptoms. We found that alcohol consumption moderated the dose-effect relationship between trauma-exposure and symptoms of depression and PTSD. Significant interactions indicated that men who reported more alcohol-related problems experienced less increase in symptoms of PTSD and depression with increasing trauma-exposure. The gradual attenuation of the dose-effect the more alcohol-related problems were reported is consistent with the self-medication hypothesis. Hence, the functionality of alcohol consumption has to be considered when designing and implementing addiction treatment in post-conflict contexts.

  10. Developmental psychopathology in an era of molecular genetics and neuroimaging: A developmental neurogenetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W

    2015-05-01

    The emerging field of neurogenetics seeks to model the complex pathways from gene to brain to behavior. This field has focused on imaging genetics techniques that examine how variability in common genetic polymorphisms predict differences in brain structure and function. These studies are informed by other complimentary techniques (e.g., animal models and multimodal imaging) and have recently begun to incorporate the environment through examination of Imaging Gene × Environment interactions. Though neurogenetics has the potential to inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology, there has been little integration between principles of neurogenetics and developmental psychopathology. The paper describes a neurogenetics and Imaging Gene × Environment approach and how these approaches have been usefully applied to the study of psychopathology. Six tenets of developmental psychopathology (the structure of phenotypes, the importance of exploring mechanisms, the conditional nature of risk, the complexity of multilevel pathways, the role of development, and the importance of who is studied) are identified, and how these principles can further neurogenetics applications to understanding the development of psychopathology is discussed. A major issue of this piece is how neurogenetics and current imaging and molecular genetics approaches can be incorporated into developmental psychopathology perspectives with a goal of providing models for better understanding pathways from among genes, environments, the brain, and behavior.

  11. School failure in early adolescence: the psychopathological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, G; Brovedani, P; Poli, P

    1998-01-01

    School difficulties and learning disorders in adolescence can become significant risk factors for psychopathology. This study investigates emotional and cognitive patterns in adolescents with school difficulties. Four clinical conditions that can determine adolescence-onset learning disorders are outlined. These are adolescent turmoil, intellectual inhibition, delay in reasoning development, and metacognitive dysfunctioning. Cognitive, emotional and behavioral features of these conditions are discussed in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  12. The intersubjective endeavour of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second person perspective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGalbusera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of otherness.We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first- and second-person approaches. Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, American Psychiatric Association, 2013 and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which - by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioural symptoms - takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first person experience. But how can we speak about a first person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from within, if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it

  13. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of "otherness." We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which-by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms-takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients' first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from "within," if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge.

  14. [Psychopathology related to women pubertal precocity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Didillon, A

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a developmental process characterized by hormonal and physical changes leading to the ability of reproduction. Precocious puberty, especially in girls, has been associated with an increased incidence of emotional and behavioral problems. Adolescence is a life stage influenced both by the biological changes of puberty and the emergence of new social challenges. In individuals facing these developmental issues at a younger age than expected, the exposure to internal and external stress factors may be greater than in other young people. This narrative review provides an overview of psychopathology associated with precocious puberty in order to raise awareness of clinicians dealing with adolescents at risk for adverse behavioral and emotional outcomes. Developmental challenges of standard puberty and adolescence will be outlined before a more detailed description of recent findings from clinical and epidemiological studies. Putative mechanisms underlying the association between precocious puberty and psychopathology will also be discussed. Epidemiological studies have shown that an early onset of puberty in girls is associated with an earlier onset of sexuality, an earlier age of first birth and a lesser professional qualification regardless of cognitive abilities and socio-economic status. In both population studies and clinical cohorts, girls with an early age of puberty or in treatment for precocious puberty have more disruptive behavior disorders such as conduct disorders, more substance abuse disorders and delinquent behavior compared to their standard developing peers. Precocious puberty and behavioral problems may have common genetic and environmental risk factors. In young people with conduct disorders and early puberty, findings have emphasized the role of non-shared environmental factors. Low birth weight, obesity, exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and adoption are potentially shared between both conditions. Early puberty in girls is also

  15. Patient acceptance and clinical impact of Bravo monitoring in patients with previous failed catheter-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, R; Fox, M; Anggiansah, R; Anggiansah, A; Basavaraju, K; Canavan, R; Wong, T

    2009-03-15

    Standard pH monitoring is performed over 24 h with a naso-oesophageal catheter (C-pH). Limitations include naso-pharyngeal discomfort, nausea and social embarrassment resulting in reduced reflux-provoking activities. Recently a catheter-free pH-monitoring technique has become available. The tolerability and diagnostic yield of this system in patients who failed standard monitoring remain unknown. To examine the tolerability and diagnostic outcome of catheter-free pH-monitoring technique in patients who failed standard monitoring. Patients referred for C-pH and catheter-free pH monitoring completed a tolerability questionnaire. Acid exposure in the distal oesophagus and symptom index (SI) were reviewed. Over 4 years, 883/1751 (50%) of patients with typical reflux symptoms referred for C-pH were diagnosed with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) based on a pathological percentage time acid exposure (%time pH patients failed C-pH and, of these, 129 successfully completed 2-day catheter-free pH monitoring. Ninety-eight (76%) of these patients had a pathological percentage pH patients (P patients who had previously failed C-pH; catheter-free pH monitoring assists the definitive diagnosis of GERD in this group.

  16. Positive Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology: A Transdiagnostic Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A.; Raila, Hannah; Chiao, Joan Y.; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually influence positive emotion regulation. Progress in this domain has been relatively unexplored, however, underscoring the need for an integrative review and empirical roadmap for investigating the cultural neuroscientific contributions to positive emotion disturbance for both affective and clinical science domains. The present paper thus provides a multidisciplinary, cultural neuroscience approach to better understand positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. We conclude with a future roadmap for researchers aimed at harnessing positive emotion and alleviating the burden of mental illness cross-culturally. PMID:24812583

  17. THE INTERNET ADDICTION OF PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OFCRANIOCEREBRAL INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Voloshyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kharkov Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital № 3 examined 100 male patients aged 38,35±0,96 years, with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral injury (TBI. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male volunteers aged 36,97±1,73 years. The frequency of different degrees of Internet use was assessed by using AUDIT-like test INTERNET-UDIT (Internet Use Disorders Identification Test and calculation of addictive potential in groups. In patients with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral trauma, despite the high prevalence of lack of experience “usage” of the Internet, high degrees of addiction and dependence were reported. The addictive potential of the Internet addiction in the study group exceeded 32% of that of the control group.

  18. Assessment of Distress Associated to Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

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    Wendy Reich

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.

  19. Exploring learning potential in schizophrenic inpatients in different psychopathological conditions

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    David González Pando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore empirically the learning potential of people with schizophrenia in opposite conditions of psychopathological stability. For this purpose, a general procedure of conditional discrimination learning was introduced by conducting a study on the formation of equivalence classes. The sample consisted of 8 inpatient adults included in the program of Severe Mental Disorders, aged between 20 and 53 years. Because of dropouts, the initial procedure was modified in order to reduce the duration and attentional effort of the task. The results showed that people with schizophrenia can acquire stimulus equivalence with standard procedure both in terms of stability and psychopathological decompensation, in the presence of strong positive symptoms. This finding is relevant both for therapy, conceived in terms of learning, and for designing programs in the context of rehabilitation and recovery in schizophrenia.

