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Sample records for psychopathologic rating score

  1. Correction of distortions in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman

    2013-11-30

    The often-reported low informant agreement about child psychopathology between multiple informants has lead to various suggestions about how to address discrepant ratings. Among the factors that may lower agreement that have been discussed is informant credibility, reliability, or psychopathology, which is of interest in this paper. We tested three different models, namely, the accuracy, the distortion, and an integrated so-called combined model, that conceptualize parental ratings to assess child psychopathology. The data comprise ratings of child psychopathology from multiple informants (mother, therapist and kindergarten teacher) and ratings of maternal psychopathology. The children were patients in a preschool psychiatry unit (N=247). The results from structural equation modeling show that maternal ratings of child psychopathology were biased by maternal psychopathology (distortion model). Based on this statistical background, we suggest a method to adjust biased maternal ratings. We illustrate the maternal bias by comparing the ratings of mother to expert ratings (combined kindergarten teacher and therapist ratings) and show that the correction equation increases the agreement between maternal and expert ratings. We conclude that this approach may help to reduce misclassification of preschool children as 'clinical' on the basis of biased maternal ratings.

  2. Interpreting Low Personality Psychopathology--Five Aggressiveness Scores on the MMPI-2: Graphical, Robust, and Resistant Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenburger, Susan M.; Harkness, Allan R.; McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2008-01-01

    The Minnesota Mutiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)-based Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5) scales provide an overview of personality individual differences. Several textbooks and a test report offer instruction on interpreting MMPI-2 PSY-5 scores. On the basis of an earlier item response theory article (S. V. Rouse, M. S. Finger,…

  3. Interpreting Low Personality Psychopathology--Five Aggressiveness Scores on the MMPI-2: Graphical, Robust, and Resistant Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenburger, Susan M.; Harkness, Allan R.; McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2008-01-01

    The Minnesota Mutiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)-based Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5) scales provide an overview of personality individual differences. Several textbooks and a test report offer instruction on interpreting MMPI-2 PSY-5 scores. On the basis of an earlier item response theory article (S. V. Rouse, M. S. Finger, &…

  4. Elevated copper, hs C-reactive protein and dyslipidemia in drug free schizophrenia: Relation with psychopathology score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayanan, Sivasankar; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Jose, Jancy

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation, dyslipidemia and altered copper levels have been reported in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, their association with the severity of psychopathology in schizophrenia is yet to be established. The present study was designed to assess the serum levels of copper, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid profile and to explore their association with psychopathology scores in schizophrenia. 40 cases and 40 controls were included in the study. Serum copper, hs-CRP and lipid profile were estimated in all the subjects. Disease severity was assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Copper, hs-CRP, total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol were significantly increased and HDL-Cholesterol was significantly reduced in schizophrenia cases when compared with controls. Copper was positively correlated with hs-CRP (r=0.338, p=0.003). Total cholesterol was significantly correlated with PANSS total (r=0.452, p=0.003) and negative symptom scores (r=0.337, p=0.033). Triacylglycerol was positively correlated with general psychopathology symptom score (r=0.416, p=0.008). Copper and hs-CRP were increased and correlated well with each other in schizophrenia cases. Though total cholesterol and triacylglycerol showed positive association with severity of the psychopathology, copper and hs-CRP were not associated with the disease severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  6. Parental Cognitive Errors Mediate Parental Psychopathology and Ratings of Child Inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  8. Brief report : Adults with mild autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and comorbid psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, C.; Horwitz, E.; Sytema, S.; Bos, J.; Wiersma, D.; Minderaa, R.; Hartman, C.A.

    While knowledge about symptom presentation of adults with mild ASD, including comorbid psychopathology, is limited, referral of adults with suspected mild PDD is increasing. We report on pilot research investigating whether patients diagnosed with mild ASD (n = 15) and patients who were not

  9. Improving Estimation of the Prognosis of Childhood Psychopathology; Combination of DSM-III-R/DISC Diagnoses and CBCL Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Robert F.; Visser, Jeroen Heijmens; Hoogerheide, Kirsten N.; van der Ende, Jan; Kasius, Marianne C.; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the predictive validity of the clinical-diagnostic and the empirical-quantitative approach to assessment of childhood psychopathology, and to investigate the usefulness of combining both approaches. Method: A referred sample (N = 96), aged 6 to 12 years at initial assessment, was followed up across--on average--a period of…

  10. Brief report : Adults with mild autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and comorbid psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, C.; Horwitz, E.; Sytema, S.; Bos, J.; Wiersma, D.; Minderaa, R.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    While knowledge about symptom presentation of adults with mild ASD, including comorbid psychopathology, is limited, referral of adults with suspected mild PDD is increasing. We report on pilot research investigating whether patients diagnosed with mild ASD (n = 15) and patients who were not diagnose

  11. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners’ Rating Scales–Revised Among Nepali Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura M.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners’ Teacher and Parent Rating Scales–Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district – a region where no other measures of child psychopathology have been studied. With a Nepali sample, the findings indicate that reduced two factor models for the Conners’ scales are superior to the models identified in the scale development research. The hyperactivity and inattention factors were comparable to what has been identified in prior research, while other factors (e.g., social problems) differed substantially. Implications for use of the Conners’ scales in Nepal and cross cultural issues in the assessment of ADHD symptoms are discussed. PMID:25574454

  12. Self and informant report ratings of psychopathology in genetic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, Amy; Bowden, Stephen C; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2017-02-01

    The psychological sequelae of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGE) is of growing research interest, with up to a third of all adults with GGE experiencing significant psychiatric comorbidity according to a recent systematic review. A number of unexplored questions remain. Firstly, there is insufficient evidence to determine relative prevalence of psychopathology between GGE syndromes. Secondly, the degree to which self-report and informant-report questionnaires accord in adults with epilepsy is unknown. Finally, while epilepsy severity is one likely predictor of worse psychopathology in GGE, evidence regarding other possible contributing factors such as epilepsy duration and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been equivocal. The potential impact of subclinical epileptiform discharges remains unexplored. Self-report psychopathology symptoms across six DSM-Oriented Subscales were prospectively measured in 60 adults with GGE, with informant-report provided for a subset of 47. We assessed the burden of symptoms from both self- and informant-report, and the relationship between clinical epilepsy variables and self-reported symptoms. Results showed elevated symptoms in almost half of the sample overall. Depression and anxiety were the most commonly reported types of symptoms. There was a trend towards greater symptoms endorsement by self-report, and relatively modest interrater agreement. Symptoms of ADHD were significantly positively associated with number of AEDs currently prescribed. Other psychopathology symptoms were not significantly predicted by epilepsy duration, seizure-free duration or total duration of epileptiform discharges over a 24-hour period. The high prevalence of psychological needs suggests that routine screening of psychopathology and provision of psychoeducation may be essential to improving patient care and outcomes. Further investigation is required to better understand predictive and causal factors for psychopathology in GGE. Copyright © 2016

  13. Calibration of unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores to Movement Disorder Society-unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Tilley, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop formulas to convert the UPDRS to Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-UPDRS scores. The MDS-UPDRS is a revision of the UPDRS with sound clinimetric properties. Reliable formulas to recalculate UPDRS scores into MDS-UPDRS equivalents are pivotal to the practical transition and definitive adoption of the MDS-UPDRS. UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS scores were collected on 875 PD patients. A developmental sample was used to regress UPDRS scores on corresponding MDS-UPDRS scores based on three H & Y groupings (I/II, III, and IV/V). Regression weighting factors and intercept terms provided formulas for UPDRS conversions to be tested in a validation sample. Concordance between the true MDS-UPDRS Part scores and those derived from the formulas was compared using Bland-Altman's plots and Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC). Significant concordance between UPDRS-estimated MDS-UPDRS scores was achieved for Parts II (Motor Experiences of Daily Living) (LCC = 0.93) and III (Motor Examination) (LCC = 0.97). The formulas resulted in mean differences between the true MDS-UPDRS and estimated MDS-UPDRS scores of less than 1 point for both Parts II and III. Concordance was not achieved for Parts I and IV (Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living and Complications of Therapy). Formulas allow archival UPDRS Parts II and III individual patient data to be accurately transferred to MDS-UPDRS scores. Because Part I collects data on much more extensive information than the UPDRS, and because Part IV is structured differently in the two versions, old ratings for these parts cannot be converted. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Associations between MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores and extra-test measures of personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Gartland, Diane

    2013-08-01

    The current study explored associations between two potentially invalidating self-report styles detected by the Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), over-reporting and under-reporting, and scores on the MMPI-2-RF substantive, as well as eight collateral self-report measures administered either at the same time or within 1 to 10 days of MMPI-2-RF administration. Analyses were conducted with data provided by college students, male prisoners, and male psychiatric outpatients from a Veterans Administration facility. Results indicated that if either an over- or under-reporting response style was suggested by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales, scores on the majority of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales, as well as a number of collateral measures, were significantly affected in all three groups in the expected directions. Test takers who were identified as potentially engaging in an over- or under-reporting response style by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales appeared to approach extra-test measures similarly regardless of when these measures were administered in relation to the MMPI-2-RF. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.

  15. The accuracy rate of Alvarado score, ultrasonography, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... the patients have atypical clinical and laboratory findings. In ... recorded on the study form for data collection. The Alvarado score was calculated as described in the literature.[5] The Alvarado score is a 10-point scoring system.

  16. CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.; Malhotra, Anil

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is propo...

  17. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Getting to the Heart of Emotion Regulation in Youth: The Role of Interoceptive Sensitivity, Heart Rate Variability, and Parental Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Braet, Caroline; Mueller, Sven C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation and associated autonomic activation develop throughout childhood and adolescence under the influence of the family environment. Specifically, physiological indicators of autonomic nervous system activity such as interoceptive sensitivity and vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) can inform on emotion regulation. Although the effect of parental emotion socialization on emotion regulation appears to be influenced by autonomic processes, research on physiological regulation and the influence of parental factors remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship between self-reported habitual emotion regulation strategies and HRV at rest as well as interoceptive sensitivity in forty-six youngsters (27 female; age: M = 13.00, SD = 2.13). Secondly, the association between these autonomic correlates and parental psychopathology was also studied. Whereas better interoceptive sensitivity was related to reduced maladaptive emotion regulation, specifically rumination, high HRV was related to more use of external emotion regulation strategies (i.e., support seeking). In addition, increased HRV and decreased interoceptive sensitivity were associated with maternal internalizing and there was evidence for a possible mediation effect of HRV in the relationship between maternal internalizing and child external emotion regulation. This study elucidates the link between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and underlying physiological regulation in adolescents but also indicates a putative influence of maternal internalizing symptoms on emotion regulation in their offspring. PMID:27741261

  19. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  20. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  1. Childhood Psychopathology and Autonomic Dysregulation: Exploring the Links Using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2007-01-01

    Changes in cardiovascular reactivity have been used as a psychophysiological marker of various emotional states in both children and adults. Recent decades have seen increasing use of heart rate variability as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic function and of central processes involved in autonomic function regulation. Developmental…

  2. Distribution of ACTFL Ratings by TOEFL Score Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, R. F.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to align verbal descriptions of test takers' language performance with distributions of the numerical scores they received on the three sections (Listening Comprehension, Structure and Written Expression, and Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The descriptors of…

  3. Rates, Associations, and Predictors of Psychopathology in a Convenience Sample of School-Aged Latino Youth: Identifying Areas for Mental Health Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2016-07-01

    The Latino youth population is rapidly growing and expected to comprise nearly 40% of the total youth population by 2060. Unfortunate disparities exist in the United States (U.S.), such that young Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive and benefit from mental health services. In order to identify and prioritize specific areas of mental health outreach, the current study examined preliminary rates, associations, and predictors of child psychopathology in a convenience sample of Latino youth. 123 Spanish and English speaking Latino parents of school-aged children completed a series of questionnaires regarding child and family functioning. Latino youth in the current sample demonstrated comparable rates of psychopathology to non-referred, normative samples. Parental acculturation (particularly Separated parental acculturation status: high orientation to Latino culture and low orientation to U.S. mainstream culture) was associated with an increased prevalence of clinically significant psychopathology across several domains, and socioeconomic status was associated with an increased prevalence of thought problems. Additionally, Separated parental acculturation status significantly predicted the prevalence of clinically significant anxious/depressed problems, such that youth of parents displaying Separated acculturation status were significantly more represented in the clinically-elevated groups than the functional groups. These preliminary results suggest that prioritizing outreach to Latino youth of parents maintaining orientation to Latino culture but not U.S. mainstream culture may be necessary in order to begin addressing existing mental health disparities in the U.S.

  4. Assessment of severity of hand eczema : discrepancies between patient- and physician-rated scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, A. M.; van Sonderen, E.; Bouma, J.; Coenraads, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background In clinical practice or trials on hand eczema the severity of this disease can be 'measured' in different ways: by means of a physician-rated clinical severity score, a patient-rated clinical severity score or by an indicator of the burden of disease. We assume that the patient-rated seve

  5. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  6. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  8. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G

    2014-01-01

    The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  9. Rediscovering Psychopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research....... In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature...... in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind....

  10. Application of the Scoring Model for Assessing the Credit Rating of Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Janeska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly used methods for assessing the credit rating of counterparties is a credit scoring model or credit scoring. Economic pressures, resulting in increased demand for loans, along with increasing the competition in the market of enterprises and the development of computational techniques and technologies leads to the development of statistical credit scoring model, and in order to expedite the process for making decisions related to credit approval. Credit scoring is used to increase the precision in the approval of loans to creditworthy customers, which can result in increased profits or rejection of those customers who are not creditworthy.

  11. Relationship between the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score and the success rate of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jin, Dan; Qiao, Fang; Chen, Jianchang; Gong, Jianping

    Computed tomography coronary angiography, a key method for obtaining coronary artery images, is widely used to screen for coronary artery diseases due to its noninvasive nature. In China, 64-slice computed tomography systems are now the most common models. As factors that directly affect computed tomography performance, heart rate and rhythm control are regulated by the autonomic nervous system and are highly related to the emotional state of the patient. The aim of this prospective study is to use a pre-computed tomography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale assessment to analyze the effects of tension and anxiety on computed tomography coronary angiography success. Subjects aged 18-85 years who were planned to undergo computed tomography coronary angiography were enrolled; 1 to 2 h before the computed tomography scan, basic patient data (gender, age, heart rate at rest, and family history) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score were obtained. The same group of imaging department doctors, technicians, and nurses performed computed tomography coronary angiography for all the enrolled subjects and observed whether those subjects could finish the computed tomography coronary angiography scan and provide clear, diagnostically valuable images. Participants were divided into successful (obtained diagnostically useful coronary images) and unsuccessful groups. Basic data and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were compared between the groups. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score of the successful group was lower than that of the unsuccessful group (P = 0.001). As the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score rose, the success rate of computed tomography coronary angiography decreased. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score has a negative relationship with computed tomography coronary angiography success. Anxiety can be a disadvantage in computed tomography coronary angiography examination. The pre-computed tomography coronary angiography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

  12. Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

  13. Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

  14. Impact of Online Summer Mathematics Bridge Program on Placement Scores and Pass Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jodi L.; Dreher, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    An online four-week summer mathematics bridge program was implemented at a Midwest university with historically low pass rates in College Algebra and Remedial Mathematics. Students who completed the four week program significantly increased their mathematics placement exam scores. These students also had a higher pass rate in their initial college…

  15. An Exploration of the Base Rate Scores of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, William M.; Vrieze, Scott I.

    2009-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (3rd ed.; MCMI-III) is a widely used psychological assessment of clinical and personality disorders. Unlike typical tests, the MCMI-III uses a base-rate score transformation to incorporate prior probabilities of disorder (i.e., base rates) in test output and diagnostic thresholds. The authors describe the…

  16. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  17. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  18. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., race, family education and income, GPA and class rank, regression analyses revealed that states requiring graduation exams had lower graduation rates and lower SAT scores. Individually, students from states requiring a graduation exam performed more poorly on the SAT than did students from states not requiring an exam. The impact of high stakes tests' on students' motivation to stay in school and on the teaching of critical thinking skills (tested by the SAT are discussed.

  19. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109 on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person. The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points were increased by up to eleven points (0.5% per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points. There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points. Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  20. The validity and structure of culture-level personality scores: data from ratings of young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Terracciano, Antonio; De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; Gelfand, Michele J; Costa, Paul T

    2010-06-01

    We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N=5,109) ages 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, 8 of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted.

  1. The scoring bias in reverse docking and the score normalization strategy to improve success rate of target fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiyao; Zhao, Liang; Hu, Jianxing; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren

    2017-01-01

    Target fishing often relies on the use of reverse docking to identify potential target proteins of ligands from protein database. The limitation of reverse docking is the accuracy of current scoring funtions used to distinguish true target from non-target proteins. Many contemporary scoring functions are designed for the virtual screening of small molecules without special optimization for reverse docking, which would be easily influenced by the properties of protein pockets, resulting in scoring bias to the proteins with certain properties. This bias would cause lots of false positives in reverse docking, interferring the identification of true targets. In this paper, we have conducted a large-scale reverse docking (5000 molecules to 100 proteins) to study the scoring bias in reverse docking by DOCK, Glide, and AutoDock Vina. And we found that there were actually some frequency hits, namely interference proteins in all three docking procedures. After analyzing the differences of pocket properties between these interference proteins and the others, we speculated that the interference proteins have larger contact area (related to the size and shape of protein pockets) with ligands (for all three docking programs) or higher hydrophobicity (for Glide), which could be the causes of scoring bias. Then we applied the score normalization method to eliminate this scoring bias, which was effective to make docking score more balanced between different proteins in the reverse docking of benchmark dataset. Later, the Astex Diver Set was utilized to validate the effect of score normalization on actual cases of reverse docking, showing that the accuracy of target prediction significantly increased by 21.5% in the reverse docking by Glide after score normalization, though there was no obvious change in the reverse docking by DOCK and AutoDock Vina. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of score normalization to eliminate the scoring bias and improve the accuracy of target

  2. Future in psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  3. 23 CFR 636.304 - What process may be used to rate and score proposals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What process may be used to rate and score proposals? 636.304 Section 636.304 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Proposal Evaluation Factors § 636.304 What...

  4. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  5. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez Antonio; Gayán Javier; Ruiz Agustín

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning) is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools ...

  6. [The scoring and rating system for the estimation of the teaching efficiency in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buromskiĭ, I V; Kil'diushov, E M

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a system of criteria for the evaluation of the results of education of forensic medical students based on the scoring and rating scale. The major requirements for the organization of academic activities are considered. It is emphasized that the compliance with these requirements is an indispensable prerequisite for the introduction of the above system in the training routine at the Department of Forensic Medicine.

  7. At JSC's MCC, CAPCOMs display score cards rating STS-26 Discovery landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30, astronauts and spacecraft communicators (CAPCOMs) L. Blaine Hammond, Jr, John O. Creighton, Frank L. Culbertson, Jr, and an unidentified man display score cards rating the STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, landing at Edwards Air Force Base(EAFB), California. Flight control room (FCR) front visual displays show world tracking map, EAFB post landing activity, and head alignment cone (HAC).

  8. Associations between chronotypes, psychopathology, and personality among incoming college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Yueh; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Lee, Ming-Been

    2012-05-01

    Chronotye is associated with age, sex, personality, and parental monitoring during childhood. The evening type is associated with poor school performance, sleep problems, anxious/depressive symptoms, tobacco smoking, caffeine consumption, alcohol drinking, and suicidality in adolescents. The present study tested the relationships between chronotype and a wide range of psychopathology and personality traits among 2919 incoming undergraduate students. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire that included demographics, plus the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) scale, Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Maudesley Personality Inventory. The t-score distribution of the M-E scale was used to form the morning (t-score >60, n = 419), evening (t-score personality characteristics, but lower than the morning type in extraversion and social desirability. In reward dependence, the evening type scored lowest for males, but there was no difference for females. The findings of the evening type being associated with possible psychopathology and certain types of personality have public health implications, that is, chronotype needs to be taken into account in the development of mental health prevention programs and assessment of and intervention for mental problems in young adults.

  9. GlideScope Use improves intubation success rates: an observational study using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibinson, James W; Ezaru, Catalin S; Cormican, Daniel S; Mangione, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Rigid video laryngoscopes are popular alternatives to direct laryngoscopy for intubation, but further large scale prospective studies comparing these devices to direct laryngoscopy in routine anesthesiology practice are needed. We hypothesized that the first pass success rate with one particular video laryngoscope, the GlideScope, would be higher than the success rate with direct laryngoscopy. 3831 total intubation attempts were tracked in an observational study comparing first-pass success rate using a Macintosh or Miller-style laryngoscope with the GlideScope. Propensity scoring was then used to select 626 subjects matched between the two groups based on their morphologic traits. Comparing the GlideScope and direct laryngoscopy groups suggested that intubation would be more difficult in the GlideScope group based on the Mallampati class, cervical range of motion, mouth opening, dentition, weight, and past intubation history. Thus, a propensity score based on these factors was used to balance the groups into two 313 patient cohorts. Direct laryngoscopy was successful in 80.8% on the first-pass intubation attempt, while the GlideScope was successful in 93.6% (p risk difference of 0.128 with a 95% CI of 0.0771 - 0.181). A greater first-attempt success rate was found when using the GlideScope versus direct laryngoscopy. In addition, the GlideScope was found to be 99% successful for intubation after initial failure of direct laryngoscopy, helping to reduce the incidence of failed intubation.

  10. Empathy scores in medical school and ratings of empathic behavior in residency training 3 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Nasca, Thomas J; Gonnella, Joseph S; Magee, Mike

    2005-12-01

    The authors designed the present study to examine the association between individuals' scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, & M. Magee, 2003; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, T. J. Nasca, S. Mangione, M. Vergare, & M. Magee, 2002; M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, M. J. M. Cohen, J. S. Gonnella, J. B. Erdmann, J. J. Veloski, & M. Magee, 2001), a self-report empathy scale, during medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs 3 years later. Participants were 106 physicians. The authors examined the relationships between scores on the JSPE (with 20 Likert-type items) at the beginning of the students' 3rd year of medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs. Top scorers on the JSPE in medical school, compared to Bottom scorers, obtained a significantly higher average rating of empathic behavior in residency 3 years later (p < .05, effect size = 0.50). The findings support the long-term predictive validity of the self-report empathy scale, JSPE, despite different methods of evaluations (self-report and supervisors' ratings) and despite a time interval between evaluations (3 years). Because empathy is relevant to prosocial and helping behavior, it is important for investigators to further enhance our understanding of its correlates and outcomes among health professionals.

  11. Something from nothing: Estimating consumption rates using propensity scores, with application to emissions reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Nicholas; Büchs, Milena; Schnepf, Sylke V

    2017-01-01

    Consumption surveys often record zero purchases of a good because of a short observation window. Measures of distribution are then precluded and only mean consumption rates can be inferred. We show that Propensity Score Matching can be applied to recover the distribution of consumption rates. We demonstrate the method using the UK National Travel Survey, in which c.40% of motorist households purchase no fuel. Estimated consumption rates are plausible judging by households' annual mileages, and highly skewed. We apply the same approach to estimate CO2 emissions and outcomes of a carbon cap or tax. Reliance on means apparently distorts analysis of such policies because of skewness of the underlying distributions. The regressiveness of a simple tax or cap is overstated, and redistributive features of a revenue-neutral policy are understated.

  12. Post anesthesia recovery rate evaluated by using White fast tracking scoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevera Hadžimešić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postponed recuperation from anesthesia can lead to different complications such as apnoea, aspiration of gastric content whit consequent development of aspiration pneumonia, laryngospasm, bradycardia, and hypoxia. Aim of this research was to determine infl uence of propofol, sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia on post anesthesia recovery rate.Methods: This was a prospective study; it included 90 patients hospitalized in period form October 2011 to may 2012 year, all patients included in the study underwent lumbar microdiscectomy surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: group 1: propofol maintained anesthesia, group 2: sevoflurane and group 3: isofl urane maintained anesthesia. Assessments of recovery rate were done 1, 5 and 10 minutes post extubation using White fast tracking scoring system.Results: Significant difference was observed only 1 minute after extubation (p=0,025 finding recovery rate to be superior in propofol group. Propofol group compared to inhaled anesthesia with sevoflurane group, shows significantly faster recovery from anesthesia only one minute after extubation (p=0,046. In comparison of propofol group and isofl urane anesthesia group, statistical significance was noticed one minute following extubation (p=0,008. Comparison of propofol group and inhaled anesthesia groups recovery rates were not significantly different at all times measured. When we were comparing sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia, recovery rates shoved no signifi cant statistical difference.Conclusions: Recovery rate evaluated by using White fast tracking scoring system was superior and with fewer complications in propofol maintained in comparison to sevoflurane and isoflurane maintained anesthesia only one minute post extubation, while after fifth and tenth minute difference was lost.

  13. Local conservation scores without a priori assumptions on neutral substitution rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagenauer Joachim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics aims to detect signals of evolutionary conservation as an indicator of functional constraint. Surprisingly, results of the ENCODE project revealed that about half of the experimentally verified functional elements found in non-coding DNA were classified as unconstrained by computational predictions. Following this observation, it has been hypothesized that this may be partly explained by biased estimates on neutral evolutionary rates used by existing sequence conservation metrics. All methods we are aware of rely on a comparison with the neutral rate and conservation is estimated by measuring the deviation of a particular genomic region from this rate. Consequently, it is a reasonable assumption that inaccurate neutral rate estimates may lead to biased conservation and constraint estimates. Results We propose a conservation signal that is produced by local Maximum Likelihood estimation of evolutionary parameters using an optimized sliding window and present a Kullback-Leibler projection that allows multiple different estimated parameters to be transformed into a conservation measure. This conservation measure does not rely on assumptions about neutral evolutionary substitution rates and little a priori assumptions on the properties of the conserved regions are imposed. We show the accuracy of our approach (KuLCons on synthetic data and compare it to the scores generated by state-of-the-art methods (phastCons, GERP, SCONE in an ENCODE region. We find that KuLCons is most often in agreement with the conservation/constraint signatures detected by GERP and SCONE while qualitatively very different patterns from phastCons are observed. Opposed to standard methods KuLCons can be extended to more complex evolutionary models, e.g. taking insertion and deletion events into account and corresponding results show that scores obtained under this model can diverge significantly from scores using the simpler model

  14. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test ...

  15. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  16. Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demsar Janez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational methods that infer single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP interactions from phenotype data may uncover new biological mechanisms in non-Mendelian diseases. However, practical aspects of such analysis face many problems. Present experimental studies typically use SNP arrays with hundreds of thousands of SNPs but record only hundreds of samples. Candidate SNP pairs inferred by interaction analysis may include a high proportion of false positives. Recently, Gayan et al. (2008 proposed to reduce the number of false positives by combining results of interaction analysis performed on subsets of data (replication groups, rather than analyzing the entire data set directly. If performing as hypothesized, replication groups scoring could improve interaction analysis and also any type of feature ranking and selection procedure in systems biology. Because Gayan et al. do not compare their approach to the standard interaction analysis techniques, we here investigate if replication groups indeed reduce the number of reported false positive interactions. Results A set of simulated and false interaction-imputed experimental SNP data sets were used to compare the inference of SNP-SNP interactions by means of replication groups to the standard approach where the entire data set was directly used to score all candidate SNP pairs. In all our experiments, the inference of interactions from the entire data set (e.g. without using the replication groups reported fewer false positives. Conclusions With respect to the direct scoring approach the utility of replication groups does not reduce false positive rates, and may, depending on the data set, often perform worse.

  17. The Nordic Advantage in Child Mental Health: Separating Health Differences from Reporting Style in a Cross-Cultural Comparison of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: The use of similar standardised measures of psychopathology for population surveys permits cross-cultural comparisons. However, interpretation of findings can be challenging because rating thresholds may differ across cultures. By combining questionnaire and interview data, we explore whether lower questionnaire scores in Norway as…

  18. Overall scores as an alternative to global ratings in patient experience surveys: a comparison of four methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, M.W.; Boer, D. de; Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Delnoij, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Global ratings of healthcare by patients are a popular way of summarizing patients' experiences. Summary scores can be used for comparing healthcare provider performance and provider rankings. As an alternative, overall scores from actual patient experiences can be constructed as summary

  19. Type I Error Rates, Coverage of Confidence Intervals, and Variance Estimation in Propensity-Score Matched Analyses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    ... the statistical significance of the treatment effect. We conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations to examine the impact of ignoring the matched nature of the propensity-score matched sample on Type I error rates, coverage of confidence...

  20. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pérez Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools and data filters, such as the use of multiple replication groups, and direction of effect and control filters. A recent article has claimed that the use of multiple replication groups (as implemented in HFCC does not reduce the false positive rate, and we hereby try to clarify these issues. Results/Discussion HFCC uses, as an analysis strategy, the possibility of replicating findings in multiple replication groups, in order to select a liberal subset of preliminary results that are above a statistical criterion and consistent in direction of effect. We show that the use of replication groups and the direction filter reduces the false positive rate of a study, although at the expense of lowering the overall power of the study. A post-hoc analysis of these selected signals in the combined sample could then be performed to select the most promising results. Conclusion Replication of results in independent samples is generally used in scientific studies to establish credibility in a finding. Nonetheless, the combined analysis of several datasets is known to be a preferable and more powerful strategy for the selection of top signals. HFCC is a flexible and complete analysis tool, and one of its analysis options combines these two strategies: A preliminary multiple replication group analysis to eliminate inconsistent false positive results, and a post-hoc combined-group analysis to select the top signals.

  1. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning) is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools and data filters, such as the use of multiple replication groups, and direction of effect and control filters. A recent article has claimed that the use of multiple replication groups (as implemented in HFCC) does not reduce the false positive rate, and we hereby try to clarify these issues. Results/Discussion HFCC uses, as an analysis strategy, the possibility of replicating findings in multiple replication groups, in order to select a liberal subset of preliminary results that are above a statistical criterion and consistent in direction of effect. We show that the use of replication groups and the direction filter reduces the false positive rate of a study, although at the expense of lowering the overall power of the study. A post-hoc analysis of these selected signals in the combined sample could then be performed to select the most promising results. Conclusion Replication of results in independent samples is generally used in scientific studies to establish credibility in a finding. Nonetheless, the combined analysis of several datasets is known to be a preferable and more powerful strategy for the selection of top signals. HFCC is a flexible and complete analysis tool, and one of its analysis options combines these two strategies: A preliminary multiple replication group analysis to eliminate inconsistent false positive results, and a post-hoc combined-group analysis to select the top signals. PMID:20576100

  2. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H

    1999-01-01

    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  3. Addictive severity in cocaine addicts measured with the EuropASI: differences between composite scores and severity ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Secades-Villa, Roberto; José Santonja Gómez, Francisco; Zacarés Romaguera, Francisco; García-Rodríguez, Olaya

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present the addiction severity profile in a sample of 202 cocaine addicts, using the composite scores for each area of the EuropASI (European version of the ASI), which are compared with the severity ratings obtained through interviewers' subjective assessments. The results showed that the areas of the EuropASI which reflected the greatest severity according to the composite scores were, in the following order: employment/support, family/social situation, use of alcohol and psychiatric state. The results obtained with the composite scores show discrepancies with those obtained from the severity rating. Statistically significant differences were found in the areas of alcohol (Z = -6.205; p composite scores, since severity ratings depend totally on the interviewer's judgement, and do not appear to constitute a sound measure for estimating therapeutic change.

  4. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  5. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  6. Comparison of rate of annual change of mental status score in four independent studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, R; Brown, T; Thal, L J; Fuld, P A; Aronson, M; Butters, N; Klauber, M R; Wiederholt, W; Pay, M; Xiong, R B

    1988-09-01

    Longitudinal studies of subjects with autopsy-proven Alzheimer's disease in one skilled nursing home and of clinically diagnosed cases (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) in three community cohorts are compared with regard to the annual rate of change in the error score of the Blessed information-memory-concentration test (IMC) in which the maximum number of errors possible is 33. The four cohorts differed significantly from each other in regard to age, education, sex, and the degree of dementia as measured by the initial IMC score. Subjects spanned the age range of 52 to 96 years and had 2 to 20 years of education. The rate of change in error score per year was similar whether the initial error score was 0 to 7, 8 to 15, or 16 to 23; however, the rate was reduced when the initial error score was 24 or above, due to a ceiling effect of the test. Among subjects with initial IMC scores less than 24, the annual rate of change varied considerably. However, the mean annual rate of change, 4.4 errors (SD +/- 3.6, SEM +/- 0.3) per year, was independent of residence in a nursing home, location of the study site, and of the patient's sex or education. Of particular importance was the finding that the rate of change in mental test score was independent of age. It can be concluded that the rate of cognitive deterioration in patients with Alzheimer's disease is quite variable among individuals and is independent of the patient's age and whether the patient resides in the community or in a nursing home.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  8. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  9. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  10. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  11. 24 CFR 985.103 - SEMAP score and overall performance rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (SEMAP) Program Operation § 985.103 SEMAP...) Notwithstanding an PHA's SEMAP score, if the latest IA report submitted for the PHA under the Single Audit...

  12. National hospital ratings systems share few common scores and may generate confusion instead of clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J Matthew; Jha, Ashish K; Romano, Patrick S; Singer, Sara J; Vogus, Timothy J; Wachter, Robert M; Pronovost, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Attempts to assess the quality and safety of hospitals have proliferated, including a growing number of consumer-directed hospital rating systems. However, relatively little is known about what these rating systems reveal. To better understand differences in hospital ratings, we compared four national rating systems. We designated "high" and "low" performers for each rating system and examined the overlap among rating systems and how hospital characteristics corresponded with performance on each. No hospital was rated as a high performer by all four national rating systems. Only 10 percent of the 844 hospitals rated as a high performer by one rating system were rated as a high performer by any of the other rating systems. The lack of agreement among the national hospital rating systems is likely explained by the fact that each system uses its own rating methods, has a different focus to its ratings, and stresses different measures of performance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young wom

  14. Self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio; Mozaz, María

    2008-02-01

    This study has two objectives: 1) to analyse the characteristics of self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in accordance with age and gender in a representative sample from the Basque Country; and 2) to explore the relationships of self-concept and self-esteem with psychopathological symptoms. The sample is made up of 1,579 participants, aged 12 to 65, of whom 732 are males (46.4%) and 847 are females (53.6%). The study uses a descriptive and correlational methodology. For the measurement of psychopathological symptoms, self-concept and self-esteem, three assessment instruments are applied. The ANOVAs indicated significant differences associated with age in self-concept, self-esteem, and quantity of psychopathological symptoms. As regards gender, no significant differences were found for self-concept and self-esteem, but there were differences in psychopathological symptoms, with females scoring higher in various disorders (somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and total quantity of symptoms). The results of the correlational analyses confirmed significant inverse relationships between self-concept/self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion considers the potential role of intervention programmes that promote self-concept and self-esteem in the prevention of psychopathological problems.

