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Sample records for psychomotor activity effects

  1. Psychomotor activities with seniors

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    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  2. Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on psychomotor performance in children with HIV disease

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    S. Koekkoek; L. Eggermont; L. de Sonneville; T. Jupimai; S. Wicharuk; W. Apateerapong; T. Chuenyam; J. Lange; F. Wit; C. Pancharoen; P. Phanuphak; J. Ananworanich

    2006-01-01

    Objective This study assesses the effects of HAART on psychomotor performance of symptomatic HIV-infected children. It is one of the first studies to look at neurobehavioral functioning in children infected with HIV in resource-limited countries. Design A longitudinal pilot study of vertically HIV-i

  3. The Effects of Ghrelin on Energy Balance and Psychomotor Activity in a Goldfish Model: An Overview

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    Ki Sung Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goldfish (Carassius auratus has a number of merits as a laboratory animal, and we have extensively identified the mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates food intake in this species. For the first time, we have purified and characterized 11 molecular variants of ghrelin that are present in goldfish intestine and shown that 17-residue ghrelin, the predominant form with n-octanoyl modification, is biologically active and implicated in the regulation of food intake as an endogenous orexigenic factor. Ghrelin and its receptor system are present not only in peripheral tissues such as stomach and intestine, but also in the central nervous system. Recent studies have also revealed that a number of neuropeptides are widely distributed in the brain in key areas of emotional regulation, and their role as modulators of behavioral states is being increasingly recognized. Interestingly, administration of ghrelin induces an orexigenic effect and also modifies locomotor activity, suggesting the involvement of ghrelin in feeding control and regulation of energy balance. Information derived from studies of ghrelin has been increasing, and important results have been obtained from both fish and mammals. Here, we present an overview of the effects of ghrelin on energy balance and psychomotor activity in the goldfish as an animal model. The available data provide an insight into evolutionary background of ghrelin's multiple actions on energy homeostasis in vertebrates.

  4. Differentiating challenge reactivity from psychomotor activity in studies of children's psychophysiology: considerations for theory and measurement.

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    Bush, Nicole R; Alkon, Abbey; Obradović, Jelena; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Current methods of assessing children's physiological "stress reactivity" may be confounded by psychomotor activity, biasing estimates of the relation between reactivity and health. We examined the joint and independent contributions of psychomotor activity and challenge reactivity during a protocol for 5- and 6-year-old children (N = 338). Measures of parasympathetic reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and sympathetic reactivity (preejection period [PEP]) were calculated for social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenge tasks. Reactivity was calculated relative to both resting and a paired comparison task that accounted for psychomotor activity effects during each challenge. Results indicated that comparison tasks themselves elicited RSA and PEP responses, and reactivity adjusted for psychomotor activity was incongruent with reactivity calculated using rest. Findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for confounding psychomotor activity effects on physiological reactivity.

  5. Psychomotor activities in the context of kinanthropology: Review

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    Běla Hátlová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Any scholar developing a therapeutic method shall be concerned with its historical and theoretical groundings, scientifically verifiedfacts, and information from professional publications. As a result of that, one is qualifi ed to discuss relevancy of the method.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to highlight the ideas that the current psychomotoricity draws.METHODS: We assume that psychomotor activity is based on natural cognitive and social movement behavior. In its essence, the inherited principles that develop throughout life. Development is strengthened primarily by personal experiences with positive and negative feedback of social relations. The foundations of psychomotr activity developed upon scientific knowledge stem from the needs of psychosomatic rehabilitation. The term gradually came to be used for movement therapies and movement education. This study mentions the scientific orientations and the authors who most influenced the development of psychomotor skills used for personal development.CONCLUSION: Psychomotor activities are developed from two basic areas of operation. Psychomotor development as a pedagogical direction linking the physical and mental is used in the teaching process with an eff ort by moving positively with an influence from the human psyche. By monitoring the simple actions there is stimulated the physical and psychical development. Psychomotor development and sports therapy inherently encourages the patient to actively participate in therapy. Physical activity is one of supporting policies which affect the psychical „negative“ symptoms and may enhance the patient’s resistance to daily stress.

  6. EFFECT OF MOTIVATON AND CREATIVITY ON STUDENTS’ PSYCHOMOTOR ABILITY

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    Muhamad Arpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine: (1 the effect of motivation on students’ psychomotor ability; (2 the effect of creativity on students’ psychomotor ability; (3 the effect of motivation and creativity as in aggregate on students’ psychomotor ability; and (4 the contribution of motivation and creativity on students’ psychomotor ability in the subject of Web Programming. This research is an ex-post facto type. The population was sixth semester students of TIK Education Research Program of PGRI Pontianak totaling 217 students. The sample was 135 students with proportional random sampling techniques that determined by the Issac and Michael table. Data collection using a questionnaire. The data was analyzed using regression analysis to test the hypotheses. The results showed that: (1 motivation has a positive and significant effect on students’ psychomotor Ability; (2 creativity has a positive and significant effect on students’ psychomotor Ability; (3 motivation and creativity as in aggregate had a positive and significant effect on students’ psychomotor Ability with 68.88%; and (4 the contribution of motivation is 12.5% and creativity is 32.5% on students’ psychomotor Ability in the subject of Web Programming.

  7. Effect of active metabolites of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, alone or in combination with alcohol, on psychomotor skills related to driving.

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    Palva, E S; Linnoila, M; Mattila, M J

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of the main metabolites of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide with alcohol was measured in two double-blind crossover subacute experiments on 40 healthy young volunteers. The drugs were administered for 2 weeks each. The variables measured were choice reaction time and accuracy, eye-hand coordination, divided attention, flicker fusion, proprioception, and nystagmus. ChL, MO and O significantly enhanced the alcohol-induced impairment of psychomotor skills whereas DMD did so only exceptionally on some subjects in the choice reaction test. It is concluded that the diazepam-alcohol interaction on psychomotor skills is mainly due to the parent compound. No correlations between the serum levels of the agents and the changes of performance were found.

  8. No Effects of Acute Exposure to Wi-Fi Electromagnetic Fields on Spontaneous EEG Activity and Psychomotor Vigilance in Healthy Human Volunteers.

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    Zentai, Norbert; Csathó, Árpád; Trunk, Attila; Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo; Thuróczy, György; Hernádi, István

    2015-12-01

    Mobile equipment use of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) signal modulation has increased exponentially in the past few decades. However, there is inconclusive scientific evidence concerning the potential risks associated with the energy deposition in the brain from Wi-Fi and whether Wi-Fi electromagnetism interacts with cognitive function. In this study we investigated possible neurocognitive effects caused by Wi-Fi exposure. First, we constructed a Wi-Fi exposure system from commercial parts. Dosimetry was first assessed by free space radiofrequency field measurements. The experimental exposure system was then modeled based on real geometry and physical characteristics. Specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations were performed using a whole-body, realistic human voxel model with values corresponding to conventional everyday Wi-Fi exposure (peak SAR10g level was 99.22 mW/kg with 1 W output power and 100% duty cycle). Then, in two provocation experiments involving healthy human volunteers we tested for two hypotheses: 1. Whether a 60 min long 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi exposure affects the spectral power of spontaneous awake electroencephalographic (sEEG) activity (N = 25); and 2. Whether similar Wi-Fi exposure modulates the sustained attention measured by reaction time in a computerized psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) (N = 19). EEG data were recorded at midline electrode sites while volunteers watched a silent documentary. In the PVT task, button press reaction time was recorded. No measurable effects of acute Wi-Fi exposure were found on spectral power of sEEG or reaction time in the psychomotor vigilance test. These results indicate that a single, 60 min Wi-Fi exposure does not alter human oscillatory brain function or objective measures of sustained attention.

  9. Modulatory effect of environmental context and drug history on heroin-induced psychomotor activity and fos protein expression in the rat brain.

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    Paolone, Giovanna; Conversi, David; Caprioli, Daniele; Bianco, Paola Del; Nencini, Paolo; Cabib, Simona; Badiani, Aldo

    2007-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of environmental context and drug history in modulating the effects of heroin on locomotor activity and Fos protein expression in the neocortex and striatal complex of the rat. It was found that (1) repeated i.p. administrations of a relatively low dose of heroin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced psychomotor sensitization only when the treatment was administered in a relatively 'novel' environment (ie, a unique test environment distinct from the home cage) but not when the same treatment was administered in the home cage; (2) environmental novelty facilitated heroin-induced Fos expression in the caudate, particularly in its most caudal regions; (3) environmental context also modulated heroin-induced Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens and in the neocortex; (4) repeated exposures to heroin dramatically altered its effects on Fos expression in the caudate and in the neocortex; and (5) Fos protein levels in the postero-dorsal caudate, in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, and in the barrel field cortex predicted most of the variance in heroin-induced activity scores, as shown by multiple regression analysis. The present report demonstrates that environment and drug history powerfully interact in shaping the neurobehavioral response to heroin, as previously shown for amphetamine and cocaine. Thus, a full understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the neurobehavioral adaptations produced by addictive drugs will also require taking into due consideration the environment in which drugs are experienced.

  10. Comparison of effect of antidepressants on psychomotor functions

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    Pranjali P Mendhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The comparison of the effect of antidepressants on psychomotor functions in patients with endogenous depression. Materials and Methods: This prospective interventional study was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital on 95 literate patients with newly diagnosed endogenous depression matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were prescribed either desvenlafaxine (50 mg or fluoxetine (40 mg or sertraline (50 mg. Psychomotor functions were assessed by digit letter substitution, six letter cancellation, choice reaction time, hand steadiness and flicker fusion test at the baseline 1st month and 3rd month. Efficacy of drugs was also measured by Hamilton rating scale for depression. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 95 patients were enrolled. Fluoxetine, desvenlafaxine, and sertraline were prescribed in 32, 32, and 31 patients, respectively. At the end of 3 months, a significant improvement in psychomotor functions was observed in patients treated with sertraline (P < 0.05, while desvenlafaxine-treated patients did not show any significant change in any of the tests. Surprisingly, fluoxetine-treated patients showed deterioration in all psychomotor tests (P < 0.05. Hamilton rating score improved at the end of 3 months treatment as compared to baseline. Most commonly observed adverse reactions in all three drug groups were nausea (n = 20, dizziness (n = 3, headache (n = 20, and diarrhea (n = 3. Conclusion: Sertraline significantly improves psychomotor function as compared to desvenlafaxine while fluoxetine impairs.

  11. Comparison of Effect of Antidepressants on Psychomotor Functions

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    Mendhe, Pranjali P.; Shah, Samidh P.; Desai, Mira K.; Parikh, Minakshi N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The comparison of the effect of antidepressants on psychomotor functions in patients with endogenous depression. Materials and Methods: This prospective interventional study was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital on 95 literate patients with newly diagnosed endogenous depression matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were prescribed either desvenlafaxine (50 mg) or fluoxetine (40 mg) or sertraline (50 mg). Psychomotor functions were assessed by digit letter substitution, six letter cancellation, choice reaction time, hand steadiness and flicker fusion test at the baseline 1st month and 3rd month. Efficacy of drugs was also measured by Hamilton rating scale for depression. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 95 patients were enrolled. Fluoxetine, desvenlafaxine, and sertraline were prescribed in 32, 32, and 31 patients, respectively. At the end of 3 months, a significant improvement in psychomotor functions was observed in patients treated with sertraline (P < 0.05), while desvenlafaxine-treated patients did not show any significant change in any of the tests. Surprisingly, fluoxetine-treated patients showed deterioration in all psychomotor tests (P < 0.05). Hamilton rating score improved at the end of 3 months treatment as compared to baseline. Most commonly observed adverse reactions in all three drug groups were nausea (n = 20), dizziness (n = 3), headache (n = 20), and diarrhea (n = 3). Conclusion: Sertraline significantly improves psychomotor function as compared to desvenlafaxine while fluoxetine impairs.

  12. Determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills of nursing students.

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    Öztürk, Deniz; Çalışkan, Nurcan; Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Karadağ, Ayise; Karabulut, Hatice

    2015-02-01

    Basic psychomotor skill training starts in the first year in nursing education. The psychomotor skills taught in the first year of nursing training constitute a foundation for all professional practices. Conducting periodic training for skills with which students are deficient can support mastery learning. The study was conducted as an interventional study for determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills learned in the Fundamentals of Nursing course. The sample consisted of 70 students attending the Fundamentals of Nursing course at nursing students in a university in Ankara, over 4 years between 2010 and 2013. The study was conducted as an interventional study for a period of 4 years. The data were collected through a questionnaire that was applied 4 times at the end of each academic year. According to the results of the forms evaluated at the end of each year, 4 additional laboratory activities were conducted addressing the deficient psychomotor skills of students at the beginning of the new academic semester in the 2nd and 3rd years. In the 4th-year clinic practice, courses were arranged to practice still deficient psychomotor skills. It was determined that students practiced nearly all of the basic psychomotor skills during clinical practice and that the practices with which they felt themselves to be inadequate gradually decreased following periodic training; this decrease was significant (pnursing students was effective. We recommend that students' psychomotor skills be evaluated periodically and repetitive training based on the results of this evaluation be provided throughout the undergraduate nursing education process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of magnesium chloride on psychomotor activity, emotional status, and acute behavioural responses to clonidine, d-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan.

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    Iezhitsa, Igor N; Spasov, Alexander A; Kharitonova, Maria V; Kravchenko, Maria S

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial effects of magnesium (Mg) salts on central manifestations of Mg deficiency are well known. Mg replacement therapy can be effective to prevent some of the serious depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour sequelae of Mg deficiency. However, few experimental studies have been undertaken on Mg-deficiency-induced behavioural changes. Even fewer studies have been carried out on acute behavioural responses to clonidine, D-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (HTP), which might characterize possible neuromediator changes in Mg deficiency. The effects of correcting Mg deficiency by magnesium chloride (MgCl₂ · 6H₂O) and the combination of this salt with vitamin B₆, on the behavioural manifestations of Mg deficiency have never been described as well. The aims of this study were: to estimate effect of MgCl₂ · 6H₂O alone and in combination with vitamin B6 on acute behavioural responses to agonists or blockers of the main neurotransmitter systems in CNS, psychomotor activity and emotional status of rats fed with Mg-deficient diet for 49 days. In our study open field test has shown that in Mg-deficient rats locomotor activity and vertical activity, number of visiting and residence time in central squares were decreased significantly. In the elevated plus maze test, the number of visiting open arms and residence time of rats were significantly less as compared with the control group. In the forced swimming test, time immobile was significantly increased by 44.29% and time of swimming was decreased by 52.79% compared to control. In our study Mg-deficient rats were more sensitive to d-amphetamine-induced motor stereotypes. Mg deficiency antagonized 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head-twitch response and arecoline-induced tremor. Supplement of MgCl₂ · 6H₂O with vitamin B₆ administered to a Mg-deficient rat increased the Mg level in plasma and erythrocytes. Furthermore, this increase was in relation to vitamin B

  14. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

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    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  15. Effects of Bright Light Treatment on Psychomotor Speed in Athletes

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    Mikko Paavo Tulppo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days. A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both treatment was given every morning between 8–12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time x group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024 but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308. Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year.

  16. Some aspects of the effects of clobazam on human psychomotor performance.

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    Hindmarch, I

    1979-01-01

    1 Three studies are described, the first being a comparison of the effects of acute night-time doses of clobazam 20 mg, amylobarbitone sodium 100 mg, nitrazepam 5 mg and placebo, on choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion (CFF) and stabilometer performance. Clobazam improved early morning performance on a choice reaction test, in contrast to the other two active drugs. 2 Repeated doses of clobazam 10 mg three times daily, chlordiazepoxide 10 mg three times daily and diazepam 5 mg three times daily were given for 5 days. Again clobazam did not produce any impairment of psychomotor performance, and noticeably increased CFF thresholds. 3 The effects of an acute night-time dose of clobazam 20 mg on psychomotor performance the morning after night-time medication were correlated with the neuroticism scores (on the EPI) of the subjects. Clobazam exerts a differential effect on psychomotor performance dependent on the basic personality trait. 4 Clobazam seems to differ significantly from the 1,4-benzodiazepines in that, although it reduces anxiety, it does so without any apparent impairment of psychomotor performance.

  17. Psychomotor Effects of Mixed Organic Solvents on Rubber Workers

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    O Aminian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to organic solvents is common among workers.Objective: To assess neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents among rubber workers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 223 employees of a rubber industry. The participants completed a data collection sheet on their occupational and medical history, and demographic characteristics including age, work experience, education level; they performed 6 psychiatric tests on the neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton, eye-hand coordination (Purdue pegboard, pursuit aiming, and perceptual speed (digit symbol.Results: Workers exposed and not exposed to organic solvents had similar age and education distribution. The mean work experience of the exposed and non-exposed workers was 5.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. The exposed workers had a lower performance compared to non-exposed workers in all psychomotor tests. After controlling for the confounders by logistic regression analysis, it was found that exposure to organic solvents had a significant effect on the results of digit symbols, digit span, Benton, aiming, and simple reaction time tests. No significant effect was observed in pegboard test.Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organic solvent can induce subtle neurobehavioral changes among workers exposed to organic solvents; therefore, periodical evaluation of the central nervous system by objective psychomotor tests is recommended among those who are chronically exposed to organic solvents.

  18. Diving experience and emotional factors related to the psychomotor effects of nitrogen narcosis.

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    Biersner, R J; Hall, D A; Linaweaver, P G; Neuman, T S

    1978-08-01

    Simple and complex psychomotor performance were tested among 21 Navy divers under normal conditions and during nitrogen narcosis in simulated dives to 170 ft of sea water. Complex psychomotor performance was impaired significantly during narcosis, while simple psychomotor performance remained essentially normal. Differences between baseline scores for complex psychomotor performance (pre- and post-dive combined) and scores obtained from the two combined testing sessions administered during narcosis were correlated with official Navy records of diving experience and self-reported moods. None of the diving experience measures was associated significantly with these difference scores. The moods of Fatigue and Happiness were, however, correlated significantly with impairment. These results indicate that, although previous experience with nitrogen narcosis and diving tasks do not mediate the performance effects of nitrogen narcosis, the complex psychomotor effects nitrogen narcosis are related to emotional traits.

  19. Effects of Video Podcasting on Psychomotor and Cognitive Performance, Attitudes and Study Behaviour of Student Physical Therapists

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    Moore, W. Allen; Smith, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Multimedia is an effective tool to teach psychomotor skills to health care students. Video podcasting is a next step as educators seek methods to present psychomotor skills efficiently. The purposes of this pilot study were (1) compare the effectiveness of video podcasting to live demonstration for teaching psychomotor skills to Doctor of…

  20. An evaluation of the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients

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    S Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of statins on memory and psychomotor function has been controversial and needs further evaluation. Aims : To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine. Settings and Design : Prospective, comparative, non-randomized, before-after, open-label clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Materials and Methods : Memory was evaluated with PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh Memory Scale, while psychomotor functions were evaluated with Digit Letter Substitution test, Six Letter Cancellation test, and Finger Tapping test at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of starting atorvastatin in 74 hypertensive patients who were prescribed either enalapril or amlodipine with or without atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Scores obtained in patients receiving enalapril or amlodipine were compared with those receiving these drugs along with atorvastatin. Memory and psychomotor functions of 12 healthy volunteers were also evaluated and compared with those of the patients at respective time periods. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of memory and psychomotor functions in various groups. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results : A statistically significant improvement in scores of memory and psychomotor functions was observed in both healthy volunteers (P=0.009 and P=0.016 and hypertensive patients (P=0.008 and P=0.031 throughout the study period. Memory and psychomotor function in hypertensive patients remained significantly inferior to those of healthy volunteers (P=0.01 and P=0.018. There was no significant difference in the scores of memory and psychomotor functions between patients receiving atorvastatin and those not receiving this drug. Conclusion : Atorvastatin, at 10 mg/day dose, does not

  1. Reinforcing, subjective, and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in moderate-drinking healthy volunteers.

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    Zacny, J P; Janiszewski, D; Sadeghi, P; Black, M L

    1999-12-01

    To characterize the reinforcing, subjective and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, across a range of subanesthetic concentrations in non-drug-abusing humans. In addition, a concentration of nitrous oxide was included in the design in order to compare and contrast behavioral effects of a gaseous to a volatile anesthesic. Repeated measures, double-blind, placebo control experiment. Human psychopharmacology laboratory. Fourteen moderate-drinking healthy volunteers. In each of four sessions, subjects first sampled placebo-oxygen and an active drug (end-tidal concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% sevoflurane and 30% nitrous oxide in oxygen) and then chose between the two Mood and psychomotor performance during the sampling trials, and choice of drug or placebo-oxygen during choice trial. Nitrous oxide was chosen by 71% of the subjects, and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% sevoflurane were chosen by 50%, 57% and 50% of the subjects, respectively. Neither drug was chosen at levels that exceeded that of chance. Sevoflurane and nitrous oxide both impaired psychomotor performance and produced changes in mood. There were several differences in subjective effects between sevoflurane and nitrous oxide at concentrations which were considered to be equivalent in anesthetic effect. Finally, although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of individuals tested, there was evidence that sevoflurane functioned as a reinforcer in some volunteers: subjects who chose to inhale sevoflurane over placebo-oxygen tended to report a positive spectrum of subjective effects during the sevoflurane sampling trial, relative to those subjects who chose placebo-oxygen over sevoflurane. Although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of subjects tested, the correspondence between positive subjective effects of sevoflurane and subsequent sevoflurane choice suggests that the volatile anesthetic drug can function as a reinforcer in some moderate drinkers.

  2. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

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    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  3. The effect of high load training on psychomotor speed

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    Nederhof, E.; Lemmink, K.; Zwerver, J.; Mulder, T.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether overreached athletes show psychomotor slowness after a period of high load training. Fourteen well-trained cyclists (10 male, 4 female, mean age 25.3 [SD = 4.1] years, mean maximal oxygen consumption 65.5 [SD=8.1] ml/ kg-min) performed a

  4. Using Standardized Patients in Nursing Education: Effects on Students' Psychomotor Skill Development.

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    Sarmasoglu, Senay; Dinç, Leyla; Elçin, Melih

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of using standardized patients for the psychomotor skills development of nursing students. The performance of the experimental group in blood pressure measurement was significantly higher than that of the control group; however, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to their administration of subcutaneous injections. The results indicated that standardized patients can be integrated into nursing education for developing psychomotor skills of students.

  5. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder

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    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2016-01-01

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively...

  6. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  7. Effects of WIN 55,212-2 (a synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant activity of various novel antiepileptic drugs against 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Wlaz, Aleksandra; Zagaja, Mirosław; Andres-Mach, Marta; Kondrat-Wrobel, Maria W; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN-a non-selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant activity of various second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., gabapentin, lacosamide, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and tiagabine) in the mouse 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure model. Psychomotor seizures were evoked in albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Additionally, total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations were measured. Results indicate that WIN (5 mg/kg, administered i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin (P anticonvulsant activity of all tested antiepileptic drugs in the 6 Hz test in mice. Measurement of total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations revealed that WIN (5 mg/kg) had no impact on gabapentin or levetiracetam total brain concentrations, indicating the pharmacodynamic nature of interaction between these antiepileptic drugs in the mouse 6Hz model. In conclusion, WIN in combination with gabapentin and levetiracetam exerts beneficial anticonvulsant pharmacodynamic interactions in the mouse psychomotor seizure model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of cognitive and psychomotor effects of intravenous buprenorphine infusion in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mette L; Sjøgren, Per; Upton, Richard N; Foster, David J R; Bonde, Peter; Graae, Christian; Skram, Ulrik; Stevner, Lene; Christrup, Lona L

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of the effects of buprenorphine on cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three male volunteers received 0.6 mg buprenorphine as an intravenous infusion over 150 min. The cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated before and at various times after drug administration by a test battery consisting of trail-making test for visual information processing, finger-tapping test for psychomotor speed, and continuous reaction time for attention. Non-linear mixed effect modelling was used in the analysis of the PK/PD relationships. Buprenorphine caused significant deficits in cognitive and psychomotor functioning. The time course of cognitive and psychomotor impairment was found to have a slow distribution to the biophase from plasma with PK/PD models involving an effect compartment providing the best descriptions of the time course of the data. The values for half-life of biophase equilibration were consistent between the neuropsychological tests in the range of 66.6-84.9 min. The time to onset and duration of the cognitive and psychomotor impairment of buprenorphine was determined by a slow distribution to the biophase.

  9. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  10. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    2010-01-01

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-) administrati

  11. Studies on psychomotoric effects and pharmacokinetic interactions of the new calcium sensitizing drug levosimendan and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, S; Järvinen, A; Akkila, J; Honkanen, T; Karlsson, M; Lehtonen, L

    1997-07-01

    Levosimendan (CAS 141505-33-1) is a calcium sensitizing drug intended for the treatment of congestive heart failure. In animal experiments levosimendan has potentiated the sedative effects of ethanol. Due to poor water solubility of the compound, ethanol is used as a diluent in the intravenous formulation. In this study the possible interactions between levosimendan and ethanol in human have been studied. Twelve healthy male volunteers were included in this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study consisted of three treatment periods: levosimendan 1 mg intravenously, levosimendan combined with ethanol orally and ethanol 0.8 g/kg alone. Blood samples for determination of levosimendan and ethanol concentrations were collected for 8 h after the dosing. To observe possible pharmacodynamic interactions psychomotoric tests were made before drug administration and 1h, 2h, 3h and 6h thereafter. These tests included Digit symbol substitution test, Maddox wing, Critical Flicker fusion and VAS-test for subjective assessment of performance status. Plasma levosimendan concentrations were not changed by the concomitant ethanol administration. Ethanol did not alter the pharmacokinetics of levosimendan except the volume of distribution of central compartment which was decreased. Levosimendan did neither affect elimination of ethanol. Levosimendan did not potentiate the psychomotoric effects of ethanol neither did it have any psychomotoric effects itself. In conclusion, levosimendan is not likely to have any psychomotoric adverse effects or any clinically significant interactions with ethanol.

  12. Comparative Effect of Newer Antihistamines on Psychomotor Functions in Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. David, Dinesh K. Badyal, Ashish Varghese*, Emy Alexander**

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of newer antihistamines onpsychomotor functions in Indian population. Seventy five patient volunteers were included in the study.Volunteers were put into 5 groups based on the type of antihistamine prescribed. Group-1 volunteersincluded those who were prescribed no antihistamine, group-2 were prescribed first generation antihistamines,group 3, 4 & 5 were prescribed second generation antihistamines cetrizine, fexofenadine and loratadinerespectively. A battery of four psychomotor function tests: critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT, digitsymbol substitution test (DSST, finger tapping (FT and visual analogue scale (VAS for day time sedationwas used in the study. First generation antihistamines impaired psychomotor functions establishing thevalidity of psychomotor function tests chosen for the study. Second generation antihistamines did notsignificantly affect CFFT frequency, but DSST score was significantly reduced. Fexofenadine significantlyreduced FT score. All antihistamines produced sedation except loratadine on VAS. Second generationantihistamines impaired psychomotor performance in Indian patients, however there were individualdifferences evident in respect to the effect of drugs.

  13. Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; Böcker, K.B.E.; Schipper, C.M.; Kruidenier, M.; Leenders, M.E.C.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among

  14. Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; Böcker, K.B.E.; Schipper, C.M.; Kruidenier, M.; Leenders, M.E.C.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079479227

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among recreationa

  15. Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; Böcker, K.B.E.; Schipper, C.M.; Kruidenier, M.; Leenders, M.E.C.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among recreationa

  16. [Relationship between nutritional status, level of physical activity and psychomotor development in preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Cappelacci, Marcelo; Oyarzún Alfaro, Tania; Leyton Artigas, Fernanda; Sepúlveda Muñoz, Cristóbal

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight have been included as a pandemic by the WHO; children are the group where intervention is recommended, given that they can enter physical activity (PA) and psychomotor development (PD) programs at education centres. Chile accounts for high rates of overweight, obesity and sedentary life, together with an absence of preschool PA programs. To relate the nutritional status, the psychomotor development and the quantity and intensity of PA in school routine for 5 year-old preschoolers. Pilot, non-experimental, transversal correlational study, including 23 preschoolers aged 5. We assessed three values: nutritional status with score z-IMC, PA with Actigraphy and PD with Da Fonseca Battery. 26% of the children presented with overweight and 52% with obesity. All of them had at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during their school-day. 82.6% of the children were in the Normal category for PD and the rest were in the Dispraxia category. A significant inverse relationship was found (p=0,032) between z-IMC and PD. The percentage of obese children is notably above international average values and national surveys. 17.4% of children show dispraxia at the psychomotor assessment. Children with higher z-IMC have a lower score in Da Fonseca battery, which could be due to a higher weight in relation to size, and generating a lower PD in the long term. No relationships were detected within the other variables. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Plyometric Education Trainings on Balance and Some Psychomotor Characteristics of School Handball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizli, Zeynep Inci

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search the effects of plyometric education trainings which was applied for 10-week on static-dynamic balance and some psychomotor characteristics of students who were been handball team of school. The female students-players (N = 16) who are in age 14,57 ± 0,92 years. All student have got 3,66 ± 0,63 years sport experience.…

  18. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  19. Venlafaxine's effects on healthy volunteers' driving, psychomotor, and vigilance performance during 15-day fixed and incremental dosing regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F; Robbe, H W; Vermeeren, A; van Leeuwen, C; Danjou, P E

    1998-06-01

    Effects of venlafaxine, an antidepressant acting by selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition with a potency ratio of 5:1, were assessed in a standardized, actual driving test, a battery of psychomotor tests (Critical Flicker/Fusion Frequency, Critical Tracking, Divided Attention), and a 45-minute vigilance test (Mackworth Clock). Thirty-seven healthy volunteers, 22 of whom completed the study, received venlafaxine in fixed (37.5 mg twice a day) and incremental (37.5-75 mg twice a day) doses as well as mianserin (10-20 mg three times a day) and placebo according to a 4-period (15 days each), double-blind, crossover design. Testing occurred on days 1 and 7 and after dose increments, on days 8 and 15. Plasma concentrations of venlafaxine and its active metabolite were measured on test days for confirming compliance. Venlafaxine had no significant effect on the primary driving parameter (standard deviation of lateral position) and failed to impair psychomotor performance. Mianserin profoundly and consistently impaired driving and psychomotor performance. However, both drugs significantly impaired vigilance performance. Maximal effects occurred on day 1 with mianserin and similarly on day 7 with venlafaxine in both series. The increment in venlafaxine's dose on day 8 did not increase this effect. The drug's selectively impairing effect on vigilance is shared by other "serotonergic" anxiolytics and antidepressants, suggesting that interference with 5-HT transmission reduces arousal in particularly monotonous tasks or environments. This study concludes that venlafaxine does not generally affect driving ability and should be safe for use by patients who drive.

  20. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veruska Narciso

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001, postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048, and 14% (p = 0.006. Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006 and 425% (p = 0.015, respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748 and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715 and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03. Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  1. Effect of chlorpromazine or sulpiride and alcohol on psychomotor skills related to driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, T

    1976-10-01

    A double-blind cross-over trial was conducted with 20 healthy paid volunteers for the evaluation of the subacute effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and sulpiride, in oral doses used for anxious outpatients, on psychomotor skills related to driving. Psychomotor performance was measured on the 7th and 14th days of treatment at 30, 90 and 150 min after the intake of 0.5 g/kg of an alcoholic or placebo drink. After the neuroleptics alone, reaction and coordination skills, but not attention, were slightly impaired, CPZ differing significantly from the placebo on the 14th day. Both drugs interacted additively with alcohol. The combined administration of CPZ and alcohol led to inaccuracy, a slowing of reactions and impaired proprioception and coordination. The combination of sulpiride and alcohol increased the error rate in the choice reaction test and impaired coordination in the coordination test driven at a free speed. It is concluded that the psychomotor decrement that occurs after 2 weeks of treatment with small doses of CPZ may effect the ability to control a motor vehicle. The concurrent administration of alcohol during treatment with CPZ or sulpiride may cause some extra risk in traffic or occupational life.

  2. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  3. Electronic monitoring of psychomotor activity as a supplementary objective measure of depression severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    control persons aged 18-60 years were included. Psychomotor activity was measured using a combined heart rate and movement sensor device (Actiheart) for 3 consecutive days, 24 h a day. RESULTS: We found that sleeping heart rate (beats/min) correlated with HDRS-17 in both patients with unipolar disorder...... and bipolar disorder (unadjusted model: B = 0.46, 95% CI 0.037-0.89, P = 0.034). In contrast, correlations between activity energy expenditure (kJ/kg/day), cardio-respiratory fitness (mlO2/min/kg) and HDRS-17 were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that measuring sleeping heart rate in non......BACKGROUND: Rating scales used to assess the severity of depression e.g. the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item (HDRS-17) partly rely on the patient's subjective experience and reporting. Such subjective measures tend to have low reliability and adding objective measures to complement...

  4. Regulation of feeding behavior and psychomotor activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei eMatsuda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor and psychomotor activities. In particular, CRH elicits anxiety-like behavior as an anxiogenic neuropeptide in goldfish, as is the case in rodents. This paper reviews current knowledge of CRH and its related peptides derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative non-mammals, focusing particularly on the role of the CRH system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint.

  5. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayder M. al-kuraishy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers was enrolled to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects,the central cognitive effect was assessed by Critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFFF, Psychomotor vigilance Task (PVT and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure p>0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea improve psychomotor vigilance task and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on psychomotor vigilance task, all levels of short term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker p<0.01, more than of Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on cognitive function than either Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 7-13

  6. Psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of methoxyflurane in healthy volunteers: implication for post-colonoscopy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q.; Burgess, Jenna; Debreceni, Tamara L.; Toscano, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Colonoscopy with portal inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) is highly feasible with low sedation risk and allows earlier discharge. It is unclear if subjects can return to highly skilled psychomotor skill task shortly after Penthrox assisted colonoscopy. We evaluated the psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of Penthrox in adults. Patients and methods: Sixty healthy volunteers (18 to 80 years) were studied on 2 occasions with either Penthrox or placebo in a randomized, double-blind fashion. On each occasion, the subject’s psychomotor function was examined before, immediately, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after a 15-minute inhalation of studied drug, using validated psychomotor tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), auditory reaction time (ART), eye-hand coordination (EHC) test, trail making test (TMT) and logical reasoning test (LRT). Results: Compared to placebo, a 15-minute Penthrox inhalation led to an immediate but small impairment of DSST (P < 0.001), ART (P < 0.001), EHC (P < 0.01), TMT (P = 0.02) and LRT (P = 0.04). In all subjects, the performance of all 5 tests normalized by 30 minutes after inhalation, and was comparable to that with placebo. Although increasing age was associated with a small deterioration in psychomotor testing performance, the magnitude of Penthrox effects remained comparable among all age groups. Conclusions: In all age groups, a 15-minute Penthrox inhalation induces acute but short-lasting impairment of psychomotor and cognitive performance, which returns to normal within 30 minutes , indicating that subjects who have colonoscopy with Penthrox can return to highly skilled psychomotor skills tasks such as driving and daily work the same day. PMID:27853742

  7. Exposure to synthetic oxytocin during delivery and its effect on psychomotor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; López-Montiel, Dolores; González-Mesa, Ernesto Santiago

    2015-12-01

    The main objective is to examine the influence of oxytocin administration during delivery on psychomotor development at age five years. This was a retrospective cohort study involving two groups: children of mothers exposed vs. not exposed to oxytocin during labor. Of the 7,465 newborns registered in our maternity service during 2006 we randomly selected an initial sample of 400 children. Of these, 146 children were assessed using the motor scale of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Other predictor variables that could potentially act as confounders and/or interact with the main relationship were also examined. The data were subjected to bivariate analysis, estimates of measures of strength of association, stratified analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression. The results indicate that exposure to synthetic oxytocin during delivery is an independent risk factor for a delay in gross and fine motor development. This was the case after controlling for the variables duration of labor and sex of the newborn, none of which modified the effect of oxytocin on gross and fine motor development. However, sex of the newborn were shown to be confounding gross motor development. In light of these results, and with the aim of preventing possible psychomotor alterations, further studies are now needed to analyze the effect that the oxytocin dose and the duration of perfusion may have on children's subsequent development.

  8. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics.