  20. Gender differences in psychopathologic features of agoraphobia with panic disorder

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    Latas Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.

  1. Loneliness mediates the relationship between emotion dysregulation and bulimia nervosa/binge eating disorder psychopathology in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Matthew W; Christensen, Kara A; Fettich, Karla C; Weissman, Jessica; Berona, Johnny; Chen, Eunice Y

    2014-12-01

    Emotion dysregulation has been linked to binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) although the mechanisms by which it affects BN/BED psychopathology are unclear. This study tested loneliness as a mediator between emotion dysregulation and BN/BED psychopathology. A treatment-seeking sample of 107 women with BN or BED was assessed for loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale), and BN/BED psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination) before treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions and bootstrapping mediation models were run. Greater overall emotion dysregulation was associated with greater BN/BED psychopathology, mediated by loneliness (95 % CI 0.03, 0.09). Emotion dysregulation, however, did not mediate between loneliness and BN/BED psychopathology (95 % CI −0.01, 0.01). Targeting loneliness may effectively treat emotional aspects of BN/BED in women.

  2. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (χ(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings.

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  4. Suicidality, psychopathology, and the internet: Online time vs. online behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Starcevic, Vladan; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales. After accounting for age and education, hierarchical regression modeling showed that the assessed psychopathology variables, including suicidality, did not explain significant variance in hours online. Hours online were better predicted by younger age, greater willingness to develop online relationships, higher perceived social support, higher curiosity, and lower extraversion. Suicidal participants, who did or did not go online for suicide-related purposes, did not differ on hours online. Multiple regression modeling showed that those who went online for suicide-related purposes were likely to be younger, more suicidal, and more willing to seek help from online mental health professionals. These findings revealed that hours online are not a valid indicator of psychopathology. However, studying online behaviors of specific at-risk groups could be informative and useful, including for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  6. Low Fasting Oxytocin Levels Are Associated With Psychopathology in Anorexia Nervosa in Partial Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinogenova, Yuliya; Schmelkin, Cindy; Plessow, Franziska; Thomas, Jennifer J; Pulumo, Reitumetse; Micali, Nadia; Miller, Karen K; Eddy, Kamryn T; Lawson, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder characterized by restriction of food intake despite severe weight loss, is associated with increased comorbid anxiety and depression. Secretion of oxytocin, an appetite-regulating neurohormone with anxiolytic and antidepressant properties, is abnormal in AN. The link between oxytocin levels and psychopathology in AN has not been well explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of 79 women aged 18-45 years (19 AN, 26 AN in partial recovery [ANPR], and 34 healthy controls [HC]) investigating the relationship between basal oxytocin levels and disordered eating psychopathology, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. AN diagnoses were based on DSM-5 criteria. Data acquisition took place between December 2008 and March 2014. Fasting serum oxytocin levels were obtained, and the following self-report measures were used to assess psychopathology: Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Fasting oxytocin levels were low in ANPR compared to HC (P = .0004). In ANPR but not AN, oxytocin was negatively associated with disordered eating psychopathology (r = -0.39, P = .0496) and anxiety symptoms (state anxiety: r = -0.53, P = .006; trait anxiety: r = -0.49, P = .01). Furthermore, ANPR with significant disordered eating psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, or depressive symptoms had lower oxytocin levels compared to those with minimal or no symptoms (P = .04, .02, and .007, respectively). We speculate that a dysregulation of oxytocin pathways may contribute to persistent psychopathology after partial weight recovery from anorexia nervosa.

  7. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Simone; Holl, Julia; Mai, Hannah; Wolff, Sebastian; Barnow, Sven

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the mediating effects of emotion dysregulation on the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology. An adult sample (N=701) from diverse backgrounds of psychopathology completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a cross-sectional online survey. Correlational analyses showed that all types of child maltreatment were uniformly associated with emotion dysregulation, and dimensions of emotion dysregulation were strongly related to psychopathology. Limited access to strategies for emotion regulation emerged as the most powerful predictor. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology, even after controlling for shared variance with negative affect. These findings emphasize the importance of emotion dysregulation as a possible mediating mechanism in the association between child maltreatment and later psychopathology. Additionally, interventions targeting specific emotion regulation strategies may be effective to reduce psychopathology in victims of child maltreatment.

  8. Does low coping efficacy mediate the association between negative life events and incident psychopathology? A prospective-longitudinal community study among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, E; Wittchen, H-U; Lieb, R; Höfler, M; Beesdo-Baum, K

    2016-04-01

    To prospectively examine whether negative life events (NLE) and low perceived coping efficacy (CE) increase the risk for the onset of various forms of psychopathology and low CE mediates the associations between NLE and incident mental disorders. A representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 3017, aged 14-24 at baseline) was prospectively followed up in up to three assessment waves over 10 years. Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders were assessed at each wave using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. NLE and CE were assessed at baseline with the Munich Event List and the Scale for Self-Control and Coping Skills. Associations (odds ratios, OR) of NLE and CE at baseline with incident mental disorders at follow-up were estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for sex and age. NLE at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs at follow-up (OR 1.02-1.09 per one NLE more). When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, merely the associations of NLE with any anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia and any substance use disorder remained significant (OR 1.02-1.07). Low CE at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs at follow-up (OR 1.16-1.72 per standard deviation). When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, only the associations of low CE with any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs remained

  9. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Marine fouling community in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt compared with four decades of previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH.E. RAMADAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the fouling communities between the years 1960 and 1999 in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt and to study the main factors that may be controlling these communities. This comparison is based on monthly durations of panel immersion. By using roughened white polystyrene test panels (12.5x12.5 cm, monthly samples of marine fouling were collected from the harbour from October 1998 through September 1999. It is clear that a remarkable variation in number and diversity of fouling communities throughout the last four decades is evident. The minimum diversities were recorded during the studies of 1960 and 1970 (19 and 20 species respectively, while the maximum diversity (35 species was achieved during the 1991 study. Moreover, a small shift among the four dominant groups (Polychaeta, Cirripedia, Bryozoa and Amphipoda was noted during the four decades of the studies. The present comparison indicated that many factors may contribute to this variation, of which nutrient enrichment is the most important and the nature of the applied test panel is lees so.

  11. Competing Factor Models of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mark M; Murphy, Jamie; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-11-01

    risk. This study directly informs future measurement models of child and adolescent psychopathology and demonstrates the effectiveness of a three factor model.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome: The incidence of concurrent psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve understanding of the association between physiology and psychology in Functional Gastrointestinal disorders by considering the co-morbidity of lrritable Bowel Syndrome and psychopathology in a sector of the South African population. A comparison was made between the incidence of concurrent psychopathology in a sample of 48 white female patients, aged 25 to 55 years and diagnosed with lrritable Bowel Syndrome and the incidence of psychopathology in a control group that consisted of 39 white women, aged 25 to 55 years, who did not meet the criteria for lrritable Bowel Syndrome.