  15. Correlation between Global Rating Scale and Specific Checklist Scores for Professional Behaviour of Physical Therapy Students in Practical Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Turner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the specific item checklist (checklist and global rating scale (GRS scores are correlated in practical skills examinations (PSEs. Professional behaviour was evaluated using both the checklist and GRS scores for 183 students in three PSEs. Mean, standard deviation, and correlation for checklist and GRS scores were calculated for each station, within each PSE. Pass rate for checklist and GRS was determined for each PSE, as well as for each individual checklist item within each PSE. Overall, pass rate was high for both checklist and GRS evaluations of professional behaviour in all PSEs. Generally, mean scores for the checklist and GRS were high, with low standard deviations, resulting in low data variability. Spearman correlation between total checklist and GRS scores was statistically significant for two out of five stations in PSE 1, five out of six stations in PSE 2, and three out of four stations in PSE 3. The GRS is comparable to the checklist for evaluation of professional behaviour in physical therapy (PT students. The correlation between the checklist and GRS appears to become stronger in the assessment of more advanced students.

  16. Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçkardeş, Yasemin; Ozmert, Elif N; Unal, Fatih; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of zinc supplementation on behaviour in low-income school aged children. Double-blind randomized, placebo controlled trial. Low-income district primary school in Turkey. Third grade students in the school. Among 252 students, 226 participated and 218 completed the study. Children in each class were randomized either to the study group to receive 15 mg/day elemental zinc syrup or to placebo group to receive the syrup without zinc for 10 weeks. The change in Conner's Rating Scales for Teachers and Parents scores after supplementation. The mean Conner's Rating Scale for Parents scores on attention deficit, hyperactivity, oppositional behaviour and conduct disorder decreased significantly in the study and placebo groups after supplementation (p children with clinically significant parent ratings on attention deficit (p = 0.01) and hyperactivity (p = 0.004) decreased in the study group while prevalence of oppositional behaviour (p = 0.007) decreased in the placebo group. In children of mothers with low education all mean Parents' scores decreased significantly (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour decreased only in the study group (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit and hyperactivity. The affect on behaviour was more evident in the children of low educated mothers.

  17. Prediction of mortality rate of trauma patients in emergency room at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital by several scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande M.W. Tirtayasa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma management is well recognized as one of the main challenges in modern health care. Easy-to-use trauma scoring systems inform physicians of the severity of trauma and help them to decide the course of trauma management. The aim of this study was to find the most applicable trauma scoring system which can be used by physicians by comparing prediction of the mortality rate using: 1triage-revised trauma score (T-RTS; 2 mechanism, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, age, and arterial pressure (MGAP; and GCS, age, and systolic blood pressure (GAP scoring system on trauma patients in emergency room (ER at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.Methods: The data were collected retrospectively from medical records of trauma patients who came to the resuscitation area in ER at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital throughout 2011. As many as 185 patients were managed. The inclusion criteria were all trauma patients who came to the resuscitation area in ER. All referred patients, patients under eighteen, and uncompleted data were excluded. The data were calculated based on each scoring system. The outcome (death or alive was collected on first 24 hours following admission.Results: There were 124 cases analyzed, with mean of age of 32.4 years and total mortality rate up to 23 cases (18.5%. The mortality rate of low risk group on T-RTS, MGAP, and GAP was 5%, 1.3%, and 1.4% respectively (p = 1.000. The mortality rate of intermediate risk group on T-RTS, MGAP, and GAP was 39.4%, 32.1%, and 36.3%, respectively (p = 0.841. Mortality rate of high risk group on T-RTS, MGAP, and GAP was 100%, 72.2%, and 85.7% respectively (p = 0.782.Conclusion: There was no difference on T-RTS, MGAP, and GAP scoring system in predicting mortality rate. T-RTS is the most applicable trauma scoring system since it does not differ the age and mechanism of trauma. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:227-31. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.603 Keywords: GAP, MGAP, T-RTS, Trauma scoring system

  18. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  19. Creativity and psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Mad Genius is a recurring stereotype of contemporary cultural expression. However, starting with Lombroso’s investigation of genius and madness in 1888, recent decades have seen an increasing number of empirical studies suggesting that there really is an association between creativity and psychopathology. Still, taken together, the empirical support is unconvincing - largely due to a heavy reliance on biographical data and small cohorts. The primary aim of this thesis is t...

  20. [Psychopathology in children with dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, E

    2010-08-01

    The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential. Next we focus on co-morbidity. Firstly, we look at psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, dyscalculia/math disability, dyslexia/reading difficulties, dysphasia accompanied by verbal dyspraxia, intelligence deficiency, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Secondly, we examine psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia. Children with developmental coordination disorder are less inclined to participate in collective games. As a result, there is a greater risk of them becoming lonely and isolated. They have higher child behaviour checklist (CBCL) scores in the somatic problems scale as well as for anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. They have low self-perception in sports as well as at school, which is related to their physical appearance and their self-esteem, attention deficit and externalized behaviour. These children are often at risk of academic failure and they suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and functional disorders. And finally, we believe that it is important to touch on the impact of these disorders on the family.

  1. Alexithymia and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2004-04-01

    This research is an attempt to gain a comprehensive insight into alexithymia in schizophrenia. Previous studies offered clinically-descriptive and phenomenologically oriented suggestions regarding alexithymia putative contribution in shaping schizophrenic psychopathology. However, the factorial structure of the scales used to assess alexithymia had never been applied to a schizophrenic sample as a preliminary step to interpret results, thus assuming the purported dimensions of the alexithymia construct (i.e. difficulties identifying feelings, difficulties describing feelings, and externally oriented thinking) to be transnosographically stable. In order to explore the psychopathologic meaning and interrelations with other schizophrenic symptoms, we evaluated 76 chronic schizophrenic outpatients using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, standardized measures of positive, negative, disorganized and depressive symptoms, social and physical anhedonia scales, and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. The principal component analysis ofTAS-20 items revealed a 4-factor structure with multiple correlations with psychotic, disorganized, depressive, anhedonic dimensions and basic symptoms. The data suggest that alexithymia in schizophrenia is more heterogeneous than was previously recognized, and has several components, some of which are more state-related, and others of which are more like trait features. Those components are specifically correlated with both overt and subjective dimensions of schizophrenic psychopathology.

  2. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  3. Using Multivariate Base Rates to Interpret Low Scores on an Abbreviated Battery of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Justin E; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Holdnack, James A; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-05-01

    Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests. The sample consisted of 1,050 healthy individuals (ages 16-89) from the standardization sample for the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Seven individual test scores from the Trail Making Test, Color-Word Interference Test, and Verbal Fluency Test were analyzed. Low test scores, as defined by commonly used clinical cut-offs (i.e., ≤25th, 16th, 9th, 5th, and 2nd percentiles), occurred commonly among the adult portion of the D-KEFS normative sample (e.g., 62.8% of the sample had one or more scores ≤16th percentile, 36.1% had one or more scores ≤5th percentile), and the prevalence of low scores increased with lower intelligence and fewer years of education. The multivariate base rates (BR) in this article allow clinicians to understand the normal frequency of low scores in the general population. By use of these BRs, clinicians and researchers can improve the accuracy with which they identify executive dysfunction in clinical groups, such as those with traumatic brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caraveo Anduaga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders affect up to one third of patients with non-psychiatric diseases.1-5 Nevertheless, despite the high prevalence of psychopathology in general medical patients, only between 30-50% of all cases are detected.2,6-8 Some have suggested that the difficulty in the detection and diagnosis of mental disorders among patients who seek medical attention for other reasons, lies in the lack of screening questions that might alert the physician to the possibility of a psychiatric co-morbidity.9 Such questions would identify medical patients at high risk of psychiatric problems. Previous work on clinical predictors of psychopathology have identified the following: specific physical symptoms10-11; patient report of severity of illness11; recent stress12,13; low self-perception of health status13; and age less than 50.14 Two specific studies on the detection of psychopathology in the general medical population are worth highlighting. The first, by Jackson and his research team13 updating a 2001 study evaluating a prediction model with four parameters (recent stress, severity of physical symptoms, five or more specific symptoms, self-assessment of physical condition. They found that those patients who report recent stress, have five or more physical symptoms or a low self-perception of their health state are at a higher risk of having a psychiatric disorder. The second study, by Lowe et al. published in 2003,9 examines a series of factors that could serve as indicators of psychopathology in ambulatory medical (i.e. non-psychiatric patients. After evaluating several different models they found that the combination of four of factors (taken as a group had a high sensitivity (86%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and negative predictive value (91%. This suggests that a physician could use the combination of these four indicators to evaluate for the presence of co morbid mental disorders. These factors are: self

  5. A quantified risk-scoring system and rating model for postsurgical gastroparesis syndrome in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Wei-Teng; Lin, Ji; Wu, Rui-Sen; Zhang, Feng-Min; Sun, Xiang-Wei; Chi, Chu-Huai; Shen, Xian; Wang, Peng-Fei

    2017-09-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and postsurgical gastroparesis syndrome (PGS), and to construct a scoring system and a risk model to identify patients at high risk. A total of 634 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics were evaluated via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Logistic analysis was performed to determine the independent predictive indicators of PGS. A scoring system consisting of these indicators and a risk-rating model were constructed and evaluated via ROC curve analysis. Based on the ROC curves, the visceral fat area (VFA) cutoff value for PGS was 94.00. Logistic analysis showed that visceral obesity (VFA ≥ 94.00 cm(2) ), the reconstruction technique, and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for PGS. The scoring system could predict PGS reliably with a high area under the ROC curve ([AUC] = 0.769). A high-risk rating had a high AUC (AUC I = 0.56, AUC II = 0.65, and AUC III = 0.77), indicating that the risk-rating model could effectively screen patients at high risk of PGS. Visceral obesity defined by VFA effectively predicted PGS. Our scoring system may be a reliable instrument for identifying patients most at risk of PGS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context

  7. Association between CHADS2 score and long-term atrial fibrillation recurrence rate after catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between CHADS2score and long-term(≥3 years)outcomes post catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF).Methods AF patients who received single catheter ablation in our hospital from January 2004 to March 2009 in our department were included and patients received regular follow-up.AF recurrence was defined as the occurrence of atrial arrhythmias(AF,atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia)recorded by electrocardiogram monitor(≥30 seconds)after ablation during follow-up period(after

  8. A hermeneutic framework for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the scope and limitations of descriptive and clinical psychopathology, this paper focuses on the method and intention of structural psychopathology. Structural psychopathology goes beyond the description of isolated symptoms and the use of some of those symptoms to establish a diagnosis. It aims to understand the meaning of a given world of experiences and actions grasping the underlying characteristic modification that keeps the symptoms meaningfully interconnected. Building on and expanding some basic phenomenological and hermeneutical principles, and applying them to the study of abnormal human subjectivity, this paper suggests the methodological guidelines for a structurally informed psychopathological interview.

  9. 7 CFR 52.777 - Ascertaining the rating for the factors which are scored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.777 Ascertaining the rating for the factors which are...

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography: The effect of average heart rate, heart rate variability, and calcium score in a clinical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Jiang Zhang; Zhuo-Li Zhang; Chang-Sheng Zhou; Guang-Ming Lu (Dept. of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China)), e-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com; Sheng-Yong Wu (Medical Imaging Inst. of Tianjin, Tianjin (China)); Jing Wang; Shi-Sen Jiang (Dept. of Cardiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China)); Ying Lu (Dept. of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    2010-09-15

    Background: Dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) has been used to detect coronary artery disease; however, the factors with potential to affect its diagnostic accuracy remain to be defined. Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of dual-source CTCA in diagnosing coronary artery stenosis according to conventional coronary angiography (CAG), and the effect of average heart rate, heart rate variability, and calcium score on the accuracy of CTCA. Material and Methods: A total of 113 patients underwent both dual-source CTCA and CAG. The results were used to evaluate the findings in dual-source CTCA to assess the accuracy in the diagnosis of =50% (significant stenosis) and >75% (severe stenosis) of coronary artery according to those by CAG. Patients were divided into subgroups according to their heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and calcium score, and the accuracy of CTCA was further evaluated. The chi-square test was used to analyze the difference in sensitivity and specificity for the detection of =50% and >75% coronary stenosis among subgroups. The generalized estimation equation method was used in per-vessel analysis to adjust for within-patient correlation. Results: In all, 113 patients had 338 vessels and 1661 segments evaluated by CAG. Dual-source CTCA displayed 1527 segments (91.9%). Among them, 1468 segments (calcium score by CAG score 1, n=1018; score 2, n=270; score 3, n=180) were assessable in CTCA. On a per-patient analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of CTCA were 93.9% and 93.5% for significant stenosis and 86.9% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. On a per-vessel basis, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 97.1% for significant and 83.3% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. On a per-segment analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 97.1% for significant and 83.3% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. Average HR had no effect on the sensitivity and specificity of CTCA (P>0.05); whereas HRV and calcium score had some effect on

  11. Can Tongue Acupuncture Enhance Body Acupuncture? First Results from Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue acupuncture (TA is a method which is not used in western medicine and even in China it is applied very rarely in clinical practice. This study aimed at investigating whether additional TA can improve the efficacy of body acupuncture (BA in patients with depression. Twenty patients with a mean age of ± SD of 42.9±11.2 years were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 patients each, one group receiving BA (Zusanli, Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Shenting, Yintang, and Baihui and the other receiving BA and TA (Liver, Heart, and Brain. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. We found that in both groups all scores and HR improved significantly, whereas HRV increased partly significantly. It seems that TA can enhance acute and treatment effects of BA in patients with depression. The investigation of de qi sensation in TA needs further attention.

  12. [Crime and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.

  13. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  14. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  15. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  16. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  17. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  18. The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among methadone maintenance treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potik, David; Peles, Einat; Abramsohn, Yahli; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was examined by the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and drug abuse urine tests. After six years, retention in treatment and repeated urine test results were studied. Patients with vulnerable attachment style (a high VASQ score) had higher rates of drug abuse and higher psychopathology levels compared to patients with secure attachment style, especially on the interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation scales. Drug abstinence at baseline was related to retention in treatment and to higher rates of drug abstinence after six years in MMT, whereas a vulnerable attachment style could not predict drug abstinence and retention in treatment. Clinical Implications concerning treatment of drug abusing populations and methodological issues concerning the VASQ's subscales are also discussed.

  19. Shame and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L

    2000-08-01

    The origins of the word "shame" recall the concept of the infraction of integrity both as scandal and as individualization. The human experience of shame stretches along a continuum from modesty to disabling interpersonal terror. Unlike other basic affects, its emergence is a fundamental moment in the process of self-awareness and self-object differentiation. Neglected by psychiatry because it was regarded as a moral concept, today it is possible to hypothesize that it has a biologic basis that one can attempt to describe in terms of corticothalamic pathways. In this respect, like other affects, it could be considered as a cognitive shortcut to activate specific and evolutionally useful behavioral patterns, such as concealment or a request for affiliation. It is fairly ubiquitous in psychopathology, but is clinically much more structured in its abnormal expressions in anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and even in bipolar mood disorder. In schizophrenia it has been described as being one stage in the construction of delusion. Its presence is connected to interpersonal relationship (altruism) though it seems absent in autism. The assessment of shame experiences in psychiatric patients could be useful for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies, and could provide a categorization of a new psychopathology based on abnormal affects.

  20. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  1. Psychopathology and complexity

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    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  2. Attachment and Psychopathology

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    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  3. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

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    Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...

  4. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  5. Complications and prostate cancer diagnosis rate of TRUS prostate biopsies using 16 and 18G needles by Clavien scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Serkan; Akif Diri, Mehmet; Bagcioglu, Murat; Karakan, Tolga; Aydın, Arif

    2017-05-16

    We aimed to compare the 18 and 16-Gauge (G) needles used in transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy for cancer detection rates and complications using the Clavien Scoring System. The 80 patients who were included in the study were randomized and divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 36) had a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy with an 18G needle and Group 2 had a 16G needle (n = 44). The hematuria, bleeding assessment, and infection events were evaluated on a daily basis. These complications were graded according to the Clavien Scoring. In Group 1, only five (13%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and three patients were reported to have atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). In Group 2, 16 (36%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer and one patient was reported to have ASAP. The difference in the prostate cancer detection rate between the groups was statistically significant. According to the Clavien grading system, the complications were at the Grade 1 level in 25 people in Group 1 in 29 people in Group 2. Grade 2 level complications were not observed in either group. While one person was Grade 3 in Group 1, two people in Group 2 had this rate. There were no significant differences between the groups. We found that cancer detection rate increased by increasing the thickness of the needle used in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy without any increase in the complications.

  6. Neighborhood racial composition and trajectories of child self-rated health: an application of longitudinal propensity scores.

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    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Humphrey, Jamie L

    2014-11-01

    Children function within multiple socio-environmental contexts including family, school, and neighborhood. The role each of these contexts play in determining well-being is dynamic and changes throughout early-middle childhood. Recent literature on neighborhood context and health suggests that the life-course processes involved in building trajectories of health are not adequately captured in cross-sectional analysis, which has been the empirical focus of much of the research in this area. In this study we use a nationally representative longitudinal sample of approximately 21,400 United States school children derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) survey to examine the impact of longitudinal measures of neighborhood racial composition on child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. We employ two-level multilevel longitudinal logistic regression models with time-varying propensity scores to examine variation in the initial status and trajectories of child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. Since the ECLS-K tracked child mobility over time, we are able to model the impact of changes in neighborhood racial composition. We find significant differences in initial poor self-rated health by child race, household socioeconomic status and parental marital status but no evidence of a change in trajectory of health over time. Using time-varying propensity scores, we find no effect of neighborhood racial composition on initial health status or health status trajectories.

  7. Do maternal ratings of appetite in infants predict later Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire scores and body mass index?

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    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2010-02-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort maternal ratings of children's appetite made at 6 weeks, 12 months and 5-6 years were correlated with one another and with subscales from the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 5-6 years, and body mass index (BMI) at 6-8 years. Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's appetite ratings. Appetite ratings in infancy were also correlated with the CEBQ subscale scores at 5-6 years to a limited extent, but not with the BMI at 6-8 years. The appetite rating at 5-6 years and three of the CEBQ subscales were independently associated with BMI. Children with higher levels of Emotional Over-Eating and Desire to Drink had higher BMIs, and children with higher levels of Satiety Responsiveness had lower BMIs. These results provide further evidence that there are concurrent associations between appetite ratings in childhood and BMI but suggest that appetite ratings in infancy are related only weakly to later appetite measures and do not predict later BMI.

  8. Comparison of Tenecteplase with Alteplase on clinical rating scores following small clot embolic strokes in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchak, Paul A; Araujo, Dalia M; Zivin, Justin A

    2004-01-01

    following embolization where it significantly increased the P50 value to 3.27 +/- 0.40 mg. This study indicates that Tenecteplase has a wide therapeutic range, a therapeutic window of at least 3 h and a durable effect. Moreover, the safety profile for Tenecteplase is similar to that of Alteplase. Tenecteplase does not increase the rate of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) above that produced by Alteplase. However, the therapeutic range and window for Alteplase is more limited than that for Tenecteplase. Our preclinical studies suggest that Tenecteplase has a better pharmacological profile than Alteplase and supports further investigation of Tenecteplase in randomized double-blinded clinical trials in stroke patients.

  9. Psychopathology predicts the outcome of medial branch blocks with corticosteroid for chronic axial low back or cervical pain: a prospective cohort study

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    Tipirneni Naveen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs for chronic low back or neck pain, which involves injecting the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerves that innervate the facet joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether high levels of psychopathology are predictive of pain relief after MBB injections in the lumbar or cervical spine. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients in a pain medicine practice undergoing MBBs of the lumbar or cervical facets with corticosteroids were recruited to participate. Subjects were selected for a MBB based on operationalized selection criteria and the procedure was performed in a standardized manner. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS just prior to the procedure and at one-month follow up. Scores on the HADS classified the subjects into three groups based on psychiatric symptoms, which formed the primary predictor variable: Low, Moderate, or High levels of psychopathology. The primary outcome measure was the percent improvement in average daily pain rating one-month following an injection. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to analyze the analgesia and functional rating differences between groups, and to perform a responder analysis. Results Eighty six (86 subjects completed the study. The Low psychopathology group (n = 37 reported a mean of 23% improvement in pain at one-month while the High psychopathology group (n = 29 reported a mean worsening of -5.8% in pain (p Low group had at least 30% improvement in pain versus 10% in the High group (p Conclusion Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with diminished pain relief after a MBB injection performed with steroid at one-month follow-up. These findings illustrate the importance

  10. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices.

  11. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers’ psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238

  12. Increasing the rate of late toxicity by changing the score? A comparison of RTOG/EORTC and LENT/SOMA scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Ulrike; Tribius, Silke; Kuhlmey, Antje; Grader, Kai; Fehlauer, Fabian; Alberti, Winfried

    2003-03-15

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force subjective, objective, management, and analytic (LENT/SOMA) scores were compared in a group of breast cancer patients. The impact of the classification system on grading late effects was evaluated. Telangiectasia, skin pigmentation, and fibrosis were scored according to both LENT/SOMA and RTOG criteria. The results were compared with respect to up- or downgrading and correlated (Spearman's rho). Other side effects were recorded using LENT/SOMA criteria. Interobserver variability was calculated with Cohen's kappa. Two hundred fifty-nine subsequent relapse-free patients who underwent breast-conserving therapy between 1981 and 1995 were examined. The median dose of radiotherapy to the breast was 55 Gy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 31 patients and tamoxifen to 52 patients. The median follow-up was 8 years. RTOG skin and s.c. tissue scales and LENT/SOMA breast and pigmentation scales were used. Two doctors examined 45 patients jointly. Of all patients, 20% had telangiectasia, 22% pigmentation, 43% fibrosis, 4% breast edema, 77% retraction/atrophy, and 54% pain. In comparison, when LENT/SOMA criteria were used, telangiectasia and pigmentation were upgraded in 34% and 36%, respectively, and telangiectasia was downgraded in 45%. Fibrosis correlated well (Spearman's rho 0.78, p = 0.01). An additional 356 side effects, mainly retraction/atrophy were observed in 226 patients using LENT/SOMA criteria. Interobserver variability was similar for both classification systems and ranged from Cohen's kappa 0.3 (retraction) to 0.91 (telangiectasia). LENT/SOMA criteria seem to be the better tool in grading and recording late radiation toxicity compared with the RTOG scale. There was some upgrading with the RTOG score when skin toxicity is evaluated. In contrast, fibrosis scores correlated very well. Adjustments of the LENT/SOMA scoring system should be considered to standardize reporting of late

  13. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one’s own emotion, underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood.

  14. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with urinary tract symptoms

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    Mazhar A. Memon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68. The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208 and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0. The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0. In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001. In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27, LOE (p=0.941 and V.V (p=0.082. Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.

  16. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort. This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better in APD patients.

  17. [Psychopathology and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Klonowska, Paulina; Patrzała, Amelia; Jaracz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a concept has been presented stating that the process of creativity may be connected with psychopathological features such as mood disorders, mainly bipolar, and psychosis-like thought abnormalities. Biographic studies point to a more frequent occurrence of affective disorders in creative subjects and members of their families. There is also data concerning the occurrence of schizophrenia in the families of prominent persons. A number of studies have demonstrated a similarity of patients with bipolar affective illness and members of their families to creative persons, as to increased indexes of creativity as well as such temperamental features as cyclothymia, neuroticism and openness. An association has been also found between the dimension of"psychoticism", schizotypal features and the measures of creativity. A reduction of the so called "latent inhibition" mechanism, resulting in perception of seemingly irrelevant external stimuli is connected with a predisposition to both increased creativity and schizophrenia-like disturbances. A neurobiological model of generating ideas and creative drive assumes a dominant role of three brain structures: frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the mesolimbic system. The neurotransmission system mostly connected with elevated mood and psychotic thinking is the dopaminergic system, especially its mesolimbic and cortical pathways. Both neurobiological and pharmacological evidence has been accumulated for an association of these pathways with motivational, emotional and cognitive processes, and indirectly, with the processes of creativity. In recent years, a number of interesting results has also been obtained from molecular-genetic studies about genetic determinants of creativity processes in association with bipolar mood changes and psychotic conditions.

  18. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects.

  19. Intimate partner violence, psychopathology and the women with schizophrenia in an outpatient clinic South-South, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afe, Taiwo Opekitan; Emedoh, Thomas Chimezie; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Adegbohun, Abosede Adekeji

    2016-06-10

    Women with schizophrenia are a vulnerable risk group for intimate partner violence (1PV). There are few surveys that highlight the pattern, prevalence and association of IPV with psychopathology in these vulnerable group of women in South-South Nigeria. The aim of the study was to survey the forms, prevalence and association of Intimate partner violence with psychopathology. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 77 female patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who were outpatients at the Federal Neuro-psychiatric Hospital, Calabar, Cross-River State in South-South region of Nigeria. A total of 58 out of 77 (75 %) reported at least a form of IPV, Verbal abuse was the most prevalent form of IPV reported by participants (73 %, n = 56). Women who were younger were more likely to report verbal and sexual assault at p intimate relationship was significantly associated with sexual assault at p < 0.05. Sexual assault, verbal and physical abuse were significantly associated with higher mean score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale at p = 0.01. The study highlighted the high rate of various forms of IPV among women with schizophrenia. Sexual assault, verbal and physical abuse were strongly associated with psychopathology. There is a need to identify risk of IPV among this vulnerable group by routine enquiry by clinicians' and plan therapy accordingly. Holistic management is needed in management of victims in their care.

  20. Relationships between Learning Disability, Executive Function, and Psychopathology in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…

  1. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  2. Relationships between Learning Disability, Executive Function, and Psychopathology in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…

  3. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  4. Self-reported psychopathology and health-related quality of life in heroin users treated with methadone

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    Chen YZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zai Chen,1 Wei-Lieh Huang,1,2,5 Jia-Chi Shan,4,5 Yu-Hsuan Lin,1–3,5 Hung-Chieh Wu Chang,1 Li-Ren Chang1,61Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Yun-Lin Branch, 2Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, 3Sleep Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, 6Department of Psychiatry, Medical College, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL remains poor among heroin users, even after being treated with methadone. Evidence regarding self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in heroin users is also limited. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in Asian heroin users treated with methadone.Methods: Thirty-nine heroin users treated with methadone and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Both groups self-reported on demographic data, the Brief Symptom Rating Scale, EuroQoL-5D, and World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life: Short Form. We compared clinical characteristics, psychopathology, and HRQoL between the two study groups. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between psychopathology and HRQoL in the heroin user group.Results: Heroin users had more psychopathology and worse HRQoL than healthy controls. The HRQoL of heroin users had significant correlations with Brief Symptom Rating Scale scores. HRQoL could be predicted by depression, anxiety, paranoia, and additional symptoms (ie, poor appetite and sleep difficulties independently.Conclusion: Self-reported psychopathology, depression, anxiety, paranoia, poor appetite, and sleep difficulties had a negative impact on each domain of HRQoL among heroin users treated with methadone. The importance of the environmental domain of HRQoL is discussed. Clinicians

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychopathology in Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD.

  6. The Bender-Gestalt psychopathology scale: failure to infer validity in a school-aged sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, E D

    1993-06-01

    The concurrent validity of Hutt's (1977) empirical psychopathology scale of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test was evaluated among three groups of younger school-aged children within the 7-to-10- year age range (M = 109.1): adjustment disordered, conduct disordered, and nonclinical controls (n = 40/group). Excellent interscorer reliability was achieved with approximately 2 hr of self-study of the scoring manual. Although the conduct-disordered group was significantly more immature on Koppitz' Developmental Scoring System, there were no significant differences among groups on the psychopathology scale when visual-motor development was covaried (M = 50.5). This was an unexpected result, given Hutt's initial validation study among school-aged children. The psychopathology scale was not inferred to be valid among adolescents in the only known concurrent validation study. Pending supportive validation research, the psychopathology scale should not be employed in the clinical assessment of younger school-aged children.

  7. The handbook of forensic psychopathology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment explores the relationship between psychopathology and criminal behaviour in juveniles and adults. It provides a detailed explanation of the developmental pathway from the process of increasing criminal behaviour and becoming a forensic patient,

  8. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  9. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; Visser, Kathalijne E K; van den Broek, Jan; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2012-04-01

    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ridden by a different rider and was challenged by three objects (A-C). Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) of horse and rider, and behaviour score (BS) of the horse were obtained for each object and as a total for each test. The horse-rider interaction was evaluated with each combination and assessed as 'matching' or 'mismatching', and the horses were categorised as 'compliant', 'partly-compliant' or 'non-compliant'. Horses exhibited a decreased HR (P=0.015) and a decreased BS (P=0.004) within and across different tests. 'Matching' horse-rider combinations exhibited less stress as indicated by reduced HR ('match' 69±10 vs. 'mismatch' 72±9, P=0.001) and BS ('match' 1.9±1.1 vs. 'mismatch' 3.8±1.4, P=0.017) of the horse. 'Compliant' (68±8, Phorses had significantly lower HR than 'non-compliant' (75±9) animals. The findings of the study indicate that HR and BS measurements support a subjective 'match' diagnosis and HR measurement may be a valuable tool in assessing horse compliance.

  10. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Carvalho Beduschi

    Full Text Available The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort.This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis.After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group. Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71 compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02 nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11.In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better in APD patients.

  11. Parenting and Psychopathology in Sibling Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Modestin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study explored the relationship between parenting experience in childhood as a specific aspect of the non-shared environment and the amount of psychopathology in adulthood. Sampling and Methods: 27 same-sex sibling pairs were studied. In each pair, one proband was a psychiatric outpatient, the other proband a non-patient. All probands filled in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The patients rated higher on practically all SCL-90-R scales whereas no significant differences were found with regard to the PBI ratings. With only one exception, there were no significant correlations between PBI and SCL-90-R ratings in the group of patients. In contrast, all SCL-90-R subscales correlated negatively with paternal care and half of them positively with paternal control in patients' healthy siblings. Conclusions: The degree of paternal care seems to be most closely related with lack of mental symptoms in psychiatric non-patients. In contrast, parenting does not seem to play a substantial role in patients, presenting with a higher degree of psychopathology. Obviously, environmental factors become less important, the more pronounced the pathology.

  12. Fundamental concepts of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Debajit Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.

  13. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Terwee, C. B.; Mokkink, L.B.; Knol, D L; Ostelo, R. W. J. G.; Bouter, L. M.; Vet, de, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The COSMIN checklist is a standardized tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties. It contains 9 boxes, each dealing with one measurement property, with 5–18 items per box about design aspects and statistical methods. Our aim was to develop a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist to calculate quality scores per measurement property when using the checklist in systematic reviews of measurement properties. Methods The scoring system was devel...

  14. Anodal Stimulation of the Left DLPFC Increases IGT Scores and Decreases Delay Discounting Rate in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS, the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC task. Three experiments were conducted: Exp. 1 (N = 41 to study the left DLPFC, Exp. 2 (N = 49 to study the right DLPFC, and Exp. 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Exp. 1 to switch the experimental and control conditions. All participants were healthy male college students. For Exps. 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to either the HD- tDCS or the sham stimulation condition. For Exp. 3, participants were assigned to the condition they were not in during Exp. 1. Results showed that HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC increased IGT score, decreased the recency parameter in IGT, and lowered delay discounting rate (k in the ITC task. We discussed the potential roles of impulse control and time perception in mediating the effect of tDCS stimulation of left DLPFC on decision making. Our results have clinical implications for the treatment of disorders involving poor decision-making, such as addictions.

  15. The S.T.O.N.E. Score: A new assessment tool to predict stone free rates in ureteroscopy from pre-operative radiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson R. Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a user friendly system (S.T.O.N.E. Score to quantify and describe stone characteristics provided by computed axial tomography scan to predict ureteroscopy outcomes and to evaluate the characteristics that are thought to affect stone free rates. Materials and Methods: The S.T.O.N.E. score consists of 5 stone characteristics: (Size, (Topography (location of stone, (Obstruction, (Number of stones present, and (Evaluation of Hounsfield Units. Each component is scored on a 1-3 point scale. The S.T.O.N.E. Score was applied to 200 rigid and flexible ureteroscopies performed at our institution. A logistic model was applied to evaluate our data for stone free rates (SFR. Results: SFR were found to be correlated to S.T.O.N.E. Score. As S.T.O.N.E. Score increased, the SFR decreased with a logical regression trend (p 90% and typically falls off by 10% per point thereafter. Conclusions: The S.T.O.N.E. Score is a novel assessment tool to predict SFR in patients who require URS for the surgical therapy of ureteral and renal stone disease. The features of S.T.O.N.E. are relevant in predicting SFR with URS. Size, location, and degree of hydronephrosis were statistically significant factors in multivariate analysis. The S.T.O.N.E. Score establishes the framework for future analysis of the treatment of urolithiasis.

  16. Relationship between religiosity and psychopathology in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swapnil; Avasthi, Ajit; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-10-01

    To compare the psychopathology between depressed patients with low religiosity and those with high religiosity and to correlate the level of religiosity with the psychopathology in the psychiatric clinic of a general hospital in Chandigarh, North India. Thirty depressed patients with low religiosity and 30 patients with high religiosity were assessed on the Religiosity Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Suicidal Intent Questionnaire. In the patients with depression, hopelessness and suicidal intent correlated negatively with the level of religiosity. In depressed patients, hopelessness and suicidal intent are inversely related to the level of religiosity.

  17. Do Dimensional Psychopathology Measures Relate to Creative Achievement or Divergent Thinking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya eZabelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.

  18. Do dimensional psychopathology measures relate to creative achievement or divergent thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya L; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.

  19. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathology is mental illness that has often suffered by human being. There are several factors that causes this illness, some of which are modern life characterized by materialistic, hedonistic and egoistic lives. In Islam, psychopathology which is described as a form of deviation from norms or moral values, spiritual and religion. Psychopathology is divided into three parts, namely those associated with faith, humanity and psychopathology which is associated with combination of faith and human being.Meanwhile psychotherapy is an effort to cure mental and psychiatric disorders suffered by individuals. Psychotherapy is a solution to cure various problems of mental disorders. Al-Qur’an, as the principles of Islamic teachings, contain information about psychotherapy for those who suffer from mental disorders. Religious approach is completely needed for therapy and it helps the psychopath recover from his/her mental disorders.TheQur’an could be used as a treatment as well as a preventive step, so that all human being will not suffer from mental disorders, and religious approach can bring the psychopaths closer to God, theAlmighty.

  20. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a

  1. Psychopathology in Sickle Cell Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are genetic disorders of the blood that most often affect people of ... approximately 5% of carriers develop benign hematuria. ... direct consequences of the illness on brain function and emotional ... disease, children and adolescents may have known relatives that ... to healthy children may also lead to psychopathology.