  9. Micronutrients during pregnancy and child psychomotor development: Opposite effects of Zinc and Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Krol, Anna; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Kuras, Renata; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Mirabella, Fiorino; Chiarotti, Flavia; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2017-10-01

    Studies on the impact of micronutrient levels during different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal plasma concentrations of selected micronutrients, such as: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and child neuropsychological development. The study population consisted of 539 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). The micronutrient levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in the cord blood. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. The mean plasma Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the 1st trimester of pregnancy were 0.91±0.27mg/l, 1.98±0.57mg/l and 48.35±10.54μg/l, respectively. There were no statistically significant associations between Cu levels and any of the analyzed domains of child development. A positive association was observed between Se level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and child language and motor skills (β=0.18, p=0.03 and β=0.25, p=0.005, respectively) at one year of age. Motor score among one-year-old children decreased along with increasing Zn levels in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood (β=-12.07, p=0.003 and β=-6.51, p=0.03, respectively). A similar pattern was observed for the association between Zn level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and language abilities at one year of age (β=-7.37, p=0.05). Prenatal Zn and Se status was associated with lower and higher child psychomotor abilities, respectively, within the first year of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are necessary to confirm the associations between micronutrient levels and child development as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of their effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive and psychomotor effects of three months of escitalopram treatment in elderly patients with major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beheydt, L.L.; Schrijvers, D.L.; Docx, L.; Bouckaert, F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although psychomotor retardation (PR) and cognitive disfunctioning are essential symptoms of elderly depressed patients, the differential effect of treatment with an SSRI in the elderly on these symptoms has hardly got any attention in studies with objective experimental measures. Since e

  11. Effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development in primary school children in Malawi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Primary school children (n = 424) from the Ntcheu District, Malawi, aged 6 - 8 years, were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development. After the baseline measurements were carried out,

  12. The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthringer, Remy; Muzet, Muriel; Zisapel, Nava; Staner, Luc

    2009-09-01

    Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg (PRM) on sleep and subsequent daytime psychomotor performance in patients aged > or =55 years with primary insomnia, as defined by fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. Patients (N = 40) were treated nightly single-blind with placebo (2 weeks), randomized double-blind to PRM or placebo (3 weeks) followed by withdrawal period (3 weeks). Sleep was assessed by polysomnography, all-night sleep electroencephalography spectral analysis and questionnaires. Psychomotor performance was assessed by the Leeds Psychomotor Test battery. By the end of the double-blind treatment, the PRM group had significantly shorter sleep onset latency (9 min; P = 0.02) compared with the placebo group and scored significantly better in the Critical Flicker Fusion Test (P = 0.008) without negatively affecting sleep structure and architecture. Half of the patients reported substantial improvement in sleep quality at home with PRM compared with 15% with placebo (P = 0.018). No rebound effects were observed during withdrawal. In conclusion, nightly treatment with PRM effectively induced sleep and improved perceived quality of sleep in patients with primary insomnia aged > or =55 years. Daytime psychomotor performance was not impaired and was consistently better with PRM compared with placebo. PRM was well tolerated with no evidence of rebound effects.

  13. Effects of single therapeutic doses of promethazine, fexofenadine and olopatadine on psychomotor function and histamine-induced wheal- and flare-responses: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Ami; Noda, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Senzaki, Koji; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Tomita, Yasushi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2012-05-01

    Since most first-generation antihistamines have undesirable sedative effects on the central nervous systems (CNS), newer (second-generation) antihistamines have been developed to improve patients' quality of life. However, there are few reports that directly compare the antihistaminic efficacy and impairment of psychomotor functions. We designed a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study to concurrently compare the clinical effectiveness of promethazine, a first-generation antihistamine, and fexofenadine and olopatadine, second-generation antihistamines, by measuring their potency as peripheral inhibitors of histamine-induced wheal and flare. Further, we investigated their sedative effects on the CNS using a battery of psychomotor tests. When single therapeutic doses of fexofenadine (60 mg), olopatadine (5 mg) and promethazine (25 mg) were given in a double-blind manner to 24 healthy volunteers, all antihistamines produced a significant reduction in the wheal and flare responses induced by histamine. In the comparison among antihistamines, olopatadine showed a rapid inhibitory effect compared with fexofenadine and promethazine, and had a potent effect compared with promethazine. In a battery of psychomotor assessments using critical flicker fusion, choice reaction time, compensatory tracking, rapid visual information processing and a line analogue rating scale as a subjective assessment of sedation, promethazine significantly impaired psychomotor function. Fexofenadine and olopatadine had no significant effect in any of the psychomotor tests. Promethazine, fexofenadine and olopatadine did not affect behavioral activity, as measured by wrist actigraphy. These results suggest that olopatadine at a therapeutic dose has greater antihistaminergic activity than promethazine, and olopatadine and fexofenadine did not cause cognitive or psychomotor impairment.

  14. Evaluation of betahistine for the prevention of seasickness: effect on vestibular function, psychomotor performance and efficacy at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Carlos R; Doweck, Ilana; Nachum, Zohar; Gonen, Adi; Spitzer, Orna; Shupak, Avi

    2003-01-01

    Betahistine was evaluated for the prevention of seasickness in a laboratory and sea study. The effect of 48 mg betahistine on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and on psychomotor performance was evaluated in twelve young healthy subjects in a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design. The vestibulo-ocular reflex was evaluated by the Sinusoidal Harmonic Acceleration (SHA) test at frequencies of 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 and 0.16 Hz. Psychomotor performance was assessed by both computerized and paper and pencil test batteries. No significant differences in VOR gain or phase were found between betahistine and placebo treatment for any of the frequencies tested. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the psychomotor performance tests or other possible side effects. The effect of 48 mg betahistine on seasickness severity was evaluated in 83 subjects during a voyage in rough seas. Betahistine had a borderline non-statistically significant effect on the prevention of seasickness in comparison with placebo (p = 0.053), with no notable side effects. Although our results are insufficient to recommend betahistine as an anti-seasickness drug, further studies are required to determine its possible effectiveness in less provocative motion sickness situations.

  15. Effect of a Single Dose of Dextromethorphan on Psychomotor Performance and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Ashor, Ammar Waham

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men) medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men) were given placebo, while the other half (10 women, 8 men) received dextromethorphan. The choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task were measured before and after 2 h of taking the drugs. Results: Dextromethorphan showed a significant deterioration in the 3-back working memory task (P0.05). On the other hand, placebo showed no significant changes as regards the choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task (P>0.05). Conclusion: A single dose of dextromethorphan has no effect on attention and arousal but may significantly impair the working memory capacity. PMID:23162189

  16. Effect of a single dose of dextromethorphan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M Al-Kuraishy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men were given placebo, while the other half (10 women, 8 men received dextromethorphan. The choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task were measured before and after 2 h of taking the drugs. Results: Dextromethorphan showed a significant deterioration in the 3-back working memory task (P0.05. On the other hand, placebo showed no significant changes as regards the choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task (P>0.05. Conclusion: A single dose of dextromethorphan has no effect on attention and arousal but may significantly impair the working memory capacity.

  17. Enantioselective effects of levodropropizine and dropropizine on psychomotor functions in normal volunteers: a placebo-controlled, double-blind comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Dominijanni, R; Cordaro, C; Perucca, E

    1993-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the l-isomer of dropropizine, a racemic drug widely used as a cough suppressant. Compared with the racemate, levodropropizine retains equal antitussive activity but exhibits considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects in animal models. In order to assess whether the same differential pharmacodynamic profile also applies to man, a double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out to investigate the effects of single oral doses (60 and 120 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine on subjective alertness (scored on visual analogue scales), general tolerability and psychomotor function tests (cancellation, tapping, choice reaction times and critical flicker fusion frequency) in ten normal volunteers. Treatments were administered in random sequence at intervals of at least one week, evaluation procedures being carried out at times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after dosing. Following intake of a 60 mg levodropizine dose, subjective effects and objective estimates of psychomotor function were superimposable to those recorded after placebo. There was a trend for 60 mg dropropizine and 120 mg levodropropizine to produce detrimental effects at occasional evaluations, although the changes associated with these treatments could not be differentiated from placebo on the basis of most subjective scores and psychomotor function tests. Conversely, administration of 120 mg dropropizine was consistently associated with subjective CNS impairment and with reduced performance (compared to baseline) in recognition time, critical flicker fusion thresholds and possibly tapping rate, for up to three hours after dosing. These data are consistent with evidence that racemic dropropizine adversely affects central nervous system function to a greater extent compared with the levo-isomer.

  18. Psychomotor Behavior: A Practical Approach in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadi, Konstantin G.; Gluscencova, Oxana B.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L

    2016-01-01

    Psychomotor behaviors are governed by fine relationships between physical activity and cognitive functions. Disturbances in psychomotor development and performance are a hallmark of many mental illnesses and often appear as observable and measurable behaviors. Here, we describe a new method called an “equilibrist test,” which can be used to quantify psychomotor learning and performance in Drosophila. We also show how this test can be used to quantify motor disturbances at relatively early sta...

  19. Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall G; Chu, Yi-Fang; Lyle, Barbara J; Joseph, James A

    2013-12-01

    The complex mixture of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables provides protective health benefits, mainly through additive and/or synergistic effects. The presence of several bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and caffeine, implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic in aging. Moderate (three to five cups a day) coffee consumption in humans is associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing certain chronic diseases. However, the ability of coffee supplementation to improve cognitive function in aged individuals and the effect of the individual components in coffee, such as caffeine, have not been fully evaluated. We fed aged rats (19 months) one of five coffee-supplemented diets (0, 0.165, 0.275, 0.55, and 0.825% of the diet) for 8 weeks prior to motor and cognitive behavior assessment. Aged rats supplemented with a 0.55% coffee diet, equivalent to ten cups of coffee, performed better in psychomotor testing (rotarod) and in a working memory task (Morris water maze) compared to aged rats fed a control diet. A diet with 0.55% coffee appeared to be optimal. The 0.165% coffee-supplemented group (three cups) showed some improvement in reference memory performance in the Morris water maze. In a subsequent study, the effects of caffeine alone did not account for the performance improvements, showing that the neuroprotective benefits of coffee are not due to caffeine alone, but rather to other bioactive compounds in coffee. Therefore, coffee, in achievable amounts, may reduce both motor and cognitive deficits in aging.

  20. The effects of aging and oxidative stress on psychomotor and cognitive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Decrements in motor and cognitive function occur in aging, possibly due to oxidative stress-induced damage to the brain. Declines in antioxidant defense mechanisms have been postulated as a causative factor in these age-related decrements, however a clear link between oxidative stress (OS) and behavioral changes in aging has yet to be established. This review shows that age-validated psychomotor and cognitive tests are sensitive to behavioral deficits under different models of OS, including: ...

  1. Effects of Voluntary Fluid Intake Deprivation on Mental and Psychomotor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Petri, Nadan M.; Dropulić, Nataša; Kardum, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess if there is deterioration in mental and psychomotor performance during 24-hour voluntary fluid intake deprivation. Methods: A battery of computer generated psychological tests (Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac) was applied to 10 subjects to test light signal position discrimination, short-term memory, simple visual orientation, simple arithmetic, and complex motor coordination. We measured total test solving time, minimum (best) single task solving time, total ballast time, an...

  2. [Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaia, E M; Shtark, M B

    2008-05-01

    Comparison of influence of usual musical practice and the same trainings but using biofeedback on electrophysiological and psychological markers of optimal psychomotor functioning in 39 students-musicians revealed that the obvious musical practice caused psychomotor pressure in most students (with initially low individual alpha peak frequency), whereas similar practice combined with an individualized session of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback was accompanied by increase of alpha-activity in all examinees and a decrease (reduction) of integrated EMG that indicated reaching of optimal psychomotor functioning. It appears that the psychomotor learning ability depends on the baseline individual alpha-activity. Individual alpha peak frequency was associated with fluency and efficiency of psychomotor performance, individual alpha band width--with plasticity and creativity, individual amount of alpha suppression in response to opening eyes--with the level of selfactualization. These alpha activity EEG indices correlated with efficiency of the biofeedback training.

  3. The effects of constructivist learning approach on the students’ psychomotor and cognitive field achievements in Canon teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Demirci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the level the psychomotor and cognitive field achievements of the students learning canon songs in primary school 6th grade music education according to constructivist learning approach and conventional teaching methods(e.g. question& answer, practice, analysis, to compare the differences between the experimental and control groups and finally to determine their permanency levels. For the research, 2x2 split-plot experimental designs were used. In this design, the first factor displays intervention groups (experimental and control, and the second factor shows pretest-posttest measurements according to the dependent variables of the study. In terms of analysis, four statistical analysis methods were used and data were analyzed by means of SPSS for Windows 15.00. Differences between the pre and post psychomotor achievement tests scores in the experimental group were found to be significant in terms of the evaluation criteria. The pre and post tests achievement scores of the students in the control group, while the differences for the five of scores of the evaluation criteria are statistically significant, for one criterion the difference was found insignificant. As for the permanency tests, it is seen that, students’ posttest and permanency test performances in the control and experimental groups have permanent effects on their psychomotor achievement levels but in terms of permanency, certain decreases compared to posttest results were found. It is also seen that rank means and mean scores of the experimental group are higher than the scores of the control group. It can be said that in canon teaching cognitive field, the effects of the teaching methods implemented based on constructivist and conventional approach have decreased in the course of time.

  4. Psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant administered in combination with alcohol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Yee, Ka Lai; Gill, Sean; Liu, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Panebianco, Deborah; Mangin, Eric; Morrison, Dennis; McCrea, Jacqueline; Wagner, John A; Troyer, Matthew D

    2015-11-01

    A double-blind crossover study investigated psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant with and without alcohol. Healthy adults (n=31) were randomized to receive placebo or suvorexant (40 mg) plus placebo solution or alcohol (0.7 g/kg) in each of four treatments (single doses; morning administration). The US Food and Drug Administration approved suvorexant dose is 10 mg (up to 20 mg) daily. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed using tests of digit vigilance (DVT; primary endpoint), choice reaction time, digit symbol substitution, numeric working memory, immediate/delayed word recall, body sway and subjective alertness. Suvorexant alone did not significantly affect DVT reaction time, but did impact some pharmacodynamic tests. Suvorexant with alcohol increased reaction time versus either alone (mean difference at 2 h: 44 ms versus suvorexant, palcohol, peffects on tests of vigilance, working/episodic memory, postural stability and alertness. No effects of suvorexant alone or with alcohol were observed by 9 h. No important changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed upon co-administration. All treatments were generally well tolerated without serious adverse events. In conclusion, co-administration of 40 mg suvorexant and 0.7 g/kg alcohol had additive negative psychomotor effects. Patients are advised not to consume alcohol with suvorexant.

  5. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beheydt, L.L.; Schrijvers, D.L.; Docx, L.; Bouckaert, F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and

  6. Effects of recombinant growth hormone (GH) replacement and psychomotor and cognitive stimulation in the neurodevelopment of GH-deficient (GHD) children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Jesús; Alonso, Begoña; Casteleiro, Nerea; Couto, Paula; Castañón, Beatriz; Zas, Eva; Reimunde, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the main cause of physical disability in childhood and is an important health issue that has a strong socioeconomic impact. There is no effective treatment for CP and therapeutic approaches report only partial benefits for affected people. In this study we assessed the effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment combined with psychomotor and cognitive stimulation in the neurodevelopment of children with CP and GH deficiency (GHD). The study was carried out in 11 patients (7 boys and 4 girls; 4.12 ± 1.31 years) with GHD and CP who were treated with recombinant GH (rGH) and psychomotor and cognitive stimulation during 2 months. Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST) was performed 2 months before commencing GH treatment, just before commencing GH administration, and after 2 months of combined treatment involving GH and cognitive stimulation. Psychomotor and cognitive status did not change during the period in which only cognitive stimulation was performed; however, significant improvements in personal and social skills, adaptive behavior, gross motor skills and total psychomotor abilities, receptive and total communication, cognitive skills and in the total score of the test (P < 0.01), and in fine motor skills and expressive communication (P < 0.02) were observed after the combined treatment period. Therefore, GH replacement together with psychomotor and cognitive stimulation seem to be useful for the appropriate neurodevelopment of children with GHD and CP.

  7. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  8. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sadek Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  9. Psychophysiological Mechanisms of Coordination Component of Psychomotor Abilities of the Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korlyakova S.G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor abilities of the musician are implemented in performing technique and include muscle strength, endurance, speed of movements, coordination, motor memory. The article presents the materials of a theoretical study aimed to identify the level character of the coordination component of psychomotor abilities of musicians formation, to define the psychophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the effective development of musical-performing technique. The process of coordination component of psychomotor abilities of musicians formation reviewed in the light of N.. Bernstein theory on construction of movements, which most fully represents the interrelation of physiological and psychological mechanisms of a man motor activity. On the example of musical- performing activity of trained pianists the processes of intermuscular, spatial, sensory-motor (visual-motor, auditory-motor, tactile-motor coordination formation are reviewed and in general – psychomotor coordination processes involved in musicians performing technique development.

  10. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults.

  11. Pyridoxine hydrochloride attenuate and decrease the depressant effects of meclizine on human psychomotor performance: Randomized clinical trial, cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M. Al-kuraishy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess and compare the cognitive and psychomotor effects of Pyridoxine HCl 50mg and meclizine 25mg or both in 30healthy adult volunteers in a single blind, randomized cross over study. Following single dose of each drug, the volunteers were subjected to perform a series of tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance at 2 hours post dose. The Leeds Battery Psychomotor Instrument test consisted of both subjective and objective tests which were further grouped into Instrumental tests which included Simple reaction time (SRT, Choice Reaction Time Task (CRT and Critical Flicker Fusion frequency threshold (CFFT. Meclizine at dose of 25mg was significantly different from placebo (p0.05. The dual and combined effects of pyridoxine HCl 50mg plus meclizine 25mg attenuate and remove the depressant effects that mediated via meclizine. These results allow the conclusion that pyridoxine at its recommended therapeutic dose of 50mg is needed to be mixed with meclizine or others antihistamine to eliminate psychomotor and cognitive impairment as usual adverse effect of meclizine

  12. Effects of recombinant growth hormone (GH replacement and psychomotor and cognitive stimulation in the neurodevelopment of GH-deficient (GHD children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesa J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Devesa1,2, Begoña Alonso1, Nerea Casteleiro1, Paula Couto1, Beatriz Castañón1, Eva Zas1, Pedro Reimunde1,21Medical Center “Proyecto Foltra”, Cacheiras (Teo, A Coruña, Spain; 2Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, SpainAbstract: Cerebral palsy (CP is the main cause of physical disability in childhood and is an important health issue that has a strong socioeconomic impact. There is no effective treatment for CP and therapeutic approaches report only partial benefits for affected people. In this study we assessed the effects of growth hormone (GH treatment combined with psychomotor and cognitive stimulation in the neurodevelopment of children with CP and GH deficiency (GHD. The study was carried out in 11 patients (7 boys and 4 girls; 4.12 ± 1.31 years with GHD and CP who were treated with recombinant GH (rGH and psychomotor and cognitive stimulation during 2 months. Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST was performed 2 months before commencing GH treatment, just before commencing GH administration, and after 2 months of combined treatment involving GH and cognitive stimulation. Psychomotor and cognitive status did not change during the period in which only cognitive stimulation was performed; however, significant improvements in personal and social skills, adaptive behavior, gross motor skills and total psychomotor abilities, receptive and total communication, cognitive skills and in the total score of the test (P < 0.01, and in fine motor skills and expressive communication (P < 0.02 were observed after the combined treatment period. Therefore, GH replacement together with psychomotor and cognitive stimulation seem to be useful for the appropriate neurodevelopment of children with GHD and CP.Keywords: growth hormone, cerebral palsy, cognitive functions, Battelle’s test, neurodevelopment

  13. Regulatory effects of adenosine A2A receptors on psychomotor ability and mood behavior of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JIANG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of gene knock-out,agonist or inhibitor of adenosine A2A receptor on the locomotor activity,and anxiety-or depression-like behavior of mice.Methods Male C57BL/6 mice,comprising those underwent gene knock-out of adenosine A2A receptor(A2AKO and their wild-type(WT littermates,were assigned into A2AKO group and WT group.Another batch of male C57BL/6,specific-pathogen-free(SPF mice,were assigned into SCH58261 group,CGS21680 group and control group.Mice of aforesaid 3 groups were transperitoneally administered with SCH58261,a specific inhibitor of adenosine A2A receptor at a dose of 2mg/kg,CGS21680,a specific agonist of adenosine A2A receptor at a dose of 0.5mg/kg,and vehicle(0.25ml,comprising DMSO and saline,respectively.Ten minutes after injection,mice of the 3 groups underwent open-field test,elevated plus-maze test and forced swimming test to detect their locomotor activity,anxiety-and depression-like behavior.Results a Compared with WT group,the total movement distance decreased(P 0.05.b Compared with control group,the total movement distance decreased and the stay time in the peripheral area increased significantly in the open field test(P 0.05.Conclusions The agonist of adenosine A2A receptor may depress the spontaneous motility and exploratory behavior,and exacerbate the anxiety and depression,and it simulates the effect induced by knock-out of A2A receptor gene,but it is opposite to the effect induced by A2A receptor inhibitor.

  14. Effect of iron supplementation on psychomotor development of non-anaemic, exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants: a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Anna; Chmielewski, Grzegorz; Domellöf, Magnus; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Szajewska, Hania

    2015-11-24

    Uncertainty exists regarding the effects of iron supplementation during infancy on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the absence of anaemia. The aim of the study is to establish whether psychomotor and mental development is influenced by early iron supplementation in healthy, non-anaemic, exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants. Healthy term infants will be recruited. If exclusively or predominantly breast fed (>50% of daily feedings) and not anaemic at 4 months, they will be randomised to receive either iron pyrophosphate (approximately 1 mg/kg) or placebo daily until 9 months of age. The primary outcome measure is neurodevelopment assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 12 months, and repeated at 24 and 36 months of age. Haematological parameters of iron metabolism also will be measured. The Bioethics Committee of the Medical University of Warsaw approved the study protocol before recruitment started. Study results will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals in the fields of paediatrics and nutrition, and presented at relevant conferences. NCT02242188. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Psychomotor retardation in depression: a systematic review of diagnostic, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennabi, Djamila; Vandel, Pierre; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management.

  16. Psychomotor Retardation in Depression: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Bennabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management.

  17. The psychomotor theory of human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2007-08-01

    This study presents a new theory to explain the neural origins of human mind. This is the psychomotor theory. The author briefly analyzed the historical development of the mind-brain theories. The close relations between psychological and motor systems were subjected to a rather detailed analysis, using psychiatric and neurological examples. The feedback circuits between mind, brain, and body were shown to occur within the mind-brain-body triad, in normal states, and psycho-neural diseases. It was stated that psychiatric signs and symptoms are coupled with motor disturbances; neurological diseases are coupled with psychological disturbances; changes in cortico-spinal motor-system activity may influence mind-brain-body triad, and vice versa. Accordingly, a psychomotor theory was created to explain the psychomotor coupling in health and disease, stating that, not the mind-brain duality or unity, but the mind-brain-body triad as a functional unit may be essential in health and disease, because mind does not end in the brain, but further controls movements, in a reciprocal manner; mental and motor events share the same neural substrate, cortical, and spinal motoneurons; mental events emerging from the motoneuronal system expressed by the human language may be closely coupled with the unity of the mind-brain-body triad. So, the psychomotor theory rejects the mind-brain duality and instead advances the unity of the psychomotor system, which will have important consequences in understanding and improving the human mind, brain, and body in health and disease.

  18. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

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    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  19. Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging

    OpenAIRE

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall G.; Chu, Yi-Fang; Lyle, Barbara J.; Joseph, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The complex mixture of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables provides protective health benefits, mainly through additive and/or synergistic effects. The presence of several bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and caffeine, implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic in aging. Moderate (three to five cups a day) coffee consumption in humans is associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing certain chronic diseases. However, the ability of coffee supplemen...

  20. Psychomotor Performance of Medical Students: Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Abhinav Dixit; Rajat Thawani; Abhishek Goyal; Neelam Vaney

    2012-01-01

    Context : Sleep deprivation is known to have detrimental effects on attentional resources and cognitive functions. Aim : The aim of this study is to assess the changes in performance, due to 24 h of sleep deprivation, in medical students Materials and Methods : The performance was assessed using simple paper-pencil tasks, such as digit symbol substitution test, digit vigilance test, and letter cancellation tasks. Results : The results revealed an increase in the number of errors in letter can...

  1. Psychomotor performance of medical students: Effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Dixit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Sleep deprivation is known to have detrimental effects on attentional resources and cognitive functions. Aim : The aim of this study is to assess the changes in performance, due to 24 h of sleep deprivation, in medical students Materials and Methods : The performance was assessed using simple paper-pencil tasks, such as digit symbol substitution test, digit vigilance test, and letter cancellation tasks. Results : The results revealed an increase in the number of errors in letter cancellation tasks and digit vigilance test, with a significant decrease in the number of correct responses on the letter cancellation task. The time taken to complete the tests increased with lack of sleep, with the digit symbol substitution test being affected the most. Discussion : This study infers that sleep deprivation for 24 h affected the judgment ability more than the response speed. Conclusion : Sleep deprivation might lead to compromised performance of medical students in examinations.

  2. Effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on thyroid hormone levels, mental and psychomotor development of infants: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatoya, Machiko; Naka Jima, Sonomi; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ikeno, Tamiko; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Yuko; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used phthalates and concerns of adverse effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on neonatal thyroid hormone (TH) and neurodevelopment are increasing. However, there is no report regarding association between prenatal DEHP exposure and infant neurodevelopment including TH levels in Japanese population. Thus the aim of present study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and mental and psychomotor development of infants 6 and 18months along with investigating influence on neonatal free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the prospective birth cohort study. Maternal blood samples collected between 23 and 41weeks of gestation was analyzed for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), metabolite of DEHP levels. Neonatal FT4 and TSH were obtained from mass screening data. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley Scale of Infant Development second edition at 6 and 18month of age. For the final analysis, 328 participants were included. The median levels of maternal MEHP was 10.6ng/ml, neonatal TSH and FT4 was 2.20 μU/ml and 2.03ng/ml, respectively. We did not find any associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and neonatal TH levels or infant mental and psychomotor development at 6 and 18month. In this study, prenatal DEHP exposure did not show adverse effects on infant TH levels or mental and psychomotor development in early life stage. However, our previous study revealed negative effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on sex hormone levels, continuous investigation on neurodevelopment in later life in association with prenatal DEHP exposure is necessary.

  3. Correction and development of psychomotor function of deaf children of midchildhood by facilities of mobile games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction and development of psychomotor sphere of deaf children of midchildhood is considered by facilities of physical education, in particular by mobile games. The analysis of publications of research workers is resulted in relation to the problem of development of psychomotor function of deaf children in a theory and practice of correction work. In theory is grounded value of mobile games as effective mean of development of psychomotor sphere of deaf lower boys. The necessity of application of the specially adapted mobile games is set in the process of correction-pedagogical work with the deaf children of midchildhood. The pedagogical looking is presented after the features of playing activity of deaf children of 1-4 classes.

  4. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education.

  5. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  6. Effects of waking time and breakfast intake prior to evaluation of psychomotor performance in the early morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougard, Clément; Moussay, Sébastien; Gauthier, Antoine; Espié, Stéphane; Davenne, Damien

    2009-02-01

    Many studies conducted in the field of chronobiology report diurnal fluctuation in cognitive and physical performance that occurs in phase with the body temperature circadian rhythm. Waking time and whether or not breakfast is consumed are currently considered to influence the diurnal fluctuation in data collected in the morning at 06:00 h and evening at 18:00 h. Nineteen male subjects participated in four test sessions to examine if wake-up time (04:00 h or 05:00 h) and eating or not eating breakfast influence psychomotor performance capacity at 06:00 h. All four sessions were separated by >/=36 h and were completed in a counterbalanced order. Each test session comprised sign cancellation, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, simple reaction time, and manual dexterity tests. Most of the results indicate that psychomotor performance when evaluated at 06:00 h under each of the four different study situations (two waking times and two breakfast conditions) is not statistically significantly different. Consequently, previous results that documented diurnal fluctuations in morning and evening performance capacities, with test sessions at 06:00 h, are confirmed. Being less efficient in the early morning than in the afternoon potentially exposes people to elevated risk of accident and injury at this time of the day. Prior waking time and/or consumption of a light meal, plus other countermeasures mentioned in the literature, are insufficient to prevent this risk.

  7. Methods for Evaluation of Some Psychomotor Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.

  8. A new class of anticonvulsants possessing 6 Hz psychomotor seizure test activity: 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-N'-[substituted] acetohydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Tripathi, Laxmi

    2012-05-01

    A series of 2-(1H-Benzotriazol-1-yl)-N'-[substituted]acetohydrazides were designed & synthesized keeping in view the structural requirement of pharmacophore and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity. The new compounds were characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. The anticonvulsant activity of the titled compounds was assessed using the 6 Hz psychomotor seizure test. The neurotoxicity was assessed using the rotorod method. The most active compound of the series was N'-[4-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yloxy)benzylidene]-2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide (BTA 9), which showed good activity with 75 % protection (3/4, 0.5 h) at a dose of 100 mg/kg in mice. All the compounds exhibited no neurotoxicity. A computational study was carried out for calculation of pharmacophore pattern and prediction of pharmacokinetic properties. Titled compounds have also exhibited good binding properties with epilepsy molecular targets such as glutamate, GABA (A) delta, GABA (A) alpha-1 receptors and Na/H exchanger, in Lamarckian genetic algorithm based flexible docking studies.

  9. Multimedia Design Principles in the Psychomotor Domain: The Effect of Multimedia and Spatial Contiguity on Students' Learning of Basic Life Support with Task Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…

  10. [Effects of selected factors on the degree of psychomotor efficiency of welders in a railroad car factory with automated work stations (robots)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszkiewicz, T; Andrzejak, R; Gosk, A; Smolik, R

    1992-01-01

    The study of 64 welders employed at automated work stands in the railway car factory conducted in 1989 and 1990 has shown that the psychomotor efficiency level in the examined workers (except for a few cases) was normal. The psychomotor efficiency of the welders studied depended on their age, work day phase and, to a small degree, on the detected biochemical and toxicological disorders.

  11. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  12. 38 CFR 4.122 - Psychomotor epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Psychomotor epilepsy. 4... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b) A...

  13. The effect of chronotype on sleepiness, fatigue, and psychomotor vigilance of ICU nurses during the night shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinke, Laurens; Ozbay, Yusuf; Dieperink, Willem; Tulleken, Jaap E.

    In general, sleeping and activity patterns vary between individuals. This attribute, known as chronotype, may affect night shift performance. In the intensive care unit (ICR), night shift performance may impact patient safety. We have investigated the effect of chronotype and social demographics on

  14. [Characteristics of central nervous system activity in patients with complications of arterial hypertension and dependence on psychomotor status and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, A G; Velichko, N P; Usenko, G A; Nishcheta, O V; Kozyreva, T Iu; Demin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Changes in certain CNS characteristics were used as indicators of the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy (AHT) both targeted (T-AHT) and empirical (E-AHT) designed to suppress activity of the sympathetic component of vegetative nervous system (VNS) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in patients of different psychic status and AH. A group of 835 men (mean age 54.2+-1.8yr) was divided into cholerics, sanguinics, melancholics and phlegmatics with a high and low anxiety level (HA and LA). 416 healthy men served as controls. The following parameters were estimated: mobility of cortical processes, balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, blood corrisol and aldosterone levels, oxygen utilization coefficient, resistance to breath holding, severity of dyscirculatory encephalopathy and the fraction of patients with AH complications during 12 month T-AHT for the suppression of sympathetic activity in cholerics and sanguinics by beta-adrenoblockers and PAA C- ACE inhibitors in phlegmatics and melancholics and during E-AHT (ACE inhibitors in cholerics and sanguinics, BAB in phlegmatics and melancholics). The functional activity of CNS in phlegmatics and melancholics before and during AHT was lower and severity of encephalopathy and the number ofAH complications higher than in cholerics and sanguinics. . The changes wiere more pronounced in patients with HA than in those with LA. Unlike E-AHT T-AHT (anxiolytics for cholerics and sanguinics with HA, antidepressants for phlegmatics and melancholics with HA) normalized the study parameters and decreased the frequency of complications by 2-3 times.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of clobazam, A 1,5 benzodiazepine, on mood and psychomotor performance in clinically anxious patients in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, M R; Hanks, G W; Silverstone, J T

    1979-01-01

    1 The methodology of clinical trails of anxiolytic drugs carried out in general practice conditions is discussed. Particular problems include: the selection of suitable patients; placebo effects; the influence of non-specific variables such as life-events; and patient compliance. 2 Clobazam, a novel 1,5 benzodiazepine, and diazepam were compared with placebo in a double-blind group comparative trial in general practice, which was designed to avoid as many confounding variables as possible. Anxiety-reducing effects were evaluated and at the same time the effects of the drugs on psychomotor performance were examined. 3 Both clobazam and diazepam produced significant improvements in anxiety ratings on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Morbid Anxiety Inventory, whereas placebo did not. 4 The placebo group demonstrated a significant improvement in performance on a pursuit rotor and digit symbol substitution test (DSST), whereas the diazepam group's performance did not change. The clobazam group showed improvement in both tests, significantly so in the DSST. This suggests that diazepam produces impairment in performance, which had negated the practice effects seen in the placebo group, whereas clobazam did not seem to produce similar impairment.

  16. Unraveling Psychomotor Slowing in Bipolar Disorde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsel, A.M.; Temmerman, A.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Hulstijn, W.; Morrens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: In addition to affective and cognitive symptomatology, psychomotor deficits are known to be present in bipolar disorder (BD). Psychomotor functioning includes all of the processes necessary for completing a movement, from planning to initiation and execution. While these psychomotor

  17. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  18. A comparison of the effect of two doses of oral melatonin with oral midazolam and placebo on pre-operative anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function in children: A randomised double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S; Muthukalai, Sindhu Priya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Melatonin (MT), a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2–0.5 mg/kg) in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. Methods: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5–15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Mentally disordered children were excluded from the study. They were randomised into four groups of 25 each (A, B, C, D) to receive either oral MT 0.5 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg or oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg or placebo 45–60 min, respectively, before induction. The child's anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function before and after pre-medication, behaviour during the parental separation and venepuncture were appropriately scored. Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance for intergroup and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests for intragroup comparisons of data were applied. Results: The four groups were comparable regarding mean age, weight and sex. The anxiety score reductions in the three groups when compared to placebo were statistically significant. Children receiving MT 0.75 mg/kg had maximum anxiolysis and venepuncture compliance (P < 0.05). Cognition was decreased with maximum sedation, successful parental separation and psychomotor impairment in the midazolam group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Oral MT (0.5 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) in children decreases pre-operative anxiety without impairing cognitive and psychomotor functions, the 0.75 mg/kg dose being most effective.

  19. Tennis playing is related to psychomotor speed in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Melo, Filipe; Tlemcani, Mouhaydine; Fernandes, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    The study investigated the association of tennis playing and running with the psychomotor speed of older drivers. Thirty-six active male drivers (M age = 63.2 yr.) participated. A battery of four on-the road driving tests was performed by tennis players, runners, and a control group. Measures of simple and choice reaction time, movement time, and response time were collected under single- and dual-task conditions. A composite driving score was calculated from reaction time measures of all driving tasks to reflect a general drivers' psychomotor speed. Statistically significant differences between groups were found in a braking task; tennis players performed significantly better than controls in simple reaction time and response time. The composite driving score also differed between groups, and tennis players had better results than controls. Regular participation in tennis was related to psychomotor speed of older drivers.

  20. The effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotics on reduced processing speed and psychomotor slowing in schizophrenia: A cross-sectional exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia, but little is known about its nature or to what extent it is influenced by antipsychotics. The Symbol-Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is an appropriate tool for assessing reduced processing speed, whereas performance on copying

  1. Acute psychomotor, memory and subjective effects of MDMA and THC (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.; Van Hasselt, J.; De Kam, M.; Van Gerven, J.; Touw, D.; Buitelaar, J.; Verkes, R.

    Introduction: In Western societies a considerable percentage of young people expose themselves to the combination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”). Cannabis (main active compound D9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) is frequently co-used with ecstasy (Parrott et al., 2007).

  2. Acute psychomotor, memory and subjective effects of MDMA and THC (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.; Van Hasselt, J.; De Kam, M.; Van Gerven, J.; Touw, D.; Buitelaar, J.; Verkes, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In Western societies a considerable percentage of young people expose themselves to the combination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”). Cannabis (main active compound D9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) is frequently co-used with ecstasy (Parrott et al., 2007). Despit

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids improve psychomotor performance via mechanism not related to nitric acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S. M. Al-Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs are essential polyunsaturated fats that protect the brain from cognitive impairment. It increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS and thereby increases the nitric acid (NO production. This study aimed to explore the effect of ω-3FAs on psychomotor performance and to relate this effect to the reactive nitrogen species. This study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq. Twenty healthy subjects, allocated randomly from medical college students, were participated in the single blind clinical trial. Participants were divided into two groups, each of ten subjects to receive either placebo or (ω-3FAs (750 mg single oral dose daily for 5 days. They were asked to perform psychomotor performance before and after 5 days of treatment, and venous blood was obtained for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO. ω-3FAs treated group was significantly different from placebo-treated group in reducing choice and motor reaction times as well as the critical flicker frequency threshold. The serum levels of NO and ONOO in ω-3FAs-treated group did not significantly differ from placebo-treated group. Short term supplementation of ω-3FAs improves the psychomotor performance in young healthy subjects via a mechanism not related to the production of nitric oxide production. Inflorescence is a panicle few flowered and fruit is a capsule. The data of the results obtained were presented and discussed.

  4. Rhesus factor modulation of effects of smoking and age on psychomotor performance, intelligence, personality profile, and health in Czech soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in

  5. Acute psychomotor, memory and subjective effects of MDMA and THC co-administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Van Hasselt, J.G.C.; De Kam, M.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; Touw, D.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In Western societies a considerable percentage of young people expose themselves to the combination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy') and cannabis. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute effects of co-administration of MDMA and THC (the main psychoactive compound

  6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME - ADAPTED SWIMMING -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chera-Ferrario B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport activities have a beneficial effect on the mind and body of any type of person. The benefits of sport are even more evident in children with Down Syndrome, who exhibit a general delay in neuro-motor structures. Our aim was to develop the psycho-motor skills in children with Down Syndrome through adapted swimming exercises. We believe that our involvement in adapted swimming for children with Down Syndrome may help develop certain aspects of psycho-motor abilities. The swimming took place with 6 Down Syndrome children from the Special Needs School in Targoviste, for a period of six months and the children being assisted by volunteer students from the Valahia University Department of Sport in Targoviste.The most important result was the children's delight in coming to the pool and taking part in the swimming lessons. Through the methods and exercises used and the devoted involvement of the volunteers, the children developed great levels of trust and courage and learned to swim using only aids. After performing motor skill tests on the children, we observed a general growth in the motor skills monitored.Continuation of the adapted swimming is very important in order to mobilize the skills obtained and continue development of psycho-motor abilities.