    The Personality Assessment Inventory was used to determine the incidence of psychopathological personality traits and symptoms in the lrritable Bowel Syndrome group and the control group. This is a selfadministered, objective measuring instrument of adult personality that was developed to provide information about 18 critical clinical variables. The instrument was developed and standardised for use in the clinical assessment of individuals aged 18 years and older. Earlier studies showed a high incidence of associated psychiatric disorder in patients with lrritable Bowel Syndrome. This study confirmed this trend and it seems as if age and level of education has no influence on the incidence of psychopathology in patients with lrritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Opsomming
    Dit was die doel van die studie om 'n verbeterde begrip van die assosiasie tussen fisiologie en sielkunde in Funksionele Maagderm Versteurings te bewerkstellig deur die komorbiditeit van Prikkelbare Dermsindroom en psigopatalogie binne 'n sektor van die Suid Afrikaanse populasie te oorweeg. 'n Vergelyking is getref tussen die voorkoms van konkurrente psigopatalogie in 'n steekproef van 48 wit, vroulike pasiente wat wissel in ouderdomme van 25 tot 55 jaar en gediagnoseer is met Prikkelbare Dermsindroom, en die voorkoms van psigopatalogie in 'n kontrolegroep wat bestaan het

  13. Comparison of alternate personality models in psychopathology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios D

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the results from the parallel application of two alternate personality models, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman trait model and Bond's Defense Styles, in a sample of 268 Greek medical students (172 women, M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 1.1; 95 men, M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 1.2) in relation to psychopathological symptoms, so as to clarify whether this practice yielded accurate results while avoiding shared variance. Data from both models are cross-checked with canonical correlation analysis to validate whether there was significant conceptual overlap between them that would mean that their parallel use is an ineffective research practice. Following this analysis, factors from both models are utilized to predict variance in sample psychopathology, so as to compare their relative usefulness. Results indicated that the two models did not share a significant amount of variance, while a combination of personality aspects from both models, including Impulsive Sensation-Seeking, Neuroticism-Anxiety, Aggression-Hostility, and Sociability traits and Maladaptive Action, Image Distorting, and Adaptive Action defense styles, predicted high variance in psychopathology symptoms.

  14. University students' psychopathology: correlates and the examiner's potential bias effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo

    2015-02-01

    Aims: the main objective was to verify if there is a difference on psychopathological symptoms between two groups questioned by two different examiners, controlling for the potential role of social desirability, and other potential covariates. Additionally, we want to assess the level of psychopathology and its socio-demographic correlates.Methods: 185 Coimbra's university students completed the Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In one group the examiner was of the same age and academic status as the students, while in the other group the examiner was older and a teacher. We studied the psychopathological correlates with Pearson, point-biserial correlations, and qui-square analyses, and we controlled the potential role of covariates through Quade non-parametric ANCOVAs. Results: The level of distress was lower in comparison with other investigations. Women had higher level of distress and more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsion, and depression. The students that live a higher distance from home had more anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The group assessed by the younger examiner scored higher in distress and in some BSI factors, and had lower levels on social desirability. Conclusions: Sex and distance from home seem important factors for university students' mental health. However, the examiner does have an influence in the evaluation, probably because of social desirability, suggesting that the examiner's characteristics should be given in investigations involving university students.

  15. A cross-sectional study of personality traits in women previously treated or untreated for alcohol use disorders

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    Sundh Valter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationship between treatment-seeking for alcohol problems and personality traits could give useful insight in factors promoting or hindering treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between treatment-seeking for AUD, personality traits, and psychiatric co-morbidity in women. The study was based on pooled cross-sectional data from three population based samples and one clinical sample (n = 1,339. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated women with AUD, and between those with resolved and unresolved AUD. Results A stepwise logistic regression model showed that treatment-seeking for AUD was not associated with personality traits. Among women with lifetime AUD (n = 217, those who had been treated (n = 42 had significantly higher scores than untreated women (n = 175 on three personality traits of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP; somatic anxiety, muscular tension, and guilt. Women with resolved AUD, who had received treatment (n = 23 had significantly higher scores on scales measuring somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety, muscular tension, irritability, and guilt than untreated women with resolved AUD. The latter group resembled women without AUD on most personality traits. There were no differences in occurrence of lifetime psychiatric disorders between the treated and the untreated women, whereas treated women with current AUD had increased risk of lifetime anxiety (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–8.7. Conclusion Treatment-seeking was not associated with personality traits in this study. Still, it can be concluded that women with resolved AUD who had received treatment had high scores on the KSP-scales measuring psychic and somatic anxiety, tension, irritability, and feelings of guilt. This suggests that personality assessment might be a useful tool in tailoring individual treatment programs for women with AUD. Future studies need to

  16. Negative affect mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and binge-eating disorder symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample: a test of the interpersonal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women.

  17. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  18. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  19. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  20. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  1. Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shelley H

    2011-03-01

    Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.

  2. Warfarin dosing after bariatric surgery: a retrospective study of 10 patients previously stable on chronic warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullo-Feulner, A M; Stoecker, Z; Brown, G A; Schneider, J; Jones, T A; Burnett, B

    2014-04-01

    Many changes associated with bariatric surgery have the potential to affect warfarin dosing; yet current literature includes little data describing this phenomenon. Investigating this relationship may allow for determination of post-bariatric surgery warfarin dosing using stable pre-operative dosing levels. A retrospective chart review was completed for 10 patients stabilized on chronic warfarin therapy who underwent bariatric surgery. Data collection consisted of the following: warfarin requirement in mg/week, time in target range (TTR), creatinine, liver function, diarrhoea, medication changes, diet, and signs of bleeding and/or thrombosis. Three study patients underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures and seven patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The average (standard deviation) weekly warfarin dose required in the immediate post-operative interval was 64% (25%) of baseline dosing, corresponding to a TTR of 48%. At 6 months, patients required 85% (19%) of baseline weekly dosing, with TTR of 53.4%. At 1 year, dosing was 90% (16%) of baseline with TTR of 63.5%. Patients underwent medication changes as well as transient bouts of diarrhoea. Two patients suffered unspecified haemorrhages of the gastrointestinal tract (international normalized ratio [INR] = 2.3 and 9.8). This patient set demonstrated an initial drop in warfarin requirement, followed by escalating dosing trends that became more predictable as patients were farther out from procedure.

  3. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  4. Variations of the accessory nerve: anatomical study including previously undocumented findings-expanding our misunderstanding of this nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ajayi, Olaide O; Fries, Fabian N; Spinner, Robert J; Oskouian, Rod J

    2017-02-01

    The anatomy of the accessory nerve has been well described but continued new clinical and anatomical findings exemplify our lack of a full understanding of the course of this nerve. Therefore, this study aimed to expand on our knowledge of the course of the 11th cranial nerve via anatomical dissections. Fifty-six cadavers (112 sides) underwent dissection of the accessory nerve from its cranial and spinal origins to its emergence into the posterior cervical triangle. Immunohistochemistry was performed when appropriate. Our findings included two cases (1.8%) where the nerve was duplicated, one intracranially and one extracranially. One accessory nerve (0.9%) was found to enter its own dural compartment within the jugular foramen. The majority of sides (80%) were found to have a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Thirty-one sides (28%) had connections to cervical dorsal roots medially and three sides (2.7%) laterally. Medial connections were most common with the C1 nerve. Medial components of these dorsal root connections were all sensory in nature. However, lateral components were motor on two sides (1.8%). Nerves traveled anterior to the internal jugular vein on 88% of sides. One (0.9%) left side nerve joined an interneural anastomosis between the dorsal rootlets. Macroganglia were found on the spinal part of the intracranial nerve on 13% of sides. The lesser occipital nerve arose directly from the accessory nerve on two sides (1.8%) and communicated with the accessory nerve on 5.4% of sides. One side (0.9%) was found to communicate with the facial nerve with both nerves innervating the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additional anatomical knowledge of the variants of the accessory nerve may benefit patient care when this nerve is pathologically involved.