  2. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem

  3. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  4. Psychopathology and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rotella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.

  5. Psychopathology in the adolescent offspring of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, CG; Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA; Verhulst, FC

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and 14-months incidence of psychopathology in adolescent offspring of a bipolar parent. Method: Parent, teacher and self-report rating scales and Kiddie-SADS were used to assess 132 13-23-year-old offspring of bipolar parents. Results

  6. Dissociative experiences and psychopathology among Italian and Portuguese inmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattini, G.C.; Garofalo, C.; Velotti, P.; Saggino, A.; Romanelli, R.; Espírito Santo, H.; Costa, M.; Saggino, A.

    2017-01-01

    The association between dissociation and psychopathological symptoms is well established, yet studies with inmates are lacking. If higher rates of dissociation and psychiatric symptoms are reported in inmate samples, it is not clear whether they represent two separate, albeit related, characteristic

  7. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  8. A propensity score analysis shows that empirical treatment with linezolid does not increase the thirty-day mortality rate in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Mateos-Díaz, Ana-María; Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Almela, Manel; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; De-la-Calle, Cristina; Sala, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Marcos, Miguel; Soriano, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The role of linezolid in empirical therapy of suspected bacteremia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of empirical use of linezolid or glycopeptides in addition to other antibiotics on the 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. For this purpose, 1,126 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from 2000 to 2012 were included in this study. In order to compare the mortality rates between patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides, the propensity scores on baseline variables were used to balance the treatment groups, and both propensity score matching and propensity-adjusted logistic regression were used to compare the 30-day mortality rates between the groups. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 16.0% during the study period. Sixty-eight patients received empirical treatment with linezolid, and 1,058 received glycopeptides. The propensity score matching included 64 patients in each treatment group. After matching, the mortality rates were 14.1% (9/64) in patients who received glycopeptides and 21.9% (14/64) in those who received linezolid, and a nonsignificant association between empirical linezolid treatment and mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 3.82; P = 0.275, McNemar's test) was found. This association remained nonsignificant when variables that remained unbalanced after matching were included in a conditional logistic regression model. Further, the stratified propensity score analysis did not show any significant relationship between empirical linezolid treatment and the mortality rate after adjustment by propensity score quintiles or other variables potentially associated with mortality. In conclusion, the propensity score analysis showed that empirical treatment with linezolid compared with that with glycopeptides was not associated with 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

  9. An Advanced Deep Learning Approach for Ki-67 Stained Hotspot Detection and Proliferation Rate Scoring for Prognostic Evaluation of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Monjoy; Chakraborty, Chandan; Arun, Indu; Ahmed, Rosina; Chatterjee, Sanjoy

    2017-06-12

    Being a non-histone protein, Ki-67 is one of the essential biomarkers for the immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation rate in breast cancer screening and grading. The Ki-67 signature is always sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Due to random morphological, color and intensity variations of cell nuclei (immunopositive and immunonegative), manual/subjective assessment of Ki-67 scoring is error-prone and time-consuming. Hence, several machine learning approaches have been reported; nevertheless, none of them had worked on deep learning based hotspots detection and proliferation scoring. In this article, we suggest an advanced deep learning model for computerized recognition of candidate hotspots and subsequent proliferation rate scoring by quantifying Ki-67 appearance in breast cancer immunohistochemical images. Unlike existing Ki-67 scoring techniques, our methodology uses Gamma mixture model (GMM) with Expectation-Maximization for seed point detection and patch selection and deep learning, comprises with decision layer, for hotspots detection and proliferation scoring. Experimental results provide 93% precision, 0.88% recall and 0.91% F-score value. The model performance has also been compared with the pathologists' manual annotations and recently published articles. In future, the proposed deep learning framework will be highly reliable and beneficial to the junior and senior pathologists for fast and efficient Ki-67 scoring.

  10. Influence of low-stress handling on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination in Nellore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayf Roberto Tirloni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of low-stress handling (LSH on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI for extensively raised Nellore cows. Multiparous cows (n = 126 were randomly allocated into two groups: G1 (n = 66 and G2, the control group (n = 60. Group G1 was subjected to LSH, in which the animals were handled in a calm and quiet manner, without loud noises or physical aggression, using the point of balance, respecting the flight zone and using flags to supplement handling. Group G2 was handled following the typical procedure, with yelling, kicking and the use of electric prods and sticks. On D0, D8 and D10, FTAI was performed in both groups. Reactivity was scored on D0, D8 and D10 at the squeeze chute, based on the tension score, breathing score, and bellowing score. Using the three criteria above, the reactivity scores were defined as follows: R1 (calm; R2 (slightly reactive; R3 (moderately reactive; R4 (reactive; and R5 (highly reactive. Thirty-five days after artificial insemination, pregnancy was determined using ultrasonography. There was no significant correlation between reactivity score and pregnancy rate in each group or between the pregnancy rates in both groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the G1 and G2 groups with regard to reactivity score (1.62±0.05 vs. 2.12±0.07. Low-stress handling influenced reactivity but did not affect pregnancy rate in extensively raised Nellore cows subjected to FTAI.

  11. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychopathology predicts the outcome of medial branch blocks with corticosteroid for chronic axial low back or cervical pain: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Ajay D; Jamison, Robert N; Pham, Loc; Tipirneni, Naveen; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2009-01-01

    Background Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs) for chronic low back or neck pain, which involves injecting the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerves that innervate the facet joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether high levels of psychopathology are predictive of pain relief after MBB injections in the lumbar or cervical spine. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients in a pain medicine practice undergoing MBBs of the lumbar or cervical facets with corticosteroids were recruited to participate. Subjects were selected for a MBB based on operationalized selection criteria and the procedure was performed in a standardized manner. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) just prior to the procedure and at one-month follow up. Scores on the HADS classified the subjects into three groups based on psychiatric symptoms, which formed the primary predictor variable: Low, Moderate, or High levels of psychopathology. The primary outcome measure was the percent improvement in average daily pain rating one-month following an injection. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to analyze the analgesia and functional rating differences between groups, and to perform a responder analysis. Results Eighty six (86) subjects completed the study. The Low psychopathology group (n = 37) reported a mean of 23% improvement in pain at one-month while the High psychopathology group (n = 29) reported a mean worsening of -5.8% in pain (p < .001). Forty five percent (45%) of the Low group had at least 30% improvement in pain versus 10% in the High group (p < .001). Using an analysis of covariance, no baseline demographic, social, or medical variables were significant predictors of pain improvement, nor did they mitigate

  13. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  14. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  15. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  16. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Granero, R; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Fernández-Aranda, F; Claes, L; Sauvaget, A; Grall-Bronnec, M; Gómez-Peña, M; Savvidou, L G; Fagundo, A B; del Pino-Gutierrez, A; Moragas, L; Casas, M; Penelo, E; Menchón, J M

    2015-01-01

    (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18-35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  17. Detection of overreported psychopathology with the MMPI-2-RF [corrected] validity scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R Michael

    2010-12-01

    We examined the utility of the validity scales on the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) to detect overreported psychopathology. This set of validity scales includes a newly developed scale and revised versions of the original MMPI-2 validity scales. We used an analogue, experimental simulation in which MMPI-2 RF responses (derived from archived MMPI-2 protocols) of undergraduate students instructed to overreport psychopathology (in either a coached or noncoached condition) were compared with those of psychiatric inpatients who completed the MMPI-2 under standardized instructions. The MMPI-2 RF validity scale Infrequent Psychopathology Responses best differentiated the simulation groups from the sample of patients, regardless of experimental condition. No other validity scale added consistent incremental predictive utility to Infrequent Psychopathology Responses in distinguishing the simulation groups from the sample of patients. Classification accuracy statistics confirmed the recommended cut scores in the MMPI-2 RF manual (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008).

  18. Correlates of parental stress and psychopathology in pediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Shatla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions like epilepsy in a child can affect his/her entire family. The failure of the family members to adapt adequately to the unique demands of this childhood chronic illness can be considered as an important risk factor for development of psychopathology. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the profile of parenting stress in parents of children with epilepsy and its correlates; and, to examine the correlates of psychopathology in these children. Material and Methods: Twenty three epileptic children and their families were subjected to Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Scores for indices such as The Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, Benton Visual Retention test, Spence anxiety scale for children, The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were calculated. Results: Mean verbal and performance IQ score was 94, while the mean total IQ score was 95. Mean scores for all Wechsler IQ Scores as well as Benton Visual retention test were within the average range. Means for total internalizing CBCL t scores (M, Mean=70; Standard Deviation, SD=4.4, total externalizing CBCL t scores (M=60, SD=9.6, and total behavior problems CBCL t scores (M=67, SD=5.2 were above the standard cut off levels of 65 for clinical behavioral problems. Mean score on CDI was 42 ± 2. Scores of the PSI equal to or higher than 85 th percentile were considered pathologically high. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that pediatric patients with epilepsy, specifically with intractable cases, are correlated with high levels of parental stress.

  19. The psychopathology of musical hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, R

    2007-02-01

    Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in neurological and psychiatric patients. There are clinical case reports and a few studies which describe the condition. Musical hallucinations have a heterogeneous clinical and pathophysiological aetiology, and have been reported in the elderly and in those with hearing impairment, central nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders. The psychopathology is reviewed and three cases seen in a psychiatric setting are reported.

  20. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up.

  1. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders.

  2. [Pica: nosographical and psychopathological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Gennaro; Prisco, Vincenzo; Iorio, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The authors, after examining a clinical case of obsessive-compulsive disorder, associated to Pica syndrome, analyse psychopathological development of the symptomatology in its complex, refuting some statements of published studies, that include Pica within obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum. On the contrary, they think the coexistence of the two symptomatologies simply as an expression of a comorbidity, explaining why they are prone to link Pica with eating disorders.

  3. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    (connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world....... The distinction between mind and body or organism and environment is a matter of observational perspective. These models from empirical sciences are compatible with fundamental tenets of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics. They imply consequences for research in psychopathology: symptoms cannot...

  4. Benefits of Exercise with Mini Tennis in Intellectual Disabilities: Effects on Body Image and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Seruis, Maria Luisa; Floris, Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Moro, Maria Francesca; Mellino, Gisa; Lecca, Maria Efisia; Adamo, Siria; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of an introductory mini tennis programme as a therapeutic aid in the psychosocial rehabilitation of participants affected by mild/moderate intellectual disability in semi-residential care. Two groups (N=12) of participants diagnosed with intellectual disability, one of which followed the mini tennis rehabilitation programme, were compared at time t0, t1 (after 2 months) and t2 (after 6 months). Psychopathological status was assessed by means of the Italian version of the Assessment and Information Rating Profile (AIRP). Motor coordination, lateral dominance and body scheme were assessed by means of structured tools. Psychopathological total scores showed a statistically significant decrease in the experimental group in comparison with the control group. A statistical decrease in the group with the mini tennis rehabilitation programme was found also in the anxiety sub-scale while the sub-scales schizophrenia, depression, adjustment disorder, personality problems, somatoform disorders and psychosexual disorders did not reach any statistical difference between groups. A statistically significant increase in the visuo manual coordination was highlighted in the experimental versus the control group. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to general movement skills, dynamic balance and coordination. In spite of the limitations of this study, the results obtained are encouraging and suggest the potential efficacy of mini tennis as an auxiliary aid in rehabilitation programmes, particularly to improve visuo manual coordination skills and to boost the patient/participants' self esteem. These findings warrant confirmation by further research studies. PMID:22016751

  5. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Langenau

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME and American Osteopathic Association (AOA, residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, also assess competency in several clinical domains.The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009.The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component were merged and analyzed for relationships.Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings.A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA and ACGME core competencies.

  6. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wan Kim

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA levels and the severity of symptoms of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR for psychosis. Subjects of the present study consisted of 80 neuroleptic-naïve UHR patients. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated between baseline erythrocyte membrane FA levels, measured by gas chromatography, and scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS after controlling for age, sex, smoking and cannabis use. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the predominance of positive or negative symptoms based on PANSS subscale scores; membrane FA levels in the three groups were then compared. More severe negative symptoms measured by PANSS were negatively correlated with two saturated FAs (myristic and margaric acids, one ω-9 monounsaturated FA (MUFA; nervonic acid, and one ω-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; docosapentaenoic acid, and were positively correlated with two ω-9 MUFAs (eicosenoic and erucic acids and two ω-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic and docosadienoic acids. More severe positive symptoms measured by PANSS were correlated only with nervonic acid. No associations were observed between FAs and MADRS scores. In subjects with predominant negative symptoms, the sum of the ω-9 MUFAs and the ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio were both significantly higher than in those with predominant positive symptoms, whereas the sum of ω-3 PUFAs was significantly lower. In conclusion, abnormalities in FA metabolism may contribute to the neurobiology of psychopathology in UHR individuals. In particular, membrane FA alterations may play a role in negative symptoms, which are primary psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia-related disability.

  7. Service engagement: psychopathology, recovery style and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Bonalumi, Cristiano; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  8. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  9. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kontoangelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; (b The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; (c The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; (d State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024 and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039 respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7% do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life.

  10. The relationship between communication scores from the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills examination and communication ratings for first-year internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Marcia L; Lipner, Rebecca S; Johnston, Mary M; Cuddy, Monica M; Clauser, Brian E

    2013-05-01

    This study extends available evidence about the relationship between scores on the Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) component of the United States Medical Licensing Examination and subsequent performance in residency. It focuses on the relationship between Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores and communication skills ratings that residency directors assign to residents in their first postgraduate year of internal medicine training. It represents the first large-scale evaluation of the extent to which Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores can be extrapolated to examinee performance in supervised practice. Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to examine the relationships among examinee characteristics, residency program characteristics, and residency-director-provided ratings. The sample comprised 6,306 examinees from 238 internal medicine residency programs who completed Step 2 CS for the first time in 2005 and received ratings during their first year of internal medicine residency training. Although the relationship is modest, Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores predict communication skills ratings for first-year internal medicine residents after accounting for other factors. The results of this study make a reasonable case that Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores provide useful information for predicting the level of communication skill that examinees will display in their first year of internal medicine residency training. This finding demonstrates some level of extrapolation from the testing context to behavior in supervised practice, thus providing validity-related evidence for using Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores in high-stakes decisions.

  11. 精神分裂症患者表情辨别与精神病理的相关研究%The Correlation between Facial Expression Differentiation and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺庆芝; 吕淑云; 张庆梅; 孟昭兰

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between disability to differentiate facial expression and psychopathology in schizophrenics. Methods: The facial expression differentiate ability and psychopathology of 60 schizophrenics were assessed.Results:The facial expression differentiation ability of schizophrenics was negatively correlated with the total score of BPRS and most of its symptom scores. Conclusion: The disability to differentiate facial expression in schizophrenics was related to the psychopathological conditions.

  12. Fundamental concepts of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.

  13. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...

  14. Interpreting Changes over Time in High School Average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark Attainment Rates. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Education officials and journalists frequently track changes over time in the average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark attainment rates of individual high schools. Using standard statistical methods, I examined how often changes in these statistics are unambiguously positive or negative, rather…

  15. A Case for Adjusting Subjectively Rated Scores in the Advanced Placement Tests. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 94-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…

  16. Psychopathology, social adjustment and personality correlates of schizotypy clusters in a large nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    Correlational methods, unlike cluster analyses, cannot take into account the possibility that individuals score highly on more than one symptom dimension simultaneously. This may account for some of the inconsistency found in the literature of correlates of schizotypy dimensions. This study explored the clustering of positive and negative schizotypy dimensions in nonclinical subjects and whether schizotypy clusters have meaningful patterns of adjustment in terms of psychopathology, social functioning, and personality. Positive and negative schizotypy dimensional scores were derived from the Chapman Psychosis-Proneness Scales for 6137 college students and submitted to cluster analysis. Of these, 780 completed the NEO-PI-R and Social Adjustment Scale-self report version, and a further 430 were interviewed for schizophrenia-spectrum, mood, and substance use psychopathology. Four clusters were obtained: low (nonschizotypic), high positive, high negative, and mixed (high positive and negative) schizotypy. The positive schizotypy cluster presented high rates of psychotic-like experiences, schizotypal and paranoid symptoms, had affective and substance abuse pathology, and was open to experience and extraverted. The negative schizotypy cluster had high rates of negative and schizoid symptoms, impaired social adjustment, high conscientiousness and low agreeableness. The mixed cluster was the most deviant on almost all aspects. Our cluster solution is consistent with the limited cluster analytic studies reported in schizotypy and schizophrenia, indicating that meaningful profiles of schizotypy features can be detected in nonclinical populations. The clusters identified displayed a distinct and meaningful pattern of correlates in different domains, thus providing construct validity to the schizotypy types defined. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients. Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age (P<0.05 for all. With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (P=1.519. Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.

  18. Parental Reports of Prodromal Psychopathology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariely; Marangoni, Ciro; Grant, Marie C; Estrada, Jezelle; Faedda, Gianni L

    2017-04-01

    Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology. Stability and comorbidity of diagnoses were evaluated, and severity of symptoms for each subject was assessed by identifying the earliest occurrence of the reported symptoms causing impairment. Severe mood instability, temper tantrums, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances and aggression were among the most common signs of psychopathology reported in children diagnosed with BD before puberty. Symptoms were already apparent in the first three years in 28%, and formal diagnoses were made before the age of 8 y in the majority of cases. Retrospective parental reports of early symptoms of psychopathology in pre-pubertal children with BD revealed a very early occurrence of affective precursors (irritability and mood dysregulation) and clinical risk factors like impulsive aggression and anxiety that can precede the syndromal onset of mania by several years. These findings support previous reports suggesting a progression of symptoms from abnormal, non-specific presentations to sub-threshold and finally syndromal BD. The importance of early identification and intervention is discussed.

  19. [Psychopathology in families: an integral approach via the family outpatient clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S C; Batelaan, N M; Wesseldijk, L W; Rozeboom, J; Middeldorp, C M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders run in families. To bridge the gap between child and youth psychiatry and adult psychiatry, GGZ inGeest has started screening parents of new registered children for psychopathology - and if indicated - offers parents treatment in the same department as their children. To examine the feasibility and usefulness of this procedure, to investigate how many parents agree to screening, further diagnostics and treatment, and to find out how many parents have in fact suffered from recent psychiatric problems. Prior to the children's first appointment, the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire, the Adult Self Report (ASR), about their own problems. If these scores were (sub)clinical, parents were invited to participate in a telephonic interview. This consisted of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). If the results indicate psychopathology, further psychiatric assessment and, if necessary, treatment is offered. The first response was 55.7% and, if indicated, most of the parents agreed on further diagnostics. On the ASR 2 out of 5 mothers (42.1%) and 1 out of 5 fathers (21.8%) reported problems that could point to a psychiatric disorder. According to the ASR, within this high-risk group 37% of the mothers met the criteria for an axis I diagnosis (less than one month earlier) compared to 70.6% of the fathers. A mood disorder was the primary diagnosis for women, whereas men most often suffered from an anxiety disorder. In total, 19.1% of the parents screened were suffering from recent psychopathology and 75% of this group agreed to receive mental health care (treatment at the family outpatient clinic or referred to another clinic). Implementation of the family outpatient clinic scheme is feasible. However, further efforts are needed in order to reach a larger group of parents, particularly fathers. The family outpatient clinic is useful because parents who suffer from psychopathology

  20. Association of Sult4A1 SNPs with psychopathology and cognition in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Herbert Y; Brennan, Mark D; Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu

    2008-12-01

    A number of genes located on chromosome 22q11-13, including catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), are potential schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Recently, the sulfotransferase-4A1 (Sult4A1) locus within chromosome 22q13 was reported to be linked to schizophrenia in a family TDT study. Sult4A1 is related to metabolism of monoamines, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine, both of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction components of schizophrenia. An available, prospectively collected data base was interrogated to determine how three Sult4A1 SNPs: rs138060, rs138097, and rs138110, previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia might be associated with psychopathology, cognition, and quality of life in a sample of 86 Caucasian patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The majority of patients met criteria for treatment resistant schizophrenia and had been drug-free for one week or longer at the time of evaluation. The major findings were: 1) patients heterozygous (T/G) for rs138060 had significantly worse Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Total and anxiety/depression sub-scale scores, and higher Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) Total scores than G/G homozygous patients; and 2) patients heterozygous (A/G) for rs138097 demonstrated significantly worse performance on neuropsychological testing, specifically on tests of executive function and working memory, compared to patients homozygous for the G and A alleles. RS138110 was unrelated to psychopathology and cognition. These results provide the first evidence of how genetic variation in Sult4A1 may be related to clinical symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenia, and permit future studies to attempt to replicate these potentially important findings.

  1. Construct-related validity of the TOCS measures: comparison of intelligibility and speaking rate scores in children with and without speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Megan M; Gotzke, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated construct-related validity of the Test of Children's Speech (TOCS). Intelligibility scores obtained using open-set word identification tasks (orthographic transcription) for the TOCS word and sentence tests and rate scores for the TOCS sentence test (words per minute or WPM and intelligible words per minute or IWPM) were compared for a group of 15 adults (18-30 years of age) with normal speech production and three groups of children: 48 3-6 year-olds with typical speech development and neurological histories (TDS), 48 3-6 year-olds with a speech sound disorder of unknown origin and no identified neurological impairment (SSD-UNK), and 22 3-10 year-olds with dysarthria and cerebral palsy (DYS). As expected, mean intelligibility scores and rates increased with age in the TDS group. However, word test intelligibility, WPM and IWPM scores for the 6 year-olds in the TDS group were significantly lower than those for the adults. The DYS group had significantly lower word and sentence test intelligibility and WPM and IWPM scores than the TDS and SSD-UNK groups. Compared to the TDS group, the SSD-UNK group also had significantly lower intelligibility scores for the word and sentence tests, and significantly lower IWPM, but not WPM scores on the sentence test. The results support the construct-related validity of TOCS as a tool for obtaining intelligibility and rate scores that are sensitive to group differences in 3-6 year-old children, with and without speech sound disorders, and to 3+ year-old children with speech disorders, with and without dysarthria. Readers will describe the word and sentence intelligibility and speaking rate performance of children with typically developing speech at age levels of 3, 4, 5 and 6 years, as measured by the Test of Children's Speech, and how these compare with adult speakers and two groups of children with speech disorders. They will also recognize what measures on this test differentiate children with speech sound

  2. Validity and Agreement between the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score Based on C-Reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielung, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To validate the agreement between the 28-joint disease activity score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the 28-joint disease activity score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) in a group of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Data from 109...... Danish RA patients initiating biologic treatment were analysed at baseline and following one year of treatment. Participants were retrospectively enrolled from a previous cohort study and were considered eligible for this project if CRP and ESR were measured at baseline and at the follow-up visit...

  3. A self administered executive functions ecological questionnaire (the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version shows impaired scores in a sample of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Szöke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder characterized by poor insight. We investigated the capacity of BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: a self-administered, ecological questionnaire to identify executive deficits in adults with schizophrenia. The global score and each domain-specific score was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. BRIEF-A could be a useful complement to objective measurements, providing a subjective assessment of everyday consequences of executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Childhood Psychopathology: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework, and Recommendations for Further Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2005-01-01

    Discrepancies often exist among different informants' (e.g., parents, children, teachers) ratings of child psychopathology. Informant discrepancies have an impact on the assessment, classification, and treatment of childhood psychopathology. Empirical work has identified informant characteristics that may influence informant discrepancies.…

  5. Is Psychopathology the Key to Understanding Why Some Children Become Aggressive When They Are Exposed to Violent Television Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Tom; Bergen, Lori; Nichols, Kathie; Vernberg, Eric; Fonagy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Children with diagnosed psychopathologies may experience aggravation of those illnesses with their exposure to media violence. Children with the most common, often undiagnosed, form of psychopathology--Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs)--manifested changes in heart rate, heart vagal heart tone and other psychophysiological reactions to media…

  6. Development of a Radiographic Union Score for Determining Osteotomy Union Rates in Long Bones of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, N Jake; Ashcraft, Jill; Badri, Homan; Mostafa, John; Barrett, Brandon; Sganga, Michael; Cook, Jeremy J; Basile, Philip; Cook, Emily A

    2015-01-01

    Determining the status of bone healing after osteotomy can be challenging and has implications ranging from clinical decision-making to standardization of research outcomes without the use of computed tomography. To date, no method has been validated for determining osseous healing of an osteotomy site of the long bones of the foot. The purpose of the present study was to develop a radiographic union scoring system that would enhance the diagnostic healing assessment. We adapted existing orthopedic scales that had been validated for healing in the leg for application in the long bones of the foot. One hundred cases were evaluated by 6 blinded assessors to test the inter- and intrarater reliability of the subjective healing assessment compared with the proposed scoring system. The radiographs were classified by postoperative period: ≤4, 5 to 12, and >12 weeks. The proposed scale had a high interrater reliability but was burdensome. Using a priori item reduction protocols, the scale was limited to the 5 items with the best internal consistency, which significantly reduced the burden. The result was excellent interrater reliability (α = 0.87) among all assessors compared with acceptable reliability (α = 0.66) for the subjective osteotomy healing assessment. The intrarater reliability during the subsequent retest phase demonstrated similar relationships, with low agreement (r = 0.38) for subjective healing. Each of the items included in the final scoring scale had moderate to good agreement across all assessors (r = 0.51 to 0.63). The reliability of this system appeared superior to the subjective assessment of osseous healing alone, even in the absence of clinical correlates after an osteotomy in the foot. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parent-Youth Rating Concordance for Hair Pulling Variables, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety Scale Scores in Trichotillomania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Piacentini, John A.; Khanna, Muniya; Moore, Phoebe; Cashin, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-informant rating concordance is critical for the assessment of child and adolescent problems in clinical and research settings. We explored parent-youth rating concordance for hair pulling variables, functional impairment, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of child and adolescent hair pullers (n = 133) satisfying conservative…

  8. Self-concept, self-esteem, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernarás, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and other personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in subjects with and without visual impairment. The sample was made up of 90 participants aged 12 to 17: 61 with no impairment and 29 with visual impairment. The ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in self-concept and self-esteem in the samples, but the visually impaired adolescents scored significantly higher in various psychopathological symptoms as well as in their capacity for kind behavior. The ANOVA revealed no gender differences in any variables in adolescents without visual impairment. However, women with visual impairment scored lower in self-esteem and higher in various psychopathological symptoms. Pearson coefficients revealed negative relations between self-concept/self-esteem and all the psychopathological symptoms, and neuroticism, as well as a positive relation with extraversion. Low psychoticism, high extraversion, and low hostility were identified as predictors of high self-concept.

  9. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  10. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  11. Psychopathology in hearing-impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Stephanie Carla Petra Maria

    2013-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to objectify levels of psychopathology in hearing-impaired children, and to investigate the influence of

  12. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  13. Developmental Psychopathology: Pathways to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…

  14. University students' psychopathology: correlates and the examiner's potential bias effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo

    2015-02-01

    Aims: the main objective was to verify if there is a difference on psychopathological symptoms between two groups questioned by two different examiners, controlling for the potential role of social desirability, and other potential covariates. Additionally, we want to assess the level of psychopathology and its socio-demographic correlates.Methods: 185 Coimbra's university students completed the Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In one group the examiner was of the same age and academic status as the students, while in the other group the examiner was older and a teacher. We studied the psychopathological correlates with Pearson, point-biserial correlations, and qui-square analyses, and we controlled the potential role of covariates through Quade non-parametric ANCOVAs. Results: The level of distress was lower in comparison with other investigations. Women had higher level of distress and more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsion, and depression. The students that live a higher distance from home had more anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The group assessed by the younger examiner scored higher in distress and in some BSI factors, and had lower levels on social desirability. Conclusions: Sex and distance from home seem important factors for university students' mental health. However, the examiner does have an influence in the evaluation, probably because of social desirability, suggesting that the examiner's characteristics should be given in investigations involving university students.

  15. Use of Prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Police Candidate Scores to Predict Supervisor Ratings of Posthire Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Brewster, JoAnne; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-08-01

    We examined associations between prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and posthire performance ratings for a sample of 131 male police officers. Substantive scale scores in this sample were meaningfully lower than those obtained by the test's normative sample and substantially range restricted, but scores were consistent with those produced by members of the police candidate comparison group (Corey & Ben-Porath). After applying a statistical correction for range restriction, we found several associations between MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores and supervisor ratings of job-related performance. Findings for scales from the emotional dysfunction and interpersonal functioning domains of the test were particularly strong. For example, scales assessing low positive emotions and social avoidance were associated with several criteria that may be affected by lack of engagement with one's environment and other people, including problems with routine task performance, decision making, assertiveness, conscientiousness, and social competence. Implications of these findings for assessment science and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Interaction effects in comorbid psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W; Chmielewski, Michael S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity in psychopathology is the norm. Despite some initial evidence, few studies have examined if the presence of comorbid conditions changes the expression of the pathology, either through increased severity of the syndrome(s) or by expanding to symptoms beyond the syndrome(s) (i.e., symptom overextension). The following report provides an illustration of interactive effects and overextension in comorbid pathology. A large pool of patients from a university hospital were assessed using SCID-I/P interviews. Of these, 230 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, social phobia, or both were included in the study. Symptoms not belonging to either index condition (major depressive disorder or social phobia) reliably overextended in comorbid cases (odds ratios between 2.82 and 15.75). Current research methodologies (e.g., structured interviews) do not allow for the examination of overextended symptoms. The authors make a call for future psychopathological research to search systematically for interactive effects by adopting more inclusive or flexible assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  18. Education in Psychopathology in Europe: Results from a Survey in 32 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Sampogna, Gaia; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Ambrosini, Alessandra; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the current status of training on psychopathology in Europe and to identify the unmet needs of training on psychopathology. An online survey was carried out during the period July-December 2013. Forty-one representatives of early career psychiatrists of their national associations were invited to participate. Each respondent was asked to provide the collective feedback of the association rather than that of any of its individual officer or member. Thirty-two associations returned the questionnaire out of the 41 contacted (response rate, 78%). All respondents recognized psychopathology as a core component of training in psychiatry. According to respondents, the primary aims of psychopathology are (a) to assess psychiatric symptoms (47%), (b) to understand patients' abnormal experiences (33%), and (c) to make nosographical diagnosis (20%). A formal training course in psychopathology is available in 29 out of the 32 surveyed countries. In most countries, (a) there is not a defined number of hours dedicated to psychopathology, (b) teaching is mainly theoretical, and (c) a structured training on psychometric tools is missing. At the end of the training, about half of trainees is not satisfied with received training in psychopathology. According to European early career psychiatrists, there is the need to rethink training in psychopathology, which should be at the heart of training in psychiatry and the key element of psychiatric practice. Education in psychopathology is affected by several unmet needs, such as lack of appropriate training in the use of psychometric instruments, lack of supervision, and lack of practical skills.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82). We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78). We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. Highlights of the article Interpersonal trauma survivors are distinguished primarily by a generalised elevation of their maladaptive schemas, rather than a unique schema profile

  20. Parenting practices as mediating variables between parents' psychopathology and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepat, Esther; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents' psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children's psychopathology through a diagnostic interview, and on their own psychological state and parenting style through questionnaires. At ages 3 and 5, corporal punishment mediated the relationships between mothers' anxiety-depression and ODD (in girls), between mothers' aggressive behavior and ODD (in boys), and between parents' rule-breaking and ODD both in boys and girls. For both sexes, there was a direct association between mothers' aggressive behavior score and ODD. The association between fathers' psychopathology and ODD was not mediated by the fathers' parenting practices. Fathers' anxiety-depression and aggressive behavior scores were directly associated with ODD. Parents' psychopathology must be explored and, in families where such psychopathology is a relevant variable, parenting practices must be addressed with a view to the prevention and treatment of children's ODD in the preschool years.

  1. Commonly studied comorbid psychopathologies among persons with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige E

    2014-05-01

    The study of comorbid psychopathology among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is picking up steam. The purpose of this paper was to review and describe important characteristics of existing studies. Among the current crop of papers, depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been frequently evaluated. Groups studied have most frequently been children. Persons with ASD and normal intelligence quotient (IQ) scores have been studied more often than individuals with ASD and intellectual disability. Additional characteristics are discussed, and the implications of these data for future developments in the field are reviewed.

  2. Impact of Glasgow Coma Scale score and pupil parameters on mortality rate and outcome in pediatric and adult severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective, multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Pedram; Czorlich, Patrick; Fritzsche, Friederike S; Westphal, Manfred; Rueger, Johannes M; Lefering, Rolf; Hoffmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Prediction of death and functional outcome is essential for determining treatment strategies and allocation of resources for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate, by using pupillary status and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, if patients with severe TBI who are ≤ 15 years old have a lower mortality rate and better outcome than adults with severe TBI. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis of patients suffering from severe TBI registered in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery between 2002 and 2013 was undertaken. Severe TBI was defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale of the head (AIShead) score of ≥ 3 and an AIS score for any other part of the body that does not exceed the AIShead score. Only patients with complete data (GCS score, age, and pupil parameters) were included. To assess the impact of GCS score and pupil parameters, the authors also used the recently introduced Eppendorf-Cologne Scale and divided the study population into 2 groups: children (0-15 years old) and adults (16-55 years old). Each patient's outcome was measured at discharge from the trauma center by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS A total of 9959 patients fulfilled the study inclusion criteria; 888 (8.9%) patients were ≤ 15 years old (median 10 years). The overall mortality rate and the mortality rate for patients with a GCS of 3 and bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils (19.9% and 16.3%, respectively) were higher for the adults than for the pediatric patients (85% vs 80.9%, respectively), although cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates were significantly higher in the pediatric patients (5.6% vs 8.8%, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no motor response (OR 3.490, 95% CI 2.240-5.435) and fixed pupils (OR 4.197, 95% CI 3.271-5.386) and bilateral dilated pupils (OR 2.848, 95% CI 2.282-3.556) were associated with a higher mortality rate. Patients ≤ 15 years old had a

  3. Dissociative symptoms in female patients with mood and anxiety disorders: a psychopathological and temperamental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, G; Moscariello, M A; Bersani, F S; Colletti, C; Anastasia, A; Prinzivalli, E; Valeriani, G; Salviati, M

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms are frequent among psychiatric patients and may considerably affect patients' psychopathological condition and treatment outcomes. The objectives of the study are to assess the presence of dissociative symptoms in female patients with mood and anxiety disorders, to investigate their correlation with the clinical severity of the disorders and to investigate those personality traits that are more frequent in patients with high levels of dissociation. 50 Caucasian females were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed through the Self-Report Symptom Check-List, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and rating scales for Depression and Anxiety. The mean DES score in the overall sample was 16.6. 32% of patients had a DES score > 20. Depressive symptoms positively correlated with the DES total scores. Dissociator patients presented some significantly different temperamental characteristics in comparison with non dissociator patients. Dissociative symptoms are highly present in patients with mood and anxiety disorders and correlate with the severity of depressive symptoms. Specific personality traits more frequently observed in dissociator people may represent predisposing factors; their early identification could be clinically relevant.