  7. Examining Middle School Mathematics Teachers’ Use of Information and Communication Technologies and Psychomotor Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alattin Ural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of materials are used in which grades in order to improve psychomotor skills and the use of information technologies by students in the courses taught by mathematics teachers and how these materials are used; and to elicit the perceptions of these teachers on the use of these materials. Twenty two mathematics teachers (out of 25 working in 7 secondary schools were given a questionnaire form containing open ended questions and they were asked to write down the answers to those questions on the same form. The research was designed in the scanning model as a qualitative study. The data obtained from teachers were analyzed descriptively and samples from the data were presented categorically. It was observed that, regarding the psychomotor skills, a pair compass-ruler-protractor, dotted-isometric-graph paper, cutting-folding paper in geometry; fraction slips and algebra squares in algebra were the materials used respectively. The grades where these materials are used were 5, 6, 7, and 8 respectively. Regarding the use of information and communication technologies, it was observed that Morpa and Vitamin, the software developed by Turkish Ministery of Education was used to teach the subjects which contain shapes or animation; PowerPoint presentations to teach solid objects, fractals; and animations and videos on the internet to teach solid materials, triangles, fractals, patterns and decoration, equations and symmetry. These activities are used in the grades 8, 7, 6, 5 respectively. The teachers stated that the fact that information technologies and psychomotor skills are not used to the extent they should be stems from the lack of time, lack of computers, the overpopulated classes and the washback effect of the national exams. Keywords: Information and communication technologies (ICT, psychomotor skills, teacher’s opinions

  8. Parsing the components of the psychomotor syndrome in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docx, L.; Morrens, M.; Bervoets, C.; Hulstijn, W.; Hert, M. De; Baeken, C.; Audenaert, K.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Catatonia, extrapyramidal signs, psychomotor slowing, and (motoric) neurological soft signs are well-known psychomotor symptoms in schizophrenia. This study aims at investigating the interrelations between these symptoms. In addition, associations between psychomotor symptoms, clinical sy

  9. Food Cravings, Appetite, and Snack-Food Consumption in Response to a Psychomotor Stimulant Drug: The Moderating Effect of ‘Food Addiction’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating are behavioral addictions. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-based study of overeating in healthy adults who were predominately overweight and obese (aged 25-50 years, 136 participants completed the YFAS, of whom 23 met the diagnostic criteria for food addiction. They took part in a 2-day, double-blind, cross-over, single-dose drug challenge using a psychomotor stimulant (methylphenidate and placebo. Participants were first assessed on ratings of appetite and food cravings after holding and tasting their favorite snack food, after which they were able to eat all or part of the snack, as they wished. Three separate repeated-measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA procedures were carried out, each with 2 between-subjects factors (Diagnosis: food addiction vs non-food addiction and (Sex: male vs female and 1 within-subjects factor (Days: drug vs placebo. As anticipated, for all three dependent variables, there was a significant main effect for Days with a response decrease from placebo to the drug condition. With respect to food cravings and appetite ratings, results indicated that the food-addiction group had significantly higher scores on both variables (p<0.0001. For food consumption, there was a significant Days x Diagnosis interaction (p=0.018 whereby the food-addiction group showed no food-intake suppression across days compared to the non-food-addiction group who demonstrated a significant decrease in snack-food consumption with methylphenidate. The finding that the food-addiction group was resistant to the food

  10. Food cravings, appetite, and snack-food consumption in response to a psychomotor stimulant drug: the moderating effect of "food-addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Kennedy, James L; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating resemble an addiction disorder. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-based study of overeating in healthy adults who were predominately overweight and obese (aged 25-50 years), 136 participants completed the YFAS, of whom 23 met the diagnostic criteria for food-addiction. They took part in a 2-day, double-blind, cross-over, single-dose drug challenge using a psychomotor stimulant (methylphenidate) and placebo. Participants were first assessed on ratings of appetite and food cravings after holding and tasting their favorite snack food, after which they were able to eat all or part of the snack, as they wished. Three separate repeated-measures analysis-of-variance procedures were carried out, each with two between-subjects factors (Diagnosis: food-addiction vs. non-food addiction) and (Sex: male vs. female) and 1 within-subjects factor (Days: drug vs. placebo). As anticipated, for all three dependent variables, there was a significant main effect for Days with a response decrease from placebo to the drug condition. With respect to food cravings and appetite ratings, results indicated that the food addiction group had significantly higher scores on both variables. For food consumption, there was a significant Days × Diagnosis interaction whereby the food-addiction group showed no food-intake suppression across days compared to the non-food-addiction group who demonstrated a significant decrease in snack-food consumption with methylphenidate. The finding that the food-addiction group was resistant to the food-intake suppression typically induced by a

  11. Effects of the common cold on mood, psychomotor performance, the encoding of new information, speed of working memory and semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that people with the common cold report a more negative mood and psychomotor slowing. Recent research suggests that memory speed may also be impaired. This was examined in the study reported here. A prospective design was used and all participants (N=200; half male, half female; mean age 21 years, range 18-30 years) carried out a baseline session when healthy. The test battery involved mood rating, simple and choice reaction time, verbal reasoning and semantic processing. Volunteers returned when they developed an upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) and repeated the test battery. If they remained healthy they were recalled as a control. One hundred and eighty-nine participants completed the study and 48 developed URTIs and 141 were in the healthy control group. Symptoms and signs suggested that those who were ill had colds rather than influenza. The results showed that those with colds reported lower alertness, a more negative mood, and psychomotor slowing. They were also slower at encoding new information and slower on the verbal reasoning and semantic processing tasks. The magnitude of the mood changes associated with being ill were correlated with symptom severity. The performance changes were not correlated with symptom severity, sleep duration or mood changes. Further research is now needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the behavioral malaise associated with URTIs.

  12. The effect of early intervention on premature infants with psychomotor development%早期干预对早产儿发育落后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟青; 许欢

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of early intervention on premature infants with psychomotor development, and find a more rational treatment. Methods Selected 183 cases eligible premature infants that borned in march 2008-July 2009 from our hospital or other hospitals. During which 111 cases were intervention group. The intervention group received normal parental guidance and early intervention. 72 cases were non-intervention group. This group only received normal parental guidance. The intervention group used early intervention according to 0-2-years-age outline of early intervention, such as massage, neurodevelopmental therapy, and multiple sensory stimuli. Results There were 4 cases with cerebral palsy, 2 cases with mental retardation, and 5 cases with motion retardation in intervention group; while there were 9 cases with cerebral palsy, 6 cases with mental retardation, and 9 cases with motion retardation in non-intervention group. The differences were significant(P < 0.05). Conclusion Early intervention can reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy, mental retardation of premature infants. Therefore, early intervention on the brain development of premature infants can improve the quality of long-term survival of this group.%目的 探讨早期干预对早产儿发育落后的影响,以寻找更合理的治疗方法.方法 将2008年3月-2009年7月在我院出生和外院转入NICU的符合条件的183例早产儿列入本研究中;111例早产儿新生儿期病情稳定后,除接受一般育儿指导外,均进行早产儿早期干预,为干预组;72例早产儿在新生儿期病情稳定后,因各种原因仅接受了一般的育儿指导,未进行早产儿早期干预,为未干预组.干预组按0~2岁早期干预大纲进行早期干预,采用按摩、神经发育疗法、多种感觉刺激等方法.结果 干预组出现脑性瘫痪、智力低下、运动低下的患儿分别有4、2、5例,未干预组分别有9、6、9例,干预组的发生率均较未

  13. Psychomotor performance in relation to acute oral administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Patrik; Gallinat, Jürgen; Weinberg, Gordon; Juckel, Georg; Gorynia, Inge; Stadelmann, Andreas M

    2009-08-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor performance are a consistent finding in schizophrenic patients as well as in chronic cannabis users. The high levels of central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum indicate their implication in the regulation of motor activity. Based on the close relationship between cannabis use, the endogenous cannabinoid system and motor disturbances found in schizophrenia, we expected that administration of cannabinoids may change pattern of psychomotor activity like in schizophrenic patients. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol. Psychomotor performance was assessed by using a finger tapping test series. Cannabis extract, but not Delta(9)-THC, revealed a significant reduction of right-hand tapping frequencies that was also found in schizophrenia. As to the pure Delta(9)-THC condition, left-hand tapping frequencies were correlated with the plasma concentrations of the Delta(9)-THC metabolite 11-OH-THC. These effects are thought to be related to cannabinoid actions on CB(1) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. Our data further demonstrate that acute CB(1) receptor activation under the cannabis extract condition may also affect intermanual coordination (IMC) as an index of interhemispheric transfer. AIR-Scale scores as a measure of subjective perception of intoxication were dose-dependently related to IMC which was shown by an inverted U-curve. This result may be due to functional changes involving GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission within the corpus callosum.

  14. BOBATH THERAPY IN CORRECTION OF PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ORGANIC INJURIES CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B. O.; Romanchuk, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The article represents therapy of Bobath such as one of the most effective author method which use in correction psychomotor development of children with disorders of musculoskeletal system. Bobath method is not new in the correction of movement disorders since last century and still supplementing and improving. In this work highlight topic of the effective use Bobath therapy in correction of psychomotor development in children age 3 – 6 years with organic involvement CNS. the experi...

  15. The novel recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent psychomotor stimulant: self-administration and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarde, S M; Huang, P K; Creehan, K M; Dickerson, T J; Taffe, M A

    2013-08-01

    Recreational use of the cathinone derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "bath salts") has increased worldwide in past years, accompanied by accounts of health and legal problems in the popular media and efforts to criminalize possession in numerous jurisdictions. Minimal information exists on the effects of MDPV in laboratory models. This study determined the effects of MDPV, alongside those of the better studied stimulant d-methamphetamine (METH), using rodent models of intravenous self-administration (IVSA), thermoregulation and locomotor activity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer MDPV or METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) or were prepared with radiotelemetry implants for the assessment of body temperature and activity responses to MDPV or METH (0-5.6 mg/kg s.c.). METH and MDPV were consistently self-administered within 10 training sessions (mg/kg/h; METH Mean = 0.4 and Max = 1.15; MDPV Mean = 0.9 and Max = 5.8). Dose-substitution studies demonstrated that behavior was sensitive to dose for both drugs, but MDPV (0.01-0.50 mg/kg/inf) showed greater potency and efficacy than METH (0.1-0.25 mg/kg/inf). In addition, both MDPV and METH increased locomotor activity at lower doses (0.5-1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) and transiently decreased activity at the highest dose (5.6 mg/kg, s.c.). Body temperature increased monotonically with increasing doses of METH but MDPV had a negligible effect on temperature. Stereotypy was associated with relatively high self-administered cumulative doses of MDPV (∼1.5 mg/kg/h) as well as with non-contingent MDPV administration wherein the intensity and duration of stereotypy increased as MDPV dose increased. Thus, MDPV poses a substantial threat for compulsive use that is potentially greater than that for METH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Requirement for the POZ/BTB protein NAC1 in acute but not chronic psychomotor stimulant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott; Pacchioni, Alejandra; Degnan, Ryan; Homan, Ying; Conti, Alana C; Kalivas, Peter; Blendy, Julie A

    2008-02-11

    NAC1 is a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex) but varies from other proteins of this class in that it lacks the characteristic DNA-binding motif, suggesting a novel role. We have employed constitutive gene deletion to elucidate the role of NAC1 in vivo. Nac1 mutant mice are viable with no obvious developmental or physiological impairments. Previous studies suggest a role for NAC1 in cocaine-mediated behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated a variety of behaviors associated with psychomotor stimulant effects in Nac1 mutant mice. Acute locomotor activating effects of cocaine or amphetamine are absent in Nac1 mutant mice, however longer exposure to these psychomotor stimulants result in the development of behavioral sensitization. Acute rewarding properties of cocaine and amphetamine are also blunted in mutant mice, yet repeated exposure resulted in conditioned place preference similar to that observed in wild-type mice. Lastly, increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, which accompany acute cocaine administration, are blunted in mutant mice, but following chronic cocaine extracellular dopamine levels are increased to the same extent as in wild-type mice. Together these data indicate involvement of NAC1 in the acute behavioral and neurochemical responses to psychomotor stimulants.

  17. Influence of gender on psychomotor vigilance task performance by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beijamini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, the sleep phase delay associated with early school times increases daytime sleepiness and reduces psychomotor performance. Some studies have shown an effect of gender on psychomotor performance in adults and children. Males present faster reaction times (RT compared with females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gender on Palm psychomotor vigilance task (PVT performance in adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents (19 girls, 13 to 16 years old attending morning school classes of a public school in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, participated in the study. Sleep patterns were measured using actigraphy and sleepiness data were accessed with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. KSS and PVT measurements were collected at two times in the morning (8:00 and 11:00 h. The data were compared using one-way ANOVA, considering gender as a factor. ANOVA indicated that gender did not affect sleep patterns and subjective somnolence; however, a statistically significant effect of gender was detected for PVT performance. Boys presented faster RT (RT-PVT1: 345.51 ms, F = 6.08, P < 0.05; RT-PVT2: 343.30 ms, F = 6.35, P < 0.05 and fewer lapses (lapses-PVT1: 8.71, F = 4.45, P < 0.05; lapses-PVT2: 7.82, F = 7.06, P < 0.05 compared with girls (RT-PVT1: 402.96; RT-PVT2: 415.70; lapses-PVT1: 16.33; lapses-PVT2: 17.80. These results showed that this effect of gender, already reported in adults and children, is also observed in adolescents. The influence of gender should be taken into account in studies that use Palm PVT to evaluate psychomotor performance in this age range.

  18. Glutamate input to noradrenergic neurons plays an essential role in the development of morphine dependence and psychomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Solecki, Wojciech; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Kubik, Jakub; Gołda, Sławomir; Novak, Martin; Parlato, Rosanna; Hess, Grzegorz; Sprengel, Rolf; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2012-11-01

    The brain's noradrenergic system is involved in the development of behaviours induced by drugs of abuse, e.g. dependence and withdrawal, and also reward or psychomotor effects. To investigate how noradrenergic system activity is controlled in the context associated with drug-induced behaviours, we generated a Cre/loxP mouse model in which the essential glutamate NMDA receptor subunit NR1 is ablated in cells expressing dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh). As a result, the noradrenergic cells in NR1DbhCre mice lack the NMDA receptor-dependent component of excitatory post-synaptic currents. The mutant mice displayed no obvious behavioural alterations, had unchanged noradrenaline content and mild increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, NR1DbhCre animals did not develop morphine-induced psychomotor sensitization. However, when the morphine injections were preceded by treatment with RX821002, an antagonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, the development of sensitization was restored. Conversely, pretreatment with clonidine, an agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, blocked development of sensitization in wild-type mice. We also found that while the development of tolerance to morphine was normal in mutant mice, withdrawal symptoms were attenuated. These data reveal that NMDA receptors on noradrenergic neurons regulate development of opiate dependence and psychomotor sensitization, by controlling drug-induced noradrenaline signalling.

  19. Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull© Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull© on (1 blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2 cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3 reaction time, (4 cognitive functions, and (5 response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (N=38. Methods. Heart rate (HR and arterial blood pressure (ABP, blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull© intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500 mL of Red Bull©. Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull© intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull© consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull© consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull© significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject’s attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull© has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

  20. THE PSYCHOMOTOR CAPACITY OF STUDENTS WITH MENTAL DISABILITIES AGED 11

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea VOINEA

    2014-01-01

    The proposed experiment is based on the hypothesis that the development level of psychomotor capacity of students with mental disability is, in the absence of a psychomotor educational program, below that of their biological age. We evaluated the psychomotor ability by using Guillmain Ozeretsky and Piaget-Head tests,in order to validate the hypothesis and to obtain the psychomotor diagnosis of the students with mental deficiencies. I found by descriptive statistical methods that the research ...

  1. Reduced cognitive and psychomotor impairment with extended-release oxymorphone versus controlled-release oxycodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedel, Kerri A; McMorn, Stephen; Chakraborty, Bijan; Zerbe, Kathleen; Sellers, Edward M

    2010-01-01

    Opioids provide effective pain control, yet have risks including adverse events (AEs) (e.g., constipation, nausea/vomiting, sedation) and cognitive/psychomotor effects. To compare cognitive and psychomotor effects of oxymorphone extended release (OM-ER) versus oxycodone controlled release (OC-CR). Randomized, double-blind, 5-way crossover Single inpatient research unit Nondependent recreational opioid users were administered single intact oral tablets of placebo, OM-ER (15 and 30 mg), and OC-CR (30 and 60 mg), separated by a 7- to 21-day washout. The divided attention (DA) test measured psychomotor impairment (e.g., manual tracking [e.g., percentage over road], target accuracy [e.g., target hits], reaction time [hit latency]). Visual analog scales measured alertness/drowsiness, agitation/relaxation, and dizziness. Sedative, stimulant, and dysphoric effects were measured using the Addiction Research Center Inventory Pentobarbital-Chlorpromazine-Alcohol (PCAG), Benzedrine Group (BG), and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) scales, respectively. Comparisons were made between equianalgesic doses (OM-ER 15 mg vs OC-CR 30 mg; OM-ER 30 mg vs OC-CR 60 mg), within active drug doses, and between active drugs and placebo using least squares (LS) mean difference of the peak maximum (Emax) or minimum (Emin) effect using linear mixed model analysis of covariance. Thirty-five participants received all 5 treatments. Peak cognitive and psychomotor impairment (LS mean [SE]) was less with OM-ER than equianalgesic doses of OC-CR for reaction time (Emax hit latency, longer if impaired; 571.2 [13.4] vs 588.1 ms [13.4], P=0.03 for OM-ER 15 mg vs OC-CR 30 mg, respectively; 572.4 [13.4] vs 604.3 ms [13.4], P=0.03 for OM-ER 15 mg vs OC-CR 30 mg, respectively; 572.4 [13.4] vs 604.3 ms [13.4], PLSD, P<0.001 for both equianalgesic dose groups), and sedation (Emax, PCAG; P<0.001 for both equianalgesic dose groups) and less stimulation (BG, Emin; P=0.01 for OM-ER 15 mg vs OC-CR mg; P<0.001 for OM

  2. Psychomotor symptoms in depression: A diagnostic, pathophysiological and therapeutic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychomotor disturbances have been described repeatedly over many centuries. More recently, Sobin and Sackeim [Sobin, C., Sackeim, H.A., 1997. Psychomotor symptoms of depression. Am. J. Psychiatry. 154, 4–17.] discussed the relevance of psychomotor symptoms in depression in an extensive review. Sinc

  3. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. [Specific disturbances of psychomotor development in children with thymomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, O N; Kuz'menko, L G; Kozlovskaia, G V; Kliushnik, T P

    2008-01-01

    Ninety children, aged from 2 month to 3 years, with thymomegaly and 25 aged-matched controls were studied. Most children with thymomegaly had disturbances of psychomotor development. Depending on their types, the cohort of children was stratified into 4 subgroups: 1st - 36 patients (40%) with schizotypal signs; 2nd - 30 hyperactive children (33%); 3rd - 19 children with hyperthymia signs (21%); 4th - 5 normal children (6%). The deviations of locomotion and psychiatric development were correlated with the extent of thymus enlargement and activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. [Psychomotor development and its disorders: between normal and pathological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Agustina; Bibiana Orden, Alicia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.

  6. The novel recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent psychomotor stimulant: self-administration and locomotor activity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aarde, S. M.; Huang, P.K.; Creehan, K.M.; Dickerson, T. J.; Taffe, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recreational use of the cathinone derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; “bath salts”) has increased worldwide in past years, accompanied by accounts of health and legal problems in the popular media and efforts to criminalize possession in numerous jurisdictions. Minimal information exists on the effects of MDPV in laboratory models. This study determined the effects of MDPV, alongside those of the better studied stimulant d-methamphetamine (METH), using rodent models of intravenou...

  7. Teaching physical education by the perspective of psychomotor development and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Dvořáková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teaching physical education should refl ect changes in education and changes in the concept of physical education as a part of health education in the broad sense, it means physical, mental and social health. In addition to provable positive benefi ts of physical activity on health, it is generally considered diffi cult to demonstrate the infl uence of physical education on diff erent ways of life. Results of studies indicate failure of education in physical education in practical and information process. Perceived physical competence, fun, the activity and monitoring individual progress are considered as positive correlates of the infl uence of physical education on lifestyle (Dobrý, 2007.OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper is to point out that psychomotor activities could bring positive changes in teaching physical education.METHODS: This paper examined various studies, personal experiencies from abroad and practice.RESULTS: Physical activities and games in pedagogical concept of ps. development are intentionally aimed at the physical and motoric development in connection with mental processes and social relations, promote personal knowledge and personal development, self-activity and creativity, are fun and lead to the acquisition of key competencies. Using psychomotor teaching methods could support this impact of psychomotor activities and help to make positive changes in physical education.CONCLUSIONS: Psychomotor activities can help the modern concept of physical education if in addition to practical activities there is also included theoretical and didactic knowledge that increase the possibility of rational and intentional use of these activities.

  8. Movement. Proceedings of Seventh Symposium in Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Activity Professionals of Quebec, Montreal.

    The symposium on the physical and psychomotor aspects of sports covered a variety of topics. Among those contained in this report are: discussions on the taxonomies of sports; the time dimension of physical activity including response variables, judgment of temporal order, and duration discrimination; memory; information and its use in physical…

  9. Interactions of levetiracetam with carbamazepine, phenytoin, topiramate and vigabatrin in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model - a type II isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Wlaz, Aleksandra; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2014-01-15

    The aim of the presented study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with various antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, topiramate and vigabatrin) in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model. Limbic (psychomotor) seizure activity was evoked in albino Swiss mice by a current (32mA, 6Hz, 3s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes; type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the consequent anticonvulsant interactions between the various drug combinations for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. With type II isobolographic analysis, the combinations of levetiracetam with carbamazepine and phenytoin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 were supra-additive (synergistic; P<0.01) in terms of seizure suppression, while the combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were additive. Levetiracetam combined with topiramate and vigabatrin for the fixed-ratio of 1:10 exerted supra-additive interaction (P<0.05), and simultaneously, the two-drug combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 produced additive interaction in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model. The combinations of levetiracetam with carbamazepine and phenytoin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10, as well as the combinations of levetiracetam with topiramate and vigabatrin for the fixed-ratio of 1:10 appear to be particularly favorable combinations exerting supra-additive interaction in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model. Finally, it may be concluded that because of the synergistic interactions between levetiracetam and carbamazepine, phenytoin, topiramate and vigabatrin, the combinations might be useful in clinical practice.

  10. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  11. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes. Re

  12. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Psychomotor Syndrome in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docx, L.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Fransen, E.; Bervoets, C.; Hulstijn, W.; Bossche, M.J.A. Van Den; Vermeylen, S.; Temmerman, A.; Morsel, A.M.; Morrens, M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal course of psychomotor signs and symptoms after illness onset in schizophrenia. Therefore, a 1-year follow-up study was conducted in which patients with schizophrenia were assessed three times with an extensive battery of psychomotor rating scales and tests. The

  13. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.

  14. The contribution of a psychomotor stimulation to the process of independence for a visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaynara Rodrigues da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing and implementing a program of psychomotor stimulation process-based orientation and mobility of the visually impaired, since this type of commitment has a direct influence on psychomotor development of the individual, affecting their autonomy and independence. The program was implemented in the Laboratory of Psychomotor Stimulation of the Federal University of Viçosa, with the theoretical basis of Psychomotricity. We chose the intrinsic case study, to observe and evaluate better the difficulties encountered by the technique of systematic observation and informal interviews with parents. One can perceive evolutions in visually handicapped studied in terms equilibrium, concept space and body schema, and also willing to perform activities of daily living, which interfere in their locomotion. We concluded that the process of orientation and mobility is paramount in the work of independence of the visually impaired, and that it is needed a psychomotor development stimulus since the beginning of his life, because the delays that may arise during their growth and maturation. It becomes important to apply qualitative approaches for further studies but with larger samples.

  15. Looking into learning: visuospatial and psychomotor predictors of ultrasound-guided procedural performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh M; Kopp, Sandra L; Johnson, Rebecca L; Long, Timothy R; Cerhan, Jane H; Hebl, James R

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia, little understanding of the psychomotor and visuospatial skills required to achieve and maintain procedural proficiency exists. Despite its procedural nature, anesthesiology lags behind other fields in assessing technical aptitude among practitioners and trainees. The goals of this study were to measure relevant visuospatial and psychomotor aptitudes of anesthesia residents-in-training and to evaluate the relationship between these skill sets and the performance of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Forty residents from the Mayo Clinic Department of Anesthesiology were enrolled, and 39 (PGY-1 through PGY-4) voluntarily completed a demographic survey, 4 psychomotor and 4 visuospatial aptitude assessments, and an ultrasound-based performance assessment. The Block Design Test, a subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale - III, correlated with ultrasound guided skill performance (correlation coefficient, 0.47; P hand-eye coordination visual feedback (projected image) compared with direct hand-eye coordination (P hand dominance. This study reveals that visuospatial aptitude is a better predictor of ultrasound-based procedural performance than psychomotor ability. The type of real-time visual feedback (indirect versus direct) used for hand-eye coordination significantly impacts procedural performance and has implications for anesthesia and other procedural specialties. The learning effect noted during initial ultrasound skill trials suggests visuospatial assimilation and underscores the importance of early ultrasound instruction.

  16. Psychomotor re-education: Movement as therapeutic method

    OpenAIRE

    Golubović Špela; Tubić Tatjana; Marković Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor re-education represents a multidimensional therapeutic approach in dealing with children and adults with psychomotor disorders. Therapeutic programs should be based on individual differences, abilities and capabilities, relationships, feelings and individual developmental needs as well as emotional condition of a child. Body and movement as the bases of the treatment. A movement, glance, touch, voice and word, all being an integral part of a process of psychomo...

  17. Psychomotor development of preterm babies in the context of biomedical predictors in a Polish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Bidzan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth represents the most frequent complication of pregnancy all over the world. Much research is addressed to psychomotor development of preterm infants during the initial years of their life. Many authors emphasize the role of birth weight, gestational age, and gender in determining the child’s psychomotor development. This study adds to this knowledge as we analyzed the synergistic effect of biomedical predictors such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, time in incubator, type of pregnancy defined based on its outcome, neonatal status immediately after delivery, infant’s gender, and possessing twin sibling. Combined effects of these factors represent an important niche in the studies of the developmental psychology of preterm infants. Participants and procedure The study included 49 preterm infants born in 2008-2009 at the Department of Obstetrics of the Medical University of Gdańsk. The psychomotor development of preterm infants was evaluated according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development®, Third Edition (BSID-III at a mean, non-corrected age of 33.80 months (SD = 5.16. For the purpose of the study we developed a basic model in the form of a pathway diagram, describing the cumulative influence of eight biomedical predictors on the development of the infants during early childhood. Results Our study revealed a synergistic influence of biomedical predictors on the development of preterm infants with regards to cognitive functioning (28% of variance, language skills (10% of variance, motor skills (18% of variance, fine motor skills (16% of variance, and gross motor skills (20% of variance. Moreover, we observed an independent effect of birth weight, child’s gender, and final Apgar score on the psychomotor development of preterm infants. Higher birth weight was associated with higher level of cognitive function and fine motor skills. Male gender of a child was reflected by a higher level of

  18. Synergistic interaction of levetiracetam with gabapentin in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model – a type II isobolographic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wlaz Aleksandra; Kondrat-Wrobel Maria W.; Zaluska Katarzyna; Kochman Ewelina; Rekas Anna R.; Luszczki Jarogniew J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at characterizing the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with gabapentin, in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Herein, psychomotor seizures were evoked in male albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3 s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the anticonvulsant interactions between the drugs in combination, for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. The type II isobolog...

  19. Psychomotor development in children with iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Emin; Erguven, Muferet; Guven, Sirin; Erdogan, Makbule; Balta, Tulin

    2010-09-01

    Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia are the most common nutritional deficiencies in children, especially in developing countries. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy is associated with impaired neurodevelopment. Studies have shown an association between iron deficiency without anemia and adverse effects on psychomotor development. To determine the effects of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia on psychomotor development in childhood. . We evaluated psychomotor development in healthy children with iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia with the use of the Denver II Developmental Screening Test (DDST-II). If the child score was more than 90th percentile compared to children in the same age group, the test was scored as "delay" it was scored as a "caution" if the child score was between the 75th and 90th percentiles. The test result was interpreted as "normal," if there was no delay and only one "caution" for any item. If the child had one or more "delays" or more than two "cautions," the result was classified as "abnormal." DDST-II scores were abnormal in 67.3% of subjects with iron-deficiency anemia, 21.6% of those with iron deficiency, and 15.0% of control subjects. The difference from the control group in the percentage of abnormal scores was significant for subjects with iron-deficiency anemia (p iron deficiency (p = 0.203); p > .05. (p-value, post-hoc comparison of 2 groups.) Iron-deficiency anemia impaired psychomotor development during childhood. However, the evidence on the adverse effects of iron deficiency remains controversial. The Denver II Developmental Screening Test is a valuable test to detect early developmental delays, especially in infants with risk factors.

  20. Influence of hippotherapy on psychomotor development of people with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia de Oliveira Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hippotherapy is a therapeutic and educational process that uses a horse with the purpose of providing physical and psychological improvement for people with special needs. In this study, the goal was to analyze the influence of hippotherapy on psychomotor development of people with special needs. In order to do this, an extensive bibliographical research was performed and from the items found an analysis was carried out through reading the abstracts and selecting the works which involved psychomotor aspects related to hippotherapeutic intervention. As a result, 15 articles were found relevant to the object of this study, which showed evidence for gains in motor skills due to the intervention with the use of horses. It was possible to analyze the frequency of publication of articles on the area, identify the population who benefited from the practice of hippotherapy and the main theories that offer support to research. Through careful literature review, it was possible to conclude that hippotherapy can be an effective tool as intervention in the psychomotor aspects of people with special needs.

  1. Mental and psychomotor development in Indonesian infants of mothers supplemented with vitamin A in addition to iron during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, J.W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five vill

  2. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and child psychomotor development after the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manuela; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy has been associated with improved neuropsychological development in children, although the effects of high dosages of folic acid (FA) supplements are unclear. To examine the association between the use of high dosages of FA supplements during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development after the first year of life. The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project recruited pregnant women from 4 areas of Spain (Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) between November 2003 and January 2008. Pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the usual dietary folate intake and FA supplements at 10 to 13 weeks and 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. The main analyses were based on a sample of 2213 children with complete information on neuropsychological development and FA supplement intake during pregnancy. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effects of FA supplements on child neuropsychological development. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We calculated mental scale and psychomotor scale scores. One SD below the mean established a delay in neurodevelopment (score 5000 μg/d). In multivariate analysis, we observed that children whose mothers used FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d during pregnancy had a statistically significantly lower mean psychomotor scale score (difference, -4.35 points; 95% CI, -8.34 to -0.36) than children whose mothers used a recommended dosage of FA supplements (400-1000 μg/d). An increased risk of delayed psychomotor development (psychomotor scale score <85) was also evident among children whose mothers took FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d, although the association was not statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.82-3.08). To our knowledge, this is the first time a detrimental effect of high dosages of FA supplements

  3. Differentiation between deviant trajectory planning, action planning, and reduced psychomotor speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houthoofd, S.; Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Abnormal psychomotor behaviour in schizophrenia might be based on separate deficits. Here we studied the relationship between trajectory planning, action planning, psychomotor speed, and indices of cognitive functioning in a large group of stabilised patients with

  4. Effects of Acute Exposure to Mild or Moderate Hypoxia on Human Psychomotor Performance and Visual-reaction Time%急性轻、中度缺氧暴露对心理运动及反应时的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学义; 吴兴裕; 付川; 沈小凤; 杨长斌; 吴燕红

    2000-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether psychomotor performance and visual reaction time were affected by acute exposure to mild or moderate hypoxia. Method Eighteen healthy male volunteers performed finger tapping, simple reaction time(SRT) and 4-choice reaction time(CRT) tests at simulated altitude of 300 m (control),2800 m, 3600 m and 4400 m for 1 h in a hypobaric chamber. Result SaO2 decreased from 98%(control) to 90%,82% and 74% respectively at the various altitudes. All the performance parameters showed no significant change after exposure to 2800 m for 1 h relative to ground level(P>0.05). However the mean reaction time of 4-CRT under 3600 m prolonged and performance decreased as compared with baseline value(P0.05). Conclusion The results from this study demonstrated that there were no measurable impairment of visual reaction time and psychomotor performance under exposure to an altitude of 2800 m for 1 h. However, adverse effects on psychomotor performance were observed under 3600 m and over.%目的研究急性轻、中度缺氧暴露对人的心理运动及视觉反应时的影响. 方法利用低压舱模拟300 m (对照高度)、2800 m、3600 m、4400 m高度缺氧暴露1 h,考察了18 名健康男性青年被试者指叩测验、简单反应时和选择反应时的变化. 结果血氧饱和度(SaO2)由地面对照值98%分别降至90%、82%和74%.2800 m 缺氧暴露1 h心理运动绩效的各个参数并无显著改变(P>0.05).3600 m缺氧暴露时选择反应时的平均反应时明显延长,运动绩效下降(P0.05). 结论本研究的结果提示,急性缺氧暴露于2800 m高度1 h并未对心理运动产生严重影响,而暴露于3600 m以上高度时会对选择反应时等复杂反应产生负面影响,且随着高度的增加而加重.

  5. Psychomotor performance during a 28 day head-down tilt with and without lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traon, A. Pavy-le; de Feneyrols, A. Rous; Cornac, A.; Abdeseelam, R.; N'uygen, D.; Lazerges, M.; Güell, A.; Bes, A.

    Several factors may affect psychomotor performance in space: sensory-motor changes, sleep disturbances, psychological modifications induced by the social isolation and confinement. However, psychomotor performance is difficult to assess. A battery of standardized and computerized tests, so-called "Automated Portable Test System" (APTS) was devised to ascertain the cognitive, perceptive and motor abilities and their possible fluctuations according to environmental effects. Antiorthostatic bedrest, often used to simulate weightlessness, (particularly cardiovascular modifications) also constitutes a situation of social confinement and isolation. During two bedrest experiments (with head-down tilt of -6°) of 28 days each, we intended to assess psychomotor performance of 6 males so as to determine whether: —on the one hand, it could be altered by remaining in decubitus; —on the other, the Lower Body Negative Pressure sessions, designed to prevent orthostatic intolerance back on Earth, could improve the performance. To accomplish this, part of the APTS tests as well as an automated perceptive attention test were performed. No downgrading of psychomotor performance was observed. On the contrary, the tasks were more accurately performed over time. In order to assess the experimental conditions on the acquisition phase, the learning curves were modelled. A beneficial effect of the LBNP sessions on simple tests involving the visual-motor coordination and attention faculties can only be regarded as a mere trend. Methods used in this experiment are also discussed.

  6. The issue of scientific thesaurus differentiation of table tennis sportsmen's psychomotor abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kushnir V.V.; Fotuyma A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Essence of psychomotor capabilities opens up for tennis sportsmen-players. Clear differentiation of the most essential psychomotor capabilities is conducted. They will present the constituent of competent training process and successful competition period. It is necessary to take to the group of general psychomotor qualities of tennis players: spatial orientation, kinesthetic sensitiveness, exactness of motions. The special attention is deserved by the group of psychomotor capabilities: diffi...

  7. Synergistic interaction of levetiracetam with gabapentin in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model – a type II isobolographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlaz Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at characterizing the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with gabapentin, in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Herein, psychomotor seizures were evoked in male albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3 s stimulus duration delivered via ocular electrodes. Type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the anticonvulsant interactions between the drugs in combination, for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. The type II isobolographic analysis revealed that the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 were supra-additive (synergistic; P<0.05 in terms of seizure suppression, while the combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were additive in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. We conclude that, as the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 exerted supra-additive (synergistic interaction in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model, this may be considered as particularly favorable combinations in further clinical practice.