  5. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  6. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  7. Service engagement: psychopathology, recovery style and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Bonalumi, Cristiano; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  8. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  9. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-03-15

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.

  10. Cyclical processes in personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, P L

    1994-02-01

    Both the understanding of psychopathology and the ability to intervene therapeutically are enhanced by an appreciation of the central role of vicious circles in the development and maintenance of psychological disorder. It is usually possible to discern a structure to people's difficulties in which internal states and external events continually re-create the conditions for the re-occurrence of each other in all too real psychological version of the mythical perpetual motion machine. The present article illustrates how such circular processes work in a number of representative types of psychological difficulty and discusses the implications of this conception for understanding psychopathology and for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  12. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82). We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78). We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. Highlights of the article Interpersonal trauma survivors are distinguished primarily by a generalised elevation of their maladaptive schemas, rather than a unique schema profile

  13. Person-environment transactions: personality traits moderate and mediate the effects of child sexual victimization on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí

    2013-05-01

    Personality, environmental adversity and psychopathology are related, and different models have been proposed to explain their interaction. The theory of person-environment transactions may elucidate the role of personality in these interactions beyond traditional conceptualizations. To our knowledge, hardly any studies have explored the relationships between the Five Factor Model, child sexual victimization and general psychopathology. We hypothesized (1) that neuroticism and conscientiousness will moderate the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology and (2) that neuroticism will mediate the relationship between sexual victimization and psychopathology. Our findings partially support these hypotheses. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and sexual victimization have a direct effect on psychopathology, whereas extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness do not. With regard to interactive effects, conscientiousness, but not neuroticism, moderates the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology, and neuroticism does mediate the aforementioned effect. No other interactions were found with regard to extraversion, agreeableness or openness to experience. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first global test of person-environment transactions with regard to psychopathology and sexual victimization within the framework of the Five Factor Model.

  14. Um método para estudo e construção do caso em psicopatologia A method for the study and construction of a case in psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina de Leão D'Agord

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na situação de supervisão acadêmica de estágio em psicopatologia, elaboramos um método para a redação do estudo e construção do caso. Esse método consiste em um roteiro do qual destacamos para análise os tópicos: 1 exame do estado mental e 2 posição transferencial. O uso desse método vem mostrando que o tópico posição transferencial produz um testemunho escrito de uma implicação pessoal.In the situation of academic supervision of psychopathology training, we elaborated a method of writing the case study and construction. This method is based on a summary of topics, some of then are: 1 the mental state exam, and 2 the transference position, and the diagnostic hypothesis. This method's practice shows that the transference position topic stands out a written testimony of the personal implication.

  15. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  16. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...

  17. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  18. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  19. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  20. Gene-environment interactions in psychopathology throughout early childhood: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Raquel Q; Soares, Isabel; Carvalho-Correia, Eduarda; Mesquita, Ana R

    2015-12-01

    Up to 20% of children and adolescents worldwide suffer from mental health problems. Epidemiological studies have shown that some of these problems are already present at an early age. The recognition that psychopathology is a result of an interaction between individual experiences and genetic characteristics has led to an increase in the number of studies using a gene-environment approach (G×E). However, to date, there has been no systematic review of G×E studies on psychopathology in the first 6 years of life. Following a literature search and a selection process, 14 studies were identified and most (n=12) of the studies found at least one significant G×E effect. This review provides a systematic characterization of the published G×E studies, providing insights into the neurobiological and environmental determinants involved in the etiology of children's psychopathology.

  1. Exploring compassion: a meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Compassion has emerged as an important construct in studies of mental health and psychological therapy. Although an increasing number of studies have explored relationships between compassion and different facets of psychopathology there has as yet been no systematic review or synthesis of the empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the literature on compassion and mental health. We identified 20 samples from 14 eligible studies. All studies used the Neff Self Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b). We employed meta-analysis to explore associations between self-compassion and psychopathology using random effects analyses of Fisher's Z correcting for attenuation arising from scale reliability. We found a large effect size for the relationship between compassion and psychopathology of r=-0.54 (95% CI=-0.57 to -0.51; Z=-34.02; pCompassion is an important explanatory variable in understanding mental health and resilience. Future work is needed to develop the evidence base for compassion in psychopathology, and explore correlates of compassion and psychopathology.

  2. [Psychopathological phenomena and personality disorders (the issue of dynamic aspects of psychopathologies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the interaction between pathocharacterological and psychopathological (affective, anxious-phobic and hysterical) phenomena within "borderline psychiatry" (reactions, phases, development) gives evidence to the existence of 2 clinically heterogeneous variations of comorbid interactions. The first variation: primary psychopathological syndromes manifesting without any significant correlation with personality disorders and transform into pathocharacterological ones (neurotic, postreactive) personality development by means of "amalgamating" mechanism. The second variation: secondary (in regard to personality disorders) psychopathological phenomena forming on the basis of constitutional personality traits by means of "splitting off" mechanism and are defined as personality disorders with predisposition to manifest positive psychopathological symptomatology. Formation of isolated obsessive and dissociative disorders within the structure of "basic" pathocharacterological phenomena (variation 2) predicts a future absence of growing severity of personality disorders (i.e. a dynamics traditionally defined as the development--variation 1) and stabilization of psychopathic traits with features of compensation of the latter. The possibilities of pathological dynamics in psychopathic personality with a "splitting off" of the isolated psychopathological syndromes exhausted; for decades neither growing severity of personality disorders, nor an exacerbation of those psychopathological complexes which provided a primary base for manifestation of positive symptomatology may be observed.

  3. Association of Sult4A1 SNPs with psychopathology and cognition in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Herbert Y; Brennan, Mark D; Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu

    2008-12-01

    A number of genes located on chromosome 22q11-13, including catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), are potential schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Recently, the sulfotransferase-4A1 (Sult4A1) locus within chromosome 22q13 was reported to be linked to schizophrenia in a family TDT study. Sult4A1 is related to metabolism of monoamines, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine, both of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction components of schizophrenia. An available, prospectively collected data base was interrogated to determine how three Sult4A1 SNPs: rs138060, rs138097, and rs138110, previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia might be associated with psychopathology, cognition, and quality of life in a sample of 86 Caucasian patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The majority of patients met criteria for treatment resistant schizophrenia and had been drug-free for one week or longer at the time of evaluation. The major findings were: 1) patients heterozygous (T/G) for rs138060 had significantly worse Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Total and anxiety/depression sub-scale scores, and higher Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) Total scores than G/G homozygous patients; and 2) patients heterozygous (A/G) for rs138097 demonstrated significantly worse performance on neuropsychological testing, specifically on tests of executive function and working memory, compared to patients homozygous for the G and A alleles. RS138110 was unrelated to psychopathology and cognition. These results provide the first evidence of how genetic variation in Sult4A1 may be related to clinical symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenia, and permit future studies to attempt to replicate these potentially important findings.

  4. Psychopathology Related to Energy Drinks: A Psychosis Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernandez-Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders.