  4. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  5. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  6. Community Schools--Results that Turn around Failing Schools: Test Scores, Attendance, Graduation and College-Going Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Community Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Great strides have been made by community school initiatives across the nation in their efforts to impact student achievement, attendance, student engagement, graduation rates, parent involvement and more. Data on community schools is growing and the authors encourage readers to review research reports and syntheses on results. The results…

  7. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  8. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise.

  9. Effect of Heart Rate and Body Mass Index on the Interscan and Interobserver Variability of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring at Prospective ECG-Triggered 64-Slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Jun; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako [Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsuura, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kitagawa, Toshiro; Ito, Katsuhide [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    To test the effects of heart rate, body mass index (BMI) and noise level on interscan and interobserver variability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring on a prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered 64-slice CT. One hundred and ten patients (76 patients with CAC) were scanned twice on prospective ECG-triggered scans. The scan parameters included 120 kV, 82 mAs, a 2.5 mm thickness, and an acquisition center at 45% of the RR interval. The interscan and interobserver variability on the CAC scores (Agatston, volume, and mass) was calculated. The factors affecting the variability were determined by plotting it against heart rate, BMI, and noise level (defined as the standard deviation: SD). The estimated effective dose was 1.5 {+-} 0.2 mSv. The mean heart rate was 63 {+-} 12 bpm (range, 44-101 bpm). The patient BMIs were 24.5 {+-} 4.5 kg/m{sup 2} (range, 15.5-42.3 kg/m2). The mean and median interscan variabilities were 11% and 6%, respectively by volume, and 11% and 6%, respectively, by mass. Moreover, the mean and median of the algorithms were lower than the Agatston algorithm (16% and 9%, respectively). The mean and median interobserver variability was 10% and 4%, respectively (average of algorithms). The mean noise levels were 15 {+-} 4 Hounsfield unit (HU) (range, 8-25 HU). The interscan and interobserver variability was not correlated with heart rate, BMI, or noise level. The interscan and interobserver variability of CAC on a prospective ECG-triggered 64-slice CT with high image quality and 45% of RR acquisition is not significantly affected by heart rate, BMI, or noise level. The volume or mass algorithms show reduced interscan variability compared to the Agatston scoring (p < 0.05)

  10. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Isotretinoin and psychopathology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havaki-Kontaxaki Beata J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isotretinoin, a synthetic oral retinoid that is used against severe nodulocystic acne, has been associated with various psychiatric side effects such as depression, suicidality and psychotic symptoms. A great number of reports on its effects have been published since its introduction into the market. However, a causal relationship has not been established and the link between isotretinoin use and psychiatric events remains controversial. The present paper reviews the available evidence regarding the association of isotretinoin and psychiatric side effects. All published material reporting psychiatric side effects following isotretinoin treatment, including case reports, case series, reports from adverse drug event reporting systems, prospective surveys and retrospective case-control studies, are presented. In addition, the neurobiology of the retinoids and possible biological mechanisms that may lead to psychopathology are described.

  12. Fathers, fathering and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Beth; Iles, Jane E; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2017-06-01

    The last few years have seen a steady increase in research addressing the potential influence of fathers on their children's development. There has also been a clearer acknowledgement of the need to study families as a complex system, rather than just focusing on individual aspects of functioning in one or other parent. Increased father involvement and more engaged styles of father-infant interactions are associated with more positive outcomes for children. Studies of paternal depression and other psychopathology have begun to elucidate some of the key mechanisms by which fathers can influence their children's development. These lessons are now being incorporated into thinking about engaging both mothers and fathers in effective interventions to optimise their children's health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology: A Transdiagnostic Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A.; Raila, Hannah; Chiao, Joan Y.; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually influence positive emotion regulation. Progress in this domain has been relatively unexplored, however, underscoring the need for an integrative review and empirical roadmap for investigating the cultural neuroscientific contributions to positive emotion disturbance for both affective and clinical science domains. The present paper thus provides a multidisciplinary, cultural neuroscience approach to better understand positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. We conclude with a future roadmap for researchers aimed at harnessing positive emotion and alleviating the burden of mental illness cross-culturally. PMID:24812583

  14. Influence of Body Condition Score, blood ammonia and serum urea levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zicarelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In buffaloes, an optimal BCS at calving time improves reproductive efficiency (Baruselli et al., 2001 therefore shortening the calving/conception period and lowering the number of services/conception. In buffalo cows in negative energy balance a delayed ovulation and a reduced percentage of large follicles were found (Campanile et al., 2001. In buffaloes naturally mated protein degradability in the rumen did not influence reproductive activity (Campanile et al., 2003. It is possible that, independently of the Blood Area (BU, a lower diffusion of ammonia occurs in the uterus, reducing the detrimental effect on reproductive efficiency. The aim in the present study was to determine the influence of BCS, urea e ammonia blood levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI in mid-winter which coincided with transition to the seasonal nadir in reproductive activity.

  15. The RDoC initiative and the structure of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; DeYoung, Colin G

    2016-03-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project represents a welcome effort to circumvent the limitations of psychiatric categories as phenotypes for psychopathology research. Here, we describe the hierarchical and dimensional structure of phenotypic psychopathology and illustrate how this structure provides phenotypes suitable for RDoC research on neural correlates of psychopathology. A hierarchical and dimensional approach to psychopathology phenotypes holds great promise for delineating connections between neuroscience constructs and the patterns of affect, cognition, and behavior that constitute manifest psychopathology.

  16. Relationship of Internet addiction with impulsivity and severity of psychopathology among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Topcu, Merve; Aldemir, Secil; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Bilge; Canbal, Metin

    2013-12-30

    The previous studies have found a relationship between IA and both impulsivity and psychopathology when they were considered separately. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) with impulsivity and severity of psychopathology among Turkish university students. We also wanted to control the effect of impulsivity dimensions on the relationship between IA and psychopathology. A total of 319 university students from two universities in Ankara participated to the study. Students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Correlational analyses revealed that severity of IA was related to both SCL-90-R and BIS-11 scores. Among SCL-90-R subscales, severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) was the only predictor for IAS score. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that interpersonal sensitivity, additional to attentional and motor impulsiveness, was the predictor of IAS score. Although severity of IA is associated with wide range of psychopathology, particularly OCS, interpersonal sensitivity seems to be the main dimension that predict severity of IAS additional to impulsiveness (attentional and motor). Impulsivity seems to be an important construct when considering IA and its treatment among Turkish university students.

  17. [Psychopathological disorders and quality of life in patients with brain infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Pinedo, F; Hernández Pérez, J M; Zurdo, M; Rodríguez Fúnez, B; García Fernández, C; Cueli Rincón, B; Hernández Bayo, J M; Bejarano Parra, M; Rodríguez Manchón, V

    2012-03-01

    To study the influence of various factors on the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients who have suffered a brain infarction (BI), with special attention to psychopathological disorders (PD). Prospective observational study on 45 patients admitted due to a BI, evaluated at 4, 12 and 26 weeks of the acute event. Social and demographic data, and medical history were collected; the SF-36 scale was used for the assessment of HRQOL, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), MMSE, Canadian Neurological Scale, Modified Rankin Scale and other instruments for assessing psychopathological, cognitive, neurological and functional status. A linear regression analysis was performed to identify potential predictors of the SF-36 scores at 26 weeks, introducing, as independent variables, medical and psychiatric history, demographic characteristics and the functional, neuropsychological and psychopathological assessments at 4 weeks. Valid predictive models for all the SF-36 domains were obtained, in which a history of pre-morbid depression, higher scores in the NPI and Rankin Scale, and lowest in the Canadian Neurological Scale were the main predictors of a worse HRQOL in the long term. Psychopathology related caregiver's distress (assessed with the NPI) was associated with a lower score in the social function index. PDs and functional status were the main determinants of HRQOL in patients with BI. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Resting Heart Rate Is Not a Good Predictor of a Clustered Cardiovascular Risk Score in Adolescents: The HELENA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes

    Full Text Available Resting heart rate (RHR reflects sympathetic nerve activity a significant association between RHR and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been reported in some epidemiologic studies.To analyze the predictive power and accuracy of RHR as a screening measure for individual and clustered cardiovascular risk in adolescents. The study comprised 769 European adolescents (376 boys participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008 were included in this study. Measurements on systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO2máx and the sum of four skinfolds were obtained, and a clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD risk index was computed. The receiver operating characteristics curve was applied to calculate the power and accuracy of RHR to predict individual and clustered CVD risk factors.RHR showed low accuracy for screening CVD risk factors in both sexes (range 38.5%-54.4% in boys and 45.5%-54.3% in girls. Low specificity's (15.6%-19.7% in boys; 18.1%-20.0% in girls were also found. Nevertheless, the sensitivities were moderate-to-high (61.4%-89.1% in boys; 72.9%-90.3% in girls.RHR is a poor predictor of individual CVD risk factors and of clustered CVD and the estimates based on RHR are not accurate. The use of RHR as an indicator of CVD risk in adolescents may produce a biased screening of cardiovascular health in both sexes.

  19. Resting Heart Rate Is Not a Good Predictor of a Clustered Cardiovascular Risk Score in Adolescents: The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Leclercq, Catherine; Dallongeville, Jean; Androutsos, Odysseas; Török, Katalin; González-Gross, Marcela; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Resting heart rate (RHR) reflects sympathetic nerve activity a significant association between RHR and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been reported in some epidemiologic studies. To analyze the predictive power and accuracy of RHR as a screening measure for individual and clustered cardiovascular risk in adolescents. The study comprised 769 European adolescents (376 boys) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008) were included in this study. Measurements on systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO2máx and the sum of four skinfolds were obtained, and a clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk index was computed. The receiver operating characteristics curve was applied to calculate the power and accuracy of RHR to predict individual and clustered CVD risk factors. RHR showed low accuracy for screening CVD risk factors in both sexes (range 38.5%-54.4% in boys and 45.5%-54.3% in girls). Low specificity's (15.6%-19.7% in boys; 18.1%-20.0% in girls) were also found. Nevertheless, the sensitivities were moderate-to-high (61.4%-89.1% in boys; 72.9%-90.3% in girls). RHR is a poor predictor of individual CVD risk factors and of clustered CVD and the estimates based on RHR are not accurate. The use of RHR as an indicator of CVD risk in adolescents may produce a biased screening of cardiovascular health in both sexes.

  20. Current Cognitive Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)

  1. Comparison of seven methods for producing Affymetrix expression scores based on False Discovery Rates in disease profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Stephen B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical step in processing oligonucleotide microarray data is combining the information in multiple probes to produce a single number that best captures the expression level of a RNA transcript. Several systematic studies comparing multiple methods for array processing have used tightly controlled calibration data sets as the basis for comparison. Here we compare performances for seven processing methods using two data sets originally collected for disease profiling studies. An emphasis is placed on understanding sensitivity for detecting differentially expressed genes in terms of two key statistical determinants: test statistic variability for non-differentially expressed genes, and test statistic size for truly differentially expressed genes. Results In the two data sets considered here, up to seven-fold variation across the processing methods was found in the number of genes detected at a given false discovery rate (FDR. The best performing methods called up to 90% of the same genes differentially expressed, had less variable test statistics under randomization, and had a greater number of large test statistics in the experimental data. Poor performance of one method was directly tied to a tendency to produce highly variable test statistic values under randomization. Based on an overall measure of performance, two of the seven methods (Dchip and a trimmed mean approach are superior in the two data sets considered here. Two other methods (MAS5 and GCRMA-EB are inferior, while results for the other three methods are mixed. Conclusions Choice of processing method has a major impact on differential expression analysis of microarray data. Previously reported performance analyses using tightly controlled calibration data sets are not highly consistent with results reported here using data from human tissue samples. Performance of array processing methods in disease profiling and other realistic biological studies should be

  2. Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures.

  3. The relationship between effortful control, current psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Clarkin, John F

    2013-07-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between low effortful control (EC), general psychopathology and interpersonal maladjustment previously reported among children extends to adulthood. Two hundred and forty undergraduate students were assessed using the EC scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, the General Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI) and the interpersonal distress index of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-distress). Both the BSI-GSI and the IIP-distress scores were related to low levels of EC. Furthermore, interpersonal distress mediated the association between low EC and greater psychopathology severity. These results suggest that deficits in regulatory temperament among adults may be associated with experiencing greater psychopathology distress, and that this relationship may be explained by an impairment in interpersonal adjustment. Such preliminary findings may constitute a useful starting point for investigating this hypothesis among clinical populations.

  4. Psychopathology and clinical definition of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Honorio; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Dementia praecox or schizophrenia, psychosis common in youth and fundamentally conditioned by heredity age has an external cause appear without evident and manifest a special set of organic and mental symptoms. Among the latter are some characteristic. Hence the interest of psychopathological study of this psychosis. The most important psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia are the following: 1 In the field of perceptual activity: the impression of strangeness of the world, pseudo...

  5. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...... levels are associated with low frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and good prognosis. The underlying causes of poor prognosis in patients with elevated NT-proBNP are not known; thus, we investigated the role of putative asymptomatic CAD in type 2 diabetic patients with UAER >30 mg/24 h...... and elevated P-NT-proBNP and/or CCS....

  6. Self-reported psychopathology in polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumnall, Harry R; Wagstaff, Graham F; Cole, Jon C

    2004-03-01

    There is a large body of work investigating concurrent associations between polysubstance use and psychopathology, but much of this work has either pre-dated or failed to account for the complex and culturally specific patterns of contemporary drug use. In particular, attendees of dance music events report a greater drug history than their peers and engage in a unique lifestyle. To further investigate the consequences of this type of drug use, 100 subjects who regularly attended dance music events were administered a battery of self-report psychiatric symptom scales. This battery contained the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Padua Inventory Revised and additional questions about substance use. Our study population included abstainers and drug users with a wide history of use. We demonstrated strong associations between use of many different drugs, suggesting that polydrug use is the norm in this type of population. We found weak, but statistically significant, correlations between use of alcohol (p < 0.05), amphetamine (p < 0.01) and ecstasy (p < 0.01) with self-reported score on the BAI. There were also positive associations between dissociative symptomatology and the use of amphetamine (p < 0.05) and cocaine (p < 0.05). Furthermore, weekly unit intake of alcohol positively correlated with score on the CES-D (p < 0.05). As polydrug use was the norm in this sample, we performed regression analysis to investigate the contribution of multiple drug use on self-report. This showed that weekly use of alcohol, and frequency of use of amyl nitrate and cigarettes were significant predictors of BAI score. However, the majority of subjects reported being unworried by these symptoms, which may represent a lack of self-awareness, or acceptance of them as the subacute effects of substance use. It remains to be determined at what point adverse

  7. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression.

  8. Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Oulis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.

  9. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  10. Gender differences in psychopathologic features of agoraphobia with panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latas Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.

  11. Lifetime psychopathology among the offspring of Bipolar I parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Zappitelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.

  12. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  13. A Study on the prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Cam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There has been an explosive growth of internet usage worldwide and this is expected to continue with its use becoming an integral part of everyday life. The internet provides tremendous educational benefits; however, excessive internet use can lead to negative outcomes such as psychopathological symptoms and obesity. The aim of the study was to study association with the prevalence of internet addiction and psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescent age group. Methods: A total of 1175 high school students from three high schools in Giresun City were surveyed using Internet Addiction Test, Dukes Health Profile. The Data was collected using a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Of the 1,175 adolescents who took part in the study, 588 (50.0% were female and 587 (50.0% were males. The mean age of adolescents was 15.72 +/- 1.14 years. The prevalence rate of problematic internet use was 7.1% among adolescent internet users. Those with excessive use internet had high scores on anxiety, depression, and anxiety depression. A relationship between problematic internet use and obesity was not found. Conclusions: Problematic internet use is becoming a significant public health issue that requires urgent attention. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem and interventions to prevent the effects of problematic internet use on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction should be conducted as early as possible. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 181-188

  14. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology.

  15. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  16. Psychopathology and personality characteristics in relation to blood serotonin in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cath, D C; Spinhoven, P; Landman, A D; van Kempen, G M

    2001-06-01

    Family studies suggest an interrelationship between Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and some forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some authors consider GTS to be part of a serotonergically mediated cluster of OCD spectrum disorders. The present study was undertaken to compare measures of psychopathology, personality and blood serotonin between GTS and OCD (without tics), and to investigate whether an OCD spectrum hypothesis is supported for GTS. Fifteen GTS without OCD subjects, 21 tic with (+) OCD subjects, 15 OCD without tic subjects and 26 controls (all without serotonergic medication) were evaluated with self-rated and clinician-rated measures of psychopathology and personality. Whole blood serotonin (5-HT) and platelet monoamine oxidase activity (MAO) was measured, and Spearman's correlations were calculated between whole blood 5-HT, MAO and rating scale scores within the entire sample and within subgroups. There were main effects of OCD on anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, neuroticism and extraversion scores. There were main effects of tics on depression, obsessive-compulsive, trait anxiety and neuroticism scores, and on platelet MAO. There were interaction effects on platelet MAO, 5-HT, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale severity, trait anxiety and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores. Platelet MAO activity was elevated in tic-free OCD subjects when compared to tic + OCD, GTS without OCD and controls. Whole blood 5-HT was lowered in tic + OCD patients in comparison to GTS without OCD and tic-free OCD subjects. Whole blood 5-HT and obsessive-compulsive severity were negatively correlated within OCD without tic patients and MAO and Leyton Obsessive Inventory scores were negatively related within GTS without OCD patients. The biochemical data of this study suggest that in tic + OCD and in tic-free OCD patients, 5-HT dysregulations play a role, but not necessarily in pure GTS. Serotonergic dysregulations within tic + OCD and

  17. Apgar score

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003402.htm Apgar score To use the sharing features on this page, ... birth. Virginia Apgar, MD (1909-1974) introduced the Apgar score in 1952. How the Test is Performed The ...

  18. Benefits of exercise with mini tennis in intellectual disabilities: effects on body image and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Seruis, Maria Luisa; Floris, Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Moro, Maria Francesca; Mellino, Gisa; Lecca, Maria Efisia; Adamo, Siria; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of an introductory mini tennis programme as a therapeutic aid in the psychosocial rehabilitation of participants affected by mild/moderate intellectual disability in semi-residential care.Two groups (N=12) of participants diagnosed with intellectual disability, one of which followed the mini tennis rehabilitation programme, were compared at time t0, t1 (after 2 months) and t2 (after 6 months).Psychopathological status was assessed by means of the Italian version of the Assessment and Information Rating Profile (AIRP). Motor coordination, lateral dominance and body scheme were assessed by means of structured tools.Psychopathological total scores showed a statistically significant decrease in the experimental group in comparison with the control group. A statistical decrease in the group with the mini tennis rehabilitation programme was found also in the anxiety sub-scale while the sub-scales schizophrenia, depression, adjustment disorder, personality problems, somatoform disorders and psychosexual disorders did not reach any statistical difference between groups.A statistically significant increase in the visuo manual coordination was highlighted in the experimental versus the control group. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to general movement skills, dynamic balance and coordination.In spite of the limitations of this study, the results obtained are encouraging and suggest the potential efficacy of mini tennis as an auxiliary aid in rehabilitation programmes, particularly to improve visuo manual coordination skills and to boost the patient/participants' self esteem. These findings warrant confirmation by further research studies.

  19. Continuous Auricular Electroacupuncture Can Significantly Improve Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression: First Results from a Transcontinental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the impact and acceptability of providing continuous auricular electroacupuncture as an adjunct to conventional medications for patients with depression. Ten patients with a mean age ± SD of 43.3 ± 10.4 years were able to provide informed consent. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. The study documented that a special kind of auricular electro acupuncture, applied over a period of three days, can improve various aspects of quality of life significantly but also highlighted the significant increase of HRV whilst having acupuncture treatment. In conclusion, our study shows stimulation-related and quantifiable clinical and physiological alterations in parameters after continuous auricular acupoint stimulation in patients with depression. Improved access to electro acupuncture treatment would be of major benefit for these patients. Further studies are necessary in order to verify the gained results.

  20. Psychopathological features of irritable bowel syndrome patients with and without functional dyspepsia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallotta Nadia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and functional dyspepsia (FD show considerable overlap and are both associated with psychiatric comorbidity. The present study aimed to investigate whether IBS patients with FD show higher levels of psychopathology than those without FD. As a preliminary analysis, it also evaluated the psychopathological differences, if any, between IBS patients featuring the two Rome III-defined FD subtypes, i.e. postprandial distress syndrome (PDS and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS. Methods Consecutive outpatients (n = 82, F = 67, mean age 41.6 ± 12.7 years referred to our third level gastroenterological centre, matching the Rome III criteria for IBS and, if present, for concurrent FD, were recruited. They were asked to complete a 90-item self-rating questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, in order to assess the psychological status. Comparisons between groups were carried out using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Results Patients with IBS only were 56 (68.3%, F = 43, mean age 41.6 ± 13.3 years and patients with both IBS and FD were 26 (31.7%, F = 24, mean age 41.8 ± 11.5 years, 17 of whom had PDS and 9 EPS. Patients with both IBS and FD scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R GSI and on eight out of the nine subscales than patients with IBS only (P ranging from 0.000 to 0.03. No difference was found between IBS patients with PDS and IBS patients with EPS (P ranging from 0.07 to 0.97, but this result has to be considered provisional, given the small sample size of the two subgroups. Conclusions IBS-FD overlap is associated with an increased severity of psychopathological features. This finding suggests that a substantial subset of patients of a third level gastroenterological centre with both IBS and FD may benefit from psychological assessment and treatment.

  1. Abnormal N400 Semantic Priming Effect May Reflect Psychopathological Processes in Schizophrenia: A Twin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. Methods. We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs performing a lexical decision task. Moreover, we examined the correlation between Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS score and the N400 effect and the influence of medication status on this effect. Results. Regression yielded a significant main effect of group on the N400 effect only in the direct priming condition (p=0.003. Indirect condition and behavioral priming effect showed no significant effect of group. Planned contrasts with the control group as a reference group revealed that affected concordant twins had significantly reduced N400 effect compared to controls, and discordant affected twins had a statistical trend for reduced N400 effect compared to controls. The unaffected twins did not differ significantly from the controls. There was a trend for correlation between reduced N400 effect and higher BPRS scores, and the N400 effect did not differ significantly between medicated and unmedicated patients. Conclusions. Reduced N400 effect may reflect disease-specific processes in schizophrenia implicating frontotemporal brain network in schizophrenia pathology.

  2. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence : Replication of a general psychopathology factor in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to replicate a study by Caspi and colleagues, which proposed that the structure of psychopathology is characterized by a general psychopathology factor, in addition to smaller internalizing and externalizing factors. Our study expanded the approach of the original by using

  3. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  4. Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.

  5. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were......-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary...... with a PARIS score ≥3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤1 had a low mortality (≤1%); with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%); and ≥3, high mortality (≥10%). CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day mortality...

  6. Adaptação para a língua portuguesa e validação do Lunney Scoring Method for Rating Accuracy of Nursing Diagnoses Adaptación a la lengua portuguesa y validación del Lunney Scoring Method for Rating Accuracy of Nursing Diagnoses Adaptation to the Portuguese language and validation of the Lunney Scoring Method for Rating Accuracy of Nursing Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Lunney Scoring Method for Rating Accuracy of Nursing Diagnoses (LSM é uma escala de diferencial semântico que foi desenvolvida por Lunney para estimar a acurácia dos diagnósticos de enfermagem. O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar o LSM para a língua portuguesa e avaliar as sua propriedades psicométricas. A escala original foi traduzida para o português, revertida para o inglês e as duas versões em inglês foram comparadas para ajustar a versão em português que passou a ser denominada Escala de Acurácia de Diagnóstico de Enfermagem de Lunney - EADE. Quatro enfermeiras foram orientadas sobre a EADE e a aplicaram em 159 diagnósticos formulados para 26 pacientes de três estudos primários com base nos registros de entrevista e exame físico de cada paciente. Os índices Kappa de Cohen mostraram ausência de concordância entre as avaliadoras, o que indica que o instrumento adaptado não tem confiabilidade satisfatória. Em virtude desse resultado, não foi realizada estimativa de validade.O Lunney Scoring Method for Rating Accuracy of Nursing Diagnoses (LSM es una escala de diferencial semántico desarrollada por Lunney para estimar la perfección de los diagnósticos de enfermería. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar el LSM a la lengua portuguesa y evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas. La escala original fue traducida al portugués, revertida al inglés y las dos versiones en inglés fueron comparadas para ajustar la versión en portugués que pasó a ser denominada Escala de Perfeccionamiento de Diagnóstico de Enfermería de Lunney - EPDE. Cuatro enfermeras fueron orientadas sobre la EPDE y la aplicaron a 159 diagnósticos formulados para 26 pacientes de 3 estudios primarios con base en los registros de entrevista y examen físico de cada paciente. Los índices Kappa de Cohen mostraron ausencia de concordancia entre las evaluadoras, lo que indica que el instrumento adaptado no tiene confiabilidad satisfactoria. En virtud

  7. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R

    2017-09-06

    This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. A dietary survey was conducted at baseline in cohorts subsamples including chemical analysis of food samples representing average consumptions. Ecologic correlations of dietary variables were computed across cohorts with 50-year all-cause mortality rates, where 97% of men had died. There was a 12-year average age at death population difference between extreme cohorts. In the 1960s the average population intake of saturated (S) and trans (T) fatty acids and hard fats was high in the northern European cohorts while monounsaturated (M), polyunsaturated (P) fatty acids and vegetable oils were high in the Mediterranean areas and total fat was low in Japan. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r= -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S, (M + P)/(S + T) and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. Adjustment for high socio-economic status strengthened (r= -0.62 to -0.77) these associations including MAI diet score. The protective fatty acids and vegetable oils are indicators of the low risk traditional Mediterranean style diets. KEY MESSAGES We aimed at studying the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in the Seven Countries Study. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r = -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S [monounsaturated (M) + polyunsaturated (P)]/[saturated (S) + trans (T)] fatty acids and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. After adjustment for high socio-economic status, associations with the ratios strengthened (r = -0.62 to -0.77) including also the MAI diet score

  8. Beta-mapping and beta-regression for changes of ordinal-rating measurements on Likert scales: a comparison of the change scores among multiple treatment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kelly H; Carlsson, Martin O; Quinn, Sheila A

    2010-10-30

    Patient reported outcome and observer evaluative studies in clinical trials and post-hoc analyses often use instruments that measure responses on ordinal-rating or Likert scales. We propose a flexible distributional approach by modeling the change scores from the baseline to the end of the study using independent beta distributions. The two shape parameters of the fitted beta distributions are estimated by matching-moments. Covariates and the interaction terms are included in multivariate beta-regression analyses under generalized linear mixed models. These methods are illustrated on the treatment satisfaction data in an overactive bladder drug study with four treatment arms. Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to compare the Type 1 errors and statistical powers using a beta likelihood ratio test of the proposed method against its fully nonparametric or parametric alternatives. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Comparison of Revision Rates of Non-modular Constrained Versus Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty: a Propensity Score Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mohamed E; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Mehta, Nabil; Lyman, Stephen; Marx, Robert G

    2017-02-01

    Attaining stability during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is essential for a successful outcome. Although traditional constrained total knee prostheses have generally been used in conjunction with intramedullary stems, some devices have been widely used without the use of stems, referred to as non-modular constrained condylar total knee arthroplasty (NMCCK). The aim of this study was to compare revisions rates after total knee replacement with a non-modular constrained condylar total knee (NMCCK) compared to a posterior-stabilized (PS) design. Between 2007 and 2012, primary PS total knees were compared with NMCCK implants from the same manufacturer. Propensity score matching was performed, and implant survivorship was examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. The cohort consisted of 817 PS knees and 817 NMCCKs matched for patient demographics, surgeon volume, and pre-operative diagnosis. All cause revisions occurred in 11 of 817 (1.35%) in the PS group compared to 28 of 817 (3.43%) in the NMCCK group (p = 0.0168). Excluding revisions for infection and fracture, 8 of 817 (0.98%) PS knees required revision for mechanical failure compared to 18 of 817 (2.20%) NMCCK knees (p = 0.0193). While revisions rates in both cohorts were low, there was a significantly higher revision rate with NMCCKs. Given that cases requiring the use of NMCCK implants are likely more complex than those in which PS implants are used, our findings support the judicious use of NMCCK prostheses.

  10. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  11. Modelling idiopathic Parkinson disease as a complex illness can inform incidence rate in healthy adults: the PR EDIGT score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossmacher, Michael G; Tomlinson, Julianna J; Santos, Goncalo; Shutinoski, Bojan; Brown, Earl G; Manuel, Douglas; Mestre, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Fifty-five years after the concept of dopamine replacement therapy was introduced, Parkinson disease (PD) remains an incurable neurological disorder. To date, no disease-modifying therapeutic has been approved. The inability to predict PD incidence risk in healthy adults is seen as a limitation in drug development, because by the time of clinical diagnosis ≥ 60% of dopamine neurons have been lost. We have designed an incidence prediction model founded on the concept that the pathogenesis of PD is similar to that of many disorders observed in ageing humans, i.e. a complex, multifactorial disease. Our model considers five factors to determine cumulative incidence rates for PD in healthy adults: (i) DNA variants that alter susceptibility (D), e.g. carrying a LRRK2 or GBA risk allele; (ii) Exposure history to select environmental factors including xenobiotics (E); (iii) Gene-environment interactions that initiate pathological tissue responses (I), e.g. a rise in ROS levels, misprocessing of amyloidogenic proteins (foremost, α-synuclein) and dysregulated inflammation; (iv) sex (or gender; G); and importantly, (v) time (T) encompassing ageing-related changes, latency of illness and propagation of disease. We propose that cumulative incidence rates for PD (PR ) can be calculated in healthy adults, using the formula: PR (%) = (E + D + I) × G × T. Here, we demonstrate six case scenarios leading to young-onset parkinsonism (n = 3) and late-onset PD (n = 3). Further development and validation of this prediction model and its scoring system promise to improve subject recruitment in future intervention trials. Such efforts will be aimed at disease prevention through targeted selection of healthy individuals with a higher prediction score for developing PD in the future and at disease modification in subjects that already manifest prodromal signs. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and

  12. Positive Attributes Buffer the Negative Associations Between Low Intelligence and High Psychopathology With Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mauricio Scopel; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Laporte, Paola Paganella; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines the extent to which children’s positive attributes are distinct from psychopathology. We also investigate whether positive attributes change or “buffer” the impact of low intelligence and high psychopathology on negative educational outcomes. Method In a community sample of 2,240 children (6–14 years of age), we investigated associations among positive attributes, psychopathology, intelligence, and negative educational outcomes. Negative educational outcomes were operationalized as learning problems and poor academic performance. We tested the discriminant validity of psychopathology versus positive attributes using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and propensity score matching analysis (PSM), and used generalized estimating equations (GEE) models to test main effects and interactions among predictors of educational outcomes. Results According to both CFA and PSM, positive attributes and psychiatric symptoms were distinct constructs. Positive attributes were associated with lower levels of negative educational outcomes, independent of intelligence and psychopathology. Positive attributes buffer the negative effects of lower intelligence on learning problems, and higher psychopathology on poor academic performance. Conclusion Children’s positive attributes are associated with lower levels of negative school outcomes. Positive attributes act both independently and by modifying the negative effects of low intelligence and high psychiatric symptoms on educational outcomes. Subsequent research should test interventions designed to foster the development of positive attributes in children at high risk for educational problems. PMID:26703909

  13. Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shelley H

    2011-03-01

    Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.

  14. Psychopathological profiles in transsexuals and the challenge of their special status among the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigating psychopathological profiles of transsexuals raises a very basic methodological question: are control groups, which represent the biological or the phenotypic sex, most suited for an optimal evaluation of psychopathology of transsexuals? METHOD: Male-to-female (MtF (n=52 and female-to-male transsexuals (FtM (n=32, receiving cross-sex hormone treatment, were compared with age matched healthy subjects of the same genetic sex (n=178 and with the same phenotypic sex (n=178 by means of the Symptom Check List-90-Revisited instrument (SCL-90-R. We performed analyses of covariance (ANCOVA to test for group and sex effects. Furthermore, we used a profile analysis to determine if psychopathological symptom profiles of transsexuals more closely resemble genotypic sex or phenotypic sex controls. RESULTS: Transsexual patients reported more symptoms of psychopathological distress than did healthy control subjects in all subscales of the SCL-90-R (all p<0.001, regardless of whether they were compared with phenotype or genotype matched controls. Depressive symptoms were more pronounced in MtF than in FtM (SCL-90-R score 0.85 vs. 0.45, p = 0.001. We could demonstrate that FtM primarily reflect the psychopathological profile of biological males rather than that of biological females (r = 0.945, while MtF showed a slightly higher profile similarity with biological females than with biological males (r = 0.698 vs. r = 0.685. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that phenotypic sex matched controls are potentially more appropriate for comparison with the psychopathology of transsexual patients than are genetic sex matched controls.

  15. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  16. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as your ... the syringe, but is blue; her one minute Apgar score would be 8—two points off because she ...

  17. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-03-15

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.