  8. Methods Used for Teaching Psychomotor Skills in Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of psychomotor skill instruction in crop production provided by agricultural production teachers in Illinois and the methods used for this teaching. Responses from 79 of 100 teachers indicated that most do not have students observe or practice a procedure for skill improvement. More experienced…

  9. Objective classification of residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Chmarra (Magdalena); S.K. Klein (Stefan); J.C.F. van Winter (Joost); F-W. Jansen (Frank-Willem); J. Dankelman (Jenny)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground From the clinical point of view, it is important to recognize residents' level of expertise with regard to basic psychomotor skills. For that reason, surgeons and surgical organizations (e.g., Acreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, ACGME) are calling for assessme

  10. Objective classification of residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmarra, M.K.; Klein, S.; De Winter, J.C.F.; Jansen, F.W.; Dankelman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background - From the clinical point of view, it is important to recognize residents’ level of expertise with regard to basic psychomotor skills. For that reason, surgeons and surgical organizations (e.g., Acreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, ACGME) are calling for assessment tools t

  11. Psychomotor planning is deficient in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K.P.; Vermeeren, L.C.A.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Veelen, N. van; Kahn, R.S.; Hulstijn, W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychomotor slowing is regarded as an important clinical phenomenon in schizophrenia and simple graphic tasks consistently revealed deficits in the (implicit) planning and execution of motor actions in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The aim of the present study is to test the

  12. Psychomotor therapy and aggression regulation in eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviours can be seen as self-destructive behaviours to a great extent related to inhibited anger expression. However, a treatment protocol targeted at anger and aggression in these disorders is lacking. This paper describes a psychomotor therapy (PMT) model as a body-oriented metho

  13. Psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance in rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance. It was hypothesized that lower perceived performance was related to longer reaction times. A total of 85 measurements were taken in 26 varsity rowers (mean age 21.3 years, s=1.6) on five occasion

  14. Meditation acutely improves psychomotor vigilance, and may decrease sleep need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passafiume Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of benefits from meditation have been claimed by those who practice various traditions, but few have been well tested in scientifically controlled studies. Among these claims are improved performance and decreased sleep need. Therefore, in these studies we assess whether meditation leads to an immediate performance improvement on a well validated psychomotor vigilance task (PVT, and second, whether longer bouts of meditation may alter sleep need. Methods The primary study assessed PVT reaction times before and after 40 minute periods of mediation, nap, or a control activity using a within subject cross-over design. This study utilized novice meditators who were current university students (n = 10. Novice meditators completed 40 minutes of meditation, nap, or control activities on six different days (two separate days for each condition, plus one night of total sleep deprivation on a different night, followed by 40 minutes of meditation. A second study examined sleep times in long term experienced meditators (n = 7 vs. non-meditators (n = 23. Experienced meditators and controls were age and sex matched and living in the Delhi region of India at the time of the study. Both groups continued their normal activities while monitoring their sleep and meditation times. Results Novice meditators were tested on the PVT before each activity, 10 minutes after each activity and one hour later. All ten novice meditators improved their PVT reaction times immediately following periods of meditation, and all but one got worse immediately following naps. Sleep deprivation produced a slower baseline reaction time (RT on the PVT that still improved significantly following a period of meditation. In experiments with long-term experienced meditators, sleep duration was measured using both sleep journals and actigraphy. Sleep duration in these subjects was lower than control non-meditators and general population norms, with no apparent

  15. Asynchronous teaching of psychomotor skills through VR annotations: evaluation in digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Mikko J; Kume, Naoto; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Many VR technology based training systems use expert's motion data as the training aid, but would not provide any short-cut to teaching medical skills that do not depend on exact motions. Earlier we presented Annotated Simulation Records (ASRs), which can be used to encapsulate experts' insight on psychomotor skills. Annotations made to behavioural parameters in training simulators enable asynchronous teaching instead of just motion training in a proactive way to the learner. We evaluated ASRs for asynchronous teaching of Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) with 3 urologists and 8 medical students. The ASRs were found more effective than motion-based training with verbal feedback.

  16. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

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    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  17. 早期干预对高危新生儿精神运动发育迟缓预后的影响分析%Analysis on the effect of early intervention on the prognosis of high risk neonates with psychomotor retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕴; 赵映敏; 孔德娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of early intervention on the prognosis of high risk neonates with psychomotor retardation. Methods: 60 high risk neonates received effective early intervention in the hospital from August 2008 to February 2011, the improvements of NBNA and DQ of the neonates were observed, then the results were compared with those based on 70 high risk neonates who had detailed records but didn't receive effective early intervention. Results: There was significant difference in NBNA score before and after treatment in the two groups and between the two groups (P < 0. 05); there was significant difference in DQ at 3, 12 and 24 months after treatment between the two groups (P < 0. 05) . Conclusion: Effective early intervention can improve the conditions of high risk neonates with psychomotor retardation, reduce the incidences ol cerebral palsy and mental retardation significantly, which is worthy to be used and spread in clinic.%目的:探讨早期干预对高危新生儿精神运动发育迟缓预后的影响.方法:2008年8月~2011年2月该院经治的60例高危新生儿采取有效的早期干预治疗,观察患儿的NBNA、DQ改善情况,和既往有详细资料记载的未采取有效早期干预的70例高危新生儿进行比较.结果:在有关NBNA评分对比情况中,两组患儿在治疗前后的组内、治疗后的组间比较差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);在有关两组患儿治疗后3个月、12个月、24个月时DQ比较中,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:对高危新生儿进行有效的早期干预可以很好地改善患儿的精神运动发育迟缓情况,使患儿脑瘫、智力低下等情况的发生率明显降低,值得在临床中广泛使用并推广.

  18. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  19. Role of Biofeedback in Optimizing Psychomotor Performance in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Maman; Garg, Kanupriya; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Biofeedback is an emerging tool to acquire and facilitate physiological and psychological domains of the human body like response time and concentration. Thus, the present study aims at determining the reconstitution of psychomotor and performance skills in basketball players through biofeedback training. Methods Basketball players (N=30) with different levels of expertise (university, state and national) aged 18-28 years (both male and female) were randomly divided into 3 equal group...

  20. Investigating laparoscopic psychomotor skills in veterinarians and veterinary technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Jessica; Santarossa, Amanda; Mrotz, Victoria; Walker, Meagan; Monaghan, Dominique; Singh, Ameet

    2017-04-01

    To determine the influence of age, year of graduation, and video game experience on baseline laparoscopic psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional. Licensed veterinarians (n = 38) and registered veterinary technicians (VTs) (n = 49). A laparoscopic box trainer was set up at the 2016 Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) and the 2016 Ontario Association of Veterinary Technicians (OAVT) conferences held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants volunteered to perform a single repetition of a peg transfer (PT) exercise. Participants were given a short demonstration of the PT task prior to testing. A Spearman's rank correlation (rs ) was used to identify associations between baseline psychomotor skills and self-reported surgical and non-surgical experiences collected via survey. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare PT scores in veterinarians and VTs. A P-value of veterinarians, PT scores were highest in the most recent graduates (P = .01, rs  = 0.42), and PT scores increased with self-reported VG experience (P = .02, rs  = 0.38). PT scores correlated inversely with age (P = .02, rs  = -0.37). No associations were observed in VTs (P > .05). Veterinary technicians that frequently used chopsticks scored higher than those without chopstick experience (P = .04). Age and year of graduation correlated inversely, while self-reported VG experience correlated positively with laparoscopic psychomotor skills of veterinarians, when assessed on a simulator. The use of chopsticks may contribute to the acquisition of psychomotor skills in VTs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. THE EFFECT OF A LEISURE TIME SPORT ACTIVITY IN DEVELOPING MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PRODAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to see how the family members’ involvement in the practice of leisure movement games (tennis raises the children’s movement wish and psychomotor skills: coordination, balance, rhythm, precision of movement. In conducting this research were used the survey method, the observation method, the measurement-evaluation method and the statistical-mathematical method. Data was collected during 10 months from 76 children, aged from 10 to 13 years (±3 months and enrolled in a leisure movement game program. Descriptive statistics indicate a significant effect of the variables: medicine ball throwing, speed running, endurance running and throwing target with the tennis ball. One can see a positive effect due to the Evaluation – Intervention interaction: medicine ball throwing η²=0.12, speed running η² = 0.13, endurance running η²=0.16, throwing target with the tennis ball η²=0.21. Educational leisure time sport movement games raise the level of driving skill development and psychomotor qualities, based on a greater involvement in the correct performance of sport activities.

  2. THE EFFECT OF A LEISURE TIME SPORT ACTIVITY IN DEVELOPING MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PRODAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to see how the family members’ involvement in the practice of leisure movement games (tennis raises the children’s movement wish and psychomotor skills: coordination, balance, rhythm, precision of movement. In conducting this research were used the survey method, the observation method, the measurement-evaluation method and the statistical-mathematical method. Data was collected during 10 months from 76 children, aged from 10 to 13 years (±3 months and enrolled in a leisure movement game program. Descriptive statistics indicate a significant effect of the variables: medicine ball throwing, speed running, endurance running and throwing target with the tennis ball. One can see a positive effect due to the Evaluation – Intervention interaction: medicine ball throwing η²=0.12, speed running η² = 0.13, endurance running η²=0.16, throwing target with the tennis ball η²=0.21. Educational leisure time sport movement games raise the level of driving skill development and psychomotor qualities, based on a greater involvement in the correct performance of sport activities.

  3. [Psychomotor re-education--movement as therapeutic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubović, Spela; Tubić, Tatjana; Marković, Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Psychomotor re-education represents a multidimensional therapeutic approach in dealing with children and adults with psychomotor disorders. Therapeutic programs should be based on individual differences, abilities and capabilities, relationships, feelings and individual developmental needs as well as emotional condition of a child. BODY AND MOVEMENT AS THE Bases OF THE TREATMENT: A movement, glance, touch, voice and word, all being an integral part of a process of psychomotor re-education, are used with a purpose of helping children to discover their own body, their feelings, needs, behaviour. When moving, children discover the space of their own bodily nature, and, subsequently, gestural space and objective space. The body represents a source of pleasure and the freedom of movement, as well as one's own existence, are soon to be discovered. An adequate assessment is a precondition to design a work plan, select the best exercises for each child individually and direct the course of therapy. This is the most suitable method for treating children with slow or disharmonious development, mentally challenged children, children with speech and behaviour disorders. It is also used in the treatment of children with dyspraxic difficulties, difficulties in practognostic and gnostic development, pervasive developmental disorder and children with lateral dominance problems. Therefore, a systematic observation seems to be necessary as well as an increased number of research projects aimed at assessing results obtained by exercises in order to get a more precise insight into the process of re-education, selection of exercises, duration period and possible outcomes.

  4. Association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's mental, psychomotor and language development in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, J D; Tofail, F; Hilaly, A; Mehrin, F; Shiraji, S; Banu, S; Huda, S N

    2012-06-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development.

  5. Psychomotor retardation and externally oriented thinking in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Luca,1 Antonina Luca,2 Carmela Calandra11Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit of the University Hospital “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele” of Catania (Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Neuroscience of the University Hospital “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele” of Catania (Sicily, ItalyObjective: To investigate possible correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and the depressive state, globally and with regard to the Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS-20 subscales and the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D subscales.Methods: 75 patients, suffering from Unipolar Depression, were assessed through the HAM-D and the TAS-20 and compared to the control group (n = 63. Both groups were divided into two subgroups (30–60 years old; 61–80 years old. Correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and depressive symptoms, globally and with regard to the TAS-20 subscales and the HAM-D subscales, were investigated.Results: With regard to patients, a positive correlation was found between: the HAM-D total score and the TAS-20 total score; the HAM-D factor V (psychomotor retardation and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale III (externally oriented thinking and the HAM-D total score. In addition a positive correlation between the HAM-D factor V and the TAS-20 subscales I and III was found and confirmed among females. In patients aged 30–60 years, the HAM-D factor V was correlated with all the TAS-20 subscales. As to the control group, a positive correlation was found between: the HAM-D factor I (anxiety/somatization and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale I and the HAM-D total score; the HAM-D factor I and the TAS-20 subscale. The latter was confirmed in the control group aged 30–60 years.Conclusion: The link between alexithymia and affective symptoms has been confirmed in the patients and in the control group. An interesting data is the correlation between psychomotor retardation and

  6. PSYCHOMOTOR PROFILE OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD-A SCHOOL IN THE CITY OF PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rodrigues Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder which is common in the population of children at school age and the psychomotor activity in these children can be substantially lower than that expected in 30% to 50% of the cases. Thus, this study aims at describing the psychomotor profile of children diagnosed with ADHD. Initially, the research was assessed and authorized by the Education Department of Presidente Prudente-SP. Five children with the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness isorder took part in the study, none of them carrying comorbidities, aging between six and nine years, of both sexes, regularly enrolled in a public school in President Prudente-SP and participating in an extension project developed by the school. For the collection of data, the Motor Development Scale was used, as described by Rosa Neto (2002,in which all the tests proposed were used: fine motor skills, global motor skills, balance, body schema/ speed, spatial and temporal organization. The test was individually applied, in a single session, lasting 35 minutes on average. The data were analyzed according to the criteria established by the author. By analyzing the data, the motor performance of the children was between lower normal and medium.

  7. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children’s Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background EDUCERE (“Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders”) is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. Thirty multidisciplinary professionals and three nursery schools worked in the EDUCERE project between 2014 and 2017 and they obtained satisfactory results. Related to EDUCERE, we found studies based on providing networks of connected smart objects and the interaction between toys and social networks. Objective This research includes the design, implementation, and validation of an EDUCERE smart toy aimed to automatically detect delays in psychomotor development. The results from initial tests led to enhancing the effectiveness of the original design and deployment. The smart toy, based on stackable cubes, has a data collector module and a smart system for detection of developmental delays, called the EDUCERE developmental delay screening system (DDSS). Methods The pilot study involved 65 toddlers aged between 23 and 37 months (mean=29.02, SD 3.81) who built a tower with five stackable cubes, designed by following the EDUCERE smart toy model. As toddlers made the tower, sensors in the cubes sent data to a collector module through a wireless connection. All trials were video-recorded for further analysis by child development experts. After watching the videos, experts scored the performance of the trials to compare and fine-tune the interpretation of the data automatically gathered by the toy-embedded sensors. Results Judges were highly reliable in an interrater

  8. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children's Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez García, María Angeles; Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Rivera, Diego; Vadillo, Laura; Valero Duboy, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-19

    EDUCERE ("Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders") is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. Thirty multidisciplinary professionals and three nursery schools worked in the EDUCERE project between 2014 and 2017 and they obtained satisfactory results. Related to EDUCERE, we found studies based on providing networks of connected smart objects and the interaction between toys and social networks. This research includes the design, implementation, and validation of an EDUCERE smart toy aimed to automatically detect delays in psychomotor development. The results from initial tests led to enhancing the effectiveness of the original design and deployment. The smart toy, based on stackable cubes, has a data collector module and a smart system for detection of developmental delays, called the EDUCERE developmental delay screening system (DDSS). The pilot study involved 65 toddlers aged between 23 and 37 months (mean=29.02, SD 3.81) who built a tower with five stackable cubes, designed by following the EDUCERE smart toy model. As toddlers made the tower, sensors in the cubes sent data to a collector module through a wireless connection. All trials were video-recorded for further analysis by child development experts. After watching the videos, experts scored the performance of the trials to compare and fine-tune the interpretation of the data automatically gathered by the toy-embedded sensors. Judges were highly reliable in an interrater agreement analysis (intraclass correlation 0

  9. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  10. Psychomotor slowing, neuroendocrine responses, and behavioral changes after oral administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, B; Hulstijn, W; Maes, M; Pier, M; Scharpé, S; Zitman, F

    2001-12-31

    The mixed 5-HT receptor agonist/antagonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) is known to suppress locomotor activity in mice and rats. This study aimed: (1) to determine whether mCPP induces cognitive and motor changes in normal human volunteers and how these changes relate to the neuroendocrine effects of mCPP; and (2) to compare these cognitive and motor changes to the known cognitive and motor slowing patterns in depression and schizophrenia. A computerized method (used in previous research) analyzed fine motor behavior during figure-copying tasks. In 14 normal male volunteers behavioral responses, body temperature, plasma levels of prolactin and cortisol, and cognitive and motor performance during figure-copying tasks were measured after a single oral dose of mCPP (0.5 mg/kg). mCPP-induced prolongation of the reaction times in all copying tasks, parallel to increases in cortisol and prolactin and some self-reported behavioral effects. There were no changes in the movement times or the velocities of the writing movements. In conclusion, mCPP induced cognitive, but not motor slowing, in normal male volunteers. This indicates that the human serotonin system is also implicated in psychomotor behavior. This pattern of slowing was different from that in depressed and schizophrenic patients.

  11. The issue of scientific thesaurus differentiation of table tennis sportsmen's psychomotor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Essence of psychomotor capabilities opens up for tennis sportsmen-players. Clear differentiation of the most essential psychomotor capabilities is conducted. They will present the constituent of competent training process and successful competition period. It is necessary to take to the group of general psychomotor qualities of tennis players: spatial orientation, kinesthetic sensitiveness, exactness of motions. The special attention is deserved by the group of psychomotor capabilities: difficult visile-motor reaction, functional mobility and force of nervous processes. Determination of level of their development on the initial stage of long-term preparation is the prerogative of forming of skilled sportsman high level trades.

  12. "Sexy stimulants": the interaction between psychomotor stimulants and sexual behavior in the female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently.

  13. Psychomotor re-education: Movement as therapeutic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Špela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychomotor re-education represents a multidimensional therapeutic approach in dealing with children and adults with psychomotor disorders. Therapeutic programs should be based on individual differences, abilities and capabilities, relationships, feelings and individual developmental needs as well as emotional condition of a child. Body and movement as the bases of the treatment. A movement, glance, touch, voice and word, all being an integral part of a process of psychomotor re-education, are used with a purpose of helping children to discover their own body, their feelings, needs, behaviour. When moving, children discover the space of their own bodily nature, and, subsequently, gestural space and objective space. The body represents a source of pleasure and the freedom of movement, as well as one’s own existence, are soon to be discovered. Practical application. An adequate assessment is a precondition to design a work plan, select the best exercises for each child individually and direct the course of therapy. This is the most suitable method for treating children with slow or disharmonious development, mentally challenged children, children with speech and behaviour disorders. It is also used in the treatment of children with dyspraxic difficulties, difficulties in practognostic and gnostic development, pervasive developmental disorder and children with lateral dominance problems. Conclusion. Therefore, a systematic observation seems to be necessary as well as an increased number of research projects aimed at assessing results obtained by exercises in order to get a more precise insight into the process of re-education, selection of exercises, duration period and possible outcomes.

  14. Bleuler Revisited: psychomotor slowing in schizophrenia as part of a catatonic symptom cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Lewi, P.J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    In schizophrenia, psychomotor slowing and stereotypy are poorly delineated from cognitive deficits like diminished processing speed. Inpatients' performance outcomes on a line-copying task, a task assessing stereotypy and a processing-speed task are compared. Results suggested that psychomotor slowi

  15. Diagnostic Assessment of Movement Disorders and Psychomotor Deficiency in Residual Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ilanković

    2014-06-01

    We would like to stress that psychiatric patients in psychotic, (prepsychotic and postpsychotic states, besides being mentally ill, also suffer from serious movement disorders  (psychomotor disturbances and deficits which put them into the category of  disabled persons, who besides requiring psychiatric (neuropsychiatric treatment, also require systematic psychomotor and speech  rehabilitation.

  16. TNFα G308A polymorphism is associated with resilience to sleep deprivation-induced psychomotor vigilance performance impairment in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Brieann C; Wisor, Jonathan P; Field, Stephanie A; Schmidt, Michelle A; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-07-01

    Cytokines such as TNFα play an integral role in sleep/wake regulation and have recently been hypothesized to be involved in cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation. We examined the effect of a guanine to adenine substitution at position 308 in the TNFα gene (TNFα G308A) on psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation. A total of 88 healthy women and men (ages 22-40) participated in one of five laboratory total sleep deprivation experiments. Performance on a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was measured every 2-3h. The TNFα 308A allele, which is less common than the 308G allele, was associated with greater resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation (regardless of time of day), and also provided a small performance benefit at baseline. The effect of genotype on resilience persisted when controlling for between-subjects differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, and baseline sleep duration. The TNFα G308A polymorphism predicted less than 10% of the overall between-subjects variance in performance impairment during sleep deprivation. Nonetheless, the differential effect of the polymorphism at the peak of performance impairment was more than 50% of median performance impairment at that time, which is sizeable compared to the effects of other genotypes reported in the literature. Our findings provided evidence for a role of TNFα in the effects of sleep deprivation on psychomotor vigilance performance. Furthermore, the TNFα G308A polymorphism may have predictive potential in a biomarker panel for the assessment of resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment due to sleep deprivation.

  17. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal I; Raza, Syed A; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (pdevelopment appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Os efeitos da aprendizagem psicomotora no controle das atividades de locomoção sobre obstáculos em crianças com deficiência da visão The effects of psychomotor learning on the control of locomotion during obstacle avoidance in children with low vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cezar dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a visão é um dos sistemas sensoriais mais importantes na locomoção pois fornece informação tanto do ambiente quanto da postura e dos movimentos corporais, este estudo analisou os efeitos de um programa de treinamento perceptivo-motor no controle das atividades de locomoção em seis crianças com deficiências da visão. Para tanto, realizou-se a avaliação da locomoção durante a transposição de obstáculos com alturas diferentes, utilizando-se indicadores qualitativos: postura / equilíbrio / direção / velocidade / contato visual com o obstáculo / erro na tarefa, e indicadores cinemáticos, obtidos por meio de filmagem (SVHS através do sistema Peak Motus (Versão 7.0 - Vicon Peak para medir: a distância do pé de apoio em relação ao obstáculo / a elevação máxima do joelho / a altura do pé em relação à altura do obstáculo. Os indicadores foram novamente avaliados após a realização do programa de treinamento, fornecendo evidências de sua contribuição positiva tanto na estratégia de aproximação quanto na estratégia de ultrapassagem dos obstáculos. Durante a aproximação, a velocidade da locomoção tornou-se mais constante e as passadas foram realizadas de forma mais retilínea. Durante a ultrapassagem, o número de toques no obstáculo diminuiu. Os resultados auxiliam na reflexão sobre a importância da aprendizagem psicomotora nos programas educacionais, particularmente na Educação Física Especial, como uma forma de contribuir para uma melhor qualidade de vida das crianças com baixa visão.Since vision is one of the most important sensory systems called upon for locomotion because it provides information not only about the environment, but also about posture and movement of corporal segments, this study analyzed the effects of a psychomotor training program on the control of locomotion with six children with low vision. Thus, an assessment of locomotion during obstacle avoidance with

  19. 19p13.3 aberrations are associated with dysmorphic features and deviant psychomotor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggberg, L; Olsén, P; Näntö-Salonen, K; Knuutila, S

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe 2 patients with de novo genomic imbalances of 19p13.3. Using high-resolution microarray analysis, we detected a 1.25-Mb deletion in one patient and a 0.81- Mb duplication in another. The resulting phenotypes are quite different; one is a 2-year-old boy with macrocephaly and normal growth, while the other is a 9-year-old boy with microcephaly and growth retardation since birth. Both have dysmorphic features and psychomotor developmental delay. This report gives evidence of the effect of small aberrations of chromosome 19 and describes the phenotypes arising from a duplication and deletion of the same location at 19p13.3.

  20. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-03-01

    The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. SSRI antidepressants: altered psychomotor development following exposure in utero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) are sometimes prescribed to pregnant women. The potential consequences for the unborn child are gradually becoming clearer. In a case-control study of 298 children with autism and 1507 controls, 6.7% of mothers of autistic children had been prescribed an antidepressant during the year before delivery, compared to 3.3% of control mothers. The antidepressant was usually an SSRI. A dozen other small epidemiological studies of neurological development in children exposed to antidepressants in utero have provided mixed results. Two of these studies suggested a risk of psychomotor retardation. In practice, SSRI antidepressants should only be considered for pregnant women when non-drug measures fail and when symptoms are sufficiently serious to warrant drug therapy.

  2. A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine increases the level of endogenous dopamine (DA in the striatum by blocking the DA transporter. Endogenous DA modulates glutamatergic inputs to striatal neurons and this modulation influences motor activity. Since D2 DA and A2A-adenosine receptors (A2A-Rs have antagonistic effects on striatal neurons, drugs targeting adenosine receptors such as caffeine-like compounds, could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. In this study, we analyzed the electrophysiological effects of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists in striatal slices and the motor effects produced by this pharmacological modulation in rodents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Concomitant administration of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists reduced glutamatergic synaptic transmission in striatal spiny neurons while these drugs failed to produce this effect when given in isolation. This inhibitory effect was dependent on the activation of D2-like receptors and the release of endocannabinoids since it was prevented by L-sulpiride and reduced by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Combined application of cocaine and A2A-R antagonists also reduced the firing frequency of striatal cholinergic interneurons suggesting that changes in cholinergic tone might contribute to this synaptic modulation. Finally, A2A-Rs antagonists, in the presence of a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, enhanced locomotion and, in line with the electrophysiological experiments, this enhanced activity required activation of D2-like and CB1 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a possible synaptic mechanism explaining how caffeine-like compounds could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine.

  3. The impact of long-term maintenance treatment with buprenorphine on complex psychomotor and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmygalev, Sergey; Damm, Martin; Weckbecker, Klaus; Berghaus, Günter; Petzke, Frank; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that buprenorphine is effective, well tolerated and due to its pharmacological profile a very safe drug, the impact of long-term buprenorphine substitution therapy on complex psychomotor and cognitive function predicting driving ability is not yet clear. Therefore, a prospective comparison between patients receiving sublingual buprenorphine and a control group of untreated, healthy volunteers was performed. Treated and untreated subjects were matched for age and sex, with three control subjects selected for every buprenorphine patient. Patients using unreported drugs were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis; the remaining patients were analysed as the per-protocol (PP) group. The test battery comprised the assessment of: performance during stress, visual orientation, concentration, attention, vigilance and reaction time. The primary endpoint was defined as the sum of the relevant scores of the tests after z-transformation of the individual scores. 30 patients with sublingual buprenorphine treatment (7.7±3.9 mg per day) were matched to 90 controls. 19 patients were excluded from the PP-analysis because of additional unreported drug intake. Significant non-inferiority could be demonstrated for the PP-group (pcomplex psychomotor or cognitive performance as compared to healthy controls. However intake of illicit drugs as well as the lack of social reliability are major problems in this specific patients group. Despite of the absence of a relevant impact of the drug on driving ability, those patients do not seem to be qualified for getting their driving license. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Locomotor activating effects of cocaine and scopolamine combinations in rats: isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Morgane

    2014-08-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors are currently receiving renewed interest as viable targets for treating various psychiatric disorders. Dopaminergic and muscarinic systems interact in complex ways. The goal of this study was to quantify the interaction between a systemically administered psychomotor stimulant and muscarinic antagonist at the behavioral level. Through isobolographic analysis of locomotor activity data, we assessed the effects of three cocaine/scopolamine mixtures in terms of deviation from simple dose addition (additivity), at four effect levels. All three mixtures produced some more-than-additive (synergistic) effects, as lower doses were needed to produce the given effects relative to the calculated effect of additive doses. A mixture with comparable contributions from cocaine and scopolamine produced significantly more-than-additive effects at all but the lowest effect level examined. A mostly-cocaine mixture was more-than-additive only at low effect levels, whereas a mostly-scopolamine mixture produced effects more consistent with additivity, with only the highest effect level barely reaching significant synergism. Our study confirms and quantifies previous findings that suggested synergistic effects of stimulants and muscarinic antagonists. The synergism implies that cocaine and scopolamine stimulate locomotor activity through nonidentical pathways, and was most pronounced for a mixture containing cocaine and scopolamine in comparable proportions.

  5. Postnatal Growth and Psychomotor Development in Small for Gestational Age Brazilian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Patricia Ann; Pasquali, Luiz

    1984-01-01

    The early psychomotor development (DQ) of 29 term small-for-gestational-age Brazilian infants was shown to be more dependent on postnatal growth than the DQ of 51 term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. (Author/RH)

  6. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinuthia, Rachael N; Gakinya, Benson N; Thigiti, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS...

  7. Effects of early comprehensive rehabilitation treatment for high-risk children's intelligence and psychomotor development%早期综合康复治疗对高危儿智能及精神运动发育的影响观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柏林; 蒋晓宏

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of early comprehensive rehabilitation treatment for high-risk children's intelligence and psychomotor development.Methods148 cases of high-risk children admitted to our hospital in January 2012 - December 2015 were selected,were randomly divided into control group(74 cases)and experimental group(74 cases),the treatment efficacy of two groups children patients was compared.ResultsThe total treatment effective rate of children in the experimental group was 95.95%,the control group was 83.78%,the difference comparison was statistically significant(P<0.05);2,6,12 months after treatment,PDI,MDI scores of the observation group were higher than the control group,the difference comparison was statistically significant(P<0.05).ConclusionEarly comprehensive rehabilitation treatment for children at high risk of perinatal brain damage can recover nervous system damage in children,enhance motor development of children with mental and intellectual development and quality of life.%目的:探讨早期综合康复治疗对围生期脑损伤高危儿智能及精神运动发育的影响。方法选取我院2012年1月—2015年12月收治的148例高危儿,随机分为对照组(74例)和试验组(74例),比较2组患儿的治疗效果。结果试验组患儿治疗总有效率为95.95%,对照组为83.78%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗2,6,12个月后,观察组 PDI、MDI 评分高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论围生期脑损伤高危儿进行早期综合康复治疗,有助于患儿神经系统损伤恢复,提高患儿精神运动、智力发育及生存质量。

  8. [Psychomotor education and speech therapy when weaning a child off artificial feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malécot-Le Meur, Gaëlle; Soulez-Larivière, Laure; Abadie, Véronique; Thouvenin, Béatrice; Rastel, Christine; Chalouhi, Christel

    To support children and their families with weaning off artificial nutrition, a psychomotor therapist and speech therapist from the 'Pierre Robin syndrome and congenital sucking-swallowing disorders' specialist rare disease centre at Necker-Enfant Malades hospital in Paris, have set up a joint consultation, as a complement to medical consultations. This programme shows how speech therapy and psychomotor education can complement each other in order to help children and their parents during this difficult period.

  9. Utilizing Smart Textiles-Enabled Sensorized Toy and Playful Interactions for Assessment of Psychomotor Development on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vega-Barbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging pervasive technologies like smart textiles make it possible to develop new and more accessible healthcare services for patients independently of their location or time. However, none of these new e-health solutions guarantee a complete user acceptance, especially in cases requiring extensive interaction between the user and the solution. So far, researchers have focused their efforts on new interactions techniques to improve the perception of privacy and confidence of the people using e-health services. In this way, the use of smart everyday objects arises as an interesting approach to facilitate the required interaction and increase user acceptance. Such Smart Daily Objects together with smart textiles provide researchers with a novel way to introduce sophisticated sensor technology in the daily life of people. This work presents a sensorized smart toy for assessment of psychomotor development in early childhood. The aim of this work is to design, develop, and evaluate the usability and playfulness of a smart textile-enabled sensorized toy that facilitates the user engagement in a personalized monitoring healthcare activity. To achieve this objective the monitoring is based on a smart textile sensorized toy as catalyzer of acceptance and multimodal sensing sources to monitor psychomotor development activities during playtime.

  10. Influence of Yoga-Based Personality Development Program on Psychomotor Performance and Self-efficacy in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhusudan; Deepeshwar, Singh; Subramanya, Pailoor; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention and efficacy are important components of scholastic performance in school children. While attempts are being made to introduce new methods to improve academic performance either as part of curricular or extracurricular activities in schools, the success rates are minimal. Hence, this study assessed the effect of yoga-based intervention on psychomotor performance and self-efficacy in school children. Two hundred ten school children with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years (mean age ± SD; 13.7 ± 0.8 years) satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the 10-day yogä program. An equal number of age-matched participants (n = 210; mean ± SD; 13.1 ± 0.8 years) were selected for the control group. Participants were assessed for attention and performance at the beginning and end of 10 days using trail making task (TMT) A and B, and self-efficacy questionnaire. The yoga group showed higher self-efficacy and improved performance after 10 days of yoga intervention. The performance in TMT-A and -B of the yoga group showed a significantly higher number of attempts with a reduction in time taken to complete the task and a number of wrong attempts compared with control group. Results suggest that yoga practice enhances self-efficacy and processing speed with fine motor coordination, visual-motor integration, visual perception, planning ability, and cognitive performance.

  11. Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S; Slettenaar, M; vd Meer, N; Transler, C; Jans, L; Quadt, F; Berry, M

    2011-10-24

    The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700 mg), caffeine (120 mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1 h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2 h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1 h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes.

  12. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trento, I [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Santucci, M [Facultad de PsicologIa, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Tula, S [Escuela de Educacion Especial y Formacion Laboral Beatriz MartInez Allio. Av. M. Lopez N0 2620 Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Gonzalez, E [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingenieria ClInica of the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Cordoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.

  13. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  14. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, I.; Santucci, M.; Tula, S.; González, E.

    2007-11-01

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingeniería Clínica of the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Córdoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.

  15. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    access to the renovated areas for older children and allowed them to leave the school area during recess. Furthermore, most of the children felt that the renewed schoolyard areas were far from their classrooms. CONCLUSIONS: Renewing the schoolyard is not enough to stimulate physical activity. Schools...... have to support the older children’s recess physical activity on an organisational level by encourage them to use the schoolyard and renewing schoolyard areas close to their classrooms. This follow-up study of children’s perception of the renewed schoolyards can aid development of future schoolyard......PURPOSE: There is no consistent evidence to guide schoolyard interventions promoting physical activity. The Activating Schoolyards Study is a quasi-experimental schoolyard intervention study aimed at investigating the impact of renewed schoolyards on 10-15-year-old children’s recess physical...

  16. A randomised, controlled trial of cognitive and psychomotor recovery from midazolam sedation following reversal with oral flumazenil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler, N M; Lyne, J P; Wallace, R; Neave, N; Scholey, A; Wesnes, K A; Herman, C

    2002-09-01

    Flumazenil is traditionally administered intravenously to reverse the adverse effects of over sedation with benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to test postoperative cognitive and psychomotor recovery from midazolam conscious sedation, following reversal with orally administered flumazenil. It was hypothesised that when administered by the oral route, flumazenil may enhance recovery over a prolonged period, thus increasing safety. Eighteen patients requiring intravenous midazolam sedation for dental treatment completed a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. Following treatment the patients' sedation was reversed using either flumazenil or saline (as placebo), administered orally, on alternate appointments. Assessment of mood and cognitive function were undertaken using ClinPhone.cdr(R), a highly sensitive and specific computerised battery of cognitive tests administered by telephone prior to sedation and every hour for seven hours post reversal. Results indicate that within 20 min of administration, oral flumazenil is capable of partially reversing some cognitive and psychomotor impairments but the attentional and stimulus discrimination effects of midazolam sedation still remain.

  17. A Path Model of Effective Technology-Intensive Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    Individual aptitude, attitudes, and behavior in inquiry-based learning (IBL) settings may affect work and learning performance outcomes during activities using different technologies. To encourage multifaceted learning, factors in IBL settings must be statistically significant and effective, and not cognitively or psychomotor intensive. We…

  18. A Path Model of Effective Technology-Intensive Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    Individual aptitude, attitudes, and behavior in inquiry-based learning (IBL) settings may affect work and learning performance outcomes during activities using different technologies. To encourage multifaceted learning, factors in IBL settings must be statistically significant and effective, and not cognitively or psychomotor intensive. We…

  19. Growth and psychomotor development of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Elisabeth; von der Hagen, Maja; Schara, Ulrike; von Au, Katja; Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common hereditary degenerative neuromuscular diseases and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The objective of the retrospective study was to describe growth and psychomotor development of patients with DMD and to detect a possible genotype-phenotype correlation. Data from 263 patients with DMD (mean age 7.1 years) treated at the Departments of Pediatric Neurology in three German University Hospitals was assessed with respect to body measurements (length, weight, body mass index BMI, head circumference OFC), motor and cognitive development as well as genotype (site of mutation). Anthropometric measures and developmental data were compared to those of a reference population and deviations were analyzed for their frequency in the cohort as well as in relation to the genotypes. Corticosteroid therapy was implemented in 29 from 263 patients. Overall 30% of the patients exhibit a short statue (length development at 2-5 years of age, and this is even more prevalent when steroid therapy is applied (45% of patients with steroid therapy). The BMI shows a rightwards shift (68% > 50th centile) and the OFC a leftwards shift (65% development is delayed in a third of the patients (mean age at walking 18.3 months, 30% > 18 months, 8% > 24 months). Almost half of the patients show cognitive impairment (26% learning disability, 17% intellectual disability). Although there is no strict genotype-phenotype correlation, particularly mutations in the distal part of the dystrophin gene are frequently associated with short stature and a high rate of microcephaly as well as cognitive impairment.

  20. Student-Directed Video Validation of Psychomotor Skills Performance: A Strategy to Facilitate Deliberate Practice, Peer Review, and Team Skill Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBourgh, Gregory A; Prion, Susan K

    2017-03-22

    Background Essential nursing skills for safe practice are not limited to technical skills, but include abilities for determining salience among clinical data within dynamic practice environments, demonstrating clinical judgment and reasoning, problem-solving abilities, and teamwork competence. Effective instructional methods are needed to prepare new nurses for entry-to-practice in contemporary healthcare settings. Method This mixed-methods descriptive study explored self-reported perceptions of a process to self-record videos for psychomotor skill performance evaluation in a convenience sample of 102 pre-licensure students. Results Students reported gains in confidence and skill acquisition using team skills to record individual videos of skill performance, and described the importance of teamwork, peer support, and deliberate practice. Conclusion Although time consuming, the production of student-directed video validations of psychomotor skill performance is an authentic task with meaningful accountabilities that is well-received by students as an effective, satisfying learner experience to increase confidence and competence in performing psychomotor skills.