  5. Psychopathology Related to Energy Drinks: A Psychosis Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Larregola, Maria; Gomez-Arnau, Jorge; Correas-Lauffer, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Energy drinks (ED) are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders. PMID:28116203

  6. Relationship of indicators of neuropathology, psychopathology, and effort to neuropsychological results in patients with epilepsy or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Dona E C; Berry, David T R; Fakhoury, Toufic A; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2006-04-01

    Previous research suggests epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) patients do not show consistent group differences on neuropsychological measures. However, both groups of patients show decreased neuropsychological performance when compared to a normal population (Cragar, Berry, Fakhoury, Cibula, & Schmitt, 2002). Swanson, Springer, Benbadis, and Morris (2000) have suggested epilepsy patients show decreased neurocognitive functioning due to neuropathology whereas PNES patients show decreased neurocognitive functioning due to psychopathology. Effort has also been implicated as an important factor in neuropsychological test results in general (Green, 2003). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of medical history variables (e.g., duration of disorder), neuropathology, psychopathology, and effort to neuropsychological findings in epilepsy and PNES patients. Neuropsychological functioning was divided into six domains: intelligence, memory, language, executive functions, visual-spatial, and motor. Results indicated that medical history variables were related to intellectual, memory, language, and motor functioning. Psychopathology was associated with all cognitive domains except executive functioning. Effort was related to intellectual, memory, language, visual-spatial, and motor functioning. Neuropathology and diagnosis were related only to memory.

  7. Assessment of Psychopathological Problems in the School Context: The Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale--Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida Timoteo; Faisca, Luis Madeira; Valadas, Sandra Teodosio

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale-Short Form (APS-SF) were studied in a sample of 656 Portuguese adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, assessed in school context. Also, the aim of the study was to gather data concerning age- and gender-related differences in the expression of psychopathological…

  8. The Importance of Cholesterol in Psychopathology: A Review of Recent Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe systematically recent studies that show the importance of cholesterol in psychopathology. This study was a review. The following databases were searched for relevant published articles on human studies: MEDLINE, Web of Science, EBSCOhost Academic Search Complete, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection (papers from January 2012 to March 2016). Eighteen recent papers were selected, and thematic dimensions showing correlations between cholesterol and behavioral and psychopathological variables were depression, suicide, personality, and aggression. This paper demonstrates that recent research corroborates the idea that cholesterol plays an important role in governing behavior and psychopathology in humans. Deepening the studies in this field could be a promising avenue for future research, with implications for treating people with behavior or mental health problems.

  9. Psicopatología en familiares de tres generaciones: un estudio epidemiológico en la Ciudad de México Psychopathology across three family generations: an epidemiological study in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Caraveo-Anduaga

    2005-02-01

    three family generations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research design corresponds to a "family history study" and is based upon a household survey conducted in 1995, on a representative sample of Mexico City's adult population aged 18 - 65 years (n=1 932. Briefly, a standardized assessment of adults' lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders was obtained using an amended version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI. In addition, all respondents provided information on their parents' psychiatric history of anxiety, affective disorders, and substance-use disorders. Also, respondents who had 4-16 year old children living in the same household were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included specific questions on their children's psychiatric symptoms (n=925 parents, corresponding to 1 686 children and adolescents. Familial psychopathology across generations was defined as follows: a history of psychiatric disorders only in grandparents; b history of psychiatric disorders in one parent only (mother or father; and, c history of psychiatric disorders history in grandparents and in parent. The risk of psychiatric morbidity was estimated via odds ratios obtained from logistic regression models with and without random-effects and using Generalized Estimation Equations with robust variance estimation. RESULTS: The risk for psychopathology in the offspring across generations was estimated to be two to three times higher when psychiatric disorders occurred among the parents. The risk of psychiatric disorders was estimated to be higher when comorbidity among different types of disorders was present. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the risk for developing psychopathology across generations is at least moderate and relatively stable. Familial transmission of psychopathology across three generations seems to resemble a genetic mixed model.

  10. Eating disorder psychopathology, brain structure, neuropsychological correlates and risk mechanisms in very preterm young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at childhood and adolescence, were investigated using prospectively collected data throughout childhood/adolescence. VPT-born individuals had high levels of ED psychopathology at age 21 years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15 years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14 years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.

  11. Shame memories and eating psychopathology: the buffering effect of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Matos, Marcela; Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that self-compassion may protect against shame in eating disorders. This study examines the association between shame memories, self-compassion, self-judgment and eating psychopathology severity and tests the moderator effect of self-compassion on the relationships between shame memories and eating psychopathology. Participants were 34 patients with the diagnosis of an eating disorder, who were assessed using Eating Disorder Examination and the Shame Experiences Interview and self-report instruments measuring the traumatic and centrality to identity features of shame memories, self-compassion and self-judgment. Self-compassion was negatively correlated to shame memory features and eating psychopathology, and self-judgment was positively associated with such variables. Self-compassion had a moderator effect on the association between shame traumatic and central memories and eating psychopathology severity. This is the first study to explore the buffering effect of self-compassion against the pathogenic effects of shame memories on eating psychopathology severity in eating disorders, with relevant clinical and research implications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. The Impact of Leptin on Perinatal Development and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleau, Jeanette C.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin’s role and profile during development is examined in available human studies and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where both high and low leptin levels have been

  13. Missing osteoconductive effect of a resorbable PEO/PBT copolymer in human bone defects: a clinically relevant pilot study with contrary results to previous animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, M; Wilke, A; Griss, P; Kienapfel, H

    2000-01-01

    PEO/PBT 70/30 (POLYACTIVE(R) 70/30), a degradable porous copolymer with elastic properties, was found to be osteoconductive in many animal studies. The aim of this study was to determine the osteoconductive effect in a human paired control iliac defect model. In seven patients undergoing anterior spinal interbody fusion surgery, two bicortical iliac defects for autograft harvesting were created. The defect size was identical for both defects measuring about 40 x 15 mm (group I). One defect was filled with the degradable implants, whereas the remaining one was left untreated as a control. The defect site for treatment was chosen randomly. In three further patients, only one defect measuring about 40 x 35 mm was created (group II). All patients were examined clinically and radiologically by spiral-CT after 1, 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. Three-dimensional reconstructions as well as CT-volumetric measurements using 1 mm sections were used as evaluation methods. In group I, a two-tailed paired t-test showed that the treated defects had significantly less formation of new bone than the untreated ones (p < 0.05 after 12 weeks, p < 0.01 after 52 weeks). Also, in group II, not much bone ingrowth could be observed. The histological evaluation of one patient in group I revealed no bone within the pores, and a fibrous layer between bone and implant was always present. Therefore, PEO/PBT 70/30 cannot be recommended as a bone substitute for clinical use. Differences in bone regeneration between humans and certain animal species as well as inapplicable defect models in previous animal studies are discussed as possible reasons for the failure.

  14. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  15. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  16. Degree of exposure to domestic violence, psychopathology, and functional impairment in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarri Fernàndez, Eduard; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Domènech, Josep María

    2011-04-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and exposed to DV were evaluated using a diagnostic interview and other instruments of psychopathology and functional impairment. The participants were classified in three groups according to the degree of exposure: witness (n = 72), involved (n = 52), and victim (n = 20). According to mothers' self-reports and mother-child combined information, DV equally affects psychopathology and functional impairment regardless of the degree of the exposure. Children's self-reports showed a linear trend to present greater psychopathology as a victim than as a witness. The differential effect of exposure to DV measured in this study depended on the informant, which underlines the importance of obtaining information from the children exposed to violence at home.