  18. Cyclical processes in personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, P L

    1994-02-01

    Both the understanding of psychopathology and the ability to intervene therapeutically are enhanced by an appreciation of the central role of vicious circles in the development and maintenance of psychological disorder. It is usually possible to discern a structure to people's difficulties in which internal states and external events continually re-create the conditions for the re-occurrence of each other in all too real psychological version of the mythical perpetual motion machine. The present article illustrates how such circular processes work in a number of representative types of psychological difficulty and discusses the implications of this conception for understanding psychopathology and for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Neuroticism : a non-informative marker of vulnerability to psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith; Farmer, Ann

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroticism measures are very popular in psychopathological research, but it is unclear how useful neuroticism is in studies of the aetiology of psychopathology. METHOD: A conceptual examination was made of the literature on the association of neuroticism and psychopathology, the ontolog

  20. Cyclic variation in heart rate score by holter electrocardiogram as screening for sleep-disordered breathing in subjects with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Iwaya, Shoji; Abe, Satoshi; Sato, Takamasa; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is critically associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, especially in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the majority of SDB patients remain undiagnosed. In contrast, abnormality in heart rate variability has been reported in patients with SDB. To explore an efficient electrocardiogram (ECG)-based screening tool for SDB, we examined the usefulness of cyclic variation in heart rate score (CVHRS) by Holter ECG in subjects with HF. In this study, 102 subjects with HF were enrolled. We simultaneously performed Holter ECG with overnight portable sleep monitoring, and we measured the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and CVHRS. We determined the temporal position of the individual dips comprising the CVHRS using time-domain methods. CVHRS was measured as cyclic and autocorrelated dips in smoothed interbeat interval time series. There were 25 subjects with severe SDB (RDI ≥ 30 events/h) and 77 subjects with none-to-moderate SDB (0 ≤ RDI Holter ECG is a useful screening index for severe SDB in subjects with HF. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  1. Risk of intravenous contrast material-mediated acute kidney injury: a propensity score-matched study stratified by baseline-estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer S; McDonald, Robert J; Carter, Rickey E; Katzberg, Richard W; Kallmes, David F; Williamson, Eric E

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effect of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on the causal association between intravenous iodinated contrast material exposure and subsequent development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in propensity score-matched groups of patients who underwent contrast material-enhanced or unenhanced computed tomography (CT). This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. All patients who underwent contrast-enhanced (contrast material group) or unenhanced (non-contrast material group) CT between 2000 and 2010 were identified and stratified according to baseline eGFR by using Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative cutoffs for chronic kidney disease into subgroups with eGFR of 90 or greater, 60-89, 30-59, and less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Propensity score generation and 1:1 matching of patients were performed in each eGFR subgroup. Incidence of AKI (serum creatinine [SCr] increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL [≥44.2 μmol/L] above baseline) was compared in the matched subgroups by using the Fisher exact test. A total of 12 508 propensity score-matched patients with contrast-enhanced and unenhanced scans met all inclusion criteria. In this predominantly inpatient cohort, the incidence of AKI significantly increased with decreasing baseline eGFR (P material and non-contrast material groups in any eGFR subgroup; for the subgroup with eGFR of 90 or greater (n = 1642), odds ratio (OR) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38, 2.15), P = .82; for the subgroup with eGFR of 60-89 (n = 3870), OR was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.60), P = .99; for the subgroup with eGFR of 30-59 (n = 5510), OR was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.18), P = .65; and for the subgroup with eGFR of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (n = 1486), OR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.30), P = .89. Diminished eGFR is associated with an increased risk of SCr-defined AKI following CT examinations. However, the risk of AKI is independent of contrast material exposure, even in

  2. Influence of premorbid psychopathology and lesion location on affective and behavioral disorders after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Pinedo, Fernando; Hernández-Pérez, José María; Zurdo, Martín; Rodríguez-Fúnez, Beatriz; Hernández-Bayo, José María; García-Fernández, Ciara; Cueli-Rincón, Bernardo; Castro-Posada, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of psychopathological symptoms (PSs) after stroke is important because they greatly influence the recovery of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors of PSs occurring in patients with ischemic stroke. Eighty-nine patients were prospectively evaluated upon admission and 4, 12, and 26 weeks later with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hamilton's Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, and a battery of neuropsychological and functional scales. Depression and apathy were the most frequent PSs detected after stroke. Premorbid psychopathologies and right-hemisphere location were the main predictive indicators of early and long-term PSs.

  3. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  4. Psychopathology, rehospitalization and quality of life among patients with schizophrenia under home care case management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ren Chang

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Non-ICM can help to decrease rehospitalization of home care patients. HRQoL and functioning can be assessed by the three perspectives we used, and each measure was correlated to different dimensions of patient psychopathology. It will be better if we include baseline and post-intervention PANSS scores, HRQoL and functioning as outcome indicators.

  5. The role of resting frontal EEG asymmetry in psychopathology: afferent or efferent filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Jetha, Michelle K; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-01-01

    Resting EEG asymmetry evident early in life is thought to bias affective behaviors and contribute to the development of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear at what stage of information processing this bias occurs. Asymmetry may serve as an afferent filter, modulating emotional reactivity to incoming stimuli; or as an efferent filter, modulating behavioral response tendencies under emotional conditions. This study examines 209 kindergarten children (M = 6.03 years old) to test predictions put forth by the two models. Resting asymmetry was examined in conjunction with electrodermal and cardiac measures of physiological reactivity to four emotion-inducing film clips (fear, sad, happy, anger) and teacher ratings of psychopathology. Results confirm an association between increased right side cortical activation and internalizing symptom severity as well as left activation and externalizing symptom severity. Significant interactions between resting asymmetry and physiological reactivity to emotion indicate that physiological reactivity moderates the association between resting asymmetry and symptoms of psychopathology.

  6. Vagal regulation and internalizing psychopathology among adolescents exposed to childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2014-07-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is strongly associated with youth psychopathology. Identifying factors that reduce vulnerability following CA is critical for developing preventive interventions. Vagal tone and vagal reactivity following psychosocial stressors might influence psychopathology among youths exposed to CA. We acquired heart period and impedance cardiography data to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and preejection period (PEP) from 157 adolescents aged 13-17 years at rest and during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and multiple forms of CA were assessed. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity interacted with CA in predicting internalizing but not externalizing psychopathology; CA was unassociated with internalizing problems in adolescents with high resting RSA and RSA reactivity. No interactions were observed with PEP. High resting RSA predicted greater vagal rebound and accelerated heart rate recovery following the TSST, highlighting one potential mechanism underlying low internalizing symptoms following CA among youths with high vagal tone.

  7. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  8. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  9. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  10. Aggression and psychopathology in detained adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlynck, Sannie M J J; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres M C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2008-05-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate a group of detained females with regard to aggression and psychopathology and to examine the relationship between the two conditions. For this purpose, a representative sample of 216 detained adolescent females aged 12-18 (mean 15.5) was studied with a standard set of self-report instruments, while a subgroup of 73 parents was interviewed by telephone on the participants' externalizing psychopathology. Based on aggression items derived from the Conduct Disorder section of the Kiddie-SADS, the following three aggression subgroups were identified: (1) non-aggressive (NA; 41%), (2) mildly aggressive (MA; 39%), and (3) severely aggressive (SA; 20%). In addition to high levels of psychopathology for the group as a whole, differences were found between aggression groups, with the NA group demonstrating the lowest levels, the MA group intermediate levels, and the SA group the highest levels. These differences were most pronounced for externalizing psychopathology, and were also found for post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and suicidality. The clinical implications of these findings should be investigated in the future, but may well relate to issues of diagnostic identification and administration of adequate and targeted treatment, especially with regard to PTSS and suicidality. Since the current study was cross-sectional, the predictive effect of the investigated relationships should be the focus of further study.

  11. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  12. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  13. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  14. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...

  15. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  16. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  17. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  18. Creativity and psychopathology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Psychopathological phenomena and personality disorders (the issue of dynamic aspects of psychopathologies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the interaction between pathocharacterological and psychopathological (affective, anxious-phobic and hysterical) phenomena within "borderline psychiatry" (reactions, phases, development) gives evidence to the existence of 2 clinically heterogeneous variations of comorbid interactions. The first variation: primary psychopathological syndromes manifesting without any significant correlation with personality disorders and transform into pathocharacterological ones (neurotic, postreactive) personality development by means of "amalgamating" mechanism. The second variation: secondary (in regard to personality disorders) psychopathological phenomena forming on the basis of constitutional personality traits by means of "splitting off" mechanism and are defined as personality disorders with predisposition to manifest positive psychopathological symptomatology. Formation of isolated obsessive and dissociative disorders within the structure of "basic" pathocharacterological phenomena (variation 2) predicts a future absence of growing severity of personality disorders (i.e. a dynamics traditionally defined as the development--variation 1) and stabilization of psychopathic traits with features of compensation of the latter. The possibilities of pathological dynamics in psychopathic personality with a "splitting off" of the isolated psychopathological syndromes exhausted; for decades neither growing severity of personality disorders, nor an exacerbation of those psychopathological complexes which provided a primary base for manifestation of positive symptomatology may be observed.

  20. Exposure to environmental factors increases connectivity between symptom domains in the psychopathology network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, Sinan; van Nierop, Martine; Bak, Maarten; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Gunther, Nicole; Lieb, Roselind; van Winkel, Ruud; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; van Os, Jim

    2016-07-08

    We investigated to what degree environmental exposure (childhood trauma, urbanicity, cannabis use, and discrimination) impacts symptom connectivity using both continuous and categorical measures of psychopathology. Outcomes were continuous symptom dimensions of self-reported psychopathology using the Self-report Symptom Checklist-90-R in 3021 participants from The Early Developmental Stages of the Psychopathology (EDSP) study and binary DSM-III-R categories of mental disorders and a binary measure of psychotic symptoms in 7076 participants from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-1). For each symptom dimension in the EDSP and mental disorder in the NEMESIS-1 as the dependent variable, regression analyses were carried out including each of the remaining symptom dimensions/mental disorders and its interaction with cumulative environmental risk load (the sum score of environmental exposures) as independent variables. All symptom dimensions in the EDSP and related diagnostic categories in the NEMESIS-1 were strongly associated with each other, and environmental exposures increased the degree of symptom connectivity in the networks in both cohorts. Our findings showing strong connectivity across symptom dimensions and related binary diagnostic constructs in two independent population cohorts provide further evidence for the conceptualization of psychopathology as a contextually sensitive network of mutually interacting symptoms.

  1. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Chóliz, Mariano; La Verde, Melania; Aguglia, Eugenio; Signorelli, Maria S.; Sá, Gustavo M.; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B.; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fernández-Formoso, José A.; Menchón, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU) and addiction (VGA) in gambling disorder (GD) patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU) in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA) consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT), symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction) was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7% ÷ 44.3),VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0% ÷ 28.7), and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7% ÷ 20.7). Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD. PMID:25126551

  2. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Jiménez-Murcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU and addiction (VGA in gambling disorder (GD patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT, symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7%÷44.3,VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0%÷28.7, and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7%÷20.7. Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients’ sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD.

  3. IMPACT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF ADULT OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER ON QUALITY OF LIFE: A PATIENT CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Aleem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the 10th leading cause of disability of all medical conditions in the industrialized world and the ‘Quality of Life’ has emerged as a valid parameter to measure the outcome of illness and effectiveness of treatment. OBJECTIVE To see the quality of life, functioning and clinical variables between the OCD patient and the ‘Patient control’ group MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 120 probands were assessed, of which 60 subjects were OCD patients and 60 stable schizophrenia patients were used as patient control group. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, WHOQOL-BREF, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale were applied as per the protocol. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. RESULTS The cost of medication was significantly higher in OCD group as compared to Schizophrenia Group. Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in OCD group. Global functioning was significantly better in schizophrenia group but quality of life better in OCD group on Physical Health domain and Environment domain of WHOQOL-BREF. CONCLUSION The Psychopathology of OCD spared satisfaction with sleep, ability to perform daily living activities, capacity to work, ability to get around, energy for everyday life, physical pain and need for any medical treatment to function in daily life, satisfaction with the conditions of your living places, access to health services, transport, opportunities for leisure activities, money to meet the needs, availability of the required information, and safety in daily life; when compared to stable schizophrenia patients The Psychopathology of OCD had as severe an impact as Schizophrenia on ‘enjoying life, finding it meaningful, level of negative

  4. An Ecological-Transactional Model of Significant Risk Factors for Child Psychopathology in Outer Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Holbrook E.; Kohrt, Brandon A.; Waldman, Irwin; Saltzman, Kasey; Carrion, Victor G.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined significant risk factors, including child maltreatment, for child psychopathology in a cross-cultural setting. Ninety-nine Mongolian boys, ages 3-10 years, were assessed. Primary caregivers (PCG) completed structured interviews including the Emory Combined Rating Scale (ECRS) and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire…

  5. Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability: Does Epilepsy Increase the Likelihood of Co-Morbid Psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saadia; Winterhalder, Robert; Underwood, Lisa; Kelesidi, Katerina; Chaplin, Eddie; Kravariti, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Although epilepsy is particularly common among people with intellectual disability (ID) it remains unclear whether it is associated with an increased likelihood of co-morbid psychopathology. We therefore investigated rates of mental health problems and other clinical characteristics in patients with ID and epilepsy (N=156) as compared to patients…

  6. Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability: Does Epilepsy Increase the Likelihood of Co-Morbid Psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saadia; Winterhalder, Robert; Underwood, Lisa; Kelesidi, Katerina; Chaplin, Eddie; Kravariti, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Although epilepsy is particularly common among people with intellectual disability (ID) it remains unclear whether it is associated with an increased likelihood of co-morbid psychopathology. We therefore investigated rates of mental health problems and other clinical characteristics in patients with ID and epilepsy (N=156) as compared to patients…

  7. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  8. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  9. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  10. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  11. Does ECG influence the conception rate Nelore cows presenting different body condition scores submitted to the same timed-AI protocol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Aline Ribeiro Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conception rate (CR of multiparous Nelore cows presenting different body condition scores (BCS, which were submitted to the same Timed-AI protocol with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG. A total of 1574 cows were inseminated, between 40 and 50 days postpartum. During insemination (timed-AI, all data regarding to bull (n=8, inseminator (n=3 and BCS (1 to 5 were recorded. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed, by ultrasonography, 40 days after timed-AI. No effect (P>0.05 of inseminator or bull was observed. No statistical difference was also observed between the groups of animals with different BCS. The animals with lower BCS (Group 1 = BCS 1.5 to 2.0; n = 139 had a CR of 47.4%. The animals with BCS from 2.5 to 2.75 (Group 2; n = 741 and BCS from 3.0 to 3.25 (Group 3; n = 463 had a CR of 47.6% and 51.2%, respectively. The animals with higher BCS (Group 4 = BCS 3.5 to 4.0; n = 231 had a CR of 45.3% (P > 0.05. It was concluded that conception rates were similar between the animals presenting different BCS in the herd, likely because the eCG minimized the effects of low LH pulsatility in animals presenting reduced nutritional condition. However, other studies are recommended to verify the real need of using eCG in animals with body condition exceeding 3.5.

  12. Serotonergic function, substance craving, and psychopathology in detoxified alcohol-addicted males undergoing tryptophan depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Dirk; Herchenhein, Thomas; Kirchhainer, Julia; Bandelow, Borwin; Falkai, Peter; Engel, Kirsten; Malchow, Berend; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol addiction is associated with alterations of central nervous dopaminergic and serotonergic functions. Acute tryptophan depletion has not yet been applied in detoxified alcohol-addicted patients in order to investigate its impact on psychopathology, psychoneuroendocrinology, and substance craving behaviour. 25 alcohol-addicted males randomly either received a tryptophan-free or tryptophan-containing amino acid drink and 7 days later the respective other drink. Anxiety, depression, and craving were assessed before and 5 h after the drink. Tryptophan, 5-HIAA, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and HVA in serum were measured before and after both treatments. Nocturnal urinary cortisol measurements and genotyping for the HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene were performed. Tryptophan depletion resulted in a significant reduction of total and free serum tryptophan while the tryptophan-rich drink increased serum levels. Both treatments caused a significant increase of serum serotonin levels, however, serum 5-HIAA was decreased after depletion but increased after sham depletion. Dopamine and norepinephrine were elevated after tryptophan depletion and sham. Depletion increased depression scores (MADRS), while the full amino acid drink improved state and trait anxiety ratings (STAI) and substance craving. Urinary cortisol excretion was not affected by both treatments. Patients with the ll genotype of the serotonin transporter gene displayed lower baseline tryptophan levels compared to patients with the heterozygous genotype. Results suggest an impaired serotonergic function in alcohol-addicted males.

  13. Is there an association between the level of grandiose narcissism severity of psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssøn, Ingrid; Svindseth, Marit F; Dahl, Alv A

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait associated with both psychological health and resilience as well as with aggression and interpersonal problems. This study compares levels of total narcissism and subscale scores in inpatients, outpatients and a community sample. Inpatients (N = 186) were recruited from consecutively admitted patients to two closed units, and the outpatient group (N = 144) consisted of patients attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The patients and a normative community sample (N = 437) all filled in the Narcissistic Personality Inventory questionnaire (NPI-29). The NPI total and subscales scores showed considerable gender differences. Among men only the Uniqueness/Entitlement subscale showed significant group differences, with inpatients showing higher mean score than the two other groups. Among women three factors, Leadership/Power, Superiority/Arrogance, and Uniqueness/ Entitlement, showed significant differences between the different levels of psychopathology. The outpatient female group regularly had the lowest group mean scores. The NPI-29 scores of the normative group showed weak internal consistencies. Our hypothesis of a significant association between mean levels of total narcissism and subscale scores and severity of psychopathology was not supported.

  14. Development and validation of a risk stratification score for ventral incisional hernia after abdominal surgery: hernia expectation rates in intra-abdominal surgery (the HERNIA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Christopher J; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Nguyen, Mylan T; Holihan, Julie L; Alawadi, Zeinab; Nguyen, Duyen H; Flores, Juan R; Arita, Nestor T; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2015-04-01

    Ventral incisional hernias (VIH) develop in up to 20% of patients after abdominal surgery. No widely applicable preoperative risk-assessment tool exists. We aimed to develop and validate a risk-assessment tool to predict VIH after abdominal surgery. A prospective study of all patients undergoing abdominal surgery was conducted at a single institution from 2008 to 2010. Variables were defined in accordance with the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project, and VIH was determined through clinical and radiographic evaluation. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was built from a development cohort (2008 to 2009) to identify predictors of VIH. The HERNIAscore was created by converting the hazards ratios (HR) to points. The predictive accuracy was assessed on the validation cohort (2010) using a receiver operator characteristic curve and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Of 625 patients followed for a median of 41 months (range 0.3 to 64 months), 93 (13.9%) developed a VIH. The training cohort (n = 428, VIH = 70, 16.4%) identified 4 independent predictors: laparotomy (HR 4.77, 95% CI 2.61 to 8.70) or hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL, HR 4.00, 95% CI 2.08 to 7.70), COPD (HR 2.35; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.83), and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (HR1.74; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.91). Factors that were not predictive included age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, albumin, immunosuppression, previous surgery, and suture material or technique. The predictive score had an AUC = 0.77 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.86) using the validation cohort (n = 197, VIH = 23, 11.6%). Using the HERNIAscore: HERNIAscore = 4(∗)Laparotomy+3(∗)HAL+1(∗)COPD+1(∗) BMI ≥ 25, 3 classes stratified the risk of VIH: class I (0 to 3 points),5.2%; class II (4 to 5 points),19.6%; and class III (6 points), 55.0%. The HERNIAscore accurately identifies patients at increased risk for VIH. Although external validation is needed, this provides a starting point to counsel patients and guide

  15. Score Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  16. Parental psychopathology and treatment outcome for anxious youth: Roles of family functioning and caregiver strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleider, Jessica L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Weisz, John R.; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Phillip C.; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research has examined the effects of parental psychopathology, family functioning, and caregiver strain on treatment response in anxious youths. Although these variables have shown individual links to youth treatment response, theoretical models for their combined effects remain unexplored. This study tested the hypothesis that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain explained the effects of parental psychopathology on youth treatment outcome in an anxiety treatment trial. Method A multiple mediation technique was used to test the proposed model across independent evaluator (IE), parent, and youth informants in 488 youths, aged 7–17 years (50% female; mean age 10.7) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social phobia, separation anxiety, and/or generalized anxiety disorder. Youths were randomized to receive 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral treatment (Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, or a pill placebo. At pre- and post-treatment, parents completed self-report measures of global psychopathology symptoms, family functioning, and caregiver strain; parents, youths, and IEs rated youths’ anxiety symptom severity. Results Changes in family functioning and caregiver strain jointly explained relations between parental psychopathology and reductions in youth anxiety. Specifically, across IE and parent informants, families with higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology showed more improvement in family functioning and caregiver strain, which in turn predicted greater youth anxiety reductions. Further, higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology predicted greater caregiver strain reductions, and in turn, greater youth anxiety reductions, based on youths’ reports of their own anxiety. Conclusions Findings suggest that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain can influence treatment outcomes for anxious youths, especially among youths with more distressed parents. Public health

  17. Findings of psychopathology and computerized tomography in neuropsychiatric diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.

    1982-08-01

    1978-1980 we examined 451 patients of the Psychiatric University Clinic of Bonn by computerized tomography. From 260 patients with characterized diseases of the brain and brain damages, 78 patients had neuropsychiatric diseases of old age, i.e. cerebro-vascular processes (average age of 63.7 years) and 9 patients had primary degenerative processes of the brain (average age of 62.1 years). Patients with diseases of the cerebral vessels showed irreversible psychopathological syndromes in 87%. The rate of pathological findings in CT increases in relation to degree of severity of the chronic (irreversible) organic psychosyndromes from 76% in pseudoneurasthenics syndromes to 93% in patients with organic changes of personality and to 100% in patients with dementia. The ambiguity of the conception of the multi-infarct-dementia is discussed. Only 19% of the sample with irreversible psychopathological changes showed localized neurological deficits and infarctions in CT, but none of them more than one. In all patients with dementia a cortical atrophy was found. There is a significant positive correlation between cerebral atrophy in CT and irreversible organic psychosyndrome. These findings with computerized tomography demonstrate in accordance with earlier pneumoencephalographic findings that distinct types of irreversible psychosyndromes can be correlated to distinct types of cerebral atrophy. But these statistical correlations between the degree of the severity of the loss of psychic functions and the reduction of cerebral tissue are not necessarily valid for any single case.

  18. 'Craziness' and creativity: Psychopathology and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Not all poets have experienced psychopathology. Conversely, not all those who have experienced psychopathology become poets. The notion, nonetheless, of there being an association between 'craziness' and creativity, contentious though it may be, remains a seductive one. Poetry is both beneficial for the person who is composing or reciting it as well as the person who may be reading or listening to it. Poetry Therapy, which falls under the remit of Art Therapy, is increasingly being recognised as an effective form of adjunctive therapy for the treatment of mental health problems. The main aims of this paper are to explore (and to attempt to elucidate) if there is indeed a relationship between the artistic temperament and mental illness and to comment on the rise and recognition of Art Therapy.

  19. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  20. A Psychopathological Comparison between Delusional Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Negro, José Eduardo; Ibáñez-Casas, Inmaculada; de Portugal, Enrique; Lozano-Gutiérrez, Vanessa; Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2017-01-01

    To contribute to a better differential clinical categorisation of delusional disorder (DD) versus schizophrenia (SZ) and to add and complete evidence from previous clinical studies of DD compared to schizophrenia. A cross-sectional study using a clinical sample of 275 patients (132 patients with DD) was studied. Patients were consecutively attending public clinics located in urban and rural areas in both Andalusia and Catalonia (Spain). All participants met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for either DD or SZ. Data were gathered on sociodemographics, illness duration, Barona-Index estimation of intelligence quotient (IQ), and global functioning, along with a thorough psychopathological assessment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Comparisons between both groups were calculated using χ(2), Student t, and multivariate analysis of covariance tests. Patients with DD were older (mean [SD], 50.3 [14.6] years vs. 36.6 [11.1] years; t = 8.597; P ≤ 0.0001), were more frequently married (45.4% vs. 10.8%; χ(2) = 38.569; P ≤ 0.0001), and had a higher mean estimated premorbid IQ (111.4 vs. 105.4; t = 2.609; P ≤ 0.01). On the other hand, SZ patients were predominantly male (71.4% vs. 48.9%; χ(2) = 14.433; P ≤ 0.0001) and had greater work-related disability than DD patients (20.5% vs. 50.3%; χ(2) = 19.564; P ≤ 0.001). Overall, the DD group showed a less severe PANSS psychopathology than SZ group. Thus, total mean (SD) PANSS scores for schizophrenia and delusional disorder, respectively, were 76.2 (22.4) versus 54.1 (18.4) ( t = -8.762; P ≤ 0.0001). Moreover, patients with DD showed a better global functioning than those with SZ (62.7 [13.2] vs. 51.9 [16.9]; F = 44.114; P ≤ 0.0001). DD is a milder and distinct disorder compared to SZ in terms of psychopathology and global functionality.

  1. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Gregory A. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored the...

  2. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffland Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  3. Association of altered cardiac autonomic function with psychopathology and metabolic profiles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Shun; Yang, Albert C; Lin, Yu-Chung; Lin, Chieh-Nan; Chang, Fang-Rong; Shen, Shu-hua; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Loh, El-Wui; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2013-12-30

    Schizophrenia has been associated with autonomic dysregulation and increased cardiovascular co-morbidity. We hypothesised that autonomic dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia is associated with psychopathology and metabolic profiles. In this study, we aimed to evaluate psychopathology, comprehensive metabolic profiles and cardiac autonomic function using heart-rate variability (HRV) analysis in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 94 patients with schizophrenia and 51 healthy controls were recruited. Each patient underwent a physical examination, laboratory tests and rating scale evaluation, and all subjects underwent a 1-h electrocardiogram monitoring. Analysis of variance was used to compare demographic and HRV variables between control and patient groups. We applied multiple regression analysis with backward selection to examine the association between HRV indices and demographic, metabolic and psychopathology profiles. A decreased HRV was found in patient groups, compared to controls. Reduced vagal-related and complexity domain of HRV indices in patient groups were correlated with increased body mass indices, diastolic pressure, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein and severity of psychosis mainly in the negative symptom domain. This study provides evidence that altered autonomic function is associated with both psychopathology and metabolic profiles in patients with schizophrenia. These findings may warrant future research in using HRV as objective markers to monitor cardiovascular health and the severity of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Increased prevalence of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits after long-term cure of Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R; Middelkoop, Huub A M; van der Mast, Roos C; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2010-10-01

    Psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits are often observed during the active phase of Cushing's disease (CD). We hypothesized that patients with long-term cure of CD show persistent psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits. Four questionnaires on frequently occurring psychopathology in somatic illnesses were used, including the Apathy Scale, Irritability Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire short-form. Personality was assessed using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form (DAPPs). We included 51 patients cured of CD (16% men, 53 ± 13 yr) and 51 matched controls. In addition, we included 55 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (55% men, 62 ± 10 yr), and 55 matched controls. Mean duration of remission was 11 yr (range 1-32 yr). Compared with matched controls, patients cured from CD scored significantly worse on virtually all questionnaires. Compared with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma patients, patients treated for CD scored worse on apathy (P Personality Pathology short-form (P maladaptive personality traits. These observations suggest irreversible effects of previous glucocorticoid excess on the central nervous system rather than an effect of pituitary tumors and/or their treatment in general. This may also be of relevance for patients treated with high doses of exogenous glucocorticoids.

  5. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 主观性试题网上评阅趋中评分控制研究初探%Research on Controlling Central Rating in Net-based Scoring of Subjective Test Items

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭恒利; 俞韫烨

    2013-01-01

      Researchers find that in scoring process of subjective test items such as composition scoring, some raters tend to assign central scores, avoiding using the high or low end of the rating scale. This is called“central rating”. Central rating belongs to systematic scoring errors which will cause deterioration of test quality. This paper analyzes central rating in net-based scoring of subjective test items. It suggests three types of central rating and analyzes causes of central rating. Central rating can be detected by two methods, which are anchor paper method and statistic index method. All through the test development and scoring process, multiple measures should be applied to control central rating.%  “趋中评分”指在作文评分等主观性评价过程中,评分员较少给出高分或低分,分数多集中在评分量表中间段的现象。趋中评分是一种系统性的评分误差,它对考试质量有较大影响。本研究分析了主观性试题网上评阅中的趋中评分现象,归纳出三种趋中评分类型,分析了趋中评分的成因,认为趋中评分可以通过校验卷法和统计指标法进行判定,在考试研发和评阅阶段可在多个方面、结合技术和非技术的手段进行控制。

  7. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser ALI Badran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU, and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of psychopathology in children and adolescents evaluated with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire dysregulation profile in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan José; Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Elena; García Nieto, Rebeca; Díaz de Neira-Hernando, Mónica; Pérez-Fominaya, Margarita; Molina-Pizarro, Cristian Antonio; De León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of children and adolescents referred to mental health services is frequently complicated by comorbid and severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. This dysregulation phenotype seems to be an indicator of overall psychopathology, symptom severity and functional impairment. Currently, this phenotype is assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist. However, the widely used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been recently validated to screen the Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and demographic, psychosocial and clinical correlates of the SDQ-DP phenotype in a Spanish clinical sample. In a clinical sample of 623 consecutively referred children and adolescents (4-17 years old), we compared clinical and sociodemographic correlates between subjects who met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP) and those who did not (NO_DP). Sociodemographic data, parent-rated SDQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression, family Apgar scale and clinical diagnoses were collected by experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists. Overall in our sample, 175 subjects (28.1%) met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP group). Compared with the NO_DP group, the DP subjects had significantly higher scores on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, problems with peers and overall problems as well as significantly lower scores on prosocial behavior. Clinical diagnoses assigned revealed that DP subjects showed significantly greater psychiatric comorbidity. DP subjects also showed significantly worse family functioning and increased symptom severity and significantly lower scores on psychosocial functioning. A high prevalence of children and adolescents with the dysregulated profile, assessed by the SDQ-DP, was found in our clinical setting. The SDQ-DP may serve as an index of overall psychological severity and functional impairment. In addition, it may indicate family

  9. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC.

  10. Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology: Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura Elvira; Fabris, Matteo Angelo; Settanni, Michele

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the risk of muscle dysmorphia and psychopathological symptoms in an Italian sample of male bodybuilders. The sample was recruited online (145 men with a mean age of 30.0 years) and participants were asked to fill out the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), Symptom Cheklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and to provide other socio-demographic data. Bodybuilders at risk of muscle dysmorphia display greater global psychopathology and present higher scores on all SCL-90-R dimensions when compared to bodybuilders not at risk of muscle dysmorphia. Furthermore, risk of muscle dysmorphia is positively associated to dissociative symptoms. The Competitiveness dimension and anabolic steroid intake were not related to muscle dysmorphia, while age appeared to be more significant. Findings are discussed based upon previous studies and directions for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and psychopathological symptoms in individuals with and without intellectual disability; and (b) to explore whether there were gender differences in these same variables in both groups. The sample is made up of 170 participants aged 19 to 40, 128 without disability and 42 with intellectual disability. The methodology is descriptive. To measure the variables, three assessment instruments were applied: the "Listado de adjetivos para la evaluaci6n del autoconcepto en adolescentes y adultos" (LAEA; Garaigordobil, in press), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965), and the Revised Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, 1983). The ANOVA showed that participants with intellectual disability scored significantly lower in self-concept and self-esteem, and higher in all the psychopathological symptoms except for somatization. The ANOVA did not reveal significant gender differences in any variables in either of the two groups.

  12. Psychopathological features and suicidal ideation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Sorarù, Gianni; Albertini, Elisa; Semenza, Carlo; Vottero-Ris, Francesca; D'Ascenzo, Carla; Querin, Giorgia; Zennaro, Alessandro; Pegoraro, Elena; Angelini, Corrado

    2010-12-01

    Psychopathological diagnosis has become increasingly important in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), since the recent emphasis on the comprehensive management and end-of-life decisions. Rorschach test is the third most commonly used psychological instrument worldwide and can offer a different approach from self-reporting questionnaires, mainly providing information on issues of which individuals may be unaware or unwilling to admit to. Forty-two ALS patients underwent a psychopathological assessment with the Rorschach test. Psychopathological data were also correlated with skeletal muscle strength as measured by MRC scale and functional evaluation as ALSFRSr and FVC values. Psychopathological features, including suicidial ideation, were more frequent in the recently diagnosed ALS patients. These features were observed to be different according to the kind of functional impairment. Rorschach test may be an useful tool to assess psychopathological features in ALS. Results of our study highlight the need of an early psychopathological diagnosis and specific psychotherapeutic treatment in patients with ALS.

  13. Psychopathology beyond semiology. An essay on the inner workings of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejón Altable, Carlos; Dening, Tom

    2013-03-01

    This text develops three interwoven issues: first, a succinct comparative analysis of medical and psychiatric semiology, which proposes that the lack of referring relations between psychiatric symptoms and brain/psychic dysfunction is a fundamental distinction between medical and psychiatric semiology. Second, the multiple features of psychiatric semiology are reviewed. Third, a new approach to psychopathology is introduced, proposing three different ways to shape symptoms (perception, linguistic structure, praxis); highlighting its role as a cognitive activity that creates intelligibility from undifferentiated experiences; and distinguishing psychopathology and semiology on an activity/product relation basis.

  14. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  15. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2017-04-13

    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR2W) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2 group

  16. Personality, Psychopathology, and Psychotherapy: A Pre-specified Analysis Protocol for Confirmatory Research on Personality–Psychopathology Associations in Psychotherapy Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P.; Yamanaka-Altenstein, Misa

    2017-01-01

    The role of personality trait variation in psychopathology and its influence on the outcome of psychotherapy is a burgeoning field. However, thus far most findings were based on controlled clinical trials that may only poorly represent real-world clinical settings due to highly selective samples mostly restricted to patients with major depression undergoing antidepressive medication. Focusing on personality and psychopathology in a representative naturalistic sample of psychotherapy patients is therefore worthwhile. Moreover, up to date hardly any confirmatory research has been conducted in this field. Strictly confirmatory research implies two major requirements: firstly, specific hypotheses, including expected effect sizes and statistical approaches to data analysis, must be detailed prior to inspection of the data, and secondly, corresponding protocols have to be published online and freely available. Here, we introduce a longitudinal naturalistic study aimed at examining, firstly, the prospective impact of baseline personality traits on the outcome of psychotherapy over a 6-month observation period; secondly, the stability and change in personality traits over time; thirdly, the association between longitudinal change in psychopathology and personality; fourthly, the agreement between self-reports and informant rating of personality; and fifthly, the predictive validity of personality self-reports compared to corresponding informant ratings. For it, we comprehensively state a priori hypotheses, predict the expected effect sizes and detail the statistical analyses that we intend to conduct to test these predictions. Such a stringent confirmatory design increases the transparency and objectivity of psychopathological research, which is necessary to reduce the rate of false-positive findings and to increase the yield of scientific research. PMID:28203209

  17. [Peculiarities of clinical psychopathological phenomenology of chronic neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Olexandr O; Rysynets, Tetiana P; Shkondina, Elena F; Pototska, Iryna S

    2017-01-01

    The study of psycho-emotional reactions associated with chronic neuropathies, is an important factor of the integrated solution to the problem of treatment and prevention of disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The aim of the research is to study clinical psychopathological phenomenology and personality characteristics of patients suffering from chronic neuropathies. We examined 115 patients with chronic neuropathies in comparison with 60 healthy persons using a clinical conversation method, shortened multivariable personality questionnaire, The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Spilberger's scale of trait and state anxiety and Symptom Check List-90-Revised questionnaire. Patients with chronic neuropathies are characterized by multiple complaints from the psycho-emotional sphere, the most common of which are depressed mood (72.2%), fatigue (76.5%) and sleep disorders (77.4%). Elevated levels of somatization (2,35 ± 0,66 points), interpersonal sensitivity (1,83 ± 0,80 points), depression (2,82 ± 1,05 points), anxiety (2,08 ± 1, 28 points) were revealed in patients. The level of depression on the The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale in patients corresponded to mild depression of situational or neurotic genesis (54,45 ± 9,93 points), and trait and state anxiety to an increased level (respectively 45,17 ± 11,19 points and 45,14 ± 9,89 points). Specific personality traits in the form of persistent depressive tendencies combined with hypochondriacal symptoms, an increase in trait and state anxiety, decreased general reactivity and manifestations of chronic fatigue and exhaustion correspond to somatic predisposition and provide ground to consider them as signs of persistent neuroticism with hypochondriacal personality development and accentuation on hypothymic (dysthymic) type. The study revealed a wide range of psychopathological phenomena of a polymorphic character. The main psychopathological construct of unfavourable changes in the psycho

  18. An evidence-based approach to the creation of normative data: base rates of impaired scores within a brief neuropsychological battery argue for age corrections, but against corrections for medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Megan E; Tuokko, Holly; Voll, Stacey; Simard, Martine; Griffith, Lauren E; Taler, Vanessa; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan; Raina, Parminder

    We detail a new approach to the creation of normative data for neuropsychological tests. The traditional approach to normative data creation is to make demographic adjustments based on observations of correlations between single neuropsychological tests and selected demographic variables. We argue, however, that this does not describe the implications for clinical practice, such as increased likelihood of misclassification of cognitive impairment, nor does it elucidate the impact on decision-making with a neuropsychological battery. We propose base rate analyses; specifically, differential base rates of impaired scores between theoretical and actual base rates as the basis for decisions to create demographic adjustments within normative data. Differential base rates empirically describe the potential clinical implications of failing to create an appropriate normative group. We demonstrate this approach with data from a short telephone-administered neuropsychological battery given to a large, neurologically healthy sample aged 45-85 years old. We explored whether adjustments for age and medical conditions were warranted based on differential base rates of spuriously impaired scores. Theoretical base rates underestimated the frequency of impaired scores in older adults and overestimated the frequency of impaired scores in younger adults, providing an evidence base for the creation of age-corrected normative data. In contrast, the number of medical conditions (numerous cardiovascular, hormonal, and metabolic conditions) was not related to differential base rates of impaired scores. Despite a small correlation between number of medical conditions and each neuropsychological variable, normative adjustments for number of medical conditions does not appear warranted. Implications for creation of normative data are discussed.