  1. Psychomotor approach in children affected by nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS: a new rehabilitative purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-09-01

    behavioral assessment. Results: At T0, the FNRFS mean frequency per month for group 1 was 20.115 episodes/month (standard deviation [SD] ± 3.024 and for group 2 was 20.423 (SD ± 1.879 (P = 0.661. At T1 the mean frequency per month was 6.461 (SD ± 1.333 episodes/month and 12.038 (SD ± 1.341, respectively (P < 0.001. Moreover, the delta percent average of the frequency between T0 and T1 was 67.121 ± 8.527 for group 1 and 40.518 ± 9.259 for group 2 (P < 0.001. At T1, a significant improvement in scores on the behavioral scale was identified. Conclusion: Our preliminary results show the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, and suggest the positive effect of an additional psychomotor approach, as this holds a new and interesting rehabilitative purpose for children in a toilet training program, even if further research is necessary. Keyword: encopresis, psychomotricity, children, toilet training, rehabilitation

  2. Black bile and psychomotor retardation: shades of melancholia in Dante's Inferno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, David A J

    2004-03-01

    The history of melancholy depression is rich with images of movement retardation and mental dysfunction. The recent restoration of psychomotor symptoms to the diagnostic terminology of affective disorder is not novel to the students of medieval melancholia. The move back to the biology of this psychomotor dysfunction with the technical advances in brain imaging in recent years only echoes centuries-old writings on the centrality of movement changes in the depressive condition. The Inferno, the first cantica of Dante Alighieri's Commedia, has a wonderful abundance of allusions to the importance of psychomotor symptoms in describing the depressed individual. Slowed steps, garbled speech, frozen tears, these and many other images keep the physical manifestations of psychomotor suffering in the forefront of the reader's mind. Considering Medieval and Renaissance writings on melancholy suffering, it is fitting that Dante shows a bodily illness reflected in the hellish torments visited on the damned. From the souls of the sullen to those of the violent, the panorama of psychomotor symptoms plays a prominent role in the poem as well as in the medical and literary prose of succeeding centuries.

  3. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckstuhl Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.

  4. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p programs are equally effective in enhancing physical self-concept. The relationship between improvements in physical self-concept and enhancements in global self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Against the odds: psychomotor development of children under 2 years in a Sudanese orphanage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espié, Emmanuelle; Ouss, Lisa; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Candilis, Drina; Ahmed, Khalid; Cohuet, Sandra; Baubet, Thierry; Grais, Rebecca F; Moro, Marie-Rose

    2011-12-01

    Providing abandoned children the necessary medical and psychological care as possible after their institutionalization may minimize developmental delays. We describe psychomotor development in infants admitted to an orphanage in Khartoum, Sudan, assessed at admission and over an 18-month follow-up. Psychological state and psychomotor quotients were determined using a simplified Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS), the Brunet-Lezine and Alarm distress baby (ADBB) scale. From May-September 2005, 151 children were evaluated 2, 4, 9, 12 and 18 months after inclusion. At admission, ~15% of children ≤1 month had a regulation impairment according to the NBAS, and 33.8% presented a distress state (ADBB score >5). More than 85% (129/151) recovered normal psychomotor development. The results of the program reinforce the importance of early detection of psychological disorders followed by rapid implementation of psychological case management to improve the development of young children in similar institutions and circumstances.

  6. Bimanual Psychomotor Performance in Neurosurgical Resident Applicants Assessed Using NeuroTouch, a Virtual Reality Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad A S; Marwa, Ibrahim; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Zharni, Gmaan Al; Christie, Sommer; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    Current selection methods for neurosurgical residents fail to include objective measurements of bimanual psychomotor performance. Advancements in computer-based simulation provide opportunities to assess cognitive and psychomotor skills in surgically naive populations during complex simulated neurosurgical tasks in risk-free environments. This pilot study was designed to answer 3 questions: (1) What are the differences in bimanual psychomotor performance among neurosurgical residency applicants using NeuroTouch? (2) Are there exceptionally skilled medical students in the applicant cohort? and (3) Is there an influence of previous surgical exposure on surgical performance? Participants were instructed to remove 3 simulated brain tumors with identical visual appearance, stiffness, and random bleeding points. Validated tier 1, tier 2, and advanced tier 2 metrics were used to assess bimanual psychomotor performance. Demographic data included weeks of neurosurgical elective and prior operative exposure. This pilot study was carried out at the McGill Neurosurgical Simulation Research and Training Center immediately following neurosurgical residency interviews at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. All 17 medical students interviewed were asked to participate, of which 16 agreed. Performances were clustered in definable top, middle, and bottom groups with significant differences for all metrics. Increased time spent playing music, increased applicant self-evaluated technical skills, high self-ratings of confidence, and increased skin closures statistically influenced performance on univariate analysis. A trend for both self-rated increased operating room confidence and increased weeks of neurosurgical exposure to increased blood loss was seen in multivariate analysis. Simulation technology identifies neurosurgical residency applicants with differing levels of technical ability. These results provide information for studies being developed for longitudinal studies on the

  7. Web-based Learning and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning for psychomotor skill acquisition: perspectives of medical undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jansen; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Mackinnon, Kim; Brett, Clare; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence for the use of Web-based Learning (WBL) and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) for acquiring psychomotor skills in medical education. In this study, we surveyed medical undergraduate students attending a simulation based training session for central line insertion on their perspectives and utilization of WBL and CSCL for acquisition of a complex psychomotor skill.

  8. Modafinil for attentional and psychomotor dysfunction in advanced cancer: a double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorff, L E; Jønsson, B H; Sjøgren, P

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive impairment seems to be highly prevalent in patients with advanced cancer. Modafinil, a novel vigilance and wake-promoting agent, may be an alternative treatment. We wanted to investigate this treatment on attentional and psychomotor dysfunction in cancer patients. 28 cancer patients...... cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and attention. Furthermore subjective scores of depression and drowsiness were significantly improved by modafinil....

  9. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, D.A.; Wevers, M.; Weerd, A.W. de; Bossche, R.A. van den; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley

  10. IMPROVING PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN USING TEACHING METHODOLOGIES BASED ON MIRROR NEURONS ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gáll Zs. Sz.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The scientific substrate of the study relies upon the concept of mirror neurons. Unlike other neurons, these are characterized by an imitation feature. They play an important role in learning processes – especially during childhood, enabling the imitation of motions and determining the primary acquirement thereof. Using this as a starting point, the study aims to work out and apply a methodology in keeping with the content of the psychomotor expression activities curriculum for preschool education, resorting to the demonstration procedures as a main teaching-learning method. Thus, we deem that mirror neurons reactivity will be determined more thoroughly, with a view to enhance the subject's psychomotor development according to body scheme, self-image and performance of basic postures and motions. For the research progress, an experimental group and a control group has been set up and the children’s psychomotor development level has been assessed both before the application of the independent variable and after the effects of the same upon the experimental group. As soon as the planned procedure was completed, the experimental group members showed a significant evolution in terms of the investigated psychomotor fields as compared to the control group.

  11. TOOL USE IN A PSYCHOMOTOR TASK: THE ROLE OF TOOL AND LEARNER VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma A. Juarez-Collazo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of learning tools has brought to light variables that influence the learner on using or not using the tools. A deeper analysis on the current findings is attempted in this study. It adds a psychomotor task; it assesses the actual functionality of the employed tools, and it further explores learner-related variables that influence tool use, most importantly on perceived tool functionality (the beliefs of learners that a certain tool would be the most optimal one. Fifty-eight learners had to build a LEGO® figure. Two tools were used: a video with intentionally low functionality demonstrating the figure assembly, and a step-by-step guideline with pictures. Based on the tools, there were three experimental conditions: guideline (G, video (V both tools (GV; and one control condition (C without tools. To analyze the functionality of the tools, the effect of tool use on performance was monitored at two different moments in all conditions. To examine the perceived functionality of tools, the tool use by the learners was monitored in the (GV condition. Moreover, we checked for the effect of prior knowledge, metacognition and self-efficacy on tool use in the (GVcondition. Results revealed that the tools were functional. The (G, (V and (GV conditions significantly outperformed the (C condition, but contrary to our assumptions, the (V condition outperformed the other experimental conditions. Regarding perceived functionality, all learners perceived the tools as functional, that means all learners picked a tool. They, however, could not identify from which tool they would benefit the most, i.e. they could not recognize the most functional tool. Concerning the other learner-related variables, no significant effect was found. Theoretical implications for further research are discussed. First on what kind of tool-related variables influence tool use. Second on the effect learner-related variables, especially perceptions, might have on using

  12. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias

    2012-05-01

    Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high.

  14. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  15. How to objectively classify residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Chmarra; C.A. Grimbergen; F.W. Jansen; J. Dankelman

    2010-01-01

    In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), a surgeon needs to acquire a certain level of basic psychomotor MIS skills to perform surgery safely. Evaluation of those skills is a major impediment. Although various assessment methods have been introduced, none of them came as a superior. Three aspects of ass

  16. Case study Early psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Bieleninik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the specificity and dynamics of psychomotor development in children from triplet pregnancy. The studied group was composed of siblings from triple pregnancy (T1, T2, T3, including two girls and one boy. This longitudinal study comprised three stages: stage I – children aged 25 months, stage II – children aged 29 months, and stage III – children aged 38 months. At each stage, the psychomotor development of children was examined with the Third Edition of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III and subjectively by their mother. Additionally, medical and nursing documentation was analyzed. Individual psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy is different with regards to various spheres, and has different rates and dynamics throughout consecutive years. Psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancies is determined by gender and postnatal clinical parameters, i.e. birth weight, head circumference, postnatal morbidity, and prematurity-related conditions.

  17. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development : Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Kluemper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kraemer, Ursula; Larroque, Beatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Remy; Sorensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardon, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands), DUISB

  18. Perceptual Speed and Psychomotor Ability Predict Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition on a Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H.; Miedema, Heleen A. T.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon's cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon's learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical traini

  19. Construction of Tests in the Cognitive and Psychomotor Domains for Skin and Scuba Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jean

    The fundamental purposes of this study were to develop mastery tests in the cognitive and psychomotor domains for skin and scuba diving and to establish validity and reliability for the tests. A table of specifications was developed for each domain, and a pilot study refined the initial test batteries into their final form. In the main study,…

  20. The Integration of Psychomotor Skills in a Hybrid-PBL Dental Curriculum: The Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joanne N.; MacNeil, M. A. J.; Harrison, Rosamund L.; Clark, D. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the restructuring of clinical clerkships at the University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school as part of a new, hybrid, problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum, focusing on strategies for integrating development of psychomotor skills. Methods of achieving both horizontal and vertical integration of competencies through grouping…

  1. Do Basic Psychomotor Skills Transfer Between Different Image-based Procedures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzink, S.N.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Schoon, E.J.; De Ridder, H.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Surgical techniques that draw from multiple types of image-based procedures (IBP) are increasing, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, fusing laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. However, little is known about the relation between psychomotor skills for performing dif

  2. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis), applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epil...

  3. Criterion-Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the Initial Acquisition of a Psychomotor Skill with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhich, Dolores

    1976-01-01

    Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the initial acquisition of the psychomotor skill of typewriting demonstrated speed gains from 8 hours of instruction distributed over a 6-week interval for 4 male adolescent underachievers of above- and below-average intelligence. (Author)

  4. Perceptual Speed and Psychomotor Ability Predict Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition on a Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H.; Miedema, Heleen A. T.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon's cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon's learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical traini

  5. Microcomputer Useage for Data Based Psychomotor Performance Measures in Adapted Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, P. J.

    The paper describes Project RISPE (Rural/Remote Interdisciplinary Special Physical Education) and its data-based psychomotor curriculum for profoundly/severely handicapped children ages 0-21. The curriculum, divided into five diagnostic/prescriptive areas (placement, baseline, instruction, post-test, and maintenance), includes over 300 specific…

  6. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Young

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.

  7. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  8. Design, validation and administration of an observation tool for assessing water psychomotor skills in pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Mármol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to create a new observation tool that lets the assessment of water psychomotor skills as well as the knowledge of its current state of development through its administration. In order to that, 8 experts (Physical Education teachers and swimming monitors all of them, have analyzed the Observation Tool for Assessing Water Psychomotor skills, composed by 5 factors (familiarization with the context, balance, displacement, handling and social relationships reporting satisfactory results. Furthermore, the water psychomotor development of 58 children aged between 3 and 6 years old was studied. Displacement and handling factors got the highest values meanwhile social relationships got the lowest value. Likewise, 5-6 years old group showed significant higher levels of water psychomotor development than 3-4 years old group.

  9. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse...

  10. Teaching psychomotor skills in the twenty-first century: Revisiting and reviewing instructional approaches through the lens of contemporary literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon

    2016-10-01

    A diverse range of health professionals use psychomotor skills as part of their professional practice roles. Most health disciplines use large or complex psychomotor skills. These skills are first taught by the educator then acquired, performed, and lastly learned. Psychomotor skills may be taught using a variety of widely-accepted and published teaching models. The number of teaching steps used in these models varies from two to seven. However, the utility of these models to teach skill acquisition and skill retention are disputable when teaching complex skills, in contrast to simple skills. Contemporary motor learning and cognition literature frames instructional practices which may assist the teaching and learning of complex task-based skills. This paper reports 11 steps to be considered when teaching psychomotor skills.

  11. Methamphetamine Increases Locomotion and Dopamine Transporter Activity in Dopamine D5 Receptor-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Seiji Hayashizaki; Shinobu Hirai; Yumi Ito; Yoshiko Honda; Yosefu Arime; Ichiro Sora; Haruo Okado; Tohru Kodama; Masahiko Takada

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behaviora...

  12. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eBilbao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available IIt is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. Drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, most prominently a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2, when compared to wild-type controls. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB.

  13. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. Methods For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different ...

  14. Role and feasibility of psychomotor and dexterity testing in selection for surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Leonard, Gerald; Traynor, Oscar J

    2009-03-01

    The practice of Surgery has undergone major changes in the past 20 years and this is likely to continue. Knowledge, judgement and good technical skills will no longer be enough to safely practice surgery and interventional procedures. Fundamental abilities (e.g. psychomotor skills, visuospatial ability and depth perception) are critically important for catheter-based interventions, NOTES, robotic surgery and other procedural interventions of the future. Not all individuals possess the same amount of these innate fundamental abilities and those less endowed are likely to struggle during surgical training and thereafter in surgical practice. In contrast to other high-skill professions/industries (e.g. aviation) we do not have a tradition of testing prospective surgical trainees for abilities/attributes that we now recognize as being important for surgical practice. Instead, we continue to rely on surrogate markers of future potential (e.g. academic record). However, many studies have shown that psychomotor ability is an important predictor of both learning rate and performance for complex laparoscopic tasks. Psychomotor skills, visuospatial ability and depth perception can all be tested objectively by validated tests. At the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, all short-listed candidates for Higher Surgical Training now undergo formal testing of both technical skills and fundamental abilities (psychomotor skills, visuospatial ability and depth perception). Reports on each candidate's performance are supplied to the interview committee. Furthermore, a prospective database is being kept for correlation with future surgical performance. We believe that selection into surgical training should take account of attributes that we know are important for safe and efficient surgical practice.

  15. Psychomotor availability for school education of 5-6 year old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Leschinska K.O.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of physical and mental development of senior preschool children is examined. The received results indicate the necessity of formation management program psychomotor level of availability for schooling with physical education means. The research involved 61 children (33 boys and 28 girls). The school availability by Kern-Irasek test is attained 37,7% of children, 42,6% have a middle school availability and 19,7% are immature. The "Cut the circle" method was performed by 52% of chi...

  16. PC-PVT: A Platform for Psychomotor Vigilance Task Testing, Analysis, and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    PC-PVT: A platform for psychomotor vigilance task testing, analysis, and prediction Maxim Y. Khitrov & Srinivas Laxminarayan & David Thorsley...the rela- tively low hardware cost, user familiarity, and the relative ease of software development for specific neurobehavioral testing protocols... developed and characterized a freely available system for PC-based simple visual reaction time testing that is analogous to the widely used psychomo

  17. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronized, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance) but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functi...

  18. The catatonia conundrum: evidence of psychomotor phenomena as a symptom dimension in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Gabor S; Caroff, Stanley N; Gerevich, Jozsef

    2010-03-01

    To provide a rational basis for reconceptualizing catatonia in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition), we briefly review historical sources, the psychopathology of catatonia, and the relevance of catatonic schizophrenia in contemporary practice and research. In contrast to Kahlbaum, Kraepelin and others (Jaspers, Kleist, and Schneider) recognized the prevalence of motor symptoms in diverse psychiatric disorders but concluded that the unique pattern and persistence of certain psychomotor phenomena defined a "catatonic" subtype of schizophrenia, based on intensive long-term studies. The enduring controversy and confusion that ensued underscores the fact that the main problem with catatonia is not just its place in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders but rather its lack of conceptual clarity. There still are no accepted principles on what makes a symptom catatonic and no consensus on which signs and symptoms constitute a catatonic syndrome. The resulting heterogeneity is reflected in treatment studies that show that stuporous catatonia in any acute disorder responds to benzodiazepines or electroconvulsive therapy, whereas catatonia in the context of chronic schizophrenia is phenomenologically different and less responsive to either modality. Although psychomotor phenomena are an intrinsic feature of acute and especially chronic schizophrenia, they are insufficiently recognized in practice and research but may have significant implications for treatment outcome and neurobiological studies. While devising a separate category of catatonia as a nonspecific syndrome has heuristic value, it may be equally if not more important to re-examine the psychopathological basis for defining psychomotor symptoms as catatonic and to re-establish psychomotor phenomena as a fundamental symptom dimension or criterion for both psychotic and mood disorders.

  19. Psychomotor Impairment Detection via Finger Interactions with a Computer Keyboard During Natural Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Hooker, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Modern digital devices and appliances are capable of monitoring the timing of button presses, or finger interactions in general, with a sub-millisecond accuracy. However, the massive amount of high resolution temporal information that these devices could collect is currently being discarded. Multiple studies have shown that the act of pressing a button triggers well defined brain areas which are known to be affected by motor-compromised conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that the daily interaction with a computer keyboard can be employed as means to observe and potentially quantify psychomotor impairment. We induced a psychomotor impairment via a sleep inertia paradigm in 14 healthy subjects, which is detected by our classifier with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.93/0.91. The detection relies on novel features derived from key-hold times acquired on standard computer keyboards during an uncontrolled typing task. These features correlate with the progression to psychomotor impairment (p language of the text typed, and perform consistently with different keyboards. The ability to acquire longitudinal measurements of subtle motor changes from a digital device without altering its functionality may allow for early screening and follow-up of motor-compromised neurodegenerative conditions, psychological disorders or intoxication at a negligible cost in the general population.

  20. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Tânia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  1. Psychomotor Impairment Detection via Finger Interactions with a Computer Keyboard During Natural Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Hooker, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital devices and appliances are capable of monitoring the timing of button presses, or finger interactions in general, with a sub-millisecond accuracy. However, the massive amount of high resolution temporal information that these devices could collect is currently being discarded. Multiple studies have shown that the act of pressing a button triggers well defined brain areas which are known to be affected by motor-compromised conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that the daily interaction with a computer keyboard can be employed as means to observe and potentially quantify psychomotor impairment. We induced a psychomotor impairment via a sleep inertia paradigm in 14 healthy subjects, which is detected by our classifier with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.93/0.91. The detection relies on novel features derived from key-hold times acquired on standard computer keyboards during an uncontrolled typing task. These features correlate with the progression to psychomotor impairment (p typed, and perform consistently with different keyboards. The ability to acquire longitudinal measurements of subtle motor changes from a digital device without altering its functionality may allow for early screening and follow-up of motor-compromised neurodegenerative conditions, psychological disorders or intoxication at a negligible cost in the general population. PMID:25882641

  2. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  3. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

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    Dajić Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis, applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. Case Outline. With the exception of neurological psychiatric problems, a boy aged 9.5 years was in good general health before transplantation with allogeneic fetal stem cells. The main aim of allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation was treatment of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. After 13 months of treatment, he was admitted to hospital in a very serious, life-threatening condition due to sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The humoral immunity in the boy was adequate, unlike cellular immunity. The immune imbalance in terms of predominance of T-suppressor lymphocytes contributes to delayed and late development of sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The boy still shows the same severity of psychomotor retardation, dyslalia, epilepsy, strabismus and amblyopia. Conclusion. Implementation of fetal stem cell therapy for unconfirmed indications abuses the therapeutic approach, harms patients, misleads parents, and brings financial harm to the healthcare system of any country, including Serbia.

  4. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  5. Tyrosine Supplementation Attenuates Cognitive and Psychomotor Deficits in Cold Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    caused by low body temperature. J Appl Physiol 55: 27-31, 1983. 11. Fine BJ, Kobrick JL and Lieberman HR. Effects of caffeine or diphenhydramine on...Hale B and Lieberman HR. Caffeine effects on marksmanship during high- stress military training with 72 hour sleep deprivation. Aviat Space Environ Med...D, Hyde, DE, Schrot, J, and Thomas, JR. Thermal protection and diver performance in special operations forces combat swimmers (resting diver phase

  6. Psycho-Motor and Error Enabled Simulations: Modeling Vulnerable Skills in the Pre-Mastery Phase Medical Practice Initiative Procedural Skill Decay and Maintenance (MPI-PSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    observed placing the subclavian central line (Figure 5). The VR stations were developed with consideration of testing participant psychomotor abilities... develop a simulation-based system to evaluate psychomotor planning while suturing on different tissue types. The variable tissue simulator presents... development of a haptics-enabled, virtual reality system for assessment of innate psychomotor skills. Three 24 The team is in the process of purchasing of a

  7. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

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    Bernard Jonathan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor development at 2 and 3 years in the EDEN cohort. We evaluated breastfeeding duration, colostrum PUFA levels and maternal dietary PUFA intake during pregnancy, that we related with three scores of psychomotor development, after taking into account potential confounders. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with psychomotor development. No relationship was found with both pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA. However, the maternal dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio was negatively associated with psychomotor development, mainly driven by intake in linoleic acid (LA. Among breastfed children, linoleic acid levels were negatively associated with psychomotor development. Furthermore, children exposed to the highest colostrum LA levels tended to score closer to never breastfed children than to children exposed to the lowest colostrums LA levels. Taken together, these results do not provide evidence in favour of a positive role of pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA on later psychomotor development, but highlight a potential negative role of being exposed in early life to high LA levels. From a public health perspective, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration, and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.

  8. Spatial learning and psychomotor performance of C57BL/6 mice: age sensitivity and reliability of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; Sumien, Nathalie; Forster, Michael J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-09-01

    Two tests often used in aging research, the elevated path test and the Morris water maze test, were examined for their application to the study of brain aging in a large sample of C57BL/6JNia mice. Specifically, these studies assessed: (1) sensitivity to age and the degree of interrelatedness among different behavioral measures derived from these tests, (2) the effect of age on variation in the measurements, and (3) the reliability of individual differences in performance on the tests. Both tests detected age-related deficits in group performance that occurred independently of each other. However, analysis of data obtained on the Morris water maze test revealed three relatively independent components of cognitive performance. Performance in initial acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris maze was not highly correlated with performance during reversal learning (when mice were required to learn a new spatial location), whereas performance in both of those phases was independent of spatial performance assessed during a single probe trial administered at the end of acquisition training. Moreover, impaired performance during initial acquisition could be detected at an earlier age than impairments in reversal learning. There were modest but significant age-related increases in the variance of both elevated path test scores and in several measures of learning in the Morris maze test. Analysis of test scores of mice across repeated testing sessions confirmed reliability of the measurements obtained for cognitive and psychomotor function. Power calculations confirmed that there are sufficiently large age-related differences in elevated path test performance, relative to within age variability, to render this test useful for studies into the ability of an intervention to prevent or reverse age-related deficits in psychomotor performance. Power calculations indicated a need for larger sample sizes for detection of intervention effects on cognitive components of the

  9. Altered behavioral performance and live imaging of circuit-specific neural deficiencies in a zebrafish model for psychomotor retardation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zada

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms and treatment of psychomotor retardation, which includes motor and cognitive impairment, are indefinite. The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS is an X-linked psychomotor retardation characterized by delayed development, severe intellectual disability, muscle hypotonia, and spastic paraplegia, in combination with disturbed thyroid hormone (TH parameters. AHDS has been associated with mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (mct8/slc16a2 gene, which is a TH transporter. In order to determine the pathophysiological mechanisms of AHDS, MCT8 knockout mice were intensively studied. Although these mice faithfully replicated the abnormal serum TH levels, they failed to exhibit the neurological and behavioral symptoms of AHDS patients. Here, we generated an mct8 mutant (mct8-/- zebrafish using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN-mediated targeted gene editing system. The elimination of MCT8 decreased the expression levels of TH receptors; however, it did not affect the expression of other TH-related genes. Similar to human patients, mct8-/- larvae exhibited neurological and behavioral deficiencies. High-throughput behavioral assays demonstrated that mct8-/- larvae exhibited reduced locomotor activity, altered response to external light and dark transitions and an increase in sleep time. These deficiencies in behavioral performance were associated with altered expression of myelin-related genes and neuron-specific deficiencies in circuit formation. Time-lapse imaging of single-axon arbors and synapses in live mct8-/- larvae revealed a reduction in filopodia dynamics and axon branching in sensory neurons and decreased synaptic density in motor neurons. These phenotypes enable assessment of the therapeutic potential of three TH analogs that can enter the cells in the absence of MCT8. The TH analogs restored the myelin and axon outgrowth deficiencies in mct8-/- larvae. These findings suggest a mechanism by which MCT8 regulates neural circuit

  10. Handbook of Remedial or Developmental Activities to Accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Drucilla, Comp.

    This handbook, intended to accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, describes numerous remedial and developmental activities for perceptual motor and psychomotor skills. Observable classroom behaviors associated with various perceptual motor and psychomotor disabilities (visual-motor channel disability, auditory-vocal channel…

  11. Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Sharafat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Jordans agricultural extension service is seriously under-staffed and its effectiveness is consequently compromised. Reservations are being expressed about the performance and capability of the agricultural extension system in Jordan. The performance of this sector has been disappointing and has failed to transfer agricultural technology to the farmers. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Jordans agricultural extension services. Approach: The effect of extension services on olive productivity in the study area was investigated. A total number of 60 olive producers were selected to be interviewed for this study. This number was enough to achieve the study objectives. The interviewed producers were distributed almost equally within olive production locations in the study area. The sample obtained through the simple random sampling technique. The two groups had been chosen and distributed randomly into an experimental group (30 farmers; 10 for each source of extension service and control group (30 farmers. The experimental group received extension services and the control group received no extension services. Two interview-cum-structured questionnaires were designed and used to collect information and data for this study. The first instrument was designed for farmers who received extension services and the second from farmers who received no extension services. Another questionnaire was designed for administrators of extension organizations concerned with providing extension services to farmers. To find the differences that may exist between two studied groups, One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, t-test and LSD test via Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS were used. The average net profit obtained from an area of one dynamo of olive farm was the main item to be considered in determining the effectiveness of agricultural extension activities. Results and Conclusion: The results of

  12. A project for the education psychomotor for developmental age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCESCO PERROTTA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The school, after the family, is found to be the first educational agency to accommodate the children indevelopmental age. .The main purpose is the full and harmonious development of personality of the children fortheir overall education. We chose to implement a project on the body, because we believe that the body is theprivileged tool to explore, learn and interact with the environment, and other items. The body is an expression ofpersonality and is a condition relational, communicative, expressive and operational. Each child's experience(both cognitive, sensory, emotional through the experience of the body, so you should appreciate every situationthat will see the protagonist and create contexts in which to build significant and diverse paths.It 'important to establish a positive environment stimulating and emotionally, the availability of structuredmaterials and not allowing the trial, allowing time to live in that context, depending on how you feel and at yourown pace. Each child builds their self-image of their body image: the self that matches his body graduallyexplore and learn through the lived body. "Then come to the perceptual discrimination and mental representationof the body in motion and in static position. Piaget says, "arises the question of whether teaching patterns andstructures or present to the child in situations where he is active and can be learned alone. The aim of educationis to increase the chances of the child to invent and discover

  13. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan Maarten; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2007-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed in 22 PWS infants, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 1.8 (1.1-3.4) y, and a body mass index SD score (BMISDS) of -0.5 (-1.3 to 1.6). We evaluated psychomotor development in relation to results of polysomnography. Median (IQR) mental and motor development was 73.1% (64.3-79.6%) and 55.2% (46.5-63.1%) of normal children, respectively. All infants had sleep-related breathing disorders, mostly of central origin. The apnea hypopnea index was not associated with psychomotor development. Only four infants had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). They had a significantly delayed mental development of 65.5% (60.0-70.3%) of normal. They had a median BMISDS of 1.4 (0.1-1.6), which tended to be higher than in those without OSAS. Our data indicate that psychomotor development in PWS infants is not related to central sleep-related breathing disorders, but infants with OSAS have more severely delayed mental development, suggesting that PWS infants should be screened for OSAS.

  14. Computer Simulation and Digital Resources for Plastic Surgery Psychomotor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Plana, Natalie M; Stranix, John T; Cutting, Court B; McCarthy, Joseph G; Flores, Roberto L

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary plastic surgery residents are increasingly challenged to learn a greater number of complex surgical techniques within a limited period. Surgical simulation and digital education resources have the potential to address some limitations of the traditional training model, and have been shown to accelerate knowledge and skills acquisition. Although animal, cadaver, and bench models are widely used for skills and procedure-specific training, digital simulation has not been fully embraced within plastic surgery. Digital educational resources may play a future role in a multistage strategy for skills and procedures training. The authors present two virtual surgical simulators addressing procedural cognition for cleft repair and craniofacial surgery. Furthermore, the authors describe how partnerships among surgical educators, industry, and philanthropy can be a successful strategy for the development and maintenance of digital simulators and educational resources relevant to plastic surgery training. It is our responsibility as surgical educators not only to create these resources, but to demonstrate their utility for enhanced trainee knowledge and technical skills development. Currently available digital resources should be evaluated in partnership with plastic surgery educational societies to guide trainees and practitioners toward effective digital content.

  15. Psychomotor availability for school education of 5-6 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leschinska K.O.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relation of physical and mental development of senior preschool children is examined. The received results indicate the necessity of formation management program psychomotor level of availability for schooling with physical education means. The research involved 61 children (33 boys and 28 girls. The school availability by Kern-Irasek test is attained 37,7% of children, 42,6% have a middle school availability and 19,7% are immature. The "Cut the circle" method was performed by 52% of children. The general assessment shows only 48% of children have sufficient availability for school education.

  16. Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Fida, Roberta; Ghezzi, Valerio; Macale, Loreana; Sili, Alessandro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palese, Alvisa

    Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.

  17. Psychomotor skills of surgical trainees compared with those of different medical specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C J; Herbert, M; Steele, R J

    1994-03-01

    Forty-eight trainees in surgery, psychiatry, anaesthetics and medicine underwent objective testing of manual dexterity (Mandex test), hand-eye coordination (Gibson spiral maze test) and visuospatial ability (embedded figures task). Surgical trainees performed significantly more quickly on the spiral maze test than psychiatrists (P = 0.03) but made more errors (P = 0.02). Combining male and female subjects across all groups, women were significantly more accurate than men. When men only were compared no psychomotor differences between specialty groups could be demonstrated. There were no differences in visuospatial ability by either sex or specialty. Self-selection on the basis of such skill is therefore unlikely.

  18. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  19. 环境对成瘾药物精神运动兴奋性的调控及其机制%Modulatory effect of enviromental context on the psychomotor activity of addictive drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇辉; 郑希耕; 肖琳; 隋南

    2005-01-01

    精神运动(psychonlotor)是精神或心理因素诱发的对环境刺激进行感觉运动整合而产生的运动,其具体运动形式随环境变化而变化。大鼠的精神运动兴奋性表现为在相对狭窄封闭环境内水平运动量和竖立运动量的增加或反复小幅度的刻板运动(咀嚼、舔、摇头等)。精神运动可能是定向行为、探究行为的一种表现形式,其意义在于不断探索环境,

  20. Visuospatial and psychomotor aptitude predicts endovascular performance of inexperienced individuals on a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Isabelle; O'Donoghue, Kevin G L; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Vermassen, Frank; Darzi, Ara; Cheshire, Nicholas J W

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) simulation for endovascular training of medical students to determine whether innate perceptual, visuospatial, and psychomotor aptitude (VSA) can predict initial and plateau phase of technical endovascular skills acquisition. Twenty medical students received didactic and endovascular training on a commercially available VR simulator. Each student treated a series of 10 identical noncomplex renal artery stenoses endovascularly. The simulator recorded performance data instantly and objectively. An experienced interventionalist rated the performance at the initial and final sessions using generic (out of 40) and procedure-specific (out of 30) rating scales. VSA were tested with fine motor dexterity (FMD, Perdue Pegboard), psychomotor ability (minimally invasive virtual reality surgical trainer [MIST-VR]), image recall (Rey-Osterrieth), and organizational aptitude (map-planning). VSA performance scores were correlated with the assessment parameters of endovascular skills at commencement and completion of training. Medical students exhibited statistically significant learning curves from the initial to the plateau performance for contrast usage (medians, 28 vs 17 mL, P generic and procedure-specific rating scales improved significantly (10 vs 25, P generic skills at the end of training (r(s) = .587, P = .006). Simulator-based training in endovascular skills improved performance in medical students. There were significant correlations between initial endovascular skill and fine motor dexterity as well as with image recall at end of the training period. In addition to current recruitment strategies, VSA may be a useful tool for predictive validity studies.

  1. Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P R; Schlinker, P J; Over, R

    1996-06-01

    Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling were identified through factor analysis of ratings provided by 172 bowlers (87 males, 85 females) across a range of current averages (a measure based on recent performance in competition). Skilled bowlers (current average of 170 pins or more) differed significantly from less skilled bowlers (current average of less than 135 pins) on seven component skills. They demonstrated greater mental toughness, a higher degree of planning and evaluation, greater consistency, more interest in improvement, less use of luck attributions, more confidence in equipment and technique, and greater competitiveness. Since men and women of the same overall standard (current average) have similar component skill profiles, ten-pin bowling is a gender-neutral sport. Older bowlers (45-79 years) matched by current average with younger bowlers (16-30 years) differed significantly on only one component, level of commitment. We discuss several contexts for use of the three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills, psychomotor skills and involvement in bowling) developed in this study.

  2. Design of therapeutic clothing for sensory stimulation of children with psychomotor delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ângela; Miguel, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This research work was based on an experimental concept of functional clothing for children with psychomotor development limitations. No matter the analyzed pathology, all these children need sensorial stimulation because of their psychomotor difficulties, especially at fine motor skills level. The main objective was to develop functional and comfortable clothing with sensorial stimulation elements (colours, textures, fragrances, sounds, etc.). It is intended, on the one hand, to increase the autonomy of the children in what concerns the act of dressing/undressing and, on the other hand, to stimulate their learning, coordination and self-esteem. A study about the specific needs of these children concerning clothing was worked out, which consisted in inquiring their parents and therapists. Based on the inquiries results, bibliographic revision in the area of therapeutic/ interactive clothing and analysis of didactic and therapeutic material catalogues we developed a clothing prototype (sweat-shirt). The prototype was then tested by the children of the study sample and the test results were, once again, explained by the parents through the fulfilling of a prototype evaluation inquiry. This study supplied some important conclusions, more directed to the confirmation of the theme significance and to the definition of a methodology to be used in future research.

  3. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  4. Psychomotor and spatial memory performance in aging male Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B; Mouzakis, G; Joseph, J A

    1998-09-01

    Psychomotor and spatial memory performance were examined in male Fischer 344 rats that were 6, 12, 15, 18, and 22 months of age, to assess these parameters as a function of age and to determine at what age these behaviors begin to deteriorate. Complex motor behaviors, as measured by rod walk, wire suspension, plank walk, inclined screen, and accelerating rotarod performance, declined steadily with age, with most measures being adversely affected as early as 12 to 15 months of age. Spatial learning and memory performance, as measured by the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM), showed decrements at 18 and 22 months of age (higher latencies on the working memory trial), with some change noticeable as early as 12-15 months of age (no improvement on the second trial following a 10-min retention interval); these differences were not due to swim speed. Therefore, complex motor and spatial memory behaviors show noticeable declines early in the lifespan of the male Fisher 344 rat. This cross-sectional age analysis study using the latest behavioral techniques determines the minimal age at which psychomotor and spatial learning and memory behaviors deteriorate; this information is important when planning for longitudinal studies where interventions are tested for their efficacy in preventing or restoring age-related behavioral deficits.

  5. A case series on the use of lavendula oil capsules in patients suffering from major depressive disorder and symptoms of psychomotor agitation, insomnia and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fißler, Maria; Quante, Arnim

    2014-02-01

    Symptoms of agitation, anxiety and insomnia are frequent among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) during the first weeks of psychiatric care. But a substantial number of patients declines taking pharmaceutical medication to avoid side effects. Therefore, an alternative herbal medication is needed. Clinical studies demonstrated that lavender oil capsules, termed Lasea®, have an anxiolytic effect comparable to Lorazepam and significantly reduce insomnia and agitation in non-depressed patients. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case series was to analyze the effectiveness of Lasea® for patients with MDD and symptoms of anxiety, insomnia and psychomotor agitation. Eight cases were analyzed retrospectively regarding the dosage, length of treatment, possible side effects and effectiveness of Lasea®. All cases were treated at the Department of Psychiatry at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin in a naturalistic setting. Effectiveness was measured by a change in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) total score and subscores. In 6 cases, the combination of Lasea® and an antidepressant resulted in a reduction of MDD. Lasea® also reduced agitation in 6 cases. Psychological anxiety was reduced in 5, somatic anxiety in 4 cases whereas sleep-onset and sleep-maintenance insomnia improved in 3 cases each. The results demonstrate that Lasea® reduces some of the anxiety related symptoms and sleep disturbances in MDD patients. Furthermore Lasea® significantly reduces psychomotor agitation. Additionally, the results indicate a significant global improvement stemming from the combinational therapy of Lasea® and antidepressant medication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica

    2004-04-01

    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated cements. A significant factor influencing their properties is alkali activator used. In this paper we present a new high effective alkali activator prepared from silica fume and its effectiveness. According to the results obtained this activator seems to be more effective than currently used activators like natrium hydroxide, natrium carbonate, and water glass.