  17. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, pdisorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, pfood cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Parenting practices as mediating variables between parents' psychopathology and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepat, Esther; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents' psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children's psychopathology through a diagnostic interview, and on their own psychological state and parenting style through questionnaires. At ages 3 and 5, corporal punishment mediated the relationships between mothers' anxiety-depression and ODD (in girls), between mothers' aggressive behavior and ODD (in boys), and between parents' rule-breaking and ODD both in boys and girls. For both sexes, there was a direct association between mothers' aggressive behavior score and ODD. The association between fathers' psychopathology and ODD was not mediated by the fathers' parenting practices. Fathers' anxiety-depression and aggressive behavior scores were directly associated with ODD. Parents' psychopathology must be explored and, in families where such psychopathology is a relevant variable, parenting practices must be addressed with a view to the prevention and treatment of children's ODD in the preschool years.

  19. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  1. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenaga M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga,1 Nobuyuki Mizunuma,1 Satoshi Matsusaka,1 Eiji Shinozaki,1 Masato Ozaka,1 Mariko Ogura,1 Toshiharu Yamaguchi21Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods: Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77 years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0 and the response rate (complete response and partial response was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment

  2. Intimate partner violence, psychopathology and the women with schizophrenia in an outpatient clinic South-South, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Afe, Taiwo Opekitan; Emedoh, Thomas Chimezie; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Adegbohun, Abosede Adekeji

    2016-01-01

    Background Women with schizophrenia are a vulnerable risk group for intimate partner violence (1PV). There are few surveys that highlight the pattern, prevalence and association of IPV with psychopathology in these vulnerable group of women in South-South Nigeria. The aim of the study was to survey the forms, prevalence and association of Intimate partner violence with psychopathology. Method The study was a cross-sectional survey of 77 female patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who were ou...

  3. Differential blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Gonzalez-Blanco, Leticia; Saiz Martinez, Pilar Alejandra; de la Fuente-Tomas, Lorena; Menendez-Miranda, Isabel; Iglesias, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    Symptomatology of schizophrenia is heterogeneous, there is not any pathognomonic symptom. Moreover, the diagnosis is difficult, since it is based on subjective information, instead of markers. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the current status of blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia. Inflammatory, hormonal or metabolic dysfunctions have been identified in patients with schizophrenia and it has attempted to establish biomarkers responsible for these dysfunctions. The identification of these biomarkers could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain’s capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour. Dysfunction in this network may be involved in several forms of psychopathology, including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23635870

  5. Dynamic interventions and art for patients with severe psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez La Rotta, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    This study points to the benefits of dynamic psychotherapy with art on patients with severe psychopathology. Participants were patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and drug abuse, from a psychiatric clinic in Bogotá. Colombia. The paper shows the techniques and the results of art in the psychotherapeutic process. Esta investigación es un aporte a la comprensión de los beneficios de la terapia dinámica que involucra el arte con pacientes aquejados de psicopatologías severas. Se tr...

  6. [Psychopathology of asylum seekers in Europe, trauma and defensive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L

    2015-06-01

    Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence

  7. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  8. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Darryl W; Gauthier, Justin R; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B

    2013-01-01

    Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  9. Thought disorder in the meta-structure of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K. M.; Eaton, N. R.; Krueger, R. F.; Skodol, A. E.; Wall, M. M.; Grant, B.; Siever, L. J.; Hasin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dimensional models of co-morbidity have the potential to improve the conceptualization of mental disorders in research and clinical work, yet little is known about how relatively uncommon disorders may fit with more common disorders. The present study estimated the meta-structure of psychopathology in the US general population focusing on the placement of five under-studied disorders sharing features of thought disorder: paranoid, schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders, and manic episodes as well as bipolar disorder. Method Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a face-to-face interview of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults in the US general population. The meta-structure of 16 DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV), was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results We document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes. Manic episodes exhibit notable associations with both the distress subdomain of the internalizing dimension as well as the thought disorder subdomain. The structure was replicated for bipolar disorder (I or II) in place of manic episodes. Conclusions As our understanding of psychopathological meta-structure expands, incorporation of disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism grows increasingly important. Disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism may be well conceptualized, organized and measured as a subdimension of the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Manic episodes and bipolar disorder exhibit substantial co-morbidity across both distress and thought disorder domains of the internalizing dimension. Clinically, these results

  10. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L

    2001-01-01

    underlying dynamics without explicit mention of the neuronal one (47). In that case, dynamical tools can be used to elucidate the Freudian psychodynamics (34, 35). Recurrent neuronal networks have been used to propose interpretation of several mental dysfunctions (12). For example in the case of schizophrenia, it has been proposed that troubles in the cortical pruning during development (13) may cause a decrease in neural network storage ability and lead to the creation of spurious attractors. Those attractors do not correspond to stored memories and attract a large amount of initial conditions: they were thus associated to reality distorsion observed in schizophrenia (14). Nevertheless, the behavior of these models are too simple to be directly compared with real physiological data. In fact, equilibrium attractors are hardly met in biological dynamics. More complex behaviors (such as oscillations or chaos) should thus to be taken into account. The study of chaotic behavior have lead to the development of numerical methods devoted to the analysis of complex time series (17). These methods may be used to characterise the dynamical processes at the time-scales of both the cerebral dynamics and the clinical symptoms variations. The application of these methods to physiological signals have shown that complex behaviors are related to healthy states whereas simple dynamics are related to pathology (8). These studies have thus confirmed the notion of "dynamical disease" (20, 21) which denotes pathological conditions characterised by changes in physiological rhythms. Depression has been studied within this framework (25, 32) in order to define possible changes in brain electrical rhythms related to this trouble and its evolution. It has been shown that controls' brain dynamics is more complex than depressive one and that the recovery of a complex brain activity depends on the number of previous episodes. In the case of the symptoms time evolution, several studies have demonstrated

  11. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology.

  12. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Three Common Psychopathologies--ADHD, Anxiety, and Depression--and Indicators of Little-c Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Sue Hyeon; Abdulla, Ahmed M.; Cramond, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy over the relationship between psychopathology and creativity. Yet there is a lack of evidence regarding the relationship between common psychopathologies and indicators of little-c, or every day, creativity among laypeople. To make sense of this connection, we conducted a meta-analysis using 89 studies to…

  14. 'Craziness' and creativity: Psychopathology and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Not all poets have experienced psychopathology. Conversely, not all those who have experienced psychopathology become poets. The notion, nonetheless, of there being an association between 'craziness' and creativity, contentious though it may be, remains a seductive one. Poetry is both beneficial for the person who is composing or reciting it as well as the person who may be reading or listening to it. Poetry Therapy, which falls under the remit of Art Therapy, is increasingly being recognised as an effective form of adjunctive therapy for the treatment of mental health problems. The main aims of this paper are to explore (and to attempt to elucidate) if there is indeed a relationship between the artistic temperament and mental illness and to comment on the rise and recognition of Art Therapy.

  15. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  16. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Tzvetan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. Methods 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years, before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. Results High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Conclusion Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.

  17. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Katja; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Borgelt, Jens; Awiszus, Barbara; Popov, Tzvetan; Hoffmann, Klaus; Schonauer, Klaus; Watzl, Hans; Pröpster, Karl

    2008-07-23

    Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD) and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years), before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.