  19. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  20. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  1. Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (Ppsychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

  2. Protection or Vulnerability? A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between the Positive and Negative Components of Self-Compassion and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Petrocchi, Nicola

    2016-02-19

    Self-compassion is increasingly explored as a protective factor in relation to psychopathology. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and its Short Form variant (SCS-SF) are the most widely used instruments for measuring this psychological construct, and previous studies have indeed shown that the total score of this scale is negatively associated with psychopathology. In this article, we point out that half of the items of the SCS and SCS-SF are positive indicators of self-compassion and directly refer to the three key components of self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness, while the other half of the items are negative indicators of the construct and reflect the precise opposite of the key components, namely self-judgment, isolation and over-identification. A meta-analysis was conducted including 18 studies that reported on the positive and negative indicators of self-compassion as indexed by the SCS/SCS-SF and their relations to various types of psychopathology. Results showed that positive indicators of self-compassion were negatively associated with psychopathology, which confirms their hypothesized protective influence. However, the negative indicators were positively linked to psychopathology, suggesting that these scales tap increased vulnerability to mental health problems. Moreover, tests comparing the strength of the relations between various SCS/SCS-SF counterparts (i.e., self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation and mindfulness versus over-identification) and psychopathology showed that the negative indicators were significantly stronger linked to mental health problems than the positive indicators. This provides support for the idea that the use of a total self-compassion score of the SCS or SCS-SF, which typically includes the reversely scored negative subscales, will probably result in an inflated relationship with symptoms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Predominant typologies of psychopathology in the United States: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Tsai, Jack; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Hoff, Rani; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) offers a parsimonious way of classifying common typologies of psychiatric comorbidity. We used LCA to identify the nature and correlates of predominant typologies of Axis I and II disorders in a large and comprehensive population-based sample of U.S. adults. We analyzed data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,653), a population-based sample of U.S. adults. We derived latent classes based on all assessed Axis I and II disorders and examined the relationship between the identified Axis I classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. A four-class solution was optimal in characterizing predominant typologies of both Axis I and II disorders. For Axis I disorders, these included low psychopathology (n = 28,935, 84.0%), internalizing (n = 3693, 9.9%), externalizing (n = 1426, 4.5%), and high psychopathology (n = 599, 1.6%) classes. For Axis II disorders, these included no/low personality disorders (n = 31,265, 90.9%), obsessive/paranoid (n = 1635, 4.6%), borderline/dysregulated (n = 1319, 3.4%), and highly comorbid (n = 434, 1.1%) classes. Compared to the low psychopathology class, all other Axis I classes had significantly increased odds of mental disorders, elevated Axis II classes, suicide attempts and poorer quality of life, with the high psychopathology class having the overall highest rates of these correlates, with the exception of substance use disorders. Compared to the low psychopathology class, the internalizing and externalizing classes had increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, respectively. Axis I and II psychopathology among U.S. adults may be best represented by four predominant typologies. Characterizing co-occurring patterns of psychopathology using person-based typologies represents a higher-order classification system that may be useful in clinical

  4. Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R; van der Mast, Roos C; Wassenaar, Moniek J E; Middelkoop, Huub A M; Pereira, Alberto M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2010-12-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with psychopathology, personality changes, and cognitive dysfunction. It is unknown whether, and to what extent, these effects are present after long-term cure of acromegaly. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathology, personality traits, and cognitive function in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly. This was a cross-sectional study. We studied 68 patients after long-term cure (13±1 yr) of acromegaly and 68 matched controls. We compared these data with 60 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMAs) and 60 matched controls. Psychopathology was assessed using the Apathy Scale, Irritability Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire short-form, and personality was assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form (DAPPs). Cognitive function was assessed by 11 tests. Compared with matched controls, patients cured from acromegaly scored significantly worse on virtually all psychopathology questionnaires and on several subscales of the DAPPs. Compared with NFMA patients, patients cured from acromegaly scored worse on negative affect (P=0.050) and somatic arousal (P=0.009) and seven of 18 subscales of the DAPPs (Pmaladaptive personality traits but not cognitive dysfunction, compared with matched controls and patients treated for NFMA. These results suggest irreversible effects of previous GH excess, rather than effects of pituitary adenomas per se and/or their treatment, on the central nervous system.

  5. Psychopathology of Time in Brain Disease and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cutting

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on disturbance of time-sense in brain disease and schizophrenia is reviewed and the subjective experience of altered time-sense reported by 45 out of 350 personally interviewed schizophrenics is analyzed. A review of the literature on the effect of brain damage revealed that some phenomena (déjà vu, reduplication of time, altered tempo to events were linked with right hemisphere dysfunction, one phenomenon (incorrect sequencing of events was linked with left anterior brain damage, and others (disrupted “biological clock”, disturbed serise of rate of flow of current or past events could arise from subcortical as well as focal cortical damage. The sparse literature on disturbed time-sense in schizophrenia suggested that there was a shared psychopathology in this respect with right hemisphere dysfunction. The phenomena encountered in the 45 schizophrenics are described and classified.

  6. Comorbid psychopathology and clinical symptomatology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, D C; Korlou, S; Sakellariou, K; Kondyli, V; Sarafidou, J; Tsakanikos, E; Giannakopoulos, G; Liakopoulou, M

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been investigated in a number of studies over the last twenty years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenology of illness and broader psychopathology in a group of Greek children and adolescents with OCD. The investigation of parental psychopathology in children and adolescents with OCD was a secondary aim of the present study. We studied 31 children and adolescents with OCD (n=31, age range 8-15 years) and their parents (n=62, age range 43-48 years) and compared to children and adolescents with specific reading and written expression learning disorders (n=30, age range 7-16 years) and their parents (n=58, age range 40-46 years). Appropriate testing showed specific reading and learning disorders, which were of mild to moderate severity for the 85% of this latter group. The diagnosis of learning disorder of reading and written expression was made through the use of standardized reading material, appropriate for ages 10-15 years. Reading comprehension and narration were tested. The written expression (spelling, syntax, content) was examined by a written text, in which the subject developed a certain theme from the reading material. Based on their level of education and occupation, the index families were classified as high (29%), average (45%) and low (26%) socioeconomic status, whereas 6.7% of control families belonged to high, 63.3% to average, and 30% to low status. In order to investigate psychopathology, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children, Present and Life-time version was administered to children and their parents, as well as the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18 (CBCL) to both parents and adolescents (Youth Self-Report). Also the Yale- Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was rated for both children and parents. Moreover, the children were given the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the

  7. Sherlock Holmes and child psychopathology assessment approaches: the case of the false-positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P S; Watanabe, H

    1999-02-01

    To explore the relative value of various methods of assessing childhood psychopathology, the authors compared 4 groups of children: those who met criteria for one or more DSM diagnoses and scored high on parent symptom checklists, those who met psychopathology criteria on either one of these two assessment approaches alone, and those who met no psychopathology assessment criterion. Parents of 201 children completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), after which children and parents were administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (version 2.1). Children and parents also completed other survey measures and symptom report inventories. The 4 groups of children were compared against "external validators" to examine the merits of "false-positive" and "false-negative" cases. True-positive cases (those that met DSM criteria and scored high on the CBCL) differed significantly from the true-negative cases on most external validators. "False-positive" and "false-negative" cases had intermediate levels of most risk factors and external validators. "False-positive" cases were not normal per se because they scored significantly above the true-negative group on a number of risk factors and external validators. A similar but less marked pattern was noted for "false-negatives." Findings call into question whether cases with high symptom checklist scores despite no formal diagnoses should be considered "false-positive." Pending the availability of robust markers for mental illness, researchers and clinicians must resist the tendency to reify diagnostic categories or to engage in arcane debates about the superiority of one assessment approach over another.

  8. Mad Genius Revisited : Vulnerability to Psychopathology, Biobehavioral Approach-Avoidance, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be

  9. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioni

  10. Mad Genius Revisited : Vulnerability to Psychopathology, Biobehavioral Approach-Avoidance, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be

  11. Outlier removal, sum scores, and the inflation of the type I error rate in independent samples t tests : The power of alternatives and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In psychology, outliers are often excluded before running an independent samples t test, and data are often nonnormal because of the use of sum scores based on tests and questionnaires. This article concerns the handling of outliers in the context of independent samples t tests applied to nonnormal

  12. Psychopathology, personality and theory of mind in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppegno, Patrizia; Gramaglia, Carla; Antona, Maria; Gili, Sabrina; Marchisio, Sara; Gogliani, Andrea; Ponzetti, Daniela; Torre, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    To assess psychopathology, personality and theory of mind in a sample of university students, and to analyse their correlation with socio-demographic and academic factors. Socio-demographic and academic data were collected from 228 students. They completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R, Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-L) and Theory of Mind (ToM) test. Elevated psychological distress was found in 38.6% of students; 30.3% had an abnormal ToM score. Students with an abnormal ToM score had a significantly lower probability than those with normal ToM test to repeat an exam three times or more. Not being married and receiving psychiatric care significantly influenced the probability of repeating an exam. Abnormal ToM students had specific features as far as major and SCL-90-R scores are concerned. A correlation was found among ToM performance and some indicators of academic performance. Students with ToM scores under the cut-off reported more psychopathological symptoms and distress. Implications are discussed

  13. School-based assessments in high-stakes examinations in Bhutan: a question of trust? Exploring inconsistencies between external exam scores, school-based assessments, detailed teacher ratings, and student self-ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Hans; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE) e

  14. The role of experiential avoidance, psychopathology, and borderline personality features in experiencing positive emotions: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta A; Ower, Nicole; Buchholz, Angela

    2013-03-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is an important factor in maintaining different forms of psychopathology including borderline personality pathology (BPD). So far little is known about the functions of EA, BPD features and general psychopathology for positive emotions. In this study we investigated three different anticipated pathways of their influence on positive emotions. A total of 334 subjects varying in general psychopathology &/or BPD features completed an online survey including self-ratings of BPD features, psychopathology, negative and positive emotions, and EA. Measures of positive emotions included both a general self-rating (PANAS) and emotional changes induced by two positive movie clips. Data were analyzed by means of path analysis. In comparing the three path models, one model was found clearly superior: In this model, EA acts as a mediator of the influence of psychopathology, BPD features, and negative emotions in the prediction of both measures of positive emotions. EA plays a central role in maintaining lack of positive emotions. Therapeutic implications and study limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychopathological risks in children with migrant parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana Montecchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Western societies many immigrants live in difficult social and working conditions. Together with other factors, this state of affairs represents a risk for the well being of their children. This article will consider the principle risk factors for child psychopathology and/or distress, with a distinction between temporary and permanent factors and with a peculiar attention to the interplay between risk and protective factors. Risk factors can be ordered in cultural, social, familiar/parental and individual factors. Some of these are general risk factors, applying to child and adolescent psychopathology and distress independently from the status of immigrants’ offspring (among them there are some risk factors related to poor social conditions, independently from being an immigrant or a low-social-class Western citizen. Other factors are specific of migration, some of them being related to: a different ways of immigrated families to situate themselves within the host society (assimilation, separation, integration, marginality; b cultural/familiar attitudes in child’s nurture and education; c the family role of women as well as factors specific of the pregnancy period in immigrants; d the ability of the school system to enhance and support children’s abilities to integrate within the new society; e the political/bureaucratic facilitation/impediment to the regularization of VISA, with the consequent effect on the sense of identity/rejection within/from the host society.In conclusion, the programs for monitoring immigrants’ living and health conditions should also include: the assessment of parental skills, the dynamic indicators of risk and protection indexes, the assessment of living conditions and social school environment, with a careful attention to those early signs of discomfort that might precede possible later onset of psychopathology and/or social distress.

  16. The role of insomnia, pre-sleep arousal and psychopathology symptoms in daytime impairment in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richdale, Amanda L; Baker, Emma; Short, Michelle; Gradisar, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbance and psychopathology are common during adolescence and are highly prevalent in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between sleep disturbance, psychopathology symptoms, and daytime functioning in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents. Twenty-seven adolescents with HFASD and 27 age- and sex-matched TD adolescents completed questionnaires related to sleep, psychopathology and daytime functioning. Participants also completed a 7-day sleep/wake diary. A subsample of HFASD adolescents (55%) and all the TD adolescents wore an actigraphy monitor concurrently with the sleep diary. Adolescents with HFASD had significantly higher scores for depressed mood, anxiety and pre-sleep arousal compared with TD adolescents and poorer daytime functioning. There were more significant correlations between sleep variables and psychopathology variables, and sleep variables and daytime functioning, in the HFASD group than in the TD group. Standard regression found that sleep variables significantly accounted for 57% of the variance in daytime functioning symptoms of insufficient sleep in the HFASD group, while psychopathology variables accounted for 63% of the variance in daytime functioning. Both sleep disturbance and psychopathology are more prevalent in adolescents with HFASD and are major contributors to poor daytime functioning in these individuals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Does psychopathology at admission predict the length of inpatient stay in psychiatry? Implications for financing psychiatric services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Uwe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate on appropriate financing systems in inpatient psychiatry is ongoing. In this context, it is important to control resource use in terms of length of stay (LOS, which is the most costly factor in inpatient care and the one that can be influenced most easily. Previous studies have shown that psychiatric diagnoses provide only limited justification for explaining variation in LOS, and it has been suggested that measures such as psychopathology might be more appropriate to predict resource use. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between LOS and psychopathological syndromes or symptoms at admission as well as other characteristics such as sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods We considered routine medical data of patients admitted to the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich in the years 2008 and 2009. Complete data on psychopathology at hospital admission were available in 3,220 inpatient episodes. A subsample of 2,939 inpatient episodes was considered in final statistical models, including psychopathology as well as complete datasets of further measures (e.g. sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related and psychosocial variables. We used multivariate linear as well as logistic regression analysis with forward selection procedure to determine the predictors of LOS. Results All but two syndrome scores (mania, hostility were positively related to the length of stay. Final statistical models showed that syndromes or symptoms explained about 5% of the variation in length of stay. The inclusion of syndromes or symptoms as well as basic treatment variables and other factors led to an explained variation of up to 25%. Conclusions Psychopathological syndromes and symptoms at admission and further characteristics only explained a small proportion of the length of inpatient stay. Thus, according to our sample, psychopathology might not be suitable as a primary indicator for estimating LOS and contingent

  18. Psychiatric Disorders Among Offspring of Depressed Mothers: Associations With Paternal Psychopathology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marmorstein, Naomi R; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2004-01-01

    ...; however, little attention has been paid to psychopathology in the partners of these depressed mothers or to how paternal psychopathology might influence the relationship between maternal depression...

  19. Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanacora, Rachel L; Whiting, Seth W; Pilver, Corey E; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups. Methods Data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups. Results Greater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents. Discussion and conclusions The findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more "disposable income," may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use.

  20. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  1. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  2. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced

  3. Childhood psychopathology and development of adult schizotypal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and t

  4. Behavioral Problems in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Controlled Study to Examine the Risk of Psychopathology in a Chronic Pediatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanara, Elham; Raeeskarami, Seyed-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are prone to the problems that can delay their psychosocial development; however, the existing literature has not reached a consensus on the psychological problems related to JIA. A total of 51 children and adolescents with JIA and 75 healthy controls aged 6 to 18 years were examined using the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Our results represented that 70 percent of JIA group reached “borderline clinical” range or “clinical” range in internalizing problems, while this percentage in the control group was 18 percent. In addition, our results indicated that JIA group has gotten significantly higher scores (more than twofold) in externalizing behaviors compared to control group. Furthermore, children with JIA showed higher rate of anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, somatic complaints, rule breaking behaviors, and aggressive behaviors as well as thought and social problems compared to control group (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy controls may show higher rate of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, our novel findings on externalizing, social, and thought problems in JIA warrant further investigation on affected children who may be at greater risk of future psychopathologies. PMID:27656678

  5. Antenatal and Postnatal Psychopathology Among Women with Current and Past Eating Disorders: Longitudinal Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25345371

  6. Antenatal and postnatal psychopathology among women with current and past eating disorders: longitudinal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Personality and Psychopathology of Patients with Grandmal and Complex Partial Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epileptic patients have special mental profile and experience emotional and psychopathological problems. Some studies have reported that epilepsy and psychopathology occur together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental profile of Complex partial seizure (CPS and Grandmal seizure (GMS patients and compare them with the control group. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out in 2008 at the neurological clinics of Isfahan and included 40 Patients with CPS and GMS epilepsy selected conveniently and control group included relatives of the patients. Psychological and personality profile was measured with MMPI inventory. The obtained data was analyzed with SPSS software, mainly through the analysis of Chi Square and ANOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that although the scores of clinical scales in MMPI are higher than control group, this psychopathology isn’t abnormal. Epileptic patients in hypochondria, depression and hysteria had more elevated levels in comparison with the control group, but this difference was significant only in CPS patients. Conclusion: The results showed that epileptic patients tend to have more psychological disorders than normal people. These findings emphasize the necessity for psychological treatment along with drug therapy.

  8. Distress, demoralization and psychopathology: Diagnostic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. de Figueiredo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.

  9. Distress, demoralization and psychopathology: Diagnostic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.

  10. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.

  11. Misunderstanding psychopathology as medical semiology: an epistemological enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiza, Pablo Ramos; Manes, Jaime Adan

    2011-01-01

    In our everyday clinical experience we encounter significant problems directly related to the instability of psychopathological concepts. In order to trace the origin of this inconsistency, the nature of these concepts will be explored in their historical development. They will be compared to those pertaining to medical semiology, paying special attention to the specific nature of the 'object' each of them refers to. While concepts belonging to medical semiology refer to natural objects and retain their meaning independently of the patient's context, psychopathological concepts refer to fragments of experience, which lose their significance if detached from their contextual horizon. The instability of psychopathological concepts is a consequence of the misunderstanding of psychopathology as medical semiology. As an alternative to this view, it will be argued that psychopathology represents an active and never-ending process aimed at the creation of intelligibility. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Hidden Wounds? Inflammatory Links Between Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R

    2017-01-03

    Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. In turn, these "hidden wounds" of childhood trauma can affect brain development, key behavioral domains (e.g., cognition, positive valence systems, negative valence systems), reactivity to subsequent stressors, and, ultimately, risk for psychopathology. Further research is needed to better characterize the inflammatory links between childhood trauma and psychopathology. Detecting and healing these hidden wounds may help prevent and treat psychopathology emerging after childhood trauma.

  13. Association between burnout and cortisol secretion, perceived stress, and psychopathology in palliative care unit health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, José Carlos; Pérez-Mármol, José Manuel; Blásquez, Antonia; Santos-Ruiz, Ana María; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-04-24

    A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population. A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL-90-R Symptoms Inventory. There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI-HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it. A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.

  14. Association of Eating Disorder Symptoms with Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions of Psychopathology among Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A large body of factor analytic research supports the idea that common mental disorders are organized along correlated latent dimensions termed internalizing and externalizing. Eating disorders (EDs) have been associated with both internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisocial personality disorder) forms of psychopathology. Previous studies found that EDs are best classified as internalizing disorders. However, no previous factor analytic studies of EDs and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions have evaluated if the EDs align with these spectra similarly for men and women. We examined the location of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms within this model of psychopathology among a sample of veterans, a population traditionally understudied in EDs. Method Data were from two studies of veterans and their intimate partners (N = 453 men and 307 women). Participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV without skip-outs. Lifetime symptom severity scores were used in confirmatory factor analytic models. Results A model with AN, BN, and BED symptoms loading onto the distress sub-factor of the internalizing domain fit the data best in the full sample and the male and female subsamples. This model was statistically equivalent for men and women. Discussion All three EDs loaded onto distress, indicating that these conditions overlap with psychopathology characterized by negative affect. Investigating latent dimensions of psychopathology is one approach to identifying common factors that partially account for patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders which may aid in translating research findings into clinical practice. PMID:24849585

  15. Psychopathological factors associated with problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in a sample of adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Brunner, Romuald; Kriston, Levente; Durkee, Tony; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Thomasius, Rainer; Kaess, Michael

    2016-06-30

    In Germany, high prevalence rates for problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescents were reported. The objective of the present study was to identify psychopathological factors associated with these two behavior patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing psychopathological factors for both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in the same sample of adolescents. We surveyed a sample of 1444 adolescents in Germany regarding problematic alcohol use, problematic Internet use, psychopathology and psychological well-being. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses. 5.6% of the sample showed problematic alcohol use, 4.8% problematic Internet use, and 0.8% both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Problematic alcohol use was higher in adolescents with problematic Internet use compared to those without problematic Internet use. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were statistically significant associated with both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Prosocial behavior was related to problematic Internet use. Male gender and less peer problems were associated with problematic alcohol use. For the first time associations between adolescent problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use due to common psychopathological factors were identified. However, in addition to shared factors, we found also specific psychopathological correlates associated with these two behavior patterns.

  16. Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2016-05-01

    Early inadequate attachment experiences are relevant co-factors in the development of obesity and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which often concurs with obesity. The relationship of parental bonding with personality and psychopathology may influence treatment strategies for obese subjects, either affected or not with BED. In this study, 443 obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), including 243 with and 200 without BED, and 158 female controls were assessed with regards to attachment, personality and eating psychopathology measures. Clusters obtained using the scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were compared with each other and with a control subjects' group. Lower scores of parental bonding distinguished obese subjects with respect to healthy controls. The cluster analysis revealed two clusters of parenting among obese subjects. The larger one displayed intermediate care and overprotection between controls and the smaller cluster, with the exception of paternal overprotection which is similar to controls. This larger cluster was characterized by low persistence and levels of psychopathology which are intermediate between healthy controls and the smaller cluster. The smaller cluster displayed lower care and higher overcontrol from both parents. It also displays more extreme personality traits (high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) and more severe eating and general psychopathology. Different parenting dynamics relate to different personality patterns and eating psychopathology of obese subjects, but not to binge eating conducts. Personality differences between parenting clusters are more extensive than those between BED and non-BED subgroups. The two different typologies of obese subjects based on parenting may be relevant for treatment personalization.

  17. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S; Willheim, Erica

    2009-07-01

    As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article.

  18. Age, estimated glomerular filtration rate and ejection fraction score predicts contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: insight from the TRACK-D study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Li Yi; Wang Xiaozeng; Yang Shuguang; Gao Chuanyu; Zhang Zheng; Yang Chengming

    2014-01-01

    Background The occurrence of contrast induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) has a pronounced impact on morbidity and mortality.The aim of the present study was to appraise the diagnostic efficacy of age,estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ejection fraction (AGEF) score (age/EF(%)+1 (if eGFR was <60 ml·min-1·1.73 m2)) as an predictor of CIAKI in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods The AGEF score was calculated for 2 998 patients with type 2 DM and concomitant CKD who had undergone coronary/peripheral arterial angiography.CIAKI was defined as an increase in sCr concentration of 0.5 mg/dl (44.2 mmol/L) or 25% above baseline at 72 hours after exposure to the contrast medium.Post hoc analysis was performed by stratifying the rate of CIAKI according to AGEF score tertiles.The diagnostic efficacy of the AGEF score for predicting CIAKI was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.Results The AGEF score ranged from 0.49 to 3.09.The AGEF score tertiles were defined as follows:AGEFlow ≤0.92 (n=1 006); 0.92 <AGEFmid ≤1.16 (n=1 000),and ACEFhigh >1.16 (n=992).The incidence of CIAKI was significantly different in patients with low,middle and high AGEF scores (AGEFlow=1.1%,AGEFmid=2.3% and AGEFhigh=5.8%,P <0.001).By multivariate analysis,AGEF score was an independent predictor of CIAKI (odds ratio=4.96,95% CI:2.32-10.58,P <0.01).ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve was 0.70 (95% CI:0.648-0.753,P <0.001).Conclusion The AGEF score is effective for stratifying risk of CIAKI in patients with DM and CKD undergoing coronary/peripheral arterial angiography.

  19. [Psychopathology of schizophrenia and brain imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    2008-05-01

    While in the midth the 19th century Griesinger and 80 years later Mayer-Gross regarded schizophrenia as a brain disease, a far-reaching change in the view of schizophrenia found expression in the review of Manfred Bleuler in 1951: All classical assumptions of the schizophrenia doctrine and especially, that schizophrenia could be classified a somatically conditioned illness and not psychogenic, would be, as he wrote, shaken severely. On the 1st International Meeting of Neuropathology in Rome (1952) the opinion became generally accepted that pathological changes of the brain could not be expected in schizophrenias. The neuropathological research into psychoses, considered as unfruitful, has been practically stopped. The World Congress of Zürich "The group of schizophrenias" has summarized through Walter Schulte that schizophrenia must be understood as a "riddle of the human being", unapproachable for the methods of scientific medicine. In contrary to the main trends of psychiatry of that time, we were convinced that schizophrenias have a pathological-somatic basis and considered the search for empirical indications of the somatosis hypothesis an aim of research having priority. Thus, we tried to associate findings gained with the available somatic methods (neurohistopathology, neuroradiology, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, neurochemistry) with clinical syndromes and course of the disorder. These investigations, directed to psychopathological-somatic correlations went already since the monograph of 1957 hand in hand with the gradual development of the basic symptom concept (BSC) and of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic symptoms (BSABS) and with our long-term course- and early recognition research. I originated with three observations, made at the Heidelberg Clinic of Kurt Schneider, (1.) the cenesthetic schizophrenia; (2.) the asthenic pure defect and (3.) lethal catatonias, patients who were diagnosed clinically as idiopathic schizophrenias, but could be

  20. Lack of improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores 6 months after surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) predicts high revision rate in the second postoperative year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourghli, Anouar; Boissiere, Louis; Larrieu, Daniel; Vital, Jean-Marc; Yilgor, Caglar; Pellisé, Ferran; Alanay, Ahmet; Acaroglu, Emre; Perez-Grueso, Francisco-Javier; Kleinstück, Franck; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    ASD is assessed radiologically with the spinopelvic parameters and clinically with HRQOL scores. The revision rate after ASD surgery is high and usually occurs during the first or second postoperative year. The aim of this study is to find clinical or radiological factors that could predict revision surgery in the second postoperative year. Inclusion criterion: ASD patients operated on by instrumented posterior fusion with more than 2 years follow-up were enrolled prospectively. Additional criterion was no revision surgery during the first postoperative year. From a multicenter database of 560 operated ASD patients, 164 patients met these criteria. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the need of revision surgery during the second postoperative year. Preoperative, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year data were collected and compared for both groups. A total of 22 patients needed revision surgery and 142 did not. All revisions were for mechanical complications (non-fusion and implant related). Preoperatively, there was a significant difference between the groups (no revision vs. revision) for age (48 vs. 60 years), ODI (37 vs. 53), and SVA (29 vs. 76 mm), respectively. At 6 months, a significant difference in sagittal alignment was found, though HRQOL scores were similar. At 1 year, the no revision group scores improved, whereas the revision group scores remained stable or worsened. At 2 years, the no revision group scores remained stable. Comparing 6- and 12-month data, patients with improved, stable and worsened HRQOL scores had 8, 15 and 28% revision rates, respectively. The revision rate at the second-year post-surgery (13.4%) remains high and demonstrated that a 2-year follow-up is mandatory. In addition to usual risk factors for mechanical complications in ASD surgery, stabilization or worsening of the HRQOL scores between the 6th and 12th month postop was highly predictive of revision rate. This observation is beneficial for ASD patient follow

  1. Gender and age differences in quality of life and the impact of psychopathological symptoms among HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine gender and age differences and interaction effects on the quality of life (QoL) domains in a sample of Portuguese HIV-positive patients, and to examine to what degree psychopathological symptoms are associated with QoL in addition to sociodemographic and clinical variables. The sample consisted of 1191 HIV-positive patients, and measures included the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Controlling for clinical status, there was a significant effect of gender on QoL. Women reported lower scores of Psychological and Spirituality QoL. Younger patients reported higher scores on Physical and Level of Independence domains. Age by gender interactions emerged on all domains of QoL except on the Level of Independence domain. Overall, women over 45 years old showed lower QoL scores. Psychopathological symptoms contributed significantly to the variance of all QoL domains. Gender differences in the association of HIV infection with QoL and psychopathological symptoms seemed to be modulated by age. Understanding gender and age differences (and their interaction) may provide potentially useful information for planning interventions to improve QoL and mental health among people infected with HIV/AIDS, especially among older women.

  2. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  3. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  4. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  6. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  7. Nightmares: personality dimensions and psychopathological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Iannis M; Soldatos, Constantin R

    2005-08-01

    In this article, in an attempt to integrate recent findings with existing knowledge, we provide an overview of issues related to nightmares that could be useful as a guide to clinical work. After defining what should be considered as a nightmare, we look into the relationship of nightmares with issues such as normal development and maturation, as well as culture. Issues of stress and personality are then discussed in their relation to situational and chronic nightmares. State and trait factors are further elaborated on as we explore the relationship of nightmares and psychopathology. A brief review of organic and pharmacological causes of nightmares follows before we embark on a discussion of issues that relate nightmares to psychological trauma. Some final remarks on treatment conclude our review.

  8. Control theory and psychopathology: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual control theory (PCT; Powers, 1973) is presented and adapted as a framework to understand the causes, maintenance, and treatment of psychological disorders. PCT provides dynamic, working models based on the principle that goal-directed activity arises from a hierarchy of negative feedback loops that control perception through control of the environment. The theory proposes that psychological distress arises from the unresolved conflict between goals. The present paper integrates PCT, control theory, and self-regulatory approaches to psychopathology and psychotherapy and recent empirical findings, particularly in the field of cognitive therapy. The approach aims to offer fresh insights into the role of goal conflict, automatic processes, imagery, perceptual distortion, and loss of control in psychological disorders. Implications for psychological therapy are discussed, including an integration of the existing work on the assessment of control profiles and the use of assertive versus yielding modes of control.

  9. [Music, composers and psychopathology: the psychiatrist's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, E

    2011-01-01

    A first reason for the psychiatrist to be interested in music, musicians and their artistic work, comes from the strong biographical and scientific evidence linking mood disorders and in particular, bipolar disorder, to artistic creativity. Moreover, a family association between psychopathology and creativity has been found in several studies. Important changes in mood, but also cognition, personality and behaviour can occur during all phases of manic-depressive illness and these changes have potentially important effects on creativity and productivity. Those changes are usually opposite in mania and depression. Many bipolar artists see emotional turmoil as essential to their creativity, which has therapeutical but also ethical consequences. A second area of interest is the impaired emotional recognition in schizophrenic patients, not only for visual material (faces or contextual scenes) but also for auditive material (voice or music) leading to impaired social interactions in this condition.

  10. Hysteria, hypnosis, psychopathology. History and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L

    1975-12-01

    A historical outline is given of the search for an explanation of the still elusive nature of hysteria and hypnosis, their mutual relationship, and that which they bear to psychopathology. Charcot regarded hypnosis as an artificially induced hysterical neurosis, and it was he who first introduced Freud to these two states. Freud was the first to see in hypnosis an experimental instrument for understanding psychopathological mechanisms. His subsequent conceptualization of psychoanalysis derived from these two phenomena at this decisive period. In 1895 Freud attempted to achieve a psychophysiological synthesis of the mental apparatus in his "Project for a Scientific Psychology," but then decided not to publish it. Whether or not recent advance in neurophysiology are sufficiently important bo bring about this synthesis remains an open question. In recent years some psychoanalysts have become interested in hypnosis, which one of them described as a focus for psychophysiological and psychoanalytic investigations. Any theory of the psychical apparatus which does not account for such an obvious psychical phenomenon must necessarily be incomplete. Since Charcot, hysteria presents hardly any new openings for experimental work. It is suggested that the solution of psyche-soma interaction might be sought in the study of hypnosis. It is postulated that hypnosis is a "fourth organismic state," not as yet objectifiable (in contradistinction to the waking state, sleep, and dreaming): a kind of natural or inborn mechanism which acts as one of the regulators of man's relationships with the environment. The author discusses briefly the aims and methodology of future interdisciplinary research on hypnosis, and the study of the transition from one state of consciousness to another, and their potential application to a wide range of subjects, namely, wherever man's relations with the environment are involved.

  11. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  12. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-09-10

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding.