  7. Development and Application for Test Software of Psychomotor Ability%心理运动能力测试软件的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠铎铎; 胡文东; 李晓京; 马进

    2014-01-01

    为了在民航飞行员心理运动能力选拔中,淘汰出不合格的候选人,减少因飞行学员停飞而引起的不必要的培训经费损失,以及在飞行过程中因人为失误而造成的事故,开发出一种方法简单先进的、能够应用于民航飞行员心理运动能力选拔的测试软件。利用3D游戏引擎3D GameStudio以及C++联合编制出一套测试心理运动能力的软件。将该软件用于民航飞行员招聘中,并对结果进行统计分析。通过对现役飞行员和应聘者之间内容效度的比较,发现其成绩之间有着较大差异,证明该软件对民航飞行员心理运动能力选拔具有实际应用价值。该测试软件操作简单方便,界面友好,结果准确可靠。%Develop an advanced and convenient software,which could be used in pilots psychomotor ability test in order to eliminate un-qualified candidates which would reduce unnecessary loss of training funds and unnecessary accident. The software for the test of psycho-motor ability is developed by the 3D game engine 3D GameStudio and C++. The system is used in civil aviation pilots recruitment,analy-zing the result. Compared the content validity between the active pilots and applicants,found large differences between their results proved that the software was significant for the pilot selection and could give a comprehensive and objective evaluation for the psychomotor abili-ty. The test software is simple operation,friendly interface and accurate and reliable results.

  8. Computer-assessed performance of psychomotor skills in endoscopic otolaryngology surgery: construct validity of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peter D; Steven, Richard; Zhang, Dong; Li, Heng; Abel, Eric W

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to introduce and establish the value of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST) as a customisable, objective real-time scoring system for trainee assessment. The construct validity of the system was assessed by comparing the performance of experienced otolaryngologists with that of otolaryngology trainees, junior doctors and medical students. Forty two subjects (13 Consultants, 8 senior trainees, 13 junior trainees and 8 junior doctors/medical students) completed a single test on DEPOST. The test involved using a 30° rigid endoscope and a probe with position sensor, to identify a series of lights in a complex 3-dimensional model. The system scored subjects for time, success rate, and economy of movement (distance travelled). An analysis of variance and correlation analysis were used for the data analysis, with statistical significance set at 0.05. Increasing experience led to significantly improved performance with the DEPOST (p < 0.01). Senior trainees' results were significantly better than those of consultant otolaryngologists in success rate and time (p < 0.05 & p < 0.05). Consultants were the most efficient in their movement (p = 0.051) CONCLUSIONS: The system provides an accurate and customisable assessment of endoscopic skill in otolaryngologists. The DEPOST system has construct validity, with master surgeons and senior trainees completing the tasks more accurately without sacrificing execution time, success rate or efficiency of movement.

  9. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was foun

  10. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Taur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls ( p <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests.

  11. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  12. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-12-28

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; rs  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake.

  13. Providing Opportunities for Student Self-Assessment: The Impact on the Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Julie; Owen, Antonette

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Therapy department at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa is responsible for ensuring students achieve psychomotor skill proficiency, as it is an essential component of health care practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of opportunities to afford self-evaluation better prepared…

  14. A Comparison of Adaptive and Nonadaptive Training Strategies in the Acquisition of a Physically Complex Psychomotor Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, James A.; And Others

    Results of research to determine if an adaptive technique could be used to teach a physically complex psychomotor skill (specifically, performing on an arc welding simulator) more efficiently than the skill could be taught with a nonadaptive technique are presented. Sixty hull maintenance technician firemen and fireman apprentice trainees were…

  15. Acquisition of a Psychomotor Skill Using Simulated-Task, Augmented Feedback (Evaluation of a Welding Training Simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    The research was conducted to determine if a physically complex, continuous, three-dimensional psychomotor skill could be acquired more efficiently with simulated-task, augmented feedback than with the feedback normally provided by performing the task itself. The specific skill selected for the study was shielded metal arc welding because it is…

  16. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Koen W.; Ahlberg, Gunnar; Bonavina, Luigi; Carter, Fiona J.; Grantcharov, Teodor P.; Hyltander, Anders; Schijven, Marlies P.; Stefani, Alessandro; van der Zee, David C.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was

  17. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT: A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Dorothea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT, 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body

  18. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT): a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kristina; Mauer, Sonja; Obinger, Matthias; Ruf, Katharina C; Graf, Christine; Kriemler, Susi; Lenz, Dorothea; Lehmacher, Walter; Hebestreit, Helge

    2010-07-12

    Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT), 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20,000 inhabitants) or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry) and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro) between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body adiposity (BMI, skin folds), media use (questionnaire

  19. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND WEIGHT IN NORMAL PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPING OF THE PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodorca Raluca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature is a newborn alive whose birth weight is equal to or less than 2500 grams, regardless of the duration of gestation. Prematurity have sometimes negative effects on child development by slowing the psychomotor development (child goes to talk later, you can recover delay until the age of 3-5 years. Some of these older children, will be clumsy. PURPOSE: To verify the importance of the adapted recovery program making a correlation between neuro-psychological assessment tests and weight of children born prematurely. HYPOTHESIS: Early systematic and continuous intervention, using adapted physical therapy methods lead to a improved neuromotor development of the premature by reaching the normal range. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 10 children, 6 boys and 4 girls, born prematurely. They were subjected to the test "assessment of neuro-psychological development in children 0-36 months" (it is a battery of tests that help to evaluate their development monthly and test weight. Applied therapeutic program included: exercise (performed by the game, massage, neuromotor rehabilitation methods (Bobath, Vojta, Kabat, hydrotherapy and music therapy. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: If neuro-psychological tests, we proceeded to calculate averages scores for the 3 test, which is further correlated with children's weight. Average scores range between 7 and 10. 333, with an overall average of 9.371. In all 3 tests averages ranging from 8,575 in the initial stage, in 9386, and 10,152 in the midway point in the final stage. CONCLUSIONS: Weight, explain in smaller proportions, and other parameters and results of neuro-psychological tests children (65.6%. ANOVA models indicate statistically significant relationships between parameters and neuro-psychological testing stages, showing progressive improvement of children's performance. Following statistical interpretation can confirm the effectiveness of the recovery program implemented so we suggest to the parents

  1. Classifying vulnerability to sleep deprivation using baseline measures of psychomotor vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanaik, Amiya; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chua, Eric C P; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-05-01

    To identify measures derived from baseline psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance that can reliably predict vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Subjects underwent total sleep deprivation and completed a 10-min PVT every 1-2 h in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants were categorized as vulnerable or resistant to sleep deprivation, based on a median split of lapses that occurred following sleep deprivation. Standard reaction time, drift diffusion model (DDM), and wavelet metrics were derived from PVT response times collected at baseline. A support vector machine model that incorporated maximum relevance and minimum redundancy feature selection and wrapper-based heuristics was used to classify subjects as vulnerable or resistant using rested data. Two academic sleep laboratories. Independent samples of 135 (69 women, age 18 to 25 y), and 45 (3 women, age 22 to 32 y) healthy adults. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. Despite differences in experimental conditions across studies, drift diffusion model parameters associated reliably with individual differences in performance during total sleep deprivation. These results demonstrate the utility of drift diffusion modeling of baseline performance in estimating vulnerability to psychomotor vigilance decline

  2. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations.

  3. Regulatory effects of adenosine A2A receptors on psychomotor ability and mood behavior of mice%腺苷A2A受体对小鼠精神运动和情绪行为的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜莉; 冉鸿; 段炜; 郑健

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨腺苷A2A受体基因敲除、A2A受体激动剂干预或A2A受体抑制剂干预对小鼠运动活性、焦虑和抑郁样行为的影响.方法 取腺苷A2A受体基因敲除(A2AKO)的雄性小鼠(A2AKO组)及同窝野生型(WT)C57BL/6小鼠(WT组)待用.另取雄性清洁级C57BL/6小鼠,随机分为SCH58261组、CGS21680组和对照组,分别给予腺苷A2A受体特异性拮抗剂SCH58261(2mg/kg)、腺苷A2A受体特异性激动剂CGS21680(0.5mg/kg)和同体积(0.25ml)载体溶液(二甲基亚砜+生理盐水)腹膜腔注射,10min后待用.前述各组别小鼠均进行旷场、高架十字迷宫和强迫游泳实验,测定各组小鼠的运动活性、焦虑和抑郁样行为.结果 与WT组比较,A2AKO组旷场总运动路程缩短(P<0.001),周边区域的滞留时间延长(P<0.05),进入高架十字迷宫开臂的次数及在开臂滞留时间减少(P<0.05),强迫游泳的累计不动时间无显著差异(P>0.05),而CGS21680组旷场总运动路程缩短(P<0.01),周边区域滞留时间延长(P<0.01),进入高架十字迷宫开臂的次数及在开臂的滞留时间减少(P<0.01),强迫游泳的累计不动时间延长(P<0.001),而SCH58261组旷场总运动路程和中心区域活动路程延长(P<0.001),强迫游泳的累计不动时间缩短(P<0.01),高架十字迷宫试验各项指标无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 腺苷A2A受体激动剂可减少小鼠的自发和探索行为,加重焦虑和抑郁情绪,该效应与腺苷A2A受体基因敲除引发的效应相似,与腺苷A2A受体拮抗剂引发效应相反.%Objective To explore the effects of gene knock-out, agonist or inhibitor of adenosine A2A receptor on the locomotor activity, and anxiety- or depression-like behavior of mice. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice, comprising those underwent gene knock-out of adenosine AjA receptor (AjaKO) and their wild-type (WT) littermates, were assigned into A2A KO group and WT group. Another batch of male C57BL/6, specific

  4. Effective Oral English Activities for ESL Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2014-01-01

    Oral English has always been a major problem for Chinese Eng-lish as Second Language (ESL) students. In fact, most Chinese students do not practice oral English very often, while their reading and writing abilities have gained rapid progress. However, language is a system that includes both words and sounds for communicative use, neither of which can be neglected. While there are hundred forms of classroom activities, the usage of most effective o-ral activities has become a serious issue that an ESL teacher should focuses on. The review is based on research results on effective oral ESL activities. The research results on the factors should be considered when selecting/plan-ning oral activities and applying oral activities ESL classes.

  5. Validity and sensitivity of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) to total and partial sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Mollicone, Daniel; Dinges, David F.

    2011-12-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) objectively assesses fatigue-related changes in alertness associated with sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian misalignment, and time on task. The standard 10-min PVT is often considered impractical in applied contexts. To address this limitation, we developed a modified brief 3-min version of the PVT (PVT-B). The PVT-B was validated in controlled laboratory studies with 74 healthy subjects (34 female, aged 22-45 years) that participated either in a total sleep deprivation (TSD) study involving 33 h awake ( N=31 subjects) or in a partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol involving 5 consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed ( N=43 subjects). PVT and PVT-B were performed regularly during wakefulness. Effect sizes of 5 key PVT outcomes were larger for TSD than PSD and larger for PVT than for PVT-B for all outcomes. Effect size was largest for response speed (reciprocal response time) for both the PVT-B and the PVT in both TSD and PSD. According to Cohen's criteria, effect sizes for the PVT-B were still large (TSD) or medium to large (PSD, except for fastest 10% RT). Compared to the 70% decrease in test duration the 22.7% (range 6.9-67.8%) average decrease in effect size was deemed an acceptable trade-off between duration and sensitivity. Overall, PVT-B performance had faster response times, more false starts and fewer lapses than PVT performance (all psleep loss between PVT-B and PVT for all outcome variables (all P>0.15) but the fastest 10% response times during PSD ( P<0.001), and effect sizes increased from 1.38 to 1.49 (TSD) and 0.65 to 0.76 (PSD), respectively. In conclusion, PVT-B tracked standard 10-min PVT performance throughout both TSD and PSD, and yielded medium to large effect sizes. PVT-B may be a useful tool for assessing behavioral alertness in settings where the duration of the 10-min PVT is considered impractical, although further validation in applied settings is needed.

  6. Validity and Sensitivity of a Brief Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B) to Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Mollicone, Daniel; Dinges, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) objectively assesses fatigue-related changes in alertness associated with sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian misalignment, and time on task. The standard 10-min PVT is often considered impractical in applied contexts. To address this limitation, we developed a modified brief 3-min version of the PVT (PVT-B). The PVT-B was validated in controlled laboratory studies with 74 healthy subjects (34 female, aged 22–45 years) that participated either in a total sleep deprivation (TSD) study involving 33 hours awake (N=31 subjects) or in a partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol involving 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (N=43 subjects). PVT and PVT-B were performed regularly during wakefulness. Effect sizes of 5 key PVT outcomes were larger for TSD than PSD and larger for PVT than for PVT-B for all outcomes. Effect size was largest for response speed (reciprocal response time) for both the PVT-B and the PVT in both TSD and PSD. According to Cohen's criteria, effect sizes for the PVT-B were still large (TSD) or medium to large (PSD, except for fastest 10% RT). Compared to the 70% decrease in test duration the 22.7% (range 6.9%-67.8%) average decrease in effect size was deemed an acceptable trade-off between duration and sensitivity. Overall, PVT-B performance had faster response times, more false starts and fewer lapses than PVT performance (all p0.15) but the fastest 10% response times during PSD (P<0.001), and effect sizes increased from 1.38 to 1.49 (TSD) and 0.65 to 0.76 (PSD), respectively. In conclusion, PVT-B tracked standard 10-min PVT performance throughout both TSD and PSD, and yielded medium to large effect sizes. PVT-B may be a useful tool for assessing behavioral alertness in settings where the duration of the 10-min PVT is considered impractical, although further validation in applied settings is needed. PMID:22025811

  7. Unrecognized Hypoxia and Respiratory Depression in Emergency Department Patients Sedated For Psychomotor Agitation: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Deitch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of respiratory depression in patients who are chemically sedated in the emergency department (ED is not well understood. As the drugs used for chemical restraint are respiratory depressants, improving respiratory monitoring practice in the ED may be warranted. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence of respiratory depression in patients chemically sedated for violent behavior and psychomotor agitation in the ED. Methods: Adult patients who met eligibility criteria with psychomotor agitation and violent behavior who were chemically sedated were eligible. SpO2 and ETCO2 (end-tidal CO2 was recorded and saved every 5 seconds. Demographic data, history of drug or alcohol abuse, medical and psychiatric history, HR and BP every 5 minutes, any physician intervention for hypoxia or respiratory depression, or adverse events were also recorded. We defined respiratory depression as an ETCO2 of >50 mmHg, a change of 10% above or below baseline, or a loss of waveform for >15 seconds. Hypoxia was defined as a SpO2 of 15 seconds. Results: We enrolled 59 patients, and excluded 9 because of >35% data loss. Twenty-eight (28/50 patients developed respiratory depression at least once during their chemical restraint (56%, 95% CI 42-69%; the median number of events was 2 (range 1-6. Twenty-one (21/50 patients had at least one hypoxic event during their chemical restraint (42%, 95% CI 29-55%; the median number of events was 2 (range 1-5. Nineteen (19/21 (90%, 95% CI 71-97% of the patients that developed hypoxia had a corresponding ETCO2 change. Fifteen (15/19 (79%, 95% CI 56-91% patients who became hypoxic met criteria for respiratory depression before the onset of hypoxia. The sensitivity of ETCO2 to predict the onset of a hypoxic event was 90.48% (95% CI: 68-98% and specificity 69% (95% CI: 49-84%. Five patients received respiratory interventions from the healthcare team to improve respiration [Airway repositioning: (2

  8. IMPROVING PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN USING TEACHING METHODOLOGIES BASED ON MIRROR NEURONS ACTIVATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gáll Zs. Sz; Balint L

    2015-01-01

    .... Using this as a starting point, the study aims to work out and apply a methodology in keeping with the content of the psychomotor expression activities curriculum for preschool education, resorting...

  9. PC-PVT: a platform for psychomotor vigilance task testing, analysis, and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrov, Maxim Y; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Thorsley, David; Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Wesensten, Nancy J; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-03-01

    Using a personal computer (PC) for simple visual reaction time testing is advantageous because of the relatively low hardware cost, user familiarity, and the relative ease of software development for specific neurobehavioral testing protocols. However, general-purpose computers are not designed with the millisecond-level accuracy of operation required for such applications. Software that does not control for the various sources of delay may return reaction time values that are substantially different from the true reaction times. We have developed and characterized a freely available system for PC-based simple visual reaction time testing that is analogous to the widely used psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). In addition, we have integrated individualized prediction algorithms for near-real-time neurobehavioral performance prediction. We characterized the precision and accuracy with which the system as a whole measures reaction times on a wide range of computer hardware configurations, comparing its performance with that of the "gold standard" PVT-192 device. We showed that the system is capable of measuring reaction times with an average delay of less than 10 ms, a margin of error that is comparable to that of the gold standard. The most critical aspect of hardware selection is the type of mouse used for response detection, with gaming mice showing a significant advantage over standard ones. The software is free to download from http://bhsai.org/downloads/pc-pvt/ .

  10. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: Mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Avina, Daniel Alejandro Hernández

    2014-09-01

    The Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a very rare and severe genetic disease characterized by mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism. It was first described in 1978 in patients with mental retardation and crisis of intermittent hyperventilation. The genetic cause is haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 (transcription factor 4) gene that affects the neurodevelopment in both sexes; the majority of patients have spontaneous molecular defects by point mutations or deletions in chromosome 18 at the region 18q21. The syndrome is characterized by neurological abnormalities that affect the motor coordination and balance, in patients with mental and developmental delays. The phenotype includes a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: prominent square forehead, deep-set eyes with ocular hypertelorism; prominent large nose beaked and broad flat nasal bridge; mouth wide and large, thick fleshy lips, tented bow-shaped upper lip and everted lower lip; cup-shaped ears with dysplastic broad overfolded helix. We review the literature and the photographs of 44 published patients from 2007 to 2012, to resume the principal features of craniofacial anomalies, attempting to delineate the syndrome phenotype and score the specific dysmorphism than help to achieve the early clinical diagnosis.

  11. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  12. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  13. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: Mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Avina, Daniel Alejandro Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a very rare and severe genetic disease characterized by mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism. It was first described in 1978 in patients with mental retardation and crisis of intermittent hyperventilation. The genetic cause is haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 (transcription factor 4) gene that affects the neurodevelopment in both sexes; the majority of patients have spontaneous molecular defects by point mutations or deletions in chromosome 18 at the region 18q21. The syndrome is characterized by neurological abnormalities that affect the motor coordination and balance, in patients with mental and developmental delays. The phenotype includes a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: prominent square forehead, deep-set eyes with ocular hypertelorism; prominent large nose beaked and broad flat nasal bridge; mouth wide and large, thick fleshy lips, tented bow-shaped upper lip and everted lower lip; cup-shaped ears with dysplastic broad overfolded helix. We review the literature and the photographs of 44 published patients from 2007 to 2012, to resume the principal features of craniofacial anomalies, attempting to delineate the syndrome phenotype and score the specific dysmorphism than help to achieve the early clinical diagnosis. PMID:27625870

  14. The side effect profile of buspirone in comparison to active controls and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R E; Casten, G P; Alms, D R; Benes, C O; Marunycz, J D

    1982-12-01

    Animal studies and the original study comparing buspirone with diazepam and placebo indicated that sedative-hypnotic side effects and impairment in psychomotor function would be less with buspirone than with diazepam. This was borne out by the present double-blind study in which almost 700 patients received buspirone. Mean daily doses were buspirone, 20 mg; diazepam, 20 mg; and clorazepate, 24 mg. Sedation, lethargy, and depression were significantly less with buspirone than with diazepam or clorazepate and were comparable to placebo. There was no indication that other types of side effects would differ significantly from those seen with the benzodiazepines. Nervousness, headache, and dizziness were experienced more frequently with buspirone than with placebo.

  15. Job rotation: Effects on muscular activity variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Andres C; Barrero, Lope H

    2017-04-01

    Job rotation strategies have been used for years as an administrative intervention to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The benefits of job rotation have been hypothesized to occur via changes in muscular activity variability (MAV). However, the effect of job rotation on MAV has not been fully analyzed in a literature review. A wide search was conducted to identify studies testing the effect of different job rotation strategies on MAV. Twenty-six studies of acceptable quality were included. Several studies on different types of tasks supported the view that job rotation can increase muscular activity variability, particularly with strategies such as alternating tasks and pace changes. However, it remains uncertain whether such variability changes immediately translate into benefits for the worker because little evidence was found that showed simultaneous changes in different muscular groups. Additionally, variability was occasionally achieved at the expense of average activity in the assessed muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aperture Effects on Spectroscopic Galaxy Activity Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Maragkoudakis, A; Ashby, M L N; Willner, S P

    2014-01-01

    Activity classification of galaxies based on long-slit and fiber spectroscopy can be strongly influenced by aperture effects. Here we investigate how activity classification for 14 nearby galaxies depends on the proportion of the host galaxy's light that is included in the aperture. We use both observed long-slit spectra and simulated elliptical-aperture spectra of different sizes. The degree of change varies with galaxy morphology and nuclear activity type. Starlight removal techniques can mitigate but not remove the effect of host galaxy contamination in the nuclear aperture. Galaxies with extra-nuclear star formation can show higher [O III] {\\lambda}5007/H{\\beta} ratios with increasing aperture, in contrast to the naive expectation that integrated light will only dilute the nuclear emission lines. We calculate the mean dispersion for the diagnostic line ratios used in the standard BPT diagrams with respect to the central aperture of spectral extraction to obtain an estimate of the uncertainties resulting f...

  17. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  18. The "Mozart effect" on epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Daaboul, Y; Fino, J J; Shaw, G L

    1998-07-01

    The "Mozart Effect," using the Piano Sonata in D Major (K.448), was examined in patients with seizures. In 23 of 29 instances significant decreases in epileptiform activity were noted from patients even in coma, with status epilepticus or with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs). The effect may be immediate or require 40-300 sec to manifest itself. The change in the amount of ictal activity in one patient in coma was from 62% before the music to 21% during Mozart. Amplitudes of these discharges also have often decreased. Examples of PLEDs on both temporal areas are shown in which the effect was only on the left temporal area but in other patients only on the right temporal area. Brain maps during the music showed theta and alpha activity decreased on the central areas, while delta waves increased on the frontal midline area. The basis of this effect is likely that the superorganization of the cerebral cortex with its highly structured radial columns seen throughout both hemispheres may resonate with the superior architecture of Mozart's music.

  19. Natural history of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13: II. Psychomotor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, B.J.; Jorde, L.B.; Blackburn, B.L.; Carey, J.C. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-01-15

    Developmental data were abstracted from medical records on 50 trisomy 18 individuals ranging in age from 1 to 232 months and 12 trisomy 13 individuals ranging in age from 1 to 130 months. Data on the age when trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 children achieved developmental skills were collected from a larger group of 62 trisomy 18 individuals and 14 trisomy 13 individuals whose families filled out parent questionnaires. Developmental quotient (DQ), defined as developmental age divided by chronological age, averaged 0.18 for trisomy 18 and 0.25 for trisomy 13. There was a dramatic drop in DQ from infancy to later childhood. The highest DQs and the greatest variation in DQs were in the first 2-3 years of life. Developmental ages in 7 skill areas were significantly different, with daily living and receptive language having the highest values and motor and communication skills having the lowest. When chronological age was taken into account, there was no significant difference in DQs in the same 7 skill areas, although there was a trend that was similar to the pattern of differences with developmental age. Older children could use a walker, understand words and phrases, use a few words and/or signs, crawl, follow simple commands, recognize and interact with others, and play independently. Walking and some toileting skills were also reported for trisomy 13. Although individual with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 were clearly functioning in the severe to profound developmentally handicapped range, they did achieve some psychomotor maturation and always continued to learn. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  1. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  2. Social Adaptation and Behavior Problems of The Psychomotor Epilep sy Children%精神运动性癫痫儿童社会适应能力及行为问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何任; 何伋

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate social adaptation abi lity and behavior proble ms of the psychomotor epilepsy children. Methods:63 child ren with psychomotor e pilepsy and 63 normal control subjects were examined. Results: Social adaptation ability of the psychomotor epilepsy children was lower than that of the normal children(P<0.01~0.05). There was no significant difference in the total scor es on behavior problems between the two groups. Conclusions :For the benefits o f the psychomotor epilepsy children, it is essential to consider both physical a nd psychological interventions.

  3. Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We find theoretically the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations, on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. L.D. thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) Mexico, for partial support by Grant No. 176452. M. S. thanks CONACyT and Programa de Mejoramiento de Profesorado (PROMEP) for partially funding this work under Grant No. 103.5/13/6732.

  4. Effect of marine glycosides on adenosinetriphosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, B A; Gorshkova, I A; Stonik, V A; Elyakov, G B

    1982-01-01

    Marine glycosides from the sea cucumbers Actinopyga agassizi, Holothuria atra, Bohadschia argus, Cucumaria fraudatrix, Astichopus multifidus and Thelenota ananas inhibit both Na+-K+ ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase of rat brain in vitro. The glycoside-cholesterol complex of these compounds does not influence ATPase activity. Asterosaponins from starfishes Linckia guildingi and Linckia laevigata possess a slight inhibiting effect. The triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers are more powerful inhibitors than steroidal glycosides from starfishes.

  5. Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Yuan Chuang; Pei-Chun Chang; Yi-Chun Shen; Chingju Lin; Cheng-Fang Tsai; Jia-Hong Chen; Wei-Lan Yeh; Ling-Hsuan Wu; Hsiao-Yun Lin; Yu-Shu Liu; Dah-Yuu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS...

  6. Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Yuan Chuang; Pei-Chun Chang; Yi-Chun Shen; Chingju Lin; Cheng-Fang Tsai; Jia-Hong Chen; Wei-Lan Yeh; Ling-Hsuan Wu; Hsiao-Yun Lin; Yu-Shu Liu; Dah-Yuu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS...

  7. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  8. From Psychomotor to "Motorpsycho": Learning through Gestures with Body Sensory Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng

    2014-01-01

    As information and communication technology continues to evolve, body sensory technologies, like the Microsoft Kinect, provide learning designers new approaches to facilitating learning in an innovative way. With the advent of body sensory technology like the Kinect, it is important to use motor activities for learning in good and effective ways.…

  9. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  10. [Sleep deprivation effects on cognitive, psychomotor skills and its relationship with personal characteristics of resident doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui-Sutton, Liz; Barragán-Pérez, Virginia; Fuentes-García, Ruth; Monsalvo-Obregón, Erika Cristina; Fouilloux-Morales, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: en países como Estados Unidos y las naciones europeas se han propuesto cambios a la estructura asistencial y académica de los médicos especialistas en formación que proponen transformaciones a las normas relativas al número de horas que trabajan a la semana los residentes. El argumento principal que sustenta esas transformaciones se basa en el supuesto de que las horas de trabajo excesivas (más de 16 horas ininterrumpidas) provocan alteraciones cognitivas y psicomotrices en los residentes. Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre la privación de sueño y las habilidades cognitivas y psicomotoras de una muestra de residentes de diferentes especialidades médicas. Material y métodos: estudio longitudinal, con mediciones pre y post guardia, en 31 residentes de Medicina. Se midieron las variables de: habilidades cognitivas y psicomotoras, datos sociodemográficos y de condiciones de guardia, calidad de sueño y psicopatología. resultados: 81% de los residentes tuvo detrimento en, al menos, una de las pruebas realizadas; sin embargo, en los resultados de las habilidades psicomotoras y en la maniobra de reanimación cardiopulmonar básica se encontró una diferencia significativa en los momentos pre y post guardia con mejoría en las puntuaciones. Conclusiones: la privación de sueño disminuye las habilidades cognitivas y psicomotoras. Si bien nuestros resultados no son generalizables, pueden constituir un precedente para fundamentar posibles cambios referentes a las guardias en las residencias médicas.

  11. Effects of Micronutrients during Pregnancy and Early Infancy on Mental and Psychomotor Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Verhoef (Hans); C.E. West; N. Bleichrodt; P.H. Dekker; M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSpectacular progress has been made in the last decades in the global fight against deficiencies of iodine and vitamin A [1]. As a result, the number of people suffering from iodine deficiency has been reduced from about 1.5 billion in 1990 to about 0.5 billion now, almost entirely due to

  12. The Effect of the Psychomotor Program on Sugar Level in the Blood among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azzab, Saida; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Ahmed, Thoraya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychology has also proven to be helpful in developing and evaluating diabetes prevention programs, aimed at helping persons at risk for diabetes to achieve lasting lifestyle changes. There are psychological and chemical advantages of doing physical exercise over eating. Nurses caring for patients with diabetes need to be working…

  13. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, CTJ; Ramaekers, JG; Muntjewerff, ND; Sikkema, KL; Samyn, N; Read, NL; Brookhuis, KA; Riedel, WJ

    2003-01-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition, p

  14. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, CTJ; Ramaekers, JG; Muntjewerff, ND; Sikkema, KL; Samyn, N; Read, NL; Brookhuis, KA; Riedel, WJ

    2003-01-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition, p

  15. The Effect of Institutionalization on Psychomotor Development of Preschool Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kouliousi, Chrysoula; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Fahantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Development can be altered by several factors which can either facilitate or obstruct development. The aim of the current study was the examination and the detection of differences in the developmental profiles of preschool aged children living in conventional institution facilities (N = 28), in SOS villages (N = 20) and in natural family…

  16. Effects of Micronutrients during Pregnancy and Early Infancy on Mental and Psychomotor Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Bleichrodt, N.; Dekker, P.H.; Born, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The questions that are addressed in this chapter concern the extent to which a shortage of iodine and iron during fetal and infant development impairs mental development and the extent to which this impairment can be redressed by increasing the intake of these micronutrients

  17. Psychomotor developmental delay and epilepsy in an offspring of father-daughter incest: quantification of the causality probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Krawczak, Michael

    2010-09-01

    A 20-year-old offspring of father-daughter incest, who has been suffering from serious psychomotoric health problems since early childhood, is seeking financial compensation under the German federal act of victim indemnification. For her appeal to be valid, the probability X that the incest was causal for her disorder must exceed 50%. Based upon the available medical records, we show that this is indeed the case and that X is even likely to exceed 65%, thereby rendering the victim's claim scientifically and legally justified.

  18. The semiology of motor disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorders as highlighted from a standardized neuro-psychomotor assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Paquet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored,nor is it clear whether there areneuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool.Method: Thirty-four children with ASD, with or without intellectual deficit (ID were recruited in a child psychiatry department and Autism Resource Centers. Initial standard evaluations for diagnosis (psychiatric; psychological; psychomotor were supplemented by a standardized assessment battery for neuro-developmental psychomotor functions (NP-MOT.Results: The results of some NP-MOT tests differed between children with ASD with intellectual deficit (ID and those without. However, on the NP-MOT battery, neither of the two groups did well in the bi-manual and finger praxia tests (36% and 52% respectively failed. Manual and digital gnosopraxia showed some deficit (63% and 62% respectively failed. Postural deficits were found in tests for both static equilibrium (64% and dynamic (52%. There were also difficulties in coordination between the upper and lower limbs in 58% of children. We found 75% failure in motor skills on the M-ABC test. Concerning muscular tone, significant laxity was observed in distal parts of the body (feet and hands, but hypertonia was observed in the proximal muscles of the lower limbs (reduced heel-ear angle.Discussion: The results of manual and digital gnosopraxia tests point to a planning deficit in children with autism. A gesture programming deficit is also highlighted by the poor results in manual praxis, and by failures in the M-ABC tests despite prior

  19. The Semiology of Motor Disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorders as Highlighted from a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Aude; Olliac, Bertrand; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Golse, Bernard; Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination, or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored, nor is it clear whether there are neuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool. Thirty-four children with ASD, with or without intellectual deficit (ID) were recruited in a child psychiatry department and Autism Resource Centers. Initial standard evaluations for diagnosis (psychiatric; psychological; psychomotor) were supplemented by a standardized assessment battery for neuro-developmental psychomotor functions (NP-MOT). The results of some NP-MOT tests differed between children with ASD with ID and those without. However, on the NP-MOT battery, neither of the two groups did well in the bi-manual and finger praxia tests (36 and 52% respectively failed). Manual and digital gnosopraxia showed some deficit (63 and 62% respectively failed). Postural deficits were found in tests for both static equilibrium (64%) and dynamic (52%). There were also difficulties in coordination between the upper and lower limbs in 58% of children. We found 75% failure in motor skills on the M-ABC test. Concerning muscular tone, significant laxity was observed in distal parts of the body (feet and hands), but hypertonia was observed in the proximal muscles of the lower limbs (reduced heel-ear angle). The results of manual and digital gnosopraxia tests point to a planning deficit in children with autism. A gesture programming deficit is also highlighted by the poor results in manual praxis, and by failures in the M-ABC tests despite prior training of the child. However, concerning global motor function, a

  20. Effective equations governing an active poroelastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, J; Brown, D L; Hubbard, M E; O'Dea, R D

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid-structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The 'active' nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e.g. swelling in coals and clays) and a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. absorbant hygiene products). The key contribution of this work is the derivation of a system of homogenized partial differential equations describing macroscale growth, coupled to transport of solute, that explicitly incorporates details of the structure and dynamics of the microscopic system, and, moreover, admits finite growth and deformation at the pore scale. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Biot-type system, augmented with additional terms pertaining to growth, coupled to an advection-reaction-diffusion equation. The resultant system of effective equations is then compared with other recent models under a selection of appropriate simplifying asymptotic limits.

  1. Intervenção psicomotora em crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo Psychomotor intervention on children of low socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Campos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se identificar o perfil psicomotor de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico e verificar o efeito nelas de um programa de intervenção psicomotora. Participaram do estudo seis crianças do sexo masculino, na faixa de 10 a 12 anos (11,5±0,92. Os participantes foram avaliados utilizando-se uma bateria psicomotora que avalia sete fatores psicomotores: tonicidade, equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, estruturação espaço-temporal, praxia global e fina; de acordo com o desempenho da criança, os fatores são pontuados de 1 a 4; o escore 1 refere-se ao perfil apráxico, 2 ao dispráxico, 3 ao eupráxico e 4 ao hiperpráxico. Com base nas dificuldades detectadas foi elaborado um programa de intervenção psicomotora, aplicado durante três meses, em 16 sessões de uma hora de duração, duas vezes por semana. Ao término da intervenção os participantes foram reavaliados. Pela avaliação inicial, o perfil dos participantes foi predominantemente eupráxico nos fatores equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, praxia global e praxia fina; nos fatores tonicidade e estruturação espaço-temporal o perfil foi predominantemente dispráxico. Após o programa de intervenção houve aumento estatisticamente significativo (pThis study aimed at outlining the psychomotor profile of socioeconomically disadvantaged children and at verifying the effect on them of an assessment-based psychomotor training program. Participants were six 10-to-12 year-old children (mean age 11.5±0.92, who were evaluated before and after the program by means of a psychomotor battery which assesses seven categories: tonus, equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, time-space orientation, gross and fine praxis; scores range from 1 to 4, determining the following profiles: 1, apraxic; 2, dyspraxic; 3, eupraxic; 4, hyperpraxic. By drawing on children's difficulties, a psychomotor playing program was applied during 3 months, in 16 one-hour sessions

  2. 精神运动性癫痫儿童记忆障碍的临床研究%Clinical study on the psychomotor epilepsy children on memory disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉先; 叶红涛; 魏统国; 石玉良; 张志益

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the memory disorder in psychomotor epilepsy children. Methods The WMS-R Scales were used to evaluate the memory to 76 psychomotor epilepsy children who met the entry criteria. Seventy normal children who had the similar personal characters served as control. Results Compared with control group,Memory was lower in psychomotor epilepsy children.The memory in psychomotor epilepsy children was notable correlated with the durations of the illness.The more longer durations of the illness,the more worse memory function( P <0.05).The memory of cases which seizures arisen from left temporal lobe was more easily suffered from illness than that of cases which seizures arisen from right temporal lobe( P <0.05). The left side of the origin and the origin of the right to compare, memory improvement seem to be more clear after treatment( P <0.05).Conclusion Memory in psychomotor epilepsy children was lower than normal children. Good clinical control and shorten the course to protect and improve the memory disorders have a positive effect.%目的 探讨精神运动性癫痫患儿的记忆障碍情况.方法 采用修订的韦氏记忆量表对60例正常对照组儿童及76例精神运动性癫痫患儿分别进行测评,观察相应指标的变化.结果 精神运动性癫痫患儿较正常儿童存在明显记忆障碍,发作频率对记忆障碍无影响( P >0.05),而病程长短及临床是否控制良好与记忆障碍有关影响( P <0.05);左侧起源者较右侧起源者短时记忆、瞬时记忆和总MQ水平均偏低,尤其是联想学习[(8.12±3.16)分,(9.79±2.67)分]、背数[(5.44±3.84)分,(7.47±3.26)分]及总MQ[(79.21±24.36)分,(93.34±26.07)分]水平差异有显著性( P <0.05).左侧起源者治疗后较右侧起源者治疗后记忆改善似乎更明显,尤以联想学习、理解记忆、背数及总MQ水平改善显著( P <0.05).结论 精神运动性癫痫患儿有明显的记忆障碍;良好的临床控制以及尽可

  3. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  4. Comparative evaluation of H1 receptor blocking activity and safety of newer H1antagonist mizolastine with loratadine and placebo: a randomized double blind three way crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Mizolastine has good antihistaminic activity than loratadine. Neither drug causes any psychomotor impairment or has anti-cholinergic action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 661-675

  5. Psychomotor development and learning difficulties in preschool children with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An epidemiological study in Navarre and La Rioja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Méndez, J J; Borra-Ruiz, M C; Álvarez-Gómez, M J; Soutullo Esperón, C

    2017-10-01

    ADHD symptoms begin to appear at preschool age. ADHD may have a significant negative impact on academic performance. In Spain, there are no standardized tools for detecting ADHD at preschool age, nor is there data about the incidence of this disorder. To evaluate developmental factors and learning difficulties associated with probable ADHD and to assess the impact of ADHD in school performance. We conducted a population-based study with a stratified multistage proportional cluster sample design. We found significant differences between probable ADHD and parents' perception of difficulties in expressive language, comprehension, and fine motor skills, as well as in emotions, concentration, behaviour, and relationships. Around 34% of preschool children with probable ADHD showed global learning difficulties, mainly in patients with the inattentive type. According to the multivariate analysis, learning difficulties were significantly associated with both delayed psychomotor development during the first 3 years of life (OR: 5.57) as assessed by parents, and probable ADHD (OR: 2.34) CONCLUSIONS: There is a connection between probable ADHD in preschool children and parents' perception of difficulties in several dimensions of development and learning. Early detection of ADHD at preschool ages is necessary to start prompt and effective clinical and educational interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of low-dose midazolam plus ketamine in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... Objective: This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different dosages of .... based on a study by Kamal and Hussein.17 The power of the ..... premedication on mental and psychomotor recovery in geriatric.