  18. Psychophysiological markers of vulnerability to psychopathology in men with an extra X chromosome (XXY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie van Rijn

    Full Text Available Studying genetically defined syndromes associated with increased risk for psychopathology may help in understanding neurodevelopmental mechanisms related to risk for psychopathology. Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY is one of the most common sex chromosomal aneuploidies (1 in 650 male births and associated with increased vulnerability for psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. Yet, it remains unknown whether this increased risk is associated with underlying psychophysiological mechanisms that are typically deficient in individuals with psychotic disorders. The present study assessed three "classic" psychophysiological markers of psychosis in Klinefelter syndrome (KS: smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM, prepulse inhibition (PPI and P50 suppression. Fourteen adults with KS and 15 non-clinical adults participated in the study. Data on SPEM (reflecting visuo-motor control as well as PPI and P50 suppression (reflecting sensory gating were collected. Dysfunctions in SPEM were observed in individuals with KS, with less smooth pursuit as expressed in lower position gain. Also, reduced sensory gating in individuals with KS was suggested by significantly reduced prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI (effect size 1.6. No abnormalities were found in suppression of the P50 (effect size 0.6. We speculate that impairments in these psychophysiological mechanisms may reflect core brain dysfunctions that may also mediate the described increased vulnerability for psychotic symptoms in KS. Although speculative, such deficit specific, rather than disorder specific, psychophysiological dysfunctions in KS might convey vulnerability to other types of psychopathology as well. As KS already can be diagnosed prenatally, the predictive value of childhood impairments in prepulse inhibition and smooth pursuit for development of psychopathology later in life could be assessed. In sum, studying individuals with KS may prove to be an avenue of research leading to

  19. Maternal personality and psychopathology as determinants of parenting behavior: a quantitative integration of two parenting literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer E

    2014-05-01

    A substantial literature has examined the association between parenting behavior and maternal psychological characteristics (i.e., personality and psychopathology). Although research has provided evidence indicating that personality and psychopathology are not independent of one another, parenting research has mainly focused on these characteristics separately. In the present study, I quantitatively integrated these literatures through meta-analytic path analysis. First, meta-analyses were conducted on articles, book chapters, and dissertations that examined associations between personality or psychopathology and warmth or control in mothers of children age 12 months or older. Using mixed-effects regression, meta-analyses revealed significant, small effect sizes suggesting that low levels of neuroticism and psychopathology and high levels of agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were associated with adaptive parenting. Moderator analyses indicated that variability among individual studies was partially explained by report method, study design, and conceptualizations of parenting behavior. Meta-analytic path analyses showed that the observed associations between maternal personality/psychopathology and parenting behaviors as reported in the literature may be explained by variance shared among these psychological characteristics. Furthermore, some maternal psychological characteristics explained a significantly larger portion of variance in parenting behavior than others. Findings supported the proposal that maternal personality and psychopathology are not independent in the associations they demonstrate with parenting behaviors and that these areas of research can be integrated. The present study is limited by including only mothers, excluding infants, and using cross-sectional analyses. However, results have implications for future conceptualizations of maternal psychological characteristics as determinants of parenting behaviors and for the refinement

  20. Study of correlation between sex hormone and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients%性激素和精神分裂症精神病理的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟秋平; 黄俊; 陈晋东; 彭东桃; 彭燕; 阳波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between serum level of sex hormones and gender difference in psychopathology in schizophrenia.Methods The serum level of estradiol (E2),testosterone (T),prolactin (PRL),follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)and luteinizing hormone (LH)were measured in 80 treatment-nave schizophrenic patients (study group,60 females and 20 males)and 20 healthy controls (control group,10 females and 10 males).All subjects in study group were assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)before treatment.Results Serum levels of E2 and T in male schizophrenic patients were significantly lower than those in control group (P <0.01),and serum level of E2 in female patients was significantly lower than that in control group (P <0.01).Factor score of positive symptoms (P)of PANSS in female patients was significantly higher than that in male patients (P =0.008),while factor score of negative symptoms in female patients was significantly lower than that in male patients (P =0.001 ).Serum level of E2 in female patients was significantly negatively correlated with factor score of N (P =0.020).However,serum levels of E2 and T in male patients were significantly negatively correlated with factor score of N (P =0.010,0.049 respectively).Conclusion Gender difference exists in the psychopathology of schizophrenia and it may be related with estradiol and testosterone.%目的:探讨性激素和精神分裂症精神病理性别差异的相关性。方法将60例女性、20例男性精神分裂症患者,于治疗前进行阳性和阴性综合征量表(PANSS)评定以及雌二醇(E2)、睾酮(T)、催乳素(PRL)、促卵泡激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)的检测并与20名(男女各10名)正常人对照。结果男性患者 E2、T 水平均低于对照组(P <0.01),女性患者 E2水平低于对照组(P <0.01)。女性患者 PANSS 阳性症状评分高于男性患者(P =0.008),阴性症状

  1. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  2. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Willem MA; Egger, Jos IM; Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leijer, Gert JM; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communication deficits, and motor perseverations. Data on psychological dysfunctions are so far not available. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of one copy of the gene SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is related to the neurobehavioral phenotype. Additional genes proximal to SHANK3 are also likely to play a role in the phenotype of patients with larger deletions. The present paper describes two adult brothers with an identical 2.15 Mb 22qter (22q13.32q13.33) deletion, of whom the youngest was referred for evaluation of recurrent mood changes. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypoplasia of the vermis cerebelli. Extensive clinical examinations led to a final diagnosis of atypical bipolar disorder, of which symptoms fully remitted during treatment with a mood stabilizer. In the older brother, a similar psychopathological picture appeared to be present, although less severe and with a later onset. It is concluded that the behavioral phenotype of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome comprises absent or delayed speech and perseverations with associated autistic-like features, whereas its psychopathological phenotype comprises an atypical bipolar disorder. The latter may have implications for the treatment regime of the syndrome-related behavioral disturbances. PMID:22570549

  3. Homer-1 polymorphisms are associated with psychopathology and response to treatment in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellmann, Ilja; Rujescu, Dan; Musil, Richard; Mayr, Andreas; Giegling, Ina; Genius, Just; Zill, Peter; Dehning, Sandra; Opgen-Rhein, Markus; Cerovecki, Anja; Hartmann, Annette M; Schäfer, Martin; Bondy, Brigitta; Müller, Norbert; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Riedel, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The HOMER 1 protein plays a crucial role in mediating glutamatergic neurotransmission. It has previously shown to be a candidate gene for etiology and pathophysiology of different psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, subgroups of animals were treated with haloperidol (1 mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we replicated the observed increase of Homer 1 gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 267 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNP's. We found an association between two HOMER 1 polymorphisms (rs2290639 and rs4704560) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore all seven investigated polymorphisms were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Most significant associations have been shown between the rs2290639 HOMER 1 polymorphism and PANSS subscales both at baseline conditions and after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. This is the first study which shows an association between HOMER 1 polymorphisms and psychopathology data at baseline and therapy response in a clinical sample of schizophrenic patients. Thus, these data might further help in detecting differential therapy response in individuals with schizophrenia.

  4. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one’s own emotion, underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood.