  13. [How far is psychopathology still meaningful for the treatment of schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, G

    2001-09-01

    The paper gives reasons for the view that psychopathology has to be not only the fundamental method for clinical psychiatry, but also an essential prerequisite for a rational therapy of schizophrenia and related disorders. Because schizophrenic patients present very different types of psychopathological cross-sectional syndromes, the choice of a distinct neuroleptic or antidepressant compound and their dosage has to be guided along the psychopathological target syndrome. The clinical-therapeutical effects of neuroleptics and antidepressants are above all symptom- (Freyhan) or syndrome-directed. The differentiation of positive and negative symptoms, acute and chronic or residual schizophrenia, or of the prodromal symptoms according to contemporary approaches seems to be not sufficient for the early detection of psychopathological predictors of an impending psychosis and the special indication and choice of a distinct drug and dosing strategy. This is valid for maintenance treatment of patients in remission, for early intervention in the prodromal stages before the first and later psychotic episodes and in preventing relapses. Relapse rates can be reduced by a low dose maintenance therapy with basic symptom oriented early adaptation of the dosage in the prodromes before psychotic remanifestations. Some presuppositions of an effective psychopharmacological and psychological therapy in view of clinical psychopathology (K. Schneider) and the "phenomenological attitude" (K. Jaspers) are outlined. A necessary condition for the secondary as well as for the primary prevention of psychotic episodes is the detailed knowledge of the interindividual different dynamic and cognitive basic symptoms, defined in the Bonn Scale BSABS, that are experiential in kind and not identical with the negative and behavioral "Prodromal and Residual Symptoms" of DSM and ICD-10. The early detection and preventive intervention of schizophrenic psychoses is most likely possible by means of a subtle

  14. Semantic verbal fluency pattern, dementia rating scores and adaptive behavior correlate with plasma Aβ42 concentrations in Down syndrome young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDel Hoyo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is an intellectual disability disorder in which language and, specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease, including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong Alzheimer’s disease predictor being the Semantic Verbal Fluency Task (SVFT a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP and the biological amyloidosis markers in Down syndrome. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with Down syndrome to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II, and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42, as a potent biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. In Down syndrome, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II. The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with Down syndrome.

  15. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  16. Influence of smoking cessation drugs on blood pressure and heart rate in patients with cardiovascular disease or high risk score: real life setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André Pacheco; Scholz, Jaqueline; Abe, Tania Ogawa; Pinheiro, Gabriela Gouveia; Gaya, Patricia Viviane; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima

    2016-01-05

    Smoking is the most important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. It is well established that quitting smoking reduces coronary events. However, on several occasions, the cardiovascular safety of smoking cessation drugs has been questioned. Our goal is to evaluate the effects of smoking cessation drugs on blood pressure and heart rate in patients from a smoking cessation service in a cardiology hospital. We examined the PAF database (Smoking Cessation Assistance Program database) between January 2008 and March 2014. We analyzed data from 900 patients who were compliant with the treatment (50.5% male, average age 53 ± 17 years). The most frequent clinical diagnoses were coronary artery disease (25.2%), hypertension (57.2%), and diabetes (13.4%). Blood pressure, heart rate, and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration in exhaled air were analyzed at consecutive visits during the first 45 days of treatment (mean visits - 3). Analysis of repeated measures was used for the statistical analysis (p blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR). Significant reductions in CO concentrations occurred in all smoking cessation drug groups. Smoking cessation drugs used in monotherapy or in combined regimens did not influence systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in this group of patients during the observation period.

  17. Comparing Self-Rated Health, Satisfaction and Quality of Life Scores between Diabetics and Others Living in the Bella Coola Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Angela; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tildesley, Hugh; Michalos, Alex C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative effect that diabetes has on self-rated health, satisfaction with various specific domains of life, and satisfaction with quality of life operationalized as happiness, satisfaction with life as a whole, and satisfaction with overall quality of life. Design: Mixed methods--mailed survey and chart review. Study…

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Mehler, Pia; Thiel, Christian; Steinbrecher, Kristina; Malchow, Berend; Tesky, Valentina; Ademmer, Karin; Prvulovic, David; Banzer, Winfried; Zopf, Yurdagül; Schmitt, Andrea; Hänsel, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive deficits are core symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but specific and approved treatments for cognitive deterioration are scarce. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and support cognitive performance, but this has not yet been systematically investigated. In the current study, we examined the effects of aerobic training on cognitive performance and symptom severity in psychiatric inpatients. To our knowledge, to date, no studies have been published that directly compare the effects of exercise across disease groups in order to acquire a better understanding of disease-specific versus general or overlapping effects of physical training intervention. Two disease groups (n=22 MDD patients, n=29 SZ patients) that were matched for age, gender, duration of disease and years of education received cognitive training combined either with aerobic physical exercise or with mental relaxation training. The interventions included 12 sessions (3 times a week) over a time period of 4 weeks, lasting each for 75 min (30 min of cognitive training+45 min of cardio training/mental relaxation training). Cognitive parameters and psychopathology scores of all participants were tested in pre- and post-testing sessions and were then compared with a waiting control group. In the total group of patients, the results indicate an increase in cognitive performance in the domains visual learning, working memory and speed of processing, a decrease in state anxiety and an increase in subjective quality of life between pre- and post-testing. The effects in SZ patients compared with MDD patients were stronger for cognitive performance, whereas there were stronger effects in MDD patients compared with SZ patients in individual psychopathology values. MDD patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and state anxiety values after the intervention period

  19. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  20. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  1. Assessment of psychopathology across and within cultures: issues and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2003-07-01

    Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability.

  2. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  3. Posttraumatic nightmares and psychopathology in children after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Schredl, Michael; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children.

  4. Attachment and Emotion Regulation Strategies in Predicting Adult Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Pascuzzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested a 10-year longitudinal model examining the role of adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies on adult symptoms of psychopathology. Fifty individuals completed a measure of attachment security to parents and peers at age 14, measures of romantic attachment and emotion regulation at age 22, and a measure of psychopathology at age 24. Results revealed that attachment insecurity to parents in adolescence was associated with greater symptoms of psychopathology in adulthood, and emotion-focused strategies partially mediated this association. Anxious romantic attachment was also related to psychopathology, an association that was fully mediated by emotion-focused strategies. The long-term mechanism involved in the association between earlier attachment and future adaptation will be discussed.

  5. A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.

  6. Disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed.

  7. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  8. Defining reactivity: how several methodological decisions can affect conclusions about emotional reactivity in psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Shankman, Stewart A; Olino, Thomas M; Klein, Daniel N

    2011-12-01

    There are many important methodological decisions that need to be made when examining emotional reactivity in psychopathology. In the present study, we examined the effects of two such decisions in an investigation of emotional reactivity in depression: (1) which (if any) comparison condition to employ; and (2) how to define change. Depressed (N = 69) and control (N = 37) participants viewed emotion-inducing film clips while subjective and facial responses were measured. Emotional reactivity was defined using no comparison condition (i.e., raw scores), baseline comparison condition (i.e., no stimulus presented), and neutral comparison condition (i.e., neutral stimulus presented). Change in emotional reactivity was assessed using four analytic approaches: difference scores, percentage change, residualised change, and ANCOVA. Results differed among the three comparison conditions and among several of the analytic approaches. Overall, our investigation suggests that choosing a comparison condition and the definition of change can significantly influence the presence of group differences in emotional reactivity. Recommendations for studies of emotional reactivity in psychopathology are discussed.

  9. [Alterity in psychopathologic languages. 3: the sex of words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zoïla, A

    1983-03-01

    This study of alterity in psychopathological language includes three parts: 1) The double without dialogue; 2) The ego(s) in the soliloguy; and here: 3) The sex of words. Two clinical cases (an asexuation delusion, an agressive misogyny) show the systemic interrelations in one of their sides only. The relations between neurosis, perversion, psychosis are operating into the sexuation and into the insatured dialogical structure of language. Enclosed alterity in language is the specific fact of psychopathology.

  10. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  11. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  12. A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; Zald, David H

    2017-02-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the 3 levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. [Psychopathology related to women pubertal precocity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Didillon, A

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a developmental process characterized by hormonal and physical changes leading to the ability of reproduction. Precocious puberty, especially in girls, has been associated with an increased incidence of emotional and behavioral problems. Adolescence is a life stage influenced both by the biological changes of puberty and the emergence of new social challenges. In individuals facing these developmental issues at a younger age than expected, the exposure to internal and external stress factors may be greater than in other young people. This narrative review provides an overview of psychopathology associated with precocious puberty in order to raise awareness of clinicians dealing with adolescents at risk for adverse behavioral and emotional outcomes. Developmental challenges of standard puberty and adolescence will be outlined before a more detailed description of recent findings from clinical and epidemiological studies. Putative mechanisms underlying the association between precocious puberty and psychopathology will also be discussed. Epidemiological studies have shown that an early onset of puberty in girls is associated with an earlier onset of sexuality, an earlier age of first birth and a lesser professional qualification regardless of cognitive abilities and socio-economic status. In both population studies and clinical cohorts, girls with an early age of puberty or in treatment for precocious puberty have more disruptive behavior disorders such as conduct disorders, more substance abuse disorders and delinquent behavior compared to their standard developing peers. Precocious puberty and behavioral problems may have common genetic and environmental risk factors. In young people with conduct disorders and early puberty, findings have emphasized the role of non-shared environmental factors. Low birth weight, obesity, exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and adoption are potentially shared between both conditions. Early puberty in girls is also

  14. Psychopathological responses of physically injured persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešić Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea to monitor and research psychopathological responses of physically injured persons in a more systematic manner has come from our observation of huge differences in patient behavior, whose psychological responses were noticeably changed and often inappropriate. The behavior aberrations were all the more striking because we treated wartime injuries in addition to peacetime ones. Our sample had 175 patient subjects, of both sexes different ages, marital status and professions. A group of 70 patients treated in the Institute for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology were divided into two subgroups. The first experimental subgroup (E1 consisted of 26 (37.1% patients physically injured in combat. The second subgroup (E2 had 44 (62.9% patients physically injured in peacetime circumstances (car accidents, work accidents, etc. The physical injuries encompassed injuries to spinal column and extremities. The control (K consisted of 105 subjects without physical injuries. The clinical picture and psychological reactions of the patients were examined by means of 4 instruments - PTSD-10 scale or posttraumatic symptoms scale [1 ], Family Homogeneity Index /FHI with 19 variables, applied to measure the relation between the family system homogeneity and accident effects [2], Short Eysenck's Personality Inventory applied to investigate neuroticism and extroversion and introversion traits [3], Late Effects of Accidental Injury Questionnaire [4]. Our observations of psychological responses of patients in our ward (insomnia, sedatives intake were mostly confirmed by tests conducted with the above instruments. In the group of the wartime injured (E1, as well as in the control (K, Eysenck's scale proved a significantly higher degree of neuroticism in comparison to the peacetime injured. Such results indicated that the wartime injured would most probably develop the picture of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Such a conclusion was related not only to the

  15. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  16. A Place for Sexual Dysfunctions in an Empirical Taxonomy of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Baillie, Andrew J; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-01-25

    Sexual dysfunctions commonly co-occur with various depressive and anxiety disorders. An emerging framework for understanding the classification of mental disorders suggests that such comorbidity is a manifestation of underlying dimensions of psychopathology (or "spectra"). In this review, we synthesize the evidence that sexual dysfunctions should be included in the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology as part of the internalizing spectrum, which accounts for comorbidity among the depressive and anxiety disorders. The review has four parts. Part 1 summarizes the empirical basis and utility of the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology. Part 2 reviews the prima facie evidence for the hypothesis that sexual dysfunctions are part of the internalizing spectrum (i.e., high rates of comorbidity; shared cognitive, affective, and temperament characteristics; common neural substrates and biomarkers; shared course and treatment response; and the lack of causal relationships between them). Part 3 critically analyzes and integrates the results of the eight studies that have addressed this hypothesis. Finally, Part 4 examines the implications of reconceptualizing sexual dysfunctions as part of the internalizing spectrum, and explores avenues for future research.

  17. The 'Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study': a 20-year review of methods and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Asselmann, Eva; Zimmermann, Petra; Brückl, Tanja; Höfler, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The "Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP)" study is a prospective-longitudinal study program in a community sample (Munich, Germany) of adolescents and young adults. The program was launched in 1994 to study the prevalence and incidence of psychopathological syndromes and mental disorders, to describe the natural course and to identify vulnerability and risk factors for onset and progression as well as psychosocial consequences. This paper reviews methods and core outcomes of this study program. The EDSP is based on an age-stratified random community sample of originally N = 3021 subjects aged 14-24 years at baseline, followed up over 10 years with up to 3 follow-up waves. The program includes a family genetic supplement and nested cohorts with lab assessments including blood samples for genetic analyses. Psychopathology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI; embedded dimensional scales and instruments assessed vulnerability and risk factors. Beyond the provision of age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for a wide range of mental disorders, analyses of their patterns of onset, course and interrelationships, the program identified common and diagnosis-specific distal and proximal vulnerability and risk factors including critical interactions. The EDSP study advanced our knowledge on the developmental pathways and trajectories, symptom progression and unfolding of disorder comorbidity, highlighting the dynamic nature of many disorders and their determinants. The results have been instrumental for defining more appropriate diagnostic thresholds, led to the derivation of symptom progression models and were helpful to identify promising targets for prevention and intervention.

  18. Psychopathology, Psychiatric Symptoms and their Demographic Correlates in Female Adolescents Flood Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitwat, Aisha; Asad, Sara; Yousaf, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the incidence of psychopathology, frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and their demographic correlates in flood affected female adolescents. Descriptive study. District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from July to October 2011. Female adolescent flood victims, aged 13 - 19 years, were recruited. Screening was done and Diagnostic Questionnaire for Psychiatric Disorders was administered to confirm the diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR. Demographic information was also obtained regarding nature of personal and financial damages to the participants due to flood. The mean age of 205 participants was 15.78 ±2.13 years. Post-flood diagnoses of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) had the highest frequency rates in female adolescents flood victims i.e., 4 (2%), 2 (1%) and 2 (1%), respectively. Psychiatric symptoms of GAD and PTSD were reported most by the screened-out participants; whereas participants who were still living in personal tents and received late arrival of any kind of aid, reported more psychopathology. Flood and consequent financial damages may pose a risk factor for development of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology. Results have implications for the need of improved mental health services for female adolescent flood victims.

  19. What Is the Apgar Score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... 2 being the best score: A ppearance (skin color) P ulse (heart rate) G rimace response (reflexes) ...

  20. Rorschach interpretation with high-ability adolescent females: psychopathology or creative thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G

    1997-02-01

    Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style.

  1. Bone density, body composition, and psychopathology of anorexia nervosa spectrum disorders in DSM-IV vs DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Dichtel, Laura E; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Meenaghan, Erinne; Lederfine Paskal, Margaret; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Faje, Alexander T; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2017-04-01

    DSM-5 revised the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) by eliminating the amenorrhea requirement, liberalizing weight and psychological criteria, and adding the formal diagnosis of "atypical AN" for individuals with AN psychological symptoms without low weight. We sought to determine whether bone density (BMD) is impaired in women diagnosed with AN using the new, more liberal, DSM-5 criteria. Cross-sectional study of 168 women, 18 - 45y: (1) AN by DSM-IV (DSM-IV AN) (n = 37), (2) AN by DSM-5 but not DSM-IV criteria (DSM-5 AN) (n = 33), (3) atypical AN (ATYPICAL AN) (n = 77), (4) healthy comparison group (HC) (n = 21). Measurements included dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. BMD Z-score DSM-IV, 82% of DSM-5, and 69% of ATYPICAL. Mean Z-scores were comparably low in DSM-IV and DSM-5, intermediate in ATYPICAL, and highest in HC. Lack of prior low weight or amenorrhea was, but history of overweight/obesity was not, protective against bone loss. Mean lean mass and percent fat mass were significantly lower in all AN groups than HC. DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ATYPICAL had comparable psychopathology. Despite liberalizing diagnostic criteria, many women diagnosed with AN and atypical AN using DSM-5 criteria have low BMD. Presence or history of low weight and/or amenorrhea remain important indications for DXA. Loss of lean mass, in addition to fat mass, is present in all AN groups, and may contribute to low BMD. The deleterious effect of eating disorders on BMD extends beyond those with current low weight and amenorrhea. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:343-351). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. General psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self-esteem in couples undergoing infertility treatment: a comparative study between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Romdhane, Asma Ben; Hidar, Samir; Bannour, Souhail; Ayoubi Idrissi, Khadija; Khairi, Hedi; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2013-04-01

    To compare measures of psychological distress between men and women undergoing ART in the Unit of Reproductive Medicine "UMR" in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at "Farhat Hached" Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a gender comparative study of psychological profile in infertile couples. Recruitment was done during period from January to May 2009. 100 infertile couples with primary infertility were recruited. Scores of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem were evaluated. We administrated questionnaires on psychological factors among infertile couples before starting a new infertility treatment cycle. Psychological factors included the symptom check-list (SCL-90-R), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD-S) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Infertile women had higher scores than their spouses in the three global scores of the SCL-90-R and in several items such as somatisation, obsessive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobias. Scores of HADS were higher among women for both depression and anxiety. Scores of self-esteem were lower among women. Women endorsed higher psychological distress than men across multiple symptoms domains: general psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  4. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  5. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  7. Samson's suicide: psychopathology (Grossman) vs. heroism (Jabotinsky).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfeld, Netta; Strous, Rael D

    2008-03-01

    The biblical story of Samson may be understood at various levels and from different perspectives. Since the story of Samson in the Bible is sketchily drawn, the interpretations of the narrative are numerous. One version, according to David Grossman, a contemporary writer and liberal Israeli political activist, regards Samson critically, viewing him as a tormented individual who opts to end his life in order to end his suffering. Another version is that of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, a twentieth century author and nationalistic Jewish political activist, who regards Samson as a heroic figure exemplifying the ultimate Jewish hero who killed himself to help his people. While suicide is considered a tragic event, viewed as the outcome of an unstable state of mind from a psychopathological point of view, and a controversial issue in Judaism (as in other religions), there is value in examining how each of these authors explains the act. Since the personal and political opinions of the authors influenced their interpretations, the discussion will briefly expound on their biographies. A comparison between their two versions of the narrative will be made. A word of caution is introduced regarding the merits and demerits of artistic and creative analysis of the biblical narrative.

  8. [Internet addiction and web-mediated psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico; Corvino, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    The development of the Internet and its gradual mass distribution in the last 20 years have marked the beginning of a global revolution in the way of communicating and thinking. In this context, emerged disorders related to a pathological use of the network, up to forms of real addiction (Internet Addiction Disorder), similar to the use of psychotropic substances. The abuse of the Internet can seriously aggravate pre-existing psychopathological traits, which are the basis of addiction, resulting in a continuous process of disconnection from reality. The loss of interpersonal relationships, the change of mood, cognition completely oriented to the use of the network and disruption of temporal experience are common features in patients addicted to the Internet. There are also clear signs of intoxication and abstinence. Teenagers are particularly at risk, maybe because born in the "new virtual world" and therefore less aware of the risks that may ensue. At the Gemelli Hospital in Rome it's active an out-patient service for Internet Addiction Disorder with a treatment protocol that includes individual interviews, group rehabilitation and self-help groups for family members.

  9. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciana, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Since this journal's inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical-cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology-context interactions, represent the field's most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled.

  10. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-03-28

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  11. Knowledge is Power! Increased Provider Knowledge Scores Regarding Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) are Associated with Higher Rates of PrEP Prescription and Future Intent to Prescribe PrEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jill; Jain, Sonia; Krakower, Douglas; Sun, Xiaoying; Young, Jason; Mayer, Kenneth; Haubrich, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The FDA approval of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 has raised questions about the delivery of PrEP in a real-world setting. iPad-based questionnaires were given to providers at conferences in California and New York to assess knowledge, experience and attitudes regarding PrEP in HIV and non-HIV providers. HIV provider status was defined either by self-identification or by having greater than 5 years of HIV care experience. Knowledge scores were the sum of correct answers from five PrEP knowledge questions. Univariate analyses used t-test to compare knowledge scores and Fisher's exact test for past or future PrEP prescription between HIV and non-HIV providers. Multivariable linear or logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with the outcomes. Of 233 respondents, the mean age was 40 years, 59 % were White, 59 % were physicians and 52 % were HIV providers. In univariate analysis, mean PrEP knowledge scores (max 5) were significantly higher for HIV providers (2.8 versus 2.2; p 41 (mean 2.8 versus 2.3; p = 0.004), White race (2.7 versus 2.2; p = 0.026) and participants in the New York region (3.0 versus 2.3; p knowledge scores, all but age remained significant. Among 201 potential prescribers, the rate of prior PrEP prescription was higher among HIV providers than non-HIV providers (34 versus 9 %; p knowledge score, but the association with provider status was no longer significant in multivariable analysis that controlled for knowledge. Intent to prescribe PrEP in the future was high for all provider types (64 %) and was associated with knowledge scores in multivariable analysis. The most common concerns about PrEP (>40 % of providers) were drug toxicities, development of resistance and patient adherence to follow-up; 32 % identified risk compensation as a concern. HIV providers had significantly greater PrEP knowledge than non-HIV providers, but differences by provider type in past Pr

  12. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  13. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  14. Preserving Subjective Wellbeing in the Face of Psychopathology: Buffering Effects of Personal Strengths and Resources.

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    Elisabeth H Bos

    Full Text Available Many studies on resilience have shown that people can succeed in preserving mental health after a traumatic event. Less is known about whether and how people can preserve subjective wellbeing in the presence of psychopathology. We examined to what extent psychopathology can co-exist with acceptable levels of subjective wellbeing and which personal strengths and resources moderate the association between psychopathology and wellbeing.Questionnaire data on wellbeing (Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life/Happiness Index, psychological symptoms (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and personal strengths and resources (humor, Humor Style questionnaire; empathy, Empathy Quotient questionnaire; social company; religion; daytime activities, Living situation questionnaire were collected in a population-based internet study (HowNutsAreTheDutch; N = 12,503. Data of the subset of participants who completed the above questionnaires (n = 2411 were used for the present study. Regression analyses were performed to predict wellbeing from symptoms, resources, and their interactions.Satisfactory levels of wellbeing (happiness score 6 or higher were found in a substantial proportion of the participants with psychological symptoms (58% and 30% of those with moderate and severe symptom levels, respectively. The association between symptoms and wellbeing was large and negative (-0.67, P < .001, but less so in persons with high levels of self-defeating humor and in those with a partner and/or pet. Several of the personal strengths and resources had a positive main effect on wellbeing, especially self-enhancing humor, having a partner, and daytime activities.Cultivating personal strengths and resources, like humor, social/animal company, and daily occupations, may help people preserve acceptable levels of wellbeing despite the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress.

  15. GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eMüller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic mechanisms are critically involved in the control of fear and anxiety, but their role in the development of stress-induced psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mood disorders is not sufficiently understood. We studied these functions in two established mouse models of risk factors for stress-induced psychopathologies employing variable juvenile stress and/or social isolation. A battery of emotional tests in adulthood revealed the induction of contextually generalized fear, anxiety, hyperarousal and depression-like symptoms in these paradigms. These reflect the multitude and complexity of stress effects in human PTSD patients. With factor analysis we were able to identify parameters that reflect these different behavioral domains in stressed animals and thus provide a basis for an integrated scoring of affectedness more closely resembling the clinical situation than isolated parameters. To test the applicability of these models to genetic approaches we further tested the role of GABA using heterozygous mice with targeted mutation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD65 (GAD65+/- mice, which show a delayed postnatal increase in tissue GABA content in limbic and cortical brain areas. Unexpectedly, GAD65(+/- mice did not show changes in exploratory activity regardless of the stressor type and were after the variable juvenile stress procedure protected from the development of contextual generalization in an auditory fear conditioning experiment. Our data demonstrate the complex nature of behavioral alterations in rodent models of stress-related psychopathologies and suggest that GAD65 haplodeficiency, likely through its effect on the postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission, conveys resilience to some of these stress-induced effects.

  16. Externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition: working memory mediates signal discriminability and reinforcement moderates response bias in approach-avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael J; Rickert, Martin E; Bogg, Tim; Lucas, Jesolyn; Finn, Peter R

    2011-05-01

    Research has suggested that reduced working memory capacity plays a key role in disinhibited patterns of behavior associated with externalizing psychopathology. In this study, participants (N = 365) completed 2 versions of a go/no-go mixed-incentive learning task that differed in the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments for correct and incorrect active-approach responses, respectively. Using separate structural equation models for conventional (hit and false alarm rates) and signal detection theory (signal discriminability and response bias) performance indices, distinct roles for working memory capacity and changes in payoff structure were found. Specifically, results showed that (a) working memory capacity mediated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on false alarms and discriminability of go versus no-go signals; (b) these effects were not moderated by the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments; (c) the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments moderated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on hits and response bias for go versus no-go responses; and (d) these effects were not mediated by working memory capacity. The findings implicate distinct roles for reduced working memory capacity and poorly modulated active approach and passive avoidance in the link between externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition.

  17. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil.

  18. [Psychopathology of violent behavior in mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorowicz, S

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of violent behaviour in mental hospitals has been increasing in recent years. A number of factors may be responsible. Violent and dangerous patients are sent to hospitals, quite often against their will. This may lead to conflicts and assaults against the staff members. There are many factors, both in present situation and in biography, conductive to violent behaviour: unfavourable experiences in childhood (neglect, cruelty, sexual exploitation), psychopathic structure of premorbid personality, frustrations, and eventually deformations of world perception caused by psychotic symptoms. Various mental disorders may lead to the violent behaviour, but it is most frequently observed in exacerbation of paranoid schizophrenia, in young males, particularly in cases with systemized delusions, emotional turmoil and anger. Introduction of a person (nurse, physician, family member, other patient) into psychotic world may also lead to the attack. In particular cases it is difficult to foresee violent behaviour, but some indicators are known. There are very few investigations on the role of the staff in violent behaviour of patients. The danger may be brought by criticism, refusal and rejection, compulsory drug administration, undue limitations of the patient's liberty, or the opposite--no reaction to violations of institutional regulations. Psychopathology of the staff may also encourage the violent behaviour: inability to solve the transference and countertransference, reaction formation and denial are the most important. Fear exaggerates the feeling of danger and induces the staff members to avoid the patient, diminishing the possibility of influence and control of the patient's disturbed behaviour. Recurrent violent behaviour may be connected with brain pathology, so the modern diagnostic procedures may be indicated in such cases.

  19. Anubhoothi: a psychopathology of unusual sexual experience

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    G Ragesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The case history and management of a 26 years old adult is reported who presented with an unusual symptom of sexual experience, in the background of symptoms of depression and anxiety; had been given multiple diagnoses at multiple points of time and treated with multiple medications. On establishment of rapport, he revealed details of his unusual experiences, which had been unexplored. When he was about 11 years and ten months, he sat next to a lady; he could perceive a particular experience for the first time in his life. And next time with another lady too he perceived a particular type of smell (“madaka gandha” meaning an intoxicating smell along with the other feelings. He began to have these feelings whenever he was in the vicinity of a female except his mother and sister. The smell reminded him of roses vaguely and was at least ten to 20 times more pleasurable than an orgasm that he got with masturbation. These feelings were more pleasurable than he could ever imagine and happened always with the presence of a female in the vicinity. This was never associated with periods of unresponsiveness or any other history suggestive of seizures. He titled the experience as “anubhoothi”. These experiences occurred on a regular basis for a period of ten months following which there was abrupt cessation of the same, without any intervention. Later he developed all symptoms. A coordinated management plan spearheaded by the multi-disciplinary treatment team could bring down his symptoms as well as make him functional. This case indicates that it is essential to explore abnormalities of experiences to understand the psychopathology and plan management.

  20. Credit scoring for individuals

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    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  1. Increased Rate of Poor Laryngoscopic Views in Patients Scheduled for Cardiac Surgery Versus Patients Scheduled for General Surgery: A Propensity Score-Based Analysis of 21,561 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sebastian; Ackermann, Andreas; Prottengeier, Johannes; Castellanos, Ixchel; Schmidt, Joachim; Schüttler, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Former analyses reported an increased rate of poor direct laryngoscopy view in cardiac surgery patients; however, these findings frequently could be attributed to confounding patient characteristics. In most of the reported cardiac surgery cohorts, the rate of well-known risk factors for poor direct laryngoscopy view such as male sex, obesity, or older age, were increased compared with the control groups. Especially in the ongoing debate on anesthesia staff qualification for cardiac interventions outside the operating room a detailed and stratified risk analysis seems necessary. Retrospective, anonymous, propensity score-based, matched-pair analysis. Single-center study in a university hospital. No active participants. Retrospective, anonymous chart analysis. The anesthesia records of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a period of 6 consecutive years were analyzed retrospectively. The results were compared with those of a control group of patients who underwent general surgery. Poor laryngoscopic view was defined as Cormack and Lehane classification grade 3 or 4. The records of 21,561 general anesthesia procedures were reviewed for the study. The incidence of poor direct laryngoscopic views in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery was significantly increased compared with those of the general surgery cohort (7% v 4.2%). Using propensity score-based matched-pair analysis, equal subgroups were generated of each surgical department, with 2,946 patients showing identical demographic characteristics. After stratifying for demographic characteristics, the rate of poor direct laryngoscopy view remained statistically significantly higher in the cardiac surgery group (7.5% v 5.7%). Even with stratification for demographic risk factors, cardiac surgery patients showed a significantly higher rate of poor direct laryngoscopic view compared with general surgery patients. These results should be taken into account for human resource management and distribution of difficult

  2. Network analysis: A new way of understanding psychopathology?

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    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo

    2017-08-14

    Current taxonomic systems are based on a descriptive and categorical approach where psychopathological symptoms and signs are caused by a hypothetical underlying mental disorder. In order to circumvent the limitations of classification systems, it is necessary to incorporate new conceptual and psychometric models that allow to understand, analyze and intervene in psychopathological phenomena from another perspective. The main goal was to present a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychopathology. First of all, a brief introduction where psychopathological disorders are conceived as complex dynamic systems was carried out. Key concepts, as well as the different types of networks and the procedures for their estimation, are discussed. Following this, centrality measures, important for the understanding of the network as well as to examine the relevance of the variables within the network were addressed. These factors were then exemplified by estimating a network of self-reported psychopathological symptoms in a representative sample of adolescents. Finally, a brief recapitulation is made and future lines of research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

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    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry.

  4. Externalizing and internalizing subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology and anger expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Diane T; Joseph, Jeremy S; Tharp, Andra T; C'de Baca, Janet; Torres-Sena, Lorraine M; Qualls, Clifford; Miller, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    Subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology were replicated and extended in 254 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cluster analyses on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath, ) yielded internalizing and externalizing psychopathology dimensions, with a third low psychopathology group (simple PTSD). Externalizers were higher than the internalizers and the simple PTSD groups on the antisocial, substance, and aggression scales; internalizers were higher on depression and anxiety scales. Further validation included an independent measure of psychopathology to examine anger (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, [BDHI]; Buss & Durkee, ). Externalizers were higher on extreme behavioral anger scales (assault and verbal hostility); and externalizers and internalizers were higher than the simple PTSD subjects on other anger scales. Positive correlations between the BDHI scales and the PTSD symptom of "irritability and anger outbursts" were found across scales in the total sample (range: r = .19-.36), on the assault scale in externalizers (r = .59), and the verbal hostility scale in both internalizers (r = .30) and simple PTSD (r = .37) groups, suggesting the broad utility of the symptom in the diagnosis. The results demonstrate the generalizability of the internalizing/externalizing typology to the female veteran population and highlight clinically relevant distinctions in anger expression within PTSD.

  5. Psychopathological manifestations of multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere

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    A. A. Lukshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.

  6. Treatment of drug addiction and psychopathology: A field study

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    Antonio Souto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of treatment and 148 in a maintenance phase in drug treatment (> 6 months, were psychopathologically assessed using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002. A field study with a 2 X 2 design (treatment: drug-free vs. drug-regime and (treatment phase: initial phase vs. maintenance in drug treatment was carried out. The results support the hypothesis of a dual diagnosis, that is, the comorbidity of psychopathology and drug addiction. On the whole, treatment for drug addiction had a significant impact on reducing associated psychopathology. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of the implications for the treatment of drug addiction.

  7. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bouso

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127 and controls (n = 115 at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.

  8. Unreliability as a threat to understanding psychopathology: The cautionary tale of attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Scullin, Rachel B; Langer, Julia K; Dixon, David J; Huppert, Jonathan D; Bernstein, Amit; Zvielli, Ariel; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-08-01

    The use of unreliable measures constitutes a threat to our understanding of psychopathology, because advancement of science using both behavioral and biologically oriented measures can only be certain if such measurements are reliable. Two pillars of the National Institute of Mental Health's portfolio-the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative for psychopathology and the target engagement initiative in clinical trials-cannot succeed without measures that possess the high reliability necessary for tests involving mediation and selection based on individual differences. We focus on the historical lack of reliability of attentional bias measures as an illustration of how reliability can pose a threat to our understanding. Our own data replicate previous findings of poor reliability for traditionally used scores, which suggests a serious problem with the ability to test theories regarding attentional bias. This lack of reliability may also suggest problems with the assumption (in both theory and the formula for the scores) that attentional bias is consistent and stable across time. In contrast, measures accounting for attention as a dynamic process in time show good reliability in our data. The field is sorely in need of research reporting findings and reliability for attentional bias scores using multiple methods, including those focusing on dynamic processes over time. We urge researchers to test and report reliability of all measures, considering findings of low reliability not just as a nuisance but as an opportunity to modify and improve upon the underlying theory. Full assessment of reliability of measures will maximize the possibility that RDoC (and psychological science more generally) will succeed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Personality, Psychopathology, Life Attitudes and Neuropsychological Performance among Ritual Users of Ayahuasca: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; González, Débora; Fondevila, Sabela; Cutchet, Marta; Ribeiro Barbosa, Paulo César; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Araújo, Wladimyr Sena; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Riba, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127) and controls (n = 115) at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group. PMID:22905130

  10. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; González, Débora; Fondevila, Sabela; Cutchet, Marta; Fernández, Xavier; Ribeiro Barbosa, Paulo César; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Araújo, Wladimyr Sena; Barbanoj, Manel J; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Riba, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127) and controls (n = 115) at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.

  11. Association of heart rate variability with 5-minute Apgar score in neonates with severe asphyxia%重度窒息新生儿5分钟Apgar评分的心率变异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾; 李丽; 阚亚楠; 梁宏伟; 陈家菲

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨重度窒息新生儿5 min Apgar评分与心率变异性(HRV)的关系。方法入选103例出生后1 min Apgar评分为0~3分的重度窒息新生儿,根据出生后5 min Apgar评分分组,>7分为A组(n=50),≤7分B组(n=53);同时以40例1、5 min Apgar评分均>7分的足月新生儿作为对照组;三组新生儿均于出生后第3天行24 h动态心电图检查,并分析其HRV变化。结果 B组较对照组及A组HRV时域指标PNN50、rMSSD、SDSD降低,SDNN、SDANN升高,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论新生儿窒息损伤自主神经功能,5 min Apgar评分联合HRV时域参数可作为重度窒息新生儿自主神经功能损伤及预后的无创判断指标。%Objective To explore the relationship between 5-minute Apgar score and heart rate variability (HRV) in severely asphyxiated neonates. Methods A total of 103 severely asphyxiated neonates with 1-minute Apgar score of 0 to 3 points were selected. They were divided into Group A (>7 points, n=50) and Group B (≤7 points, n=53) based on 5-minute Apgar score. Meanwhile, 40 full-term neonates with 1-and 5-minute Apgar score greater than 7 points were selected as control group. 24-hour dynamic electrocardiogram was performed and HRV was analyzed on the third day after birth in three groups. Results PNN50, rMSSD, SDSD were decreased and SDNN, SDANN were increased in group B as compared with group A and control group (P0.05). Conclusions Neonatal asphyxia can cause damage to autonomic nervous system. 5-minute Apgar score and HRV can be joint-ly used as a non-invasive index in autonomic nervous damage and its prognosis in asphyxiated newborns.