  7. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yuan Chuang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Psychomotor symptoms and treatment outcomes of ziprasidone monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential parallel comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Doorley, James; DiPierro, Moneika; Cardoos, Amber; Papakostas, George I

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ziprasidone monotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) with and without psychomotor symptoms. In accordance with the sequential parallel comparison design, 106 MDD patients (age 44.0±10.7 years; female, 43.4%) were recruited and a post-hoc analysis was carried out on 12-week double-blind treatment with either ziprasidone (40-160 mg/day) or placebo, divided into two phases of 6 weeks each to the assigned treatment sequences, drug/drug, placebo/placebo, and placebo/drug. Psychomotor symptoms were evaluated on the basis of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline. Efficacy assessments, on the basis of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Scale, Self-Rated (QIDS-SR), were performed every week throughout the trial. In phase I, ziprasidone monotherapy produced significant improvement in patients with psychomotor symptoms compared with placebo on the basis of HDRS-17 (F=5.95, P=0.017) and QIDS-SR (F=5.26, P=0.025) scores, whereas no significant changes were found in HDRS-17 (F=2.32, P=0.15) and QIDS-SR (F=3.70, P=0.074) scores in patients without psychomotor symptoms. In phase II, ziprasidone monotherapy produced no significant differences compared with placebo. In the pooled analysis, ziprasidone monotherapy showed significance according to QIDS-SR (Z=2.00, P=0.046) and a trend toward statistical significance according to the HDRS-17 (Z=1.66, P=0.10) in patients with psychomotor symptoms. Ziprasidone monotherapy may produce significant improvement compared with placebo in MDD patients with psychomotor symptoms.

  10. A Rare Case of Psychomotor Disturbances Linked to the Use of an Adulterated Dietary Supplement Containing Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Barak; Goldstein, Lee; Reshef, Amikam; Poperno, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Sibutramine, an oral anorexiant, is often found as an adulterant in various counterfeit herbal slimming products and dietary supplements. The use of sibutramine has been associated with various cardiovascular and psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report a rare case of psychomotor disturbances, in a patient with no previously diagnosed movement disorders. A 26-year-old woman developed abnormal behavior, visual hallucinations, hyperkinesia, facial flushing, and dizziness after taking a counterfeit dietary supplement which contained undeclared sibutramine and phenolphtalein. Laboratory work-up revealed microcytic anemia; leucopenia; and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and antistreptolysin O titer, but rheumatic fever was ruled out. After a neurologic examination, involuntary movements were classified as chorea. The psychiatric examination result was unremarkable. The patient responded well to haloperidol therapy. Body temperature, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels eventually normalized. The patient was discharged. This is the first report we are aware of about a transient, chorea-like psychomotor movement disorder associated with sibutramine. Although the causal relationship between sibutramine and the patient's symptoms cannot be proven definitely, the temporal dimension does suggest sibutramine initiation and termination led to onset and resolution of symptoms, respectively. Furthermore, because of the widespread availability of adulterated food supplements containing sibutramine, physicians should be more aware of their implications for patients.

  11. Physical, mental and psychomotor development of children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a retrospective case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Qin; Wang Wen-Jun; Li Yu; Li Hong; Ma Yun; Chen Xiang-Hong; Yang Dong-Zi; Zhang Qing-Xue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perinatal and developmental outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR).Methods: Twenty-four ART children born after MPR were compared to 9 triplets without MPR, and 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 naturally conceived. Mental and psychological development was assessed by Bayley Scales.of Infant. The outcomes compared included perinatal characteristics, body mass index (BMI), mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI).Results: MPR singletons/twins had better neonatal outcomes than non-MPR triplets. Moreover, PDI of the MPR singletons/twins was significantly higher than that of the non-MPR triplets. There were no significantly difference in perinatal characteristics, BMI, MDI and PDI among 24 MPR children, 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 matched naturally conceived children.Conclusion: Multifetal pregnancy reduction could improve perinatal outcomes and would not affect physical, mental and psychomotor development for children born after it.

  12. Trainer-to-student ratios for teaching psychomotor skills in health care fields, as applied to osteopathic manipulative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Seffinger, Michael A; Ferrill, Heather P; Gish, Eric E

    2012-04-01

    The hallmark of osteopathic medical education is the inclusion of hands-on instruction in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM), which includes palpatory diagnosis and osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). This OMM training typically involves a primary instructor presenting theory and techniques with step-by-step demonstrations to a large group of first- and second-year osteopathic medical students. Additional instructors, referred to as table trainers, assist the primary instructor by supervising the students as they practice the presented techniques. To the authors' knowledge, there is no currently accepted standard for a table trainer-to-student ratio in OMM skills laboratories within osteopathic medical schools in the United States. However, through a Google Web search and PubMed literature review, the authors identified published trainer-to-student ratios used in other health care skills training curricula. Psychomotor skills training courses in health care fields typically have a table trainer-to-student ratio of 1 trainer to 8 or fewer students. On the basis of these findings and psychomotor skills learning theory, the authors conclude that this ratio is likely sufficient for OMM skills training.

  13. The effect of levamisole on phosphodiesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantopoulos, A; Kafasi, V; Doulas, N; Liakakos, D; Matsaniotis, N

    1977-03-15

    Phosphodiesterase activity of mouse liver homogenates was estimated in presence and absence of levamisole. The enzyme activity was 1394 and 1399 nmoles/mg protein/30 min respectively. Our data show that levamisole does not affect the phosphodiesterase activity.

  14. Distributed Feedback Effects in Active Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a rigorous coupled-wave analysis of slow-light effects in active photonic crystal waveguides. The presence of active material leads to coherent distributed feedback effects that significantly alter the magnitude and phase of output fields.......We present a rigorous coupled-wave analysis of slow-light effects in active photonic crystal waveguides. The presence of active material leads to coherent distributed feedback effects that significantly alter the magnitude and phase of output fields....

  15. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-01-01

    Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  16. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  17. Psycho-Motor and Error Enabled Simulations: Modeling Vulnerable Skills in the Pre Mastery Phase - Medical Practice Initiative Procedural Skill Decay and Maintenance (MPI-PSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    surgical procedures. References Westwood, J. D., et al. "Validation of virtual reality to teach and assess psychomotor skills in laparoscopic surgery...proceeded through four simulation stations and two virtual reality , psycho- motor function tests. Participant workbooks were also distributed. Site...exposure to virtual reality environments. After participation in each simulated and virtual reality scenario, residents were asked to complete the same

  18. Double Xp11.22 deletion including SHROOM4 and CLCN5 associated with severe psychomotor retardation and Dent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanet, Narjes; Metay, Corinne; Brisset, Sophie; Deschenes, Georges; Pineau, Dominique; Petit, François M; Di Rocco, Federico; Goossens, Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard; Labrune, Philippe; Tosca, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the clinical and molecular characterization of two Xp11.22 deletions including SHROOM4 and CLCN5 genes. These deletions appeared in the same X chromosome of the same patient. The patient is a six-year-old boy who presented hydrocephalus, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, facial dysmorphism and renal proximal tubulopathy associated with low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, hyperaminoaciduria, hypophosphatemia and hyperuricemia. Standard and high resolution karyotypes showed a 46,XY formula. Array-CGH revealed two consecutive cryptic deletions in the region Xp11.22, measuring respectively 148 Kb and 2.6 Mb. The two deletions were inherited from the asymptomatic mother. Array-CGH allowed us to determine candidate genes in the deleted region. The disruption and partial loss of CLCN5 confirmed the diagnostic of Dent disease for this patient. Moreover, the previously described involvement of SHROOM4 in neuronal development is discussed.

  19. Assessing Impairment of Executive Function and Psychomotor Speed in Premanifest and Manifest Huntington's Disease Gene-expansion Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unmack Larsen, Ida; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Gade, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) and psychomotor speed (PMS) has been widely studied in Huntington's disease (HD). Most studies have focused on finding markers of disease progression by comparing group means at different disease stages. Our aim was to investigate performances on nine measures of EF and PMS...... and as controls 39 healthy gene-expansion negative individuals. All participants underwent neurological examination and neuropsychological testing with nine cognitive measures. The frequency of impairment was investigated using cutoff scores. In group comparisons the manifest HD gene-expansion carriers scored...... significantly worse than controls on all tests and in classification of individual scores the majority of scores were classified as probably impaired (10th percentile) or impaired (5th percentile) with Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) being the most frequently impaired. Group comparisons of premanifest HD...

  20. A syndrome of hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, seizures, delayed and dysharmonic skeletal maturation, and congenital fibre type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Q H; Markouizos, D; Rao, C; Sheikh, T; Beller, E; Kula, R

    1994-01-01

    Three unrelated Puerto Rican boys, ranging in age from 3 to 4 years, had marked, central, non-progressive hypotonia, chronic constipation, severe psychomotor retardation, seizures or abnormal electroencephalograph or both, abnormal dermatoglyphics, delayed bone age, dysharmonic skeletal maturation, and preponderance and larger size of type 2 muscle fibres. Additional findings included narrow, high arched palate, prominent nasal root, long philtrum, distended abdomen, and drooling from open mouth. Two of the three patients also had undescended testes, hypertelorism, and tapered fingers. Birth weight, postnatal physical growth, and head size were average. Family and gestational histories and laboratory evaluations were normal. The combination of features observed in the three boys appears to be distinct and to represent a new syndrome. Images PMID:8064821

  1. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marikie Pelser

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings. Opsomming Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat

  2. Effects of Lanthanum on Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚海燕; 朱建国; 谢祖彬; 李振高; 曹志洪; 曾青; 林先贵

    2002-01-01

    The effects of La on some hydrolytic enzyme activities in red soil were studied in incubation and pot culture experiments. In the incubation experiment, La slightly stimulates the activities of urease and acidic phosphatase in soil and strongly stimulates sucrase activity in soil. In the pot culture experiment, La stimulates the activities of urease, acidic phosphatase and sucrase to different degrees. The stimulative effects of rare earth elements (REE) on hydrolytic enzyme activities in soil may result in increasing yield of crops.

  3. Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karschner, Erin L; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Hirvonen, Jussi; Goodwin, Robert S; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis smoking increases motor vehicle accident risk. Empirically defined cannabinoid detection windows are important to drugged driving legislation. Our aims were to establish plasma cannabinoid detection windows in frequent cannabis smokers and to determine if residual cannabinoid concentrations were correlated with psychomotor performance. Twenty-eight male chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days with daily blood collection. Plasma specimens were analyzed for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Critical tracking and divided attention tasks were administered at baseline (after overnight stay to ensure lack of acute intoxication) and after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of cannabis abstinence. Twenty-seven of the twenty-eight participants were THC-positive at admission (median 4.2 µg/L). THC concentrations significantly decreased 24 h after admission, but were still ≥2 µg/L in 16 of the 28 participants 48 h after admission. THC was detected in 3 of 5 specimens on day 30. The last positive 11-OH-THC specimen was 15 days after admission. THCCOOH was measureable in 4 of 5 participants after 30 days of abstinence. Years of prior cannabis use significantly correlated with THC concentrations on admission, and days 7 and 14. Tracking error, evaluated by the Divided Attention Task, was the only evaluated psychomotor assessment significantly correlated with cannabinoid concentrations at baseline and day 8 (11-OH-THC only). Median THC was 0.3 µg/L in 5 chronic frequent cannabis smokers' plasma samples after 30 days of sustained abstinence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Ling M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs. Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. Methods Male fXPCs (n = 18 and healthy control (HC adults (n = 26 aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration. In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. Results We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Conclusions Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments

  5. Rambam-Hasharon syndrome of psychomotor retardation, short stature, defective neutrophil motility, and Bombay phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, M; Etzioni, A; Eidlitz-Markus, T; Avidor, I; Varsano, I; Shechter, Y; Orlin, J B; Gershoni-Baruch, R

    1992-10-01

    We describe 2 Arab patients, both offspring of unrelated consanguineous matings, with unusual facial appearance, severe mental retardation, microcephaly, cortical atrophy, seizures, hypotonia, dwarfism, and recurrent infections with neutrophilia. Neutrophil motility was markedly decreased but the opsonophagocytic activity was normal. Both patients lack the red blood cell (RBC) H antigen and manifest the Bombay (hh) phenotype. Familial endocardial fibroelastosis and familial tetralogy of Fallot segregated independently in one family. The occurrence of the same syndrome in 2 unrelated families suggests that the various aspects of the disorder are the pleiotropic effects of a single mutation. Homozygosity-by-descent for a deletion involving contiguous genes may explain the findings in this syndrome. Alternatively, a mutation which involves an ubiquitous GDP fucose donor rather than the enzyme (alpha 2-L-fucosyltransferase) or its substrate (glcNAc) may account for the pleiotropic manifestations in this syndrome.

  6. Breast cancer surgery effect over professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Dias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is responsible for 25% of all cancers and is the most prevalent in the female population. Due to treatment advances and early diagnoses, survival rates have improved, however this condition impacts work absenteeism due to the productive age of these women. The main factors responsible for work absenteeism are physical complications due to surgical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surgical breast cancer treatments on occupation, to characterize the degree of work absenteeism and to investigate the type of relation between surgical technique and absenteeism’s main causes. Method: Cross-sectional study with 74 women diagnosed with breast cancer. A semi-structured interview was used to collect information regarding surgical and clinical aspects, sociodemographic data, work behavior and physical therapy treatments. The data was organized on Microsoft Excel and analyzed by frequency and chi-squared test. The significance level considered was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Breast cancer was most common on the left side (51%, Madden modified radical mastectomy was the most common (50% and lymph node resection was present in 93.2% of cases. The most frequent post-surgery complications were pain, problems with scarring, sensitivity alterations, ROM limitation, lymphedema and seroma. Only 58% of women were treated with physical therapy and 60% withdrew from professional activities, 23% abandoned work, 26% changed their work role and 14% retired due to the disease. Conclusion: The present study suggests the existence of a direct relation between treatment and work absenteeism.

  7. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose.

  8. 心理运动能力测评系统的开发应用%Development and Application of Psychomotor Ability Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠铎铎; 李晓京; 治洪; 马进; 贾敏; 张利利; 胡文东

    2014-01-01

    psychological selection. The system has been used in civil aviation pilots recruitment and analyzed for results. To compare the content validity between the active pilots and applicants,found the large differences between their results,which show that the software has practical value for civil aviation pilots’ psychomotor ability selection. The test software is simple operation,friendly in-terface and accurate and reliable.

  9. Effects of the histamine H₁ receptor antagonist and benztropine analog diphenylpyraline on dopamine uptake, locomotion and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Erik B; Ferris, Mark J; España, Rodrigo A; Harp, Jill; Jones, Sara R

    2012-05-15

    Diphenylpyraline hydrochloride (DPP) is an internationally available antihistamine that produces therapeutic antiallergic effects by binding to histamine H₁ receptors. The complete neuropharmacological and behavioral profile of DPP, however, remains uncharacterized. Here we describe studies that suggest DPP may fit the profile of a potential agonist replacement medication for cocaine addiction. Aside from producing the desired histamine reducing effects, many antihistamines can also elicit psychomotor activation and reward, both of which are associated with increased dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The primary aim of this study was to investigate the potential ability of DPP to inhibit the dopamine transporter, thereby leading to elevated dopamine concentrations in the NAc in a manner similar to cocaine and other psychostimulants. The psychomotor activating and rewarding effects of DPP were also investigated. For comparative purposes cocaine, a known dopamine transporter inhibitor, psychostimulant and drug of abuse, was used as a positive control. As predicted, both cocaine (15 mg/kg) and an equimolar dose of DPP (14 mg/kg) significantly inhibited dopamine uptake in the NAc in vivo and produced locomotor activation, although the time-course of pharmacological effects of the two drugs was different. In comparison to cocaine, DPP showed a prolonged effect on dopamine uptake and locomotion. Furthermore, cocaine, but not DPP, produced significant conditioned place preference, a measure of drug reward. The finding that DPP functions as a potent dopamine uptake inhibitor without producing significant rewarding effects suggests that DPP merits further study as a potential candidate as an agonist pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction.

  10. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  11. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  12. Behavioural effects of chemogenetic dopamine neuron activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L

    2016-01-01

    Various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder, have been associated with altered dopamine signalling in the brain. However, it remains unclear which specific changes in dopamine activity are related to specific p

  13. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of ultrasonic ... Key word: Waste activated sludge (WAS), ultrasonic, solubilization, disintegration degree, enzyme activity. ... burning and land filling, have been carried out for the disposal of ...

  14. Effects of Child Participation in Livelihood Activities on Children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Child Participation in Livelihood Activities on Children's Welfare among ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... still face many challenges as a result of participating in the activities prohibited by the legislations.

  15. Ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-yan; Lv Yan-na; LIU Xue-yan Liu; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in human activities is causing global changes such as increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen.There is considerable interest in understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities,specifically in terms of global nitrogen cycling and its potential future contribution to global climate change.This paper summarizes the ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities,including size-effects,stage-effects,site-effects,and the effects of different levels and forms of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.We discuss needs for further research on the relationship between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil enzymes.

  16. Effect of physical activities on obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roberto Adriano Prati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in body fat levels associated with the decrease in physical activities in adolescents has been the concern of recent researches because there is a strong correlation between the growing number of early-age obesity cases and the appearance of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, behavior problems and even death when not treated in time. So this study aimed to analyze through a bibliographical investigation some of the factors that cause obesity in adolescents and propose alternative physical activities to help in the treatment and minimize the problem. The analysis showed that programmed, controlled and adequate physical activities, associated with changes in behavior and lifestyle, may revert obesity condition and improve life quality of these adolescents.

  17. Professional Development: Identifying Effective Instructional Coaching Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the instructional coaching activities most used by instructional coaches in southeast Texas school districts and to test if there was a relationship between the use of instructional coaching and perceived improvement in the instructional practices of teachers and student achievement. The participants for…

  18. Interference of psychomotor and spatio-temporal parameters on the efficiency of motor actions involved in the eastern species physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify interferences psychomotor abilities for consistency in the management of spatio-temporal parameters of procedural and final precision in the movements with complex motor structure. Material : the study involved 30 people occupying the eastern species physical culture (Wushu Qigong and Tai Chi Chuan. Results : It was found that the identified trusted connection as positive (n = 59, r = 0.63 to 0.92 and negative (n = 21, r = from -0.63 to -0.89 confirm the influence of particular classes in the eastern system ability to coordinated control movements of different coordination complexity. Conclusions : the ability to control the internal forces, the ability to focus, alertness and mind control depend on three complementary levels - substance "Jing", "Qi" and "Shen", which directly affect the state of psychomotor sphere and target accuracy of spatio-temporal motion parameters.

  19. Effects of nutrient intake on sympathoadrenal activity and thermogenic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A V; Christensen, N J; Simonsen, L

    1990-01-01

    Ingestion of carbohydrate results in a diphasic activation of the sympathoadrenal system. One component is an insulin-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). This activation is partly a haemodynamic reflex, but it may cause a weak thermogenic effect via beta 1-adrenoceptors i...

  20. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline are

  1. Experimental Evidence on the Effects of Early Meetings and Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Maibom; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We analyze the effects of four randomized experiments involving intensive active labour market policy, conducted in Denmark in 2008. The interventions consisted of early and frequent meetings and activation programmes. The effects are remarkable; frequent meetings between newly unemployed workers...... reveals that meetings yield the largest net benefits....

  2. Fatigue effects on tracking performance and muscle activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Looze, M.P. de; Dieën, J.H. van

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that fatigue affects proprioception and consequently movement accuracy, the effects of which may be counteracted by increased muscle activity. To determine the effects of fatigue on tracking performance and muscle activity in the M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR), 11 female

  3. Fatigue effects on tracking performance and muscle activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Looze, M.P. de; Dieën, J.H. van

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that fatigue affects proprioception and consequently movement accuracy, the effects of which may be counteracted by increased muscle activity. To determine the effects of fatigue on tracking performance and muscle activity in the M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR), 11 female part

  4. IL1RAPL1基因多态性与秦巴山区儿童精神运动功能的相关性%Correlation between interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like, gene 1 polymorphism and children's psychomotor function in Qinba mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓彩; 牛银波; 张淑苗; 李静; 张富昌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of mental retardation related gene on psychomotor function, thereby offering the evidence for availability of psychomotor function disability to sub-cretin diagnosis. Methods Four genetic marker sites, i.e., DXS1218, DXS9896, rs6526806 and rs12847959 on interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like, gene 1 (IL1RAPL1) were genotyped by PCR, PCR-SSCP and PAGE for 220 Qinba mountain area children aged 7-14. Meanwhile, a psychomotor function test was performed to study their relationship. Results DXS1218, DXS9896 and rs12847959 of IL1RAPL1 gene had high heterozygosis degree(Het) in the children. The Het was 0.8941,0.8674,0.4872, respectively. The rs6526806 showed lower heterozygosis degree (Het=0.1804). The DXS1218, DXS9896, rs6526806 and rs12847959 did not correlate with children's psychomotor function(F=0.909,0.279,0.725,1.982, all P > 0.05). Conclusions IL1RAPL1 gene polymorphism does not affect human psychomotor controlling ability. Maybe psychomotor function is less affected by genetic factor, thereby it is a available assistant index for sub-cretin diagnosis.%目的 探讨精神发育迟滞相关基因(IL1RAPL1)对人类精神运动功能的影响,为精神运动功能障碍对亚克汀病诊断的有效性提供证据.方法 采用传统PCR、单链构象多态PCR(PCR-SSCP)、聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳等分子生物学方法,对秦巴山区220名7~14岁儿童IL1RAPL1基因的DXS1218、DXS9896、rs6526806,rs12847959共4个遗传标记位点进行多态性检测,并进行精神运动功能测验,对多态性检测结果与儿童精神运动功能测验成绩进行关联分析.结果 DXS1218、DXS9896、rs12847959 3个遗传标记在受检儿童中均有较高杂合度(Het),分别为0.8941、0.8674、0.4872,rs6526806有较低的Het,为0.1804;4个遗传标记多态性均未显示出与儿童精神运动功能的相关性(F值分别为0.909、0.279、0.725、1.982,P均>0.05).结论 IL1RAPL1基因多态性对人的精神运动

  5. Welfare effects of deterrence-motivated activation policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self-select i......We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self......-select into programmes. Individuals differ with respect to disutility and wage. Activation programmes are relatively costly and favour individuals who are relatively well off. Hence, for activation policy to used, labour supply effects have to be relatively small. We discuss how labour supply effects depend...

  6. Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of Ligustrazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (p < 0.05). The viability of PC12 cells increased significantly in T-VA (30 and 60 μM) groups (p < 0.05) ... Ischemic stroke has attracted attention in ... in the treatment of ischemic stroke and ..... marrow stem cells and their effects in the rat MCAO.

  7. Effect of age on ocular microtremor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, C; Bojanic, S; Sheahan, N F; Coakley, D; Malone, J F

    2001-06-01

    Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a high-frequency tremor of the eyes. It is present in all individuals and is related to brainstem activity. The OMT signal appears as an irregular oscillatory movement with intermittent burst-like components. The clinical interest in OMT has centered on its use in the assessment of the comatose patient, with broad agreement among authors of its prognostic value. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in OMT activity related to aging. OMT was recorded from 72 normal healthy subjects using the piezoelectric strain gauge technique. The subjects ranged in age from 21 to 88 years (54.22 +/- 20.43 years, mean +/- SD). Our results show that the overall frequency and frequency content of the bursts falls with age (p < .002 and p < .001, respectively). There is a highly significant drop in all three frequency parameters of OMT (p < .0001) in subjects older than 60 years of age. These results suggest that different values of normality should operate for subjects over 60 years of age when considering the clinical application of OMT.

  8. A Low-Cost Point-of-Care Testing System for Psychomotor Symptoms of Depression Affecting Standing Balance: A Preliminary Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimated that major depression is the fourth most significant cause of disability worldwide for people aged 65 and older, where depressed older adults reported decreased independence, poor health, poor quality of life, functional decline, disability, and increased chronic medical problems. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1 to develop a low-cost point-of-care testing system for psychomotor symptoms of depression and (2 to evaluate the system in community dwelling elderly in India. The preliminary results from the cross-sectional study showed a significant negative linear correlation between balance and depression. Here, monitoring quantitative electroencephalography along with the center of pressure for cued response time during functional reach tasks may provide insights into the psychomotor symptoms of depression where average slope of the Theta-Alpha power ratio versus average slope of baseline-normalized response time may be a candidate biomarker, which remains to be evaluated in our future clinical studies. Once validated, the biomarker can be used for monitoring the outcome of a comprehensive therapy program in conjunction with pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, the frequency of falls can be monitored with a mobile phone-based application where the propensity of falls during the periods of psychomotor symptoms of depression can be investigated further.

  9. Cognitive Aging in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Within-Person Associations of Primary Mental Abilities with Psychomotor Speed and Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Hülür

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long been proposed that cognitive aging in fluid abilities is driven by age-related declines of processing speed. Although study of between-person associations generally supports this view, accumulating longitudinal between-person and within-person evidence indicates less strong associations between speed and fluid cognitive performance. Initial evidence also suggests that cognitive flexibility may explain within-person variability in cognitive performance. In the present study, we used up to nine waves of data over 56 years from a subsample of 582 participants of the Seattle Longitudinal Study to examine (a within-person associations of psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility with cognitive aging in primary mental abilities (including inductive reasoning, number ability, verbal meaning, spatial orientation, and word fluency; and (b how these within-person associations change with age. In line with the processing speed theory, results revealed that within persons, primary mental abilities (including fluid, crystallized, and visualization measures were indeed associated with psychomotor speed. We also observed age-related increases in within-person couplings between primary mental abilities and psychomotor speed. While the processing speed theory focuses primarily on associations with fluid abilities, age-related increases in coupling were found for a variety of ability domains. Within-person associations between primary mental abilities and cognitive flexibility were weaker and relatively stable with age. We discuss the role of speed and flexibility for cognitive aging.

  10. Operating Conditions Effects Onenzyme Activity: Case Enzyme Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Oueslati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Proteases an enzyme added to detergents to degrade the protein spots origin.Their action is manifested through its activity the middle of washing clothes. This activity depends on the operating conditions. In this article, the effects of temperature and pH of the reaction and the substrate concentration and time of washing medium on the enzyme activity were studied. There action mechanism has been shown. The activity measurements were made by absorption spectrometry

  11. Enantioselective effects of metalaxyl on soil enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Heng; Fang, Song; Zhang, Yizhi; Ning, Yang; Yu, Weisong; Kong, Fanyu; Qiu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    The enantioselective effects of the chiral pesticide metalaxyl on soil enzyme activity were investigated. Incubation experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of metalaxyl enantiomers at different concentrations on the activities of urease, invertase, and catalase as well as the type of activity change (activation vs. inhibition) at different times during incubation. The results indicated that the effects of metalaxyl on the activity of soil enzymes were not only related to the concentration of the enantiomers and soil incubation time, but also to the chiral configuration, suggesting the effects were enantioselective. A pattern of inhibition-recovery-slight stimulation was observed in urease activity of the soil samples treated with metalaxyl enantiomers, but the effects of (-) -R-metalaxyl were stronger than those of (+)-S-metalaxyl at the same concentration. Invertase activity in soil samples treated with metalaxyl enantiomers initially sharply decreased before finally returning to the normal level, and the effects of (+)-S-metalaxyl were stronger than those of (-) -R-metalaxyl at the same concentration. Metalaxyl enantiomers influenced catalase activity in a pattern of slight stimulation-inhibition-recovery, and the effects of (-) -R-metalaxyl were stronger than those of (+)-S-metalaxyl at the same concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Marijuana’s Dose-Dependent Effects in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.

    2015-01-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana “strength,” “high,” “liking,” “good effect,” and “take again” were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana’s cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  13. Effects of cervical traction on muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of cervical traction on the musculature of patients with complaints of neck pain has not been thoroughly researched. Lateral neck muscles were selected for study because they receive their innervation from the lower cervical region, where traction has been documented by radiography to have its greatest mechanical effects. Six subjects with complaints of neck pain, limited range of motion, and a positive quadrant test were compared to six normal subjects. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the lateral neck musculature was recorded before, during, and after supine intermittent mechanical traction. No significant difference between groups (p > .05) was noted in EMG recordings at rest and within 10 minutes of traction. Subjective relief was noted up to 12 hours after traction in pain subjects. Cervical traction does not appear to produce immediate muscular relaxation as measured with EMG equipment. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991;13(5):220-225.

  14. Effect of detonation nanodiamonds on phagocyte activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpukhin, Alexey V; Avkhacheva, Nadezhda V; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu; Kulakova, Inna I; Yashin, Valeriy A; Lisichkin, Georgiy V; Safronova, Valentina G

    2011-07-01

    Detonation ND (nanodiamond) holds much promise for biological studies and medical applications. Properties like size of particles, inclination for modification of their surface and unambiguous biocompatibility are crucial. Of prime importance is interaction between ND and immune cells, which supervise foreign intrusion into an organism and eliminate it. Neutrophils are more reactive in inflammatory response implementing cytotoxical arsenal including ROS (reactive oxygen species). The aim of the work was to estimate the ability of two ND samples (produced by Diamond Center and PlasmaChem) to keep the vitality of neutrophils from the inflammatory site. The ability of cells to generate ROS in the presence of ND particles is considered as indicating their biocompatibility. IR spectra and size of particles in the samples were characterized. Acid modification of ND was carried out to get the luminescent form. In the biological aspect, ND demonstrated up or down action, depending on the concentration, time and conditions of activation of cells. Weak action of ND in whole blood was obtained possibly owing to the ND adsorbed plasma proteins, which mask active functional groups to interact with the cell membrane. ND did not influence the viability of isolated inflammatory neutrophils in low and moderate concentrations and suppressed it in high concentrations (≥1 g/l). Addition of ND to the cell suspension initiated concentration-dependent reaction to produce ROS similar to respiratory burst. ND up-regulated response to bacterial formylpeptide, but up- and down-modified (low or high concentrations, accordingly) response to such bacterial agents as OZ (opsonized zymosan), which neutrophils swallow up by oxygen-dependent phagocytosis. Localization of the particles on the cell surface as into the cells was identified by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of oxidized ND. The various mechanisms that could account for penetration of ND particles into the cell are discussed

  15. Nutritional megaloblastic anemia in young Turkish children is associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency and psychomotor retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katar, Selahattin; Nuri Ozbek, Mehmet; Yaramiş, Ahmet; Ecer, Sultan

    2006-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the presence of psychomotor retardation, physical and laboratory examination in infants with megaloblastic anemia. Inclusion criteria for the study were; age 9 to 36 months, refusal of food except for breast and cow milk, loss of appetite, developmental delay, significant pallor, and hypersegmentation neutrophils in the peripheral blood smear. A total of 33 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled among 3368 patients attending Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of şirnak-Cizre State Hospital between January 25, 2004 and May 5, 2004. Mean age was 16.4 months. Thirty-two patients had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 patient had folate deficiency, and 10 patients had combined vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Statistically, a positive significant relationship was detected between serum vitamin B12 levels and mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.001, r = 0.56), and between vitamin B12 levels and hemoglobin (P = 0.004, r = 0.49). We believe that preventative measures such as fortification of flour with vitamin B12, nutritional support with vitamin B12 for the mother during pregnancy and nursing, provision of adequate primary preventive health services, and starting complementary food after 6 months of age are important determinants for preventing megaloblastic anemia.

  16. Effects of a Danish multicomponent physical activity intervention on active school transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, Mette; Ersbøll, Annette K.;

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction Walking and bicycling to school yields great potential in increasing the physical activity levels of adolescents, but to date very few intervention studies have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity...... activity, active transport and after-school fitness program. Transport mode to school was assessed through a 5-day transportation diary. Results The proportion of active transport was high at baseline (86.0%) and was maintained at the two-year follow-up (87.0%). There was no difference in active travel...

  17. Nanosilver – Harmful effects of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction. Med Pr 2014;65(6:831–845

  18. Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pulak K. [Department of Chemistry, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073 (India); Li, Yunyun, E-mail: yunyunli@tongji.edu.cn [Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Marchegiani, Giampiero [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Marchesoni, Fabio [Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2015-12-07

    A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer’s diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer’s propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer’s axis. The corresponding swimmer’s diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.

  19. Exploration of volumetric cerebral changes, with de micro-MRi, due to psychomotor exercise in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moës, Florian; Plenevaux, Alain; Becker, Guillaume; Tirelli, Ezio; Lespine, Louis-Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    It's well know that exercise is good for health .In addition exercise has postive effects on cognition ,neurodegenerative disease and on mood. Some studies show that exercise has effect on brain so the aim of this study is to see if there are volumetric changes due to exercise or not.

  20. Src Kinase Inhibition Attenuates Morphine Tolerance without Affecting Reinforcement or Psychomotor Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona A; Baptista-Hon, Daniel T; Sneddon, Claire; Wright, Lisa; Walwyn, Wendy; Hales, Tim G

    2017-08-18

    Prolonged opioid administration leads to tolerance characterized by reduced analgesic potency. Pain management is additionally compromised by the hedonic effects of opioids, the cause of their misuse. The multifunctional protein β-arrestin2 regulates the hedonic effects of morphine and participates in tolerance. These actions might reflect µ opioid receptor up-regulation through reduced endocytosis. β-Arrestin2 also recruits kinases to µ receptors. We explored the role of Src kinase in morphine analgesic tolerance, locomotor stimulation, and reinforcement in C57BL/6 mice. Analgesic (tail withdrawal latency; percentage of maximum possible effect, n = 8 to 16), locomotor (distance traveled, n = 7 to 8), and reinforcing (conditioned place preference, n = 7 to 8) effects of morphine were compared in wild-type, µ, µ, and β-arrestin2 mice. The influence of c-Src inhibitors dasatinib (n = 8) and PP2 (n = 12) was examined. Analgesia in morphine-treated wild-type mice exhibited tolerance, declining by day 10 to a median of 62% maximum possible effect (interquartile range, 29 to 92%). Tolerance was absent from mice receiving dasatinib. Tolerance was enhanced in µ mice (34% maximum possible effect; interquartile range, 5 to 52% on day 5); dasatinib attenuated tolerance (100% maximum possible effect; interquartile range, 68 to 100%), as did PP2 (91% maximum possible effect; interquartile range, 78 to 100%). By contrast, c-Src inhibition affected neither morphine-evoked locomotor stimulation nor reinforcement. Remarkably, dasatinib not only attenuated tolerance but also reversed established tolerance in µ mice. The ability of c-Src inhibitors to inhibit tolerance, thereby restoring analgesia, without altering the hedonic effect of morphine, makes c-Src inhibitors promising candidates as adjuncts to opioid analgesics.

  1. Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, E.F.; Koning, T.J. de; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Hasselt, P.M. van

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES MEDLI

  2. Survival and Psychomotor Development With Early Betaine Treatment in Patients With Severe Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, Eugene F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; van Hasselt, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES MEDLI

  3. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  4. IMPROVING THE ACTION MEANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIN PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS THAT ARE SPECIFIC TO THE LUGE EVENT IN THE JUNIOR ATHLETES OF THE VATRA DORNEI SCHOOL SPORTS CLUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Being in direct contact with the national luge elite, we thought that an analysis regarding the actual conditions during the training process for developing the main psycho-motor skills that are specific to the luge event, could be beneficial, and it could lead to a revival of the sleigh training that the federation, and us, are long waiting for.The research was conducted in three stages:Stage I: October 13-20, 2011;Stage II: January 7-12, 2012;Stage III: February 21-28, 2012.Before starting the experiment, we elaborated certain training plans (annual, stage, cycle that we consider to be actually a "Training model".These plans were destined for the experimental group, the witness group conducting their activity according to their normal schedule.From the analysis of the results recorded during the experimental activity, we observed in the final phase of the research that the results obtained by the experimental group are superior to the ones recorded by the witness group, a fact that can be seen also in the tables and figures presented in the paper.