  5. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of resting frontal EEG asymmetry in psychopathology: afferent or efferent filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Jetha, Michelle K; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-01-01

    Resting EEG asymmetry evident early in life is thought to bias affective behaviors and contribute to the development of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear at what stage of information processing this bias occurs. Asymmetry may serve as an afferent filter, modulating emotional reactivity to incoming stimuli; or as an efferent filter, modulating behavioral response tendencies under emotional conditions. This study examines 209 kindergarten children (M = 6.03 years old) to test predictions put forth by the two models. Resting asymmetry was examined in conjunction with electrodermal and cardiac measures of physiological reactivity to four emotion-inducing film clips (fear, sad, happy, anger) and teacher ratings of psychopathology. Results confirm an association between increased right side cortical activation and internalizing symptom severity as well as left activation and externalizing symptom severity. Significant interactions between resting asymmetry and physiological reactivity to emotion indicate that physiological reactivity moderates the association between resting asymmetry and symptoms of psychopathology.

  7. Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures.

  8. Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: Associations With Clinical and Cognitive Insight Controlling for Levels of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Luther, Lauren; Vinci, Giancarlo; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia is a risk factor for both poor outcomes and treatment adherence. Accordingly, interest in identifying causes of poor insight has increased. This study explored whether theory of mind (ToM) impairments are linked to poor clinical and cognitive insight independent of psychopathology. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 37) and control subjects (n = 40) completed assessments of ToM with the Hinting Task and the Brüne Picture Sequencing Task, clinical insight and psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and cognitive insight with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Results indicated that the schizophrenia group had greater impairments in ToM relative to control subjects. In the schizophrenia group, the Hinting Task performance was related to both cognitive and clinical insight, with only the relationship with cognitive insight persisting after controlling for psychopathology. Picture Sequencing Task performance was related to cognitive insight only. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  10. Trait attentional control influences the relationship between repetitive negative thinking and psychopathology symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Adam C; Grant, DeMond M; Judah, Matt R; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Frosio, Kristen E

    2016-04-30

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been implicated in several disorders (e.g., Clark (2005)). However, little research has examined how RNT influences other risk factors of psychopathology, such as attentional control. This study used prospective methodology to determine if relationships among various RNT styles and symptoms of psychological disorders are indirectly influenced by facets of attentional control. The sample included 376 participants who completed measures of RNT (worry, rumination, anticipatory processing, obsessions, intrusive thoughts and panic cognitions), psychopathology (generalized anxiety disorder, depression, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder), and attentional control at two time points. Several relationships between RNT forms and symptom levels were indirectly predicted by the focusing subscale of attentional control; however, the patterns of these relationships differed based on the disorder. The shifting subscale did not indirectly predict any relationship. Therefore, it appears that low focusing may be a particular risk factor for the development of later RNT and/or psychopathology symptoms.

  11. Nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, and psychopathology in female victims of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Mylène; McDuff, Pierre; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between a history of childhood maltreatment, the frequency of disturbing dreams, their associated distress, and the presence of psychopathology in 352 female undergraduate volunteers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing dream recall, bad dream and nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, psychological well-being, and history of childhood trauma. Four groups were investigated based on the type and severity of childhood maltreatments experienced. Women reporting more severe forms of maltreatment reported higher frequencies of disturbing dreams, higher levels of nightmare distress, and greater psychopathology. Results showed that nightmare distress explains frequency of disturbed dreaming beyond the effect of psychopathology and childhood trauma. The results highlight the importance of assessing waking distress associated with disturbing dreams independently from their actual incidence.

  12. Parenting-by-gender interactions in child psychopathology: attempting to address inconsistencies with a Canadian national database

    OpenAIRE

    Thabane Lehana; Odueyungbo Adefowope; Browne Dillon T; Byrne Carolyn; Smart Lindsay A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereot...

  13. Thinking clearly about the endophenotype-intermediate phenotype-biomarker distinctions in developmental psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-11-01

    The endophenotype is central to modern developmental psychopathology studies. It is used in studies seeking to connect the genetic substrates of the panoply of major mental disorders with processes, tapped by laboratory and other assessment measures, in the genotype to a behavior/psychopathology pathway. Proposed originally by Gottesman and Shields (1972; Shields & Gottesman, 1973) 41 years ago, the endophenotype concept has gained widespread traction in psychopathology research since the Gottesman and Gould (2003) review. Other concepts broadly related to the endophenotype notion have also generated discussion in experimental and developmental psychopathology research. One is the intermediate phenotype, a concept proffered as a putative alternative formulation to the endophenotype. Another concept in this intellectual vein is biomarker. The terms endophenotype, intermediate phenotype, and biomarker have often been used interchangeably in the psychiatric literature, yielding conceptual confusion. However, these three terms are not fungible. The recent Research Domain Criteria proposal from the National Institute of Mental Health has emphasized selected underlying processes thought to be of developmental etiologic significance to psychopathology. These selected processes will be the focus of energetic future research efforts, many of which will make use of the endophenotype and biomarker research paradigms. In this context, the concepts of endophenotype, intermediate phenotype, and biomarker are examined critically and contrasted in terms of meaning, intention, clarity, and intellectual history. This analysis favors use of the endophenotype concept in genetically informed laboratory and neuroscience studies of psychopathology. The term intermediate phenotype is perhaps best restricted to its originally defined meaning in genetics. Biomarker is used to denote objectively measured biological antecedents or consequences of normal or pathogenic processes or a

  14. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC.

  15. Self-concept, self-esteem, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernarás, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and other personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in subjects with and without visual impairment. The sample was made up of 90 participants aged 12 to 17: 61 with no impairment and 29 with visual impairment. The ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in self-concept and self-esteem in the samples, but the visually impaired adolescents scored significantly higher in various psychopathological symptoms as well as in their capacity for kind behavior. The ANOVA revealed no gender differences in any variables in adolescents without visual impairment. However, women with visual impairment scored lower in self-esteem and higher in various psychopathological symptoms. Pearson coefficients revealed negative relations between self-concept/self-esteem and all the psychopathological symptoms, and neuroticism, as well as a positive relation with extraversion. Low psychoticism, high extraversion, and low hostility were identified as predictors of high self-concept.

  16. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  17. A case of cerebellar psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, Amy; Goldman, Mona; Cameron, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Pathology of the cerebellum has traditionally been associated with motor symptoms, vertigo, and nystagmus. Patients with cerebellar disorders do not usually receive psychiatric evaluations. The authors seek to alert clinicians to the association between cerebellar disease and psychiatric symptoms. The authors describe a patient with uncommon psychiatric morbidity associated with cerebellar dysfunction, and provide a brief review of previous research on this phenomenon. Neurology consultants suggested that physical exam findings and behavioral changes could be accounted for by cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. This syndrome involves dysfunction of the cerebellum, including classic cerebellar findings, in addition to cognitive difficulties and affective/personality changes. The suspected etiology was post-infectious cerebellitis from Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  18. Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Klement, Andreas; Bretschneider, Kristin; Lautenschläger, Christine; Stang, Andreas; Herrmann, Markus; Haerting, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10) was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to p...

  19. Continous controversy about radiation oncologists' choice of treatment regimens for bone metatases: should we blame doctors, canser-related features, or design of previous clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nieder, Carsten; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies from Italy, Japan and Norway have confirmed previous reports, which found that a large variety of palliative radiotherapy regimens are used for painful bone metastases. Routine use of single fraction treatment might or might not be the preferred institutional approach. It is not entirely clear why inter-physician and inter-institution differences continue to persist despite numerous randomized trials, meta-analyses and guidelines, which recommend against more costly and inconve...

  20. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.