  12. Pathological gambling and age: differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ibáñez, A; Mora, M; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ariza, A; Lourido-Ferreira, M R

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment in pathological gambling according to age. The sample, comprising 67 participants, was divided into three groups: 32.6% with ages ranging between 17 and 26 years, 31.3% between 27 and 43 years, and 35.8% over 44 years of age. The participants were administered the following tests, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI; Hathaway, S.R. & McKinley, J.C. (1943, 1961). Cuestionario de personalidad MMPI. Madrid Seccion de Estudios de TEA ed. 1970, 1975], sensation-seeking questionnaire [SSS; Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking; beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates], and the Symptom Check List Revised [SCL-90-R; Derogatis, L.R. (1977). Symptom check list-90 revised. Administration scoring and procedures manual. Baltimore]. All underwent a group treatment programme that was carried out in the Pathological Gambling Unit at Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge (CSUB), Teaching hospital, Barcelona, Spain. The findings show differences depending on age in the participants' personality and in psychopathology and in their response to treatment.

  13. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

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    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  14. The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of Psychiatric Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J.; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Meier, Madeline H.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Shalev, Idan; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders traditionally have been viewed as distinct, episodic, and categorical conditions. This view has been challenged by evidence that many disorders are sequentially comorbid, recurrent/chronic, and exist on a continuum. Using the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, we examined the structure of psychopathology, taking into account dimensionality, persistence, co-occurrence, and sequential comorbidity of mental disorders across 20 years, from adolescence to midlife. Psychiatric disorders were initially explained by three higher-order factors (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Disorder) but explained even better with one General Psychopathology dimension. We have called this dimension the p factor because it conceptually parallels a familiar dimension in psychological science: the g factor of general intelligence. Higher p scores are associated with more life impairment, greater familiality, worse developmental histories, and more compromised early-life brain function. The p factor explains why it is challenging to find causes, consequences, biomarkers, and treatments with specificity to individual mental disorders. Transdiagnostic approaches may improve research. PMID:25360393

  15. White matter integrity, creativity, and psychopathology: disentangling constructs with diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available That creativity and psychopathology are somehow linked remains a popular but controversial idea in neuroscience research. Brain regions implicated in both psychosis-proneness and creative cognition include frontal projection zones and association fibers. In normal subjects, we have previously demonstrated that a composite measure of divergent thinking (DT ability exhibited significant inverse relationships in frontal lobe areas with both cortical thickness and metabolite concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA. These findings support the idea that creativity may reside upon a continuum with psychopathology. Here we examine whether white matter integrity, assessed by Fractional Anisotropy (FA, is related to two measures of creativity (Divergent Thinking and Openness to Experience. Based on previous findings, we hypothesize inverse correlations within fronto-striatal circuits. Seventy-two healthy, young adult (18-29 years subjects were scanned on a 3 Tesla scanner with Diffusion Tensor Imaging. DT measures were scored by four raters (alpha = .81 using the Consensual Assessment Technique, from which a composite creativity index (CCI was derived. We found that the CCI was significantly inversely related to FA within the left inferior frontal white matter (t = 5.36, p = .01, and Openness was inversely related to FA within the right inferior frontal white matter (t = 4.61, p = .04. These findings demonstrate an apparent overlap in specific white matter architecture underlying the normal variance of divergent thinking, openness, and psychotic-spectrum traits, consistent with the idea of a continuum.

  16. [Addictive, criminal and psychopathological profile of a sample of women in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrá Lanza, Patricia; González Menéndez, Ana; Fernández García, Paula; Casares, Ma José; Martín Martín, José Luis; Rodríguez Lamelas, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the addictive, criminal and psychopathological profile of a sample of 59 women incarcerated in the Villabona prison in Asturias (a region in northern Spain). The instruments administered were the EuropASI, the SCL-90-R and a semi-structured interview. Results showed that the profile is a young, single women with family dependents serving an average of 5 years' imprisonment. Of the total sample, 64.4% met criteria for a substance abuse disorder. We found a statistically significant relationship between the variables use-nonuse and type of crime: women who used substances had committed the most crimes against property and against the socioeconomic order. As regards psychopathology, 44.06% of the sample fulfilled the requirements for clinical case according to Derogatis' (1994) criteria. The results of the SCL-90-R showed that the predominant psychological disorders were, in the following order, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder and paranoid ideation. Moreover, in the group of female users, 47.4% had dual pathology. Our results revealed a statistically significant relationship between clinical case and substance use. Finally, statistically significant differences were found between the user and nonuser groups in the EuropASI severity profile. Highest scores were found for the medical, psychiatric and family areas in the user group.

  17. The guiltless guilty: trauma-related guilt and psychopathology in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Reissmann, Sina; Voss, Catharina; Okello, James

    2015-04-01

    Child soldiers often experience complex trauma as victims and perpetrators, and feelings of guilt may affect their psychological health. The relationship between the children's traumatic experiences as victims or perpetrators, their perception of themselves as victim or perpetrator, guilt and psychopathology were investigated: of the 330 former child soldiers interviewed, 50.8 % perceived themselves as victims and 19.1 % as perpetrators. On psychopathology measures, scores within the clinical range were 33 % for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 36.4 % for major depressive disorder (MDD), and 26.1 % for externalizing problems. Low socio-economic status, traumatic experience as perpetrator, and guilt were significant predictors of PTSD. Significant predictors of MDD were low socio-economic status, traumatic experiences as victim, and guilt. A greater number of traumatic experiences as perpetrator and guilt were associated with externalizing problems. The current paper underscores the significance of guilt following traumatic experiences and has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children.

  18. Attachment styles and psychopathology among adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-04-16

    The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children - present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (padolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (padolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles.

  19. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  20. Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    Research in the field of pediatric sleep has grown significantly in the past 25 years. However, because much remains to be learned about the complex and dynamic relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology was created to provide an influx of cutting-edge research on this important topic. This introduction provides an overview of the special issue, with articles focusing on what different measurement approaches tells us about the intersection of sleep and developmental psychopathology; the overlap between interventions for sleep and anxiety; sleep as a potential mechanism for the development of social, emotional, and behavioral problems; and how population-based studies can be used to consider the interaction between sleep, well-being, and symptoms of psychopathology.

  1. The Effects of Testing Circumstance and Education Level on MMPI-2 Correction Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Report The Effects of Testing Circumstance and Education Level on MMPI - 2 Correction Scale Scores DOT/FAA/AM-10/3 Office of Aerospace Medicine Washington...Education Level on MMPI - 2 Correction Scale Scores 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No...Inventory- 2 ( MMPI - 2 ) is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to assess psychopathology in air traffic control specialist applicants after a

  2. Analysis of scores of Hamilton depression rating scale in patients with myasthenia gravis%重症肌无力患者汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马姗; 赵代弟; 李柱一; 范玲玲; 杨永祥; 闫忠军; 张慜; 王钧刚; 王圣元; 李川; 郭鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the scores of Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG ) and the related influencing factors. Methods A cross‐sectional study of the clinical data and HDRS score was carried out in 188 MG patients who were admitted to Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University from July 2013 to March 2015. All the recruited patients were classified into the with depression group and the without depression group according to the HDRS score. The judge criterion of depression was as follow :HDRS scores of patients without depression were 0‐9 and patients with depression were above 9. The clinical features of the two groups and their relation with HDRS scores were analyzed. Results Among those MG patients , the male to female ratio was 1.02 ∶ 1. The ratio of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) was 1.2 ∶ 1.The ratio of patients with onset symptom of OMG to patients with onset symptom of GMG was 6.2 ∶ 1. The median disease course was 2 years and the interquartile range was 1.8 years. The average quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score was 6.7 ± 2.3 and the average HDRS score was 8.7 ± 3.4.One hundred and twenty‐three MG patients were not complicated with depression ,while 65 cases were complicated with depression.Factors correlated with HDRS score and depression state included gender (P<0.01) ,clinical type of MG (P<0.01) ,QMG score (P<0.01) ,myasthenia gravis foundation of America (MGFA ) classification ( P< 0.01 ) , with or without hyperthyreosis ( P< 0.05 ). Conclusions Factors correlated with HDRS score and depression state include gender , clinical type of MG , QMG score and MGFA classification , sufficient understanding of the depression state in MG patients might be helpful for better treatment.%目的:探讨重症肌无力(myasthenia gravis ,MG)患者汉密尔顿抑郁量表(Hamilton depression rating scale ,HDRS)评分情况及其影响

  3. Extending the Use of the SCORS-G Composite Ratings in Assessing Level of Personality Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michelle B; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Chung, Wei-Jean; Roche, Michael; Denckla, Christy; Blais, Mark A

    2016-07-08

    The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G; Stein, Hilsenroth, Slavin-Mulford, & Pinsker, 2011 ; Westen, 1995b ) reliably measures the quality of object relations in narrative material. It assesses 8 dimensions (on a continuum from maladaptive to adaptive) that mediate interpersonal functioning. The 8 dimensions can be averaged to create a global or composite score to represent a person's overall object relational functioning. This study aimed to create levels of personality organization using the SCORS-G global score ratings of Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) narratives and to explore the construct validity of these levels using a multimethod approach (i.e., psychopathology, normal personality, and life-event data). Meaningful relationships were found between the SCORS-G level of personality organization and aspects of psychopathology (Personality Assessment Inventory; Morey, 1991 ), regulation and control (NEO Five-Factor Inventory; Costa & McCrae, 1989, 1992b ), and number of psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide attempts, and educational level. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential value of creating levels of personality organization (LPO) using the SCORS-G composite or global ratings as a supplement to the psychological assessment process and further highlights the utility of this measure in the field of personality assessment. Clinical and research-related implications as well as limitations are discussed.

  4. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting : Criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and v

  5. Concepts of Causality in Psychopathology: Applications in Clinical Assessment, Clinical Case Formulation and Functional Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haynes, S.H.; O'Brien, W.H.; Kaholokula, J.K.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses and integrates concepts of causality in psychopathology, clinical assessment, clinical case formulation and the functional analysis. We propose that identifying causal variables, relations and mechanisms in psychopathology and clinical assessment can lead to more powerful and e

  6. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and psychopathology among Nigerian university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olawale, Kamildeen Oladimeji; Mume, Celestine Okorome; Osundina, Adeagbo Funminiyi

    2011-01-01

    ...). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an interrelationship between sleep duration, EDS and psychopathology...

  7. Implicit Theories Relate to Youth Psychopathology, But How? A Longitudinal Test of Two Predictive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R

    2016-08-01

    Research shows relations between entity theories-i.e., beliefs that traits and abilities are unchangeable-and youth psychopathology. A common interpretation has been that entity theories lead to psychopathology, but another possibility is that psychopathology predicts entity theories. The two models carry different implications for developmental psychopathology and intervention design. We tested each model's plausibility, examining longitudinal associations between entity theories of thoughts, feelings, and behavior and psychopathology in early adolescents across one school year (N = 59, 52 % female, ages 11-14, 0 % attrition). Baseline entity theories did not predict increases in psychopathology; instead, baseline psychopathology predicted increased entity theories over time. When symptom clusters were assessed individually, greater youth internalizing (but not externalizing) problems predicted subsequent increases in entity theories. Findings suggest that the commonly proposed predictive model may not be the only one warranting attention. They suggest that youth psychopathology may contribute to the development of certain kinds of entity theories.

  8. Like mother, like child? : Intergenerational transmission of psychopathology; a focus on genes and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M. Cents (Rolieke)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background and aim:__ Psychopathology often recurs in the same families over the course of multiple generations. Only a clear understanding of the processes underlying the transmission of psychopathology will help the formulation of effective prevention and intervention programs

  9. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  10. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theme of a statement is called "lie motif" by the authors when schizophrenic patients say "I have lied to anybody". We tried to analyse of the psychopathological characteristics and anthropological meanings of the lie motifs in schizophrenia, which has not been thematically examined until now, based on 4 cases, and contrasting with the lie motif (Lügenmotiv) in depression taken up by A. Kraus (1989). We classified the lie motifs in schizophrenia into the following two types: a) the past directive lie motif: the patients speak about their real lie regarding it as a 'petty fault' in their distant past with self-guilty feeling, b) the present directive lie motif: the patients say repeatedly 'I have lied' (about their present speech and behavior), retreating from their previous commitments. The observed false confessions of innocent fault by the patients seem to belong to the present directed lie motif. In comparison with the lie motif in depression, it is characteristic for the lie motif in schizophrenia that the patients feel themselves to already have been caught out by others before they confess the lie. The lie motif in schizophrenia seems to come into being through the attribution process of taking the others' blame on ones' own shoulders, which has been pointed out to be common in the guilt experience in schizophrenia. The others' blame on this occasion is due to "the others' gaze" in the experience of the initial self-centralization (i.e. non delusional self-referential experience) in the early stage of schizophrenia (S. Kato 1999). The others' gaze is supposed to bring about the feeling of amorphous self-revelation which could also be regarded as the guilt feeling without content, to the patients. When the guilt feeling is bound with a past concrete fault, the patients tell the past directive lie motif. On the other hand, when the patients cannot find a past fixed content, and feel their present actions as uncertain and experience them as lies, the

  11. Evaluating item endorsement rates for the MMPI-2-RF F-r and Fp-r scales across ethnic, gender, and diagnostic groups with a forensic inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Jhawar, Amandeep; Burchett, Danielle; Tarescavage, Anthony M

    2017-05-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) F(p) (Infrequency-Psychopathology) scale was developed to measure overreporting in a manner that was minimally confounded by genuine psychopathology, which was a problem with using the MMPI-2 F (Infrequency) scale among patients with severe mental illness. Although revised versions of both of these scales are included on the MMPI-2-Restructured Form and used in a forensic context, no item-level research has been conducted on their sensitivity to genuine psychopathology among forensic psychiatric inpatients. Therefore, we examined the psychometric properties of the scales in a sample of 438 criminally committed forensic psychiatric inpatients who were adjudicated as not guilty by reason of insanity and had no known incentive to overreport. We found that 20 of the 21 Fp-r items (95.2%) demonstrated endorsement rates ≤ 20%, with 14 of the items (66.7%) endorsed by less than 10% of the sample. Similar findings were observed across genders and across patients with mood and psychotic disorders. The one item endorsed by more than 20% of the sample had a 23.7% overall endorsement rate and significantly different endorsement rates across ethnic groups, with the highest endorsements occurring among Hispanic/Latino (43.3% endorsement rate) patients. Endorsement rates of F-r items were generally higher than for Fp-r items. At the scale level, we also examined correlations with the Restructured Clinical Scales and found that Fp-r demonstrated lower correlations than F-r, indicating that Fp-r is less associated with a broad range of psychopathology. Finally, we found that Fp-r demonstrated slightly higher specificity values than F-r at all T score cutoffs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Test Scoring [book review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses how to obtain test scores and, in particular, how to obtain test scores from tests that consist of a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The strength of the book is that scoring solutions are presented for a diversity of real world scoring problems. (SLD)

  13. The relationship between the genetic and environmental influences on common externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.

  14. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  15. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  16. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  17. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  18. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  19. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  20. Relationship of family caregiver burden with quality of care and psychopathology in a sample of Arab subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Muhammad A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the burden experienced by families of people with schizophrenia has long been recognized as one of the most important consequences of the disorder, there are no reports from the Arab world. Following the example of the five - nation European (EPSILON study, we explored the following research question: How does the relationship between domains of caregiving (as in the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire - IEQ-EU and caregiver psychic distress on the one hand, and caregiver's/patient's socio-demographics, clinical features and indices of quality of care, on the other hand, compare with the pattern in the literature? Method Consecutive family caregivers of outpatients with schizophrenia were interviewed with the IEQ-EU. Patients were interviewed with measures of needs for care, service satisfaction, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology. Results There were 121 caregivers (66.1% men, aged 39.8. The IEQ domain scores (total: 46.9; tension: 13.4; supervision: 7.9; worrying: 12.9; and urging: 16.4 were in the middle of the range for the EU data. In regression analyses, higher burden subscale scores were variously associated with caregiver lower level of education, patient's female gender and younger age, as well as patient's lower subjective QOL and needs for hospital care, and not involving the patient in outdoor activities. Disruptive behavior was the greatest determinant of global rating of burden. Conclusion Our results indicate that, despite differences in service set-up and culture, the IEQ-EU can be used in Kuwait as it has been used in the western world, to describe the pattern of scores on the dimensions of caregiving. Differences with the international data reflect peculiarities of culture and type of service. Despite generous national social welfare provisions, experience of burden was the norm and was significantly associated with patient's disruptive behavior. The results underscore the need for provision

  1. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with SYNTAX score in old patients with coronary heart disease%老年冠心病患者估计肾小球滤过率与SYNTAX积分的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞鑫; 孙宇姣; 齐国先

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on creatinine and cystatin C and the SYNTAX score in old patients with coronary heart disease. Methods Two hundred and fifty-six consecutive old patients with coronary heart disease were included in this study. The patients were angiographically diagnosed with coronary heart disease between January 2013 and April 2014 at the Department of Cardiology.eGFR was caculated by using BIS2 equation based on creatinine and cystatin C.SYNTAX score was caculated by SYNTAX score algorithm. Multiple linear regression and ordinal logsitic regreesion was used to analyze the association between eGFR and SYNTAX score. Results In patients with normal of renal function [eGFR≥90 ml/(min·1.73 m2), 110 patients], mild renal insufficiency [60 ml/(min · 1.73 m2) ≤ eGFR<90 ml/(min · 1.73 m2), 98 patients], midrange and severe renal insufficiency[eGFR<60 ml/(min · 1.73 m2), 48 patients], with the decrease in renal function of patients, SYNTAX score increased: (15.42 ± 9.65), (25.24 ± 8.34), (33.73 ± 10.15) scores, P<0.01. eGFR was an independent predictor of SYNTAX score (r=-0.059, P<0.01).eGFR was negatively correlated with SYNTAX score (r=-0.457, P<0.01). Conclusions eGFR is an independent predictor of SYNTAX score and negatively correlated with SYNTAX score in old patients with coronary heart disease. This might be helpful to explain the increased risk of coronary heart disease events and mortality in old patients with renal dysfunction.%目的:探讨在老年冠心病患者中由血清胱抑素C联合血肌酐计算的估计肾小球滤过率(eGFR)与SYNTAX积分的关系。方法连续选取行冠状动脉造影检查的老年冠心病患者256例,通过以血清肌酐和胱抑素C为基础的BIS-2方程计算eGFR,并计算SYNTAX积分。应用多元线性回归分析各临床资料与SYNTAX积分之间的关联,应用有序的Logistic回

  2. Homer-1 polymorphisms are associated with psychopathology and response to treatment in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellmann, Ilja; Rujescu, Dan; Musil, Richard; Mayr, Andreas; Giegling, Ina; Genius, Just; Zill, Peter; Dehning, Sandra; Opgen-Rhein, Markus; Cerovecki, Anja; Hartmann, Annette M; Schäfer, Martin; Bondy, Brigitta; Müller, Norbert; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Riedel, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The HOMER 1 protein plays a crucial role in mediating glutamatergic neurotransmission. It has previously shown to be a candidate gene for etiology and pathophysiology of different psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, subgroups of animals were treated with haloperidol (1 mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we replicated the observed increase of Homer 1 gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 267 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNP's. We found an association between two HOMER 1 polymorphisms (rs2290639 and rs4704560) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore all seven investigated polymorphisms were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Most significant associations have been shown between the rs2290639 HOMER 1 polymorphism and PANSS subscales both at baseline conditions and after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. This is the first study which shows an association between HOMER 1 polymorphisms and psychopathology data at baseline and therapy response in a clinical sample of schizophrenic patients. Thus, these data might further help in detecting differential therapy response in individuals with schizophrenia.

  3. Self-centrality, basic symptoms model and psychopathology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The study's aim was to empirically derive the psychopathological constellation associated with self-centrality (i.e. non-delusional self-referential attitude) by seeking an interpretation in the light of the 'Basic Symptoms Model' of schizophrenic psychopathology. Eighty-four patients with an established schizophrenic illness receiving maintenance treatment at the Psychiatry Section of the Parma University Neuroscience Department were examined. The Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were administered to all subjects to determine levels of positive, disorganized, negative and depressive symptoms, as well as alexithymia. Subjective experiences, including non-delusional self-centrality, were explored by means of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. Logistic regression detected three different psychopathological domains (delusional, alexithymic, and basic body symptoms) strongly associated with self-centrality. Among these the most influential independent variable was basic body symptoms. These results suggest that impaired lived body experience (i.e. protopathic body disattunement) is a psychopathologic condition concomitant with the emergence of autocentric polarization of experience (i.e. self-centrality).

  4. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work.

  5. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed.

  6. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  7. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  8. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  9. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  10. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  11. Effects of community stress and problems on residents' psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Jie

    2014-02-28

    The connection between community stress and problems and community residents' psychopathology is an understudied area, and a limited number of studies have reported inconsistent findings. This research aimed to estimate the effect of perceived social factors in the community environment on the residents' self-reported psychopathology. The study sample consisted of 2034 men and women from 16 selected rural counties in three provinces of China. The social factors in the village community were measured by the World Health Organization Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behaviors (WHO SUPRE-MISS) scale of Community Stress and Problems. The sychological and mental health of the individuals was assessed by (1) suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts (National Comorbidity Survey Replication or NCS-R), (2) pro-suicide attitudes (General Social Survey or GSS), (3) depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale or CES-D) and (4) suicide ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation or SSI). Multiple regressions were performed separately for each of the four psychopathologic traits with the scale of Community Stress and Problems as the major predicting variable and age, gender, education years, marital status, family annual income, family status in village and religion as the confounding correlates. It is found that community stress and problems generally increase rural Chinese residents' psychopathologies, especially issues in health care, housing and transportation, which play more important roles than others. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  13. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  14. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  15. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

  16. A skin-picking disorder case report: a psychopathological explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.

  17. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  18. Preadolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology : a developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mesman (Judi)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the field of child psychopathology research, a growing number of longitudinal studies have investigated early developmental precursors of maladaptive outcomes (see for reviews: Campbell, 1995; Koot, 1995; Sameroff and Seifer, 1990). The multitude of theoretical assumptions and related

  19. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  20. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  1. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  2. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  3. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of pravastatin as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia patients: effect on inflammation, psychopathology, cognition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Brenda; Stock, Shannon; Borba, Christina P C; Cleary, Sarah M; Oppenheim, Claire E; Petruzzi, Liana J; Fan, Xiaoduo; Copeland, Paul M; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corinne; Henderson, David C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pravastatin, as an adjunctive therapy, on inflammatory markers, lipid and glucose metabolism, psychopathology, and cognition in subjects with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia or schizoaffective subjects (N=60) were randomized to receive either a 12-week supply of pravastatin 40 mg/day or placebo treatment. Anthropometric measures, lipids and glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, psychopathology and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Pravastatin use was associated with a significant decrease in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and LDL particle number levels, but was not associated with any significant changes in cognition or psychopathology in the participants, except a significant decrease in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive symptom score from baseline to week 6. However, this decrease failed to remain significant at 12 weeks. Interestingly, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL particle number, small LDL particle number, large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle number and C-reactive protein (CRP) followed a similar pattern at 6 and 12 weeks as psychopathology. These results suggest that a randomized trial with a larger sample size and a higher dosage of pravastatin would be helpful in further evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of pravastatin, its association with improvements in cognitive symptoms, and its potential to reduce positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychopathological features during childhood and adolescence among adult bipolar patients: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Gurnell, Kathy; Ezeobele, Ify; Blake, Jena; Gerondale, Tiffany; Sanches, Marsal; Averill, Patricia M; Soares, Jair C

    2014-04-01

    There are still several concerns regarding the inconsistency in the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in children and adolescents. This study reviews the symptoms of youth admitted to The University of Texas Harris County Psychiatric Center (UT-HCPC) prior to a confirmed diagnosis of BD to elucidate patterns and target symptoms which may facilitate early recognition of BD. This is a retrospective review of charts of adult patients with a discharge diagnosis of BD for three consecutive admissions who were also admitted to UT-HCPC as children or adolescents (N=26). The Kiddie SADS was completed based on each patient's first admission as a child and last admission as an adult. Most of the symptoms found in adult BD were present in the child/adolescent subjects at equivalent rates, except for mood elevation, which was less common during childhood and adolescence. In spite of the psychopathological similarity, only 6 (23%) of the subjects were diagnosed with BD as youth. BD is poorly diagnosed among children and adolescents. Difficulties in the assessment of the youth, as well as particularities in the psychopathology of mood among children and adolescents may account for the low diagnostic rate. © 2014.

  5. A post-earthquake psychopathological investigation in Armenia: methodology, summary of findings, and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachadourian, Vahe; Armenian, Haroutune; Demirchyan, Anahit; Melkonian, Arthur; Hovanesian, Ashot

    2016-07-01

    The post-earthquake psychopathological investigation (PEPSI) was designed to probe the short-and long-term effects of the earthquake in northern Armenia on 7 December 1988 on survivors' mental and physical health. Four phases of this study have been conducted to date, and, overall, more than 80 per cent of a sub-sample of 1,773 drawn from an initial cohort of 32,743 was successfully followed during 2012. This paper describes the methodology employed in the evaluation, summarises previous findings, details the current objectives, and examines the general characteristics of the sample based on the most recent follow-up phase outcomes. Despite a significant decrease in psychopathology rates between 1990 and 2012, prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among study participants in 2012 were greater than 15 and 26 per cent, respectively. The paper also notes the strengths and limitations of the study vis-à-vis future research and highlights the importance and potential practical implications of similar assessments and their outcomes.

  6. Self-Concept and Psychopathology in Deaf Adolescents: Preliminary Support for Moderating Effects of Deafness-Related Characteristics and Peer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: High rates of psychopathology were found amongst deaf adolescents, but little is known about the psychosocial risk factors. This study investigated whether (1) less severe deafness and/or acquired or otherwise complicated deafness, and (2) having mainly contacts with hearing people, each represent chronic stressful conditions that…

  7. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Koh, Yun-Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young-Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun-Chung; Park, Jee In

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Materials and Methods Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6–12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Results Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. Conclusion K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created. PMID:28120577

  8. The symptoms and functioning severity scale (SFSS): psychometric evaluation and discrepancies among youth, caregiver, and clinician ratings over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, M Michele; Riemer, Manuel; Bickman, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the symptoms and functioning severity scale (SFSS), which includes three parallel forms to systematically capture clinician, youth, and caregiver perspectives of youth symptoms on a frequent basis. While there is widespread consensus that different raters of youth psychopathology vary significantly in their assessment, this is the first paper that specifically investigated the discrepancies among clinician, youth, and caregiver ratings throughout the treatment process within a community mental health setting. Results for all three respondent versions indicated the SFSS is a psychometrically sound instrument for use in this population. Significant discrepancies in scores existed at baseline among the three respondents. Longitudinal analyses reveal the youth-clinician and caregiver-clinician score discrepancies decreased significantly over time. Differences by youth gender existed for caregiver-clinician discrepancies. The average youth-caregiver score discrepancy remained consistent throughout treatment. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  9. Impact of using DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing binge eating disorder in bariatric surgery candidates: change in prevalence rate, demographic characteristics, and scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was recently included in the DSM-5. The prevalence rate for BED using the DSM-IV-TR research criteria tends to be higher in bariatric surgery candidates than the normative population; however, no studies have examined how many more bariatric surgery candidates will meet the new, less conservative criteria of DSM-5. We explore the current BED prevalence rate change in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Data were obtained for 1,283 bariatric surgery candidates. 84 men and 213 women were diagnosed with current BED using DSM-IV-TR research criteria. A semi-structured interview, the binge eating scale (BES), and a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) were given to every patient as part of standard procedures mandated by the facility. An additional 3.43% (p < .001) of bariatric surgery candidates met the diagnostic threshold for BED when using DSM-5 criteria. These individuals were demographical similar and produced similar MMPI-2-RF and BES scores when compared with patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Thus, the current investigation indicates that individuals meeting BED criteria based on DSM-5 are similar to those meeting the more conservative diagnostic threshold outlined in DSM-IV-TR in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone. To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between the individual development of the child and demands and expectations in the specific relations and institutions in which the child participates. This incongruence creates and strengthens negative factors for the child with disability and results in a higher risk of psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability....... To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between...

  12. Subgroup Balancing Propensity Score

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, JING; Zhang, Junni L; Li, Fan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the estimation of subgroup treatment effects with observational data. Existing propensity score matching and weighting methods are mostly developed for estimating overall treatment effect. Although the true propensity score should balance covariates for the subgroup populations, the estimated propensity score may not balance covariates for the subgroup samples. We propose the subgroup balancing propensity score (SBPS) method, which selects, for each subgroup, to use either the ...

  13. Impact of intravascular enhancement, heart rate, and calcium score on diagnostic accuracy in multislice Computed Tomography coronary angiography; Influenza di attenuazione vascolare, frequenza cardiaca e calcium score sull'accuratezza diagnostica in angiografia coronarica non invasiva mediante Tomografia Computerizzata multistrato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Mollet, Nico R.; Kriestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dipartimento di radiologia; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Galia, Massimo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). DIBIMEL, Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Belgrano, Manuel; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Ospedale di Cattinara, Istituto di radiologia

    2005-07-15

    Purpose. To assess the effect of intravascular enhancement, heart rate, and calcium score on diagnostic accuracy in the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis using 16-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Materials and methods. One hundred patients (88 males; 59{+-}11 years) with suspected coronary artery disease who had undergone conventional coronary angiography (CA) and MSCT-CA were retrospectively enrolled for the study. Patients underwent a MSCT-CA, with the following protocol: collimation 16x0.75 mm, gantry rotation time 420 ms, feed/rotation 2.8 mm, kV 120, mAs 400-500. The protocol for contrast material administration was 100 ml of Iodixanol 320 mgI/nl at 4 ml/s and the scan delay was defined with a bolus tracking technique. In all patients vascular enhancement was measured in the aortic root, and the left and the right coronary arteries. The average enhancement was used to divide the population in two groups of 50 patients each, one with lower enhancement (Low), and one with higher enhancement (High). In the two groups diagnostic accuracy (per coronary segment) for the detection of significant stenosis ({>=}50% lumen reduction) was evaluated in vessels {>=}2mm in diameter using quantitative CA as the reference standard. The differences in diagnostic accuracy were compared with a Chi-square test and a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the total 1116 segments ({>=}2 mm lumen diameter), 173 presented significant stenosis. The sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of significant stenosis were 89.4% and 93.3% vs 94.3% and 97.4% in the presence of increasing intravascular enhancement, 92.8% and 96.7% vs 91.1% and 93.9% in the presence of increasing heart rate, and 89.7% and 97.6% vs 93.3% and 92.8% in the presence of increasing calcium score. Conclusions. Increasing intravascular enhancement significantly improves diagnostic accuracy in MSCT-CA. A higher heart rate lowers the specificity in the detection of significant

  14. The Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  15. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in Hopelessness Theory, Beck’s Theory, and Response Styles Theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Method Male and female, Caucasian and African-American, 12–13 year old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Results Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Conclusions Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals’ presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated. PMID:22853629

  16. Substance use or abuse, internet use, psychopathology and suicidal ideation in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousoño Serrano, Matilde; Al-Halabí, Susana; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Díaz-Mesa, Eva María; Galván, Gonzalo; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Bousoño, Manuel; García-Portilla, María Paz; Iglesias, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio

    2017-01-12

    Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women). This study adds to the possibility of knowing whether the SEYLE data is confirmed in a relatively isolated and recession hit province of Spain. In the present study the following consumption rates were obtained: a) alcohol 11.89% in males and 7.86% in females; b) tobacco: 4.15% and 5.44 % in males and females respectively; c) other drugs: 6.98% in males and 4.44% in females; d) maladaptive or pathological Internet use: 14.53% and 20.77% in males and females respectively. The variables that predict suicide ideation in the logistic regression model were: previous suicide attempts, depression, maladaptive or pathological Internet use, peer problems and alcohol consumption.

  17. Influence of age, body weight and body condition score before mating start date on the pubertal rate of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers and implications for subsequent cow performance and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H; Shalloo, L; Kennedy, E; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein-Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (≤ 2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ≥ 3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P economic analysis undertaken indicated that larger, well-grown heifers will be more profitable because of superior production potential, all else being equal. However, because of the finding of poorer reproductive efficiency in heifers grown to more than 343 kg at MSD, heifers at ∼330 kg at MSD are deemed optimal. This will correspond to mature cow BW of ∼550 kg.

  18. THE INTERNET ADDICTION OF PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OFCRANIOCEREBRAL INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Voloshyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kharkov Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital № 3 examined 100 male patients aged 38,35±0,96 years, with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral injury (TBI. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male volunteers aged 36,97±1,73 years. The frequency of different degrees of Internet use was assessed by using AUDIT-like test INTERNET-UDIT (Internet Use Disorders Identification Test and calculation of addictive potential in groups. In patients with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral trauma, despite the high prevalence of lack of experience “usage” of the Internet, high degrees of addiction and dependence were reported. The addictive potential of the Internet addiction in the study group exceeded 32% of that of the control group.

  19. Can masturbatory guilt lead to severe psychopathology: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender Aneja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder.

  20. The sensitivity theory of motivation: implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, S; Havercamp, S

    1996-08-01

    Sensitivity theory holds that people differ in both the types of reinforcement they desire and in the amounts of reinforcement they need to satiate. People who crave too much love, too much attention, too much acceptance, too much companionship, or too much of some other fundamental reinforcer are at risk for aberrant behavior because normative behavior does not produce the desired amounts of reinforcement. People who are intolerant of even everyday amounts of anxiety or frustration also are at risk for aberrant behavior. Individual differences in desired amounts of particular reinforcers may predict person-environment interactions, risk factors for psychopathology, and the occurrence of generalized and durable therapy effects versus the occurrence of relapses. Parallel predictions are made for individual differences in tolerance of aversive stimuli. Implications are discussed for applied behavior analysis, the development of psychopathology, and treatment strategies.