  5. Effect of biochar activation by different methods on toxicity of soil contaminated by industrial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zięba, Jadwiga; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of various methods of biochar activation on the ecotoxicity of soils with various properties and with various content and origin of contaminants. The biochar produced from willow (at 700°C) was activated by 1) microwaves (in a microwave reactor under an atmosphere of water vapour), 2) carbon dioxide (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor) and 3) superheated steam (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor). Three different soils were collected from industrial areas. The soils were mixed with biochar and activated biochars at the dose of 5% and ecotoxicological parameters of mixture was evaluated using two solid phase test - Phytotoxkit F (Lepidium sativum) and Collembolan test (Folsomia candida) and one liquid phase test - Microtox® (Vibrio fischeri). Biochar activation had both positive and negative impacts, depending on the activation method, kind of bioassay and kind of soil. Generally, biochar activated by microwaves increased the effectiveness of ecotoxicity reduction relative to non-activated biochars. Whereas, biochar activated with CO2 most often cause a negative effect manifested by deterioration or as a lack of improvement in relation to non-activated biochar or to non-amended soil. It was also demonstrated that the increase of biochar specific surface area caused a significant reduction of toxicity of water leachates from the studied soils. Effectiveness of the reduction of leachate toxicity was weakened in the presence of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Can We Make Time for Physical Activity? Simulating Effects of Daily Physical Activity on Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Rowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The link between physical activity and health outcomes is well established, yet levels of physical activity remain low. This study quantifies effects on mortality of the substitution of low activity episodes by higher activity alternatives using time-use data. Methods. Sample time profiles are representative of the Canadian population (n=19,597. Activity time and mortality are linked using metabolic equivalents(METs. Mortality risk is determined by peak daily METs and hours spent sedentary. The impact of altering activity patterns is assessed using simulated life expectancy. Results. If all leisure screen time was replaced with an equal amount of time spent going for a walk, an increase in life expectancy of about 2.5 years (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.8 would be expected. No other activity category would have as large as an effect. Conclusions. Reducing leisure screen time has a large effect, because seniors particularly have a large potential for mortality reduction and watch more television than other age groups. The general problem of inactivity cannot be solved simply by reallocating time to more active pursuits, because daily activity patterns can be heterogeneous or fragmented and activities may be nondiscretionary (e.g., work or childcare.

  7. Effectiveness of marketing in management marketing activity agricultural companies

    OpenAIRE

    KUCHER O.

    2012-01-01

    Modern approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of marketing activity are investigated. The influence of marketing expenses on actualization volume of output is analyzed. A methodical approach of defining economic efficiency in marketing sales in management business is offered.

  8. The effect of a physical activity, diet and behaviour modification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a physical activity, diet and behaviour modification intervention on the self-perception of 9 to 12 year old overweight and obese children. ... Kinanthropometric measurements were used to assess body composition and ...

  9. Effects of cadium, zinc and lead on soil enzyme activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-xin; LIU Shu-qing; ZHENG Da-wei; FENG Sheng-dong

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) is a major hazard to the soil-plant system. This study investigated the combined effects of cadium (Cd),zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) on activities of four enzymes in soil, including calatase, urease, invertase and alkalin phosphatase. HM content in tops of canola and four enzymes activities in soil were analyzed at two months after the metal additions to the soil. Pb was not significantly inhibitory than the other heavy metals for the four enzyme activities and was shown to have a protective role on calatase activity in the combined presence of Cd, Zn and Pb; whereas Cd significantly inhibited the four enzyme activities, and Zn only inhibited urease and calatase activities. The inhibiting effect of Cd and Zn on urease and calatase activities can be intensified significantly by the additions of Zn and Cd. There was a negative synergistic inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn on the two enzymes in the presence of Cd, Zn and Pb. The urease activity was inhibited more by the HM combinations than by the metals alone and reduced approximately 20%-40% of urease activity. The intertase and alkaline phosphatase activities significantly decreased only with the increase of Cd concentration in the soil. It was shown that urease was much more sensitive to HM than the other enzymes. There was a obvious negative correlation between the ionic impulsion of HM in soil, the ionic impulsion of HM in canola plants tops and urease activity. It is concluded that the soil urease activity may be a sensitive tool for assessing additive toxic combination effect on soil biochemical parameters.

  10. Effect of physical activity on vascular characteristics in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamia Idris, Nikmah; Evelein, Annemieke M. V.; Geerts, Caroline C.; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has long been proposed as an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in adults. We assessed whether physical activity already has an effect on childhood vasculature. METHODS: In the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-in-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, we performed vascular ul

  11. The Motivation Effect of Active Labor Market Policy on Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Tranæs, Torben

    This paper analyzes the motivation effect of activation programs on wages and employment. We utilize a reform of the Danish UI system in 1998 that reduced the period of unconditional benefits and thereby created exogenous variation in the probability of people entering a mandatory activation...

  12. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  13. The Motivation Effect of Active Labor Market Policy on Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Tranæs, Torben

    This paper analyzes the motivation effect of activation programs on wages and employment. We utilize a reform of the Danish UI system in 1998 that reduced the period of unconditional benefits and thereby created exogenous variation in the probability of people entering a mandatory activation prog...

  14. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  15. Effect of physical activity on vascular characteristics in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamia Idris, Nikmah; Evelein, Annemieke M. V.; Geerts, Caroline C.; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has long been proposed as an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in adults. We assessed whether physical activity already has an effect on childhood vasculature. METHODS: In the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-in-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, we performed vascular

  16. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity measuremen

  17. Effects of tailoring health messages on physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Smeets (Tamara); J. Brug (Hans); H. de Vries (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComputer-tailored printed education can be a promising way of promoting physical activity. The present study tested whether computer-tailored feedback on physical activity is effective and whether there are differences between respondents with low and high motivation to change. Responden

  18. Effects of Active Fluxes in Gas Metal Arc Welding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balázs Varbai; Rita Kormos; Kornél Májlinger

    2017-01-01

      In this paper the effects of active fluxes during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) were investigated. Eight different types of active fluxes, with different oxygen content, and MnO - SiO2 flux mixtures were applied to the surface in 20 vol...

  19. EFFECT OF METAL IONS ON THE LACCASE ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiwenWang; HuaiyuZhan; WeiHe

    2004-01-01

    The effects of five metal ions(Fe-'~,Ca-~*,Mg2*,Mn-'-"Cu2") on ABTS oxidation catalyzed by laccase werestudied under condition of pH=4.5 byspectrophotometer. The results show that Fe2+ ionhas obvious effect on the activity and the nature ofinhibition is competitive type. It is found that theinhibition is realized through the reduction ofABTS.by Fe2+ ion. Other metal ions have slight influence onlaccase activity.

  20. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  1. The effects of curiosity-evoking events on activity enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikman, Elif; MacInnis, Deborah J; Ülkümen, Gülden; Cavanaugh, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event. Thus, curiosity regarding an incidental event decreases enjoyment of a positive focal activity but increases enjoyment of a negative focal activity.

  2. Activity in the ferret: oestradiol effects and circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, E. R.; Albers, H. E.; Baum, M. J.; Wurtman, R. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether oestradiol increases activity in the European ferret (Mustela furo), whether this effect is sexually dimorphic, and whether a 24-h rhythm is present in the ferret's daily activity. The activity of male and female adult, postpubertally gonadectomized ferrets was monitored while they were maintained singly on a 13:11 light-dark cycle, before and after implantation with oestradiol-17 beta. Gonadectomized male and female ferrets exhibited equal levels of activity, and neither sex exhibited a significant change in activity following oestradiol implantation. None of the ferrets exhibited a strong circadian rhythm, although weak 24-h rhythms and shorter harmonic rhythms were present. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), monitored in an identical manner, exhibited strong circadian rhythms. It was concluded that oestradiol administration may not cause an increase in activity in the ferret, and that this species lacks a strong circadian activity rhythm.

  3. Outcomes and Perceptions of Annotated Video Feedback Following Psychomotor Skill Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskowski, S.; VanderMolen, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effectiveness of annotated video technology for providing feedback to occupational therapy students learning transfers, range of motion and manual muscle testing. Fifty-seven first-year occupational therapy students were split into two groups. One received annotated video feedback during a transfer lab and…

  4. Comparison of sustained attention assessed by auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tasks prior to and during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christopher M; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-06-01

    To date, no detailed examination of the pattern of change in reaction time performance for different sensory modalities has been conducted across the circadian cycle during sleep deprivation. Therefore, we compared sustained auditory and visual attention performance during 40h of sleep deprivation assessing multiple metrics of auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tasks (PVT). Forty healthy participants (14 women) aged 30.8±8.6years were studied. Subjects were scheduled for an ∼8h sleep schedule at home prior to three-six laboratory baseline days with an 8 h sleep schedule followed by 40h sleep deprivation. Visual and auditory PVTs were 10min in duration, and were administered every 2h during sleep deprivation. Data were analysed with mixed-model anova. Sleep deprivation and circadian phase increased response time, lapses, anticipations, standard deviation of response times and time on task decrements for visual and auditory PVTs. In general, auditory vigilance was faster and less variable than visual vigilance, with larger differences between auditory and visual PVT during sleep deprivation versus baseline. Failures to respond to stimuli within 10s were four times more likely to occur to visual versus auditory stimuli. Our findings highlight that lapses during sleep deprivation are more than just long responses due to eye closure or visual distraction. Furthermore, our findings imply that the general pattern of change in attention during sleep deprivation (e.g. circadian variation, response slowing, lapsing and anticipations, time on task decrements and state instability) is similar among sensory-motor behavioral response modalities.

  5. [Developmental dysplasia of the hip in children with a psychomotor disorder. A risk factor for a poor outcome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa-Muñiz, Iván; de Los Llanos Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María; Felgueroso-Juliana, M Blanca; Riera-Campillo, Manuela; González-Herranz, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Orthopaedic treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has a high success rate in cases that are diagnosed early. However, the outcomes of these patients are not really known when they are subsequently diagnosed with some type of cerebral impairment. A retrospective observational study was conducted on cases of DDH with a poor outcome after orthopaedic treatment, being unknown if they had any type of psychomotor disorder. The patients were clinically and radiologically assessed, and afterwards received neurological valuation by the Child Neurology Unit. Of the 325 cases of DDH diagnosed in 293 patients, 10 patients (3%) with 16 hips with DDH were diagnosed of any cerebral impairment. All them were initially treated orthopedically. Clinical and radiologically evolution was succesful only in 4 cases (25%) being necessary any surgical procedure in the remaining 12 cases. After surgical treatment we got an improvement in the Acetabular Index (p=0.005) and Reimers Extrusion Index (p=0.042). Neck-shaft angle and Wiberg CE angle also improved but this difference was not statically significant. Cerebral impairment was diagnosed at 2,5 years of age and the begining of walking was delayed at 2.4 years of age. Cerebral impairment can lead to an unfavourable outcome in the treatment of DDH, with the relative risk of a poor outcome being 7.2 times higher in these patients. An unfavourable outcome with conventional treatment of DDH must make us suspect the presence of some type of neurological disorder, particularly if there is a delay in walking. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  7. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  8. [Effect of VAM fungi on phosphatase activity in maize rhizosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Li, X; Feng, G

    2001-08-01

    The effect of VAM fungi on phosphatase activity in maize rhizosphere was examined by pot culture experiment, in which, three-compartment-pots were used, the central compartment being separated from the outer two by a nylon net with 30 microns mesh. Plants were harvested 70 days after planting. Soil acid and alkaline phosphatase were measured at different distances from root surface. The results showed that VAM increased the activities of soil acid and alkaline phosphatase in the rhizosphere. It was found that different phosphorous sources had different effects on phosphatase activity.

  9. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoidable changes of the natural environment as the result of a construction and of use of the constructed infrastructure to be account for in corresponding planning of the protection measures.

  10. Labor Mobility, Social Network Effects, and Innovative Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas; Kaiser, Ulrich

    We study the mapping between labor mobility and industrial innovative activity for the population of R&D active Danish firms observed between 1999 and 2004. Our study documents a positive relationship between the number of workers who join a firm and the firm’s innovative activity....... This relationship is stronger if workers join from innovative firms. We also find evidence for positive feedback from workers who leave for an innovative firm, presumably because the worker who left stays in contact with their former colleagues. This implies that the positive feedback (“social network effects...... innovative activity of the new and the old employer....

  11. Effect of Bexarotene on Platelet Activation and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The retinoid X receptor (RXRs stimulator Bexarotene ((4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthylethynyl] benzoic acid is used for the treatment of several malignancies. Bexarotene is at least in part effective by stimulation of apoptosis of tumor cells. Moreover, Bexarotene triggers eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes. Similar to erythrocytes, blood platelets lack nuclei but are nevertheless able to enter an apoptosis-like phenotype, characterized by caspase activation, cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phospha-tidylserine translocation to the cell surface. Platelet apoptosis is triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, which further leads to degranulation and integrin activation. Platelet activation and apoptosis could be elicited by thrombin or collagen related peptide (CRP. The present study explored whether treatment of platelets with bexarotene modifies platelet activation and apoptosis following exposure to thrombin or CRP. Methods: Platelets isolated from wild-type mice were exposed for 30 minutes to bexarotene (6 µg/ml without or with an additional treatment with thrombin (0.01 U/ml or CRP (2 µg/ml or 5 µg/ml. Flow cytometry was employed to estimate cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence, platelet degranulation from P-selectin abundance, integrin activation from αIIbβ3 integrin abundance, caspase activity utilizing an Active Caspase-3 Staining kit, phosphatidylserine abundance from annexin-V-binding, and relative platelet volume from forward scatter. Results: In the absence of thrombin or CRP, the administration of bexarotene slightly but significantly increased [Ca2+]i, but did not significantly modify P-selectin abundance, activated αIIbβ3 integrin, annexin-V-binding, cell volume, or caspase activity. Exposure of platelets to thrombin or CRP was followed by significant increase of [Ca2+]i, P-selectin abundance, active αIIbβ3 integrin

  12. Effects of heat-activated persulfate oxidation on soil microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Smets, Barth F.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2008-01-01

    /L). The results emphasize the necessity of using multiple toxicity assays and indigenous cultures in order to realistically assess the potential effects of in situ chemical oxidation on soil microorganisms. A comparison to other studies suggests that the effects of activated persulfate on soil microorganisms...

  13. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  14. Low to moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of psychomotor deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Støvring, Henrik; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    . At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the "Movement Assessment Battery for Children" (MABC). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, and gender of child were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal......Background: To examine the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child motor function at age 5. Methods: A prospective follow-up study of 685 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy...... maternal binge drinking episodes, age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. Results: There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers...

  15. Acetylcholine-releasing effect of primycin, a highly active antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám-Vizi, V; Horváth, I; Vizi, E S

    1980-01-01

    The effect of primycin, an antibiotic known to inhibit potassium conductance, was studied on acetylcholine (ACh) release from the nerve terminals of the Auerbach plexus and cortical slice of the rat. Primycin enhanced the resting release of ACh; however, it failed to affect the amount of ACh released by a single shock. It has no effect on Na+K+-activated ATPase. Its effect on Ach release was prevented by tetrodotoxin and by Ca removal. It is concluded that its effect on potassium conductance might account for its ACh-releasing effect: it produces depolarization and spontaneous firing.

  16. Activity Surveillance and Hawthorne Effect to Prevent Programming Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Sufian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.

  17. Comparisons of Performance Effectiveness Among Divers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    as- effects of nitrogen narcosis (7). Age has also been pecially DCS, found among the least effective divers may also have been involved in the lower...diving supervisors, and div- ed to the psychomotor effects of nitrogen narcosis . Awuf. Space ing corpsmen in the New London area for their cooperation

  18. Baroreceptor activation attenuates attentional effects on pain-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Marcus A; Minati, Ludovico; Paoletti, Giulia; Critchley, Hugo D

    2010-12-01

    Focused attention typically enhances neural nociceptive responses, reflected electroencephalographically as increased amplitude of pain-evoked event-related potentials (ERPs). Additionally, pain-evoked ERPs are attenuated by hypertension and baroreceptor activity, through as yet unclear mechanisms. There is indirect evidence that these two effects may interact, suggesting that baroreceptor-related modulation of nociception is more than a low-level gating phenomenon. To address this hypothesis, we explored in a group of healthy participants the combined effects of cue-induced expectancy and baroreceptor activity on the amplitude of pain-evoked ERPs. Brief nociceptive skin stimuli were delivered during a simple visual task; half were preceded by a visual forewarning cue, and half were unpredictable. Nociceptive stimuli were timed to coincide either with systole (maximum activation of cardiac baroreceptors) or with diastole (minimum baroreceptor activation). We observed a strong interaction between expectancy and cardiac timing for the amplitude of the P2 ERP component; no effects were observed for the N2 component. Cued stimuli were associated with larger P2 amplitude, but this effect was abolished for stimuli presented during baroreceptor activation. No cardiac timing effect was observed for un-cued stimuli. Taken together, these findings suggest a close integration of cognitive-affective aspects of expectancy and baroreceptor influences on pain, and as such may cast further light on mechanisms underlying mental and physiological contributions to clinical pain.

  19. Effects of Antimalarial Tafenoquine on Blood Platelet Activity and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The 8-aminoquinoline tafenoquine has been shown to be effective against Plasmodia, Leishmania and Trypanosoma. The substance is at least in part effective by triggering apoptosis of the parasites. Moreover, tafenoquine has been shown to trigger eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. The effect of tafenoquine on eryptosis is in part due to stimulation of Ca2+ entry and oxidative stress. Ca2+ entry is a critical event in the activation of blood platelets by thrombin and collagen related peptide (CRP. The present study explored, whether tafenoquine influences Ca2+ entry, activation and apoptosis of blood platelets. Methods: Platelets isolated from wild-type mice were exposed for 30 minutes to tafenoquine (2.5 µg/ml without or with an additional treatment with thrombin (0.01 U/ml or CRP (2 µg/ml or 5 µg/ml. Flow cytometry was employed to estimate cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence, platelet degranulation from P-selectin abundance, integrin activation from αIIbβ3 integrin abundance, phosphatidylserine abundance from annexin-V-binding, relative platelet volume from forward scatter, reactive oxygen species (ROS from DCF fluorescence, caspase 3 activity with an active caspase-3 Staining kit, and aggregation utilizing staining with CD9-APC and CD9-PE. Results: Both, thrombin (0.01 U/ml and CRP (2 µg/ml or 5 µg/ml, significantly increased [Ca2+]i, P-selectin abundance, active αIIbβ3 integrin, and annexin-V-binding, and both significantly decreased platelet volume, activated caspase 3 and stimulated aggregation. Administration of tafenoquine (2.5 µg/ml, 30 min significantly decreased [Ca2+]i both, in the absence and presence of thrombin and CRP. Tafenoquine significantly blunted the effect of thrombin and CRP on [Ca2+]i, P-selectin abundance, and active αIIbβ3 integrin, but

  20. Work and Rest Patterns and Psychomotor Vigilance Performance of Crewmemebers of the USS Jason Dunham: A Comparison of the 3/9 and 6/6 Watchstanding Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-31

    off and 6-hour on/6-hour off watch schedules in terms of crew rest, sleep , and psychomotor vigilance performance. Dependent variables were daily...observed variability in the sleep time of participants on the 6/6, R2adj=0.575, F(1, 8) = 13.2, p = 0.007. Stepwise analysis of the sleep patterns for...observed variability of sleep time of participants on the 3/9, R2adj = 0.832, F(7, 36) = 31.4, p < 0.001. The considerable differences in distributions

  1. Psychomotor performance of Polish Air Force cadets after 36 hours of survival training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Jan; Mikulski, Tomasz

    2017-09-21

    The preparation of Polish Air Force cadets for survival in isolation is a necessary element of their training, to demonstrate just how difficult can be the conditions they could encounter in a combat situation. Objective. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of long-term survival training on selected coordination motor skills in Air Force cadets. Fifteen air force cadets aged 19.6±0.3 years exercised for 36 hours during survival training without the possibility to sleep. They were examined 4 times: Day 1 - before effort (training), Day 2 - after 24 hours training, Day 3 - directly after 36 hours training, Day 4 - next day, after an all night rest. They were examined for shooting and reaction time, the ability to maintain body balance, running motor adjustment, handgrip force differentiation, and on Days 1 and 3, exercise capacity was evaluated with a 1 mile walking test. The survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength, corrected 50% max handgrip, maintenance of body balance and heart rate. No changes occurred in reaction time, running motor adjustment and shooting performance. Overnight rest did not result in recovery of any of the examined factors to the values observed on Day 1. Survival training combined with sleep deprivation mostly affected peripheral factors depending on strong action from both muscles and nervous system, whereas complex tasks involving short-term central alertness and moderate exertion were maintained. In order to improve performance, more endurance strength training, if possible combined with sleep deprivation, should be introduced in military training.

  2. [Effects of starvation on digestive enzyme activities of Monopterus albus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai-qin; Chen, Fang; Ruan, Guo-liang; Hu, Cheng-wen; Cao, Sheng-huan

    2007-05-01

    Starvation is a major environmental stress, which has a broad effect on the physiology and ecology of aquatic animals. In this study, Monopterus albus was starved for 30 days at (20 +/- 0.5) degrees C, and the activities of protease, trypsin, amylase and lipase in its digestive organs were measured on the 0, 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, and 30th day of starvation. The results showed that starvation had definite effects on the activities of all test enzymes. With the prolongation of starvation, the activities of test enzymes decreased, which was most significant when the fish was starved for 5-10 days. After 10 days of starvation, the decreasing trend of the enzyme activities became less obvious.

  3. Earth matter effect on active-sterile neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some experimental observations. In a four-neutrino mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  4. Examining Middle School Mathematics Teachers’ Use of Information and Communication Technologies and Psychomotor Skills [Ortaokul Matematik Öğretmenlerinin Bilgi İletişim Teknolojisi ve Psikomotor Beceri Kullanımlarının İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alattin Ural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of materials are used in which grades in order to improve psychomotor skills and the use of information technologies by students in the courses taught by mathematics teachers and how these materials are used; and to elicit the perceptions of these teachers on the use of these materials. Twenty two mathematics teachers (out of 25 working in 7 secondary schools were given a questionnaire form containing open ended questions and they were asked to write down the answers to those questions on the same form. The research was designed in the scanning model as a qualitative study. The data obtained from teachers were analyzed descriptively and samples from the data were presented categorically. It was observed that, regarding the psychomotor skills, a pair compass-ruler-protractor, dotted-isometric-graph paper, cutting-folding paper in geometry; fraction slips and algebra squares in algebra were the materials used respectively. The grades where these materials are used were 5, 6, 7, and 8 respectively. Regarding the use of information and communication technologies, it was observed that Morpa and Vitamin, the software developed by Turkish Ministery of Education was used to teach the subjects which contain shapes or animation; PowerPoint presentations to teach solid objects, fractals; and animations and videos on the internet to teach solid materials, triangles, fractals, patterns and decoration, equations and symmetry. These activities are used in the grades 8, 7, 6, 5 respectively. The teachers stated that the fact that information technologies and psychomotor skills are not used to the extent they should be stems from the lack of time, lack of computers, the overpopulated classes and the washback effect of the national exams. [Bu çalışmanın amacı, ortaokul matematik derslerinde, psikomotor becerilerin gelişimine ve Bilgi İletişim Teknolojileri (BİT kullanımına yönelik hangi materyalin

  5. [The Effect of Transcription on Enhancer Activity in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, M M; Davydova, A I; Lomaev, D V; Georgiev, P G; Chetverina, D A

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the level of gene transcription is under the control of DNA regulatory elements, such as promoter, from which transcription is initiated with the participation of RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors, as well as the enhancer, which increase the rate of transcription with the involvement of activator proteins and cofactors. It was demonstrated that enhancers are often located in the transcribed regions of the genome. We showed earlier that transcription negatively affected the activity of enhancers in Drosophila in model transgenic systems. In this study, we tested the effect of the distance between the leading promoter, enhancer, and target promoter on the inhibitory effect of transcriptions of different strengths. It was demonstrated that the negative effect of transcription remained, but weakened with increased distance between the leading promoter and enhancer and with decreased distance between the enhancer and target promoter. Thus, transcription can modulate the activity of enhancers by controlling its maximum level.

  6. [Food consumption in children and youth: effect of sedentary activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, D; Chaput, J P

    2013-08-01

    Sedentary behavior has progressed with modern society, generating very low levels of energy expenditure and subsequent body weight disorders (obesity). There is also evidence that the absence of physical activity associated with short sleep time and watching television or playing video games leads to poor eating habits and favors high-energy intake. These findings have generally been reported in adults, with a few studies including data on children and adolescents. This brief review summarizes the current literature regarding the impact of such activities on food consumption and eating behavior in children and adolescents. There appears to be an uncoupling effect dissociating these activities from the sensation of hunger and thus energy intake. Children and adolescents seem to increase their energy intake during and after such activities without any alteration of their subjective appetite. In addition to considering the impact of sedentary behavior and physical activity level, future public health recommendations should also focus on associated nutritional adaptations (energy balance).

  7. Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Physical Activity of Overweight or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnood Abbasi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strategies for weight reduction often promote lifestyle changes like encouraging participation in physical activity. Also there is some evidence suggesting an association between insomnia and physical activity level and probable beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation on insomnia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of magnesium supplementation on physical activity level in insomniac elderly subjects.Materials and Methods: A double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted in 46 overweight or obese subjects, randomly allocated into the magnesium or the placebo group and received 500 mg magnesium or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Questionnaires of insomnia severity index (ISI, physical activity and sleep-log were completed and serum magnesium measured at baseline and after the intervention period. Anthropometric confounding factors, daily intake of magnesium, calcium, potassium, caffeine, calorie form carbohydrates, fat, protein and total calorie intake, were obtained using 24-hrs recall for 3-days. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS-19 software.Results: No significant differences were observed in assessed variables between the two groups at the baseline. According to our research magnesium supplementation significantly increased sleep indices and physical activity level, also resulted in significantly decrease of total calorie intake in magnesium group. Although serum magnesium concentration and weight did not show any differences.Conclusion: In the present study magnesium supplementation resulted in improvement of sleep indices and physical activity level in elderly subjects. Although according to our short term intervention no significant beneficial effect was observed on subject`s weight.

  8. Low-dose effect of ethanol on locomotor activity induced by activation of the mesolimbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, G V; Randall, P K; Erickson, C K

    1995-06-01

    Four experiments were designed to study the ability of 0.5 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) intraperitoneally to modify locomotor activity induced by drugs that interact with different sites in the mesolimbic system (MLS) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Locomotor activity was measured in a doughnut-shaped circular arena after various treatments. EtOH alone did not alter locomotor activity in any of the experiments. Amphetamine (AMP, intraperitoneally or intraaccumbens) increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated AMP-induced locomotor activity. Bilateral infusion of GABAA antagonist picrotoxin (PIC) into the ventral tegmental area also increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated PIC-induced locomotor activity. On the other hand, the interaction between bilateral infusion of mu-receptor agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-NMe-Phe-Gly-ol (DAGO) and EtOH on locomotor activity is complex. The highest dose of DAGO that significantly increased locomotor activity was not affected by the presence of EtOH. But, with lower doses of DAGO that either had no effect or a small increase in locomotor activity, the combination of EtOH and DAGO increased and attenuated locomotor activity, respectively. Results from this study support our hypothesis that a low dose of EtOH that does not modify behavior can interact with neurotransmitter systems in the brain and modify drug-induced locomotor activity. Modification of this drug-induced locomotor activity by a low dose of EtOH is dependent on the rate of ongoing locomotor behavior induced by drug and the neurotransmitter substrate that the drug modified to induce locomotor behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  10. Effects of tailoring health messages on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tamara; Brug, J; de Vries, H

    2008-06-01

    Computer-tailored printed education can be a promising way of promoting physical activity. The present study tested whether computer-tailored feedback on physical activity is effective and whether there are differences between respondents with low and high motivation to change. Respondents (n = 487) were randomly assigned to a tailored intervention group or a no information control group. Physical activity and determinants were measured at baseline and after 3 months. At post-test, the motivated respondents in the control group were more likely not to meet the recommendation for physical activity than to meet it, and motivated respondents in the experimental group were more likely to engage in transport-related activities and showed more improvement over time for the total activity score than respondents in the control group (beta = 0.24, P = 0.02). Both groups improved their behaviour over time. No group differences in physical activity were found for the unmotivated respondents. The results showed that the effects of the tailored feedback were restricted to respondents who had a positive motivation to change at baseline. Possible explanations could be that unmotivated respondents were unwilling to read and process the information because they felt 'no need to change'. Alternatively, one tailored feedback letter may not have been sufficient for this unmotivated group.

  11. The Influence of an Orthopedic, Manual Therapy Residency Program on Improved Knowledge, Psychomotor Skills, and Clinical Reasoning in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shala; McFelea, Joni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of a post-graduate orthopedic manual therapy residency program in Kenya on the development of physical therapists' (PTs) knowledge and clinical reasoning related to the performance of a musculoskeletal examination and evaluation as compared to an experience-matched control group of PTs waiting to enter the program. A cross-sectional design was utilized in which 12 graduating residents and 10 PTs entering the residency program completed a live-patient practical examination to assess the knowledge, clinical reasoning, and psychomotor skills related to the examination and evaluation of musculoskeletal conditions. The assessment utilized was based on the tasks, procedures, and knowledge areas identified as important to advanced clinicians in the US as outlined by the Orthopaedic Description of Specialty Practice. Inclusion criteria included participation in or acceptance to the residency program, practice as a PT between 3 and 25 years, and 50% of workday being involved in direct patient care. Overall pass rates were analyzed using the Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to determine if the graduating residents achieved significantly higher scores than experience-matched controls consisting of PTs entering the residency program. PTs completing a post-graduate orthopedic manual therapy residency in Nairobi, Kenya, achieved higher scores and passing rates compared to their colleagues who had not completed a residency program as determined by a live-patient practical examination. Graduating residents demonstrated statistically significant higher scores in the categories of examination, evaluation, and diagnosis. The average live-patient practical examination score for PTs without residency training was 38.2%, and their pass rate was 0.0%. The average live-patient practical examination score for residency-trained PTs was 83.4%, and their pass rate was 92.3%. These findings are statistically significant (p

  12. EFFECT OF METAL IONS ON THE LACCASE ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiwen Wang; Huaiyu Zhan; Wei He

    2004-01-01

    The effects of five metal ions(Fe2+、Ca2+、Mg2+、Mn2+、Cu2+) on ABTS oxidation catalyzed by laccase were studied under condition of pH=4.5 by spectrophotometer. The results show that Fe2+ ion has obvious effect on the activity and the nature of inhibition is competitive type. It is found that the inhibition is realized through the reduction ofABTS.by Fe2+ ion. Other metal ions have slight influence on laccase activity.

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation Induces Hepatic Steatosis, Suggesting an Adverse Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Yan; Qi Wang; Chao Xu; Mingfeng Cao; Xiaoming Zhou; Tingting Wang; Chunxiao Yu; Fei Jing; Wenbin Chen; Ling Gao; Jiajun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome. Antihyperlipidemic drugs are recommended as part of the treatment for NAFLD patients. Although fibrates activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), leading to the reduction of serum triglyceride levels, the effects of these drugs ...

  14. Effect of balanced low pressure drying of curcuma longa leaf on skin immune activation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wooseok; Lim, Hye Won; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of balanced low pressure drying pretreatment associated with ultrasonication extraction (BU) on the enhancement of skin immune modulatory activities of Curcuma longa leaf was studied by comparing with conventional hot air drying (HE), freeze drying (FE) and balanced low pressure drying (BE) pretreatment processes. In considering skin immune activation activities such as the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity, the BU extract showed ca. 10% higher than those of HE, and even higher than that of the FE extract. Nitric oxide production from macrophage of the BU extract in adding 1.0 mg/mL was increased up to 16.5 μM. When measuring inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-a production from the human T lymphocytes (T cell), the BU extract also showed 53% and 78% of inhibition effect, respectively. It is found that the BU extract could effectively suppress the expression levels of skin inflammation related genes such as Cox-2 and iNOS, down to 80% and 85% compared to the control, respectively. Balanced low pressure drying process was especially active on dehydration of the leaves with minimizing the destruction and making easier elution of the bioactive substances, which resulted in higher extraction yield and better biological activities.

  15. Evaluation of Pre-listening Activities by Effective Listeners and Less-effective Listeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁刚

    2014-01-01

    This study, which is about pre-listening activities in language comprehension, seeks to obtain a better understanding of Chinese EFL students’listening comprehension in relation to radio news broadcasts. It investigates listeners’evaluation of the ef-fects of pre-listening activities involving three listening texts with three kinds of different pre-listening activities. The findings yielded that the pre-listening activities had some impact on influencing the listeners ’listening comprehension and it differed for effective and less-effective listeners.

  16. "I am active": effects of a program to promote active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. "I am Active" is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31) or a control group (n=33). Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy), nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status), cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy), and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status). Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders.

  17. Repressive effects of resveratrol on androgen receptor transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-feng Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemopreventive effects of resveratrol (RSV on prostate cancer have been well established; the androgen receptor (AR plays pivotal roles in prostatic tumorigenesis. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms about the effects of RSV on AR have not been fully elucidated. A model system is needed to determine whether and how RSV represses AR transcriptional activity. METHODOLOGY: The AR cDNA was first cloned into the retroviral vector pOZ-N and then integrated into the genome of AR-negative HeLa cells to generate the AR(+ cells. The constitutively expressed AR was characterized by monitoring hormone-stimulated nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation, with the AR(- cells serving as controls. AR(+ cells were treated with RSV, and both AR protein levels and AR transcriptional activity were measured simultaneously. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were used to detect the effects of RSV on the recruitment of AR to its cognate element (ARE. RESULTS: AR in the AR (+ stable cell line functions in a manner similar to that of endogenously expressed AR. Using this model system we clearly demonstrated that RSV represses AR transcriptional activity independently of any effects on AR protein levels. However, neither the hormone-mediated nucleus translocation nor the AR/ARE interaction was affected by RSV treatment. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated unambiguously that RSV regulates AR target gene expression, at least in part, by repressing AR transcriptional activity. Repressive effects of RSV on AR activity result from mechanisms other than the affects of AR nuclear translocation or DNA binding.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF THE ACTIVE LEARNING MODEL ON STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge TAÇMAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the active learning model onstudents. The subjects were 40 teacher candidates from computer and teaching technology department who were enrolled inthe course of “New Instructional Methods” at Near East University in TRNC. A queationnaires were used to collect the data.The data was analyzed by using frequencies and percentile techniques. The finding revealed that there was a positive effect ofavtive learning atmosphere on students.

  19. The effect of gallium nitrate on synoviocyte MMP activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagakos, F S; Kumar, E; Venescar, C; Guidon, P

    2000-02-01

    Gallium, a group IIIa metal salt, has been demonstrated to be an effective immunosuppressive agent. Gallium has also been shown to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, produced by macrophage-like cells in vitro. To further characterize the effects of gallium on the inflammatory process, we examined the effects of gallium nitrate on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity utilizing the rabbit synoviocyte cell line HIG-82. HIG-82 cells were incubated with IL-1beta and TPA, with and without increasing concentrations of gallium nitrate. Conditioned medium was collected and assayed for MMP activity using a synthetic substrate and substrate gel zymography. IL-1beta and TPA alone induced MMP activity in HIG-82 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1beta and TPA stimulated MMP activity by gallium nitrate at increasing concentrations was observed. This study demonstrates that gallium nitrate can inhibit the activity of MMPs and may be useful as a modulator of inflammation in arthritis.

  20. Super-SERS-active and highly effective antimicrobial Ag nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. B.; Liu, P.; Liang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Yang, G. W.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed simple and green electrochemistry to synthesize Ag nanostructures with high purity, good crystallinity and smooth surface for applications as super-SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), SERS-active substrates and with highly effective antimicrobial activities. This synthesis takes place in a clean and slow reaction environment without any chemical additives, which ensures an ultrahigh active surface of the as-synthesized Ag nanostructures owing to their purity, good crystallinity and smooth morphology. Using this method, we synthesized nearly perfect Ag nanodendrites (NDs), which exhibit super-SERS sensitivity when they are used to detect the SERS spectra of rhodamine 6G at concentrations as low as 5 × 10-16 M, and have an ultrahigh electromagnetic (EM) enhancement factor of the order of 1013, breaking through the theoretical limit of EM enhancement. Meanwhile, the as-synthesized Ag NDs possess highly effective antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, which are over 10 times that of silver nanoparticles. Additionally, the basic physics and chemistry involved in the fabrication of Ag nanostructures are pursued. These investigations show that silver nanostructures with highly active surfaces can make the most of Ag nanostructures functioning as super-SERS-active substrates and multiple antibiotics.

  1. Effect of substrate mechanical properties on T cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, King; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2013-03-01

    T cell activation is a key process in cell-mediated immunity, and engagement of T cell receptors by peptides on antigen presenting cells leads to activation of signaling cascades as well as cytoskeletal reorganization and large scale membrane deformations. While significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemical signaling pathways, the effects imposed by the physical environment and the role of mechanical forces on cell activation are not well understood. In this study, we have used anti-CD3 coated elastic polyacrylamide gels as stimulatory substrates to enable the spreading of Jurkat T cells and the measurement of cellular traction forces. We have investigated the effect of substrate stiffness on the dynamics of T cell spreading and cellular force generation. We found that T cells display more active and sustained edge dynamics on softer gels and that they exert increased traction stresses with increasing gel stiffness. A dynamic actin cytoskeleton was required to maintain the forces generated during activation, as inferred from small molecule inhibition experiments. Our results indicate an important role for physical properties of the antigen presenting cell as well as cytoskeleton-driven forces in signaling activation.

  2. Evaluation of dust activity and climate effects in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiang-ao; LIANG Feng; WANG Ming-xing

    2004-01-01

    TOMS/Al data with nearly 20 years are utilized in the paper to evaluate dust activities in North China.Combined with simultaneous NCEP reanalysis climate data, climate effects on dust activities are assessed. Theresults showed that the whole North China suffers impact by dust aerosols, with three centers standing out inTOMS/Al spring average map that are western three basins, which are characterized by lower annual precipitationand elevation. Gobi deserts in Mongolia Plateau do not attain higher TOMS/Al value due to cloud contamination andrelative higher elevation. Spring is the season with the highest TOMS dust aerosol index; within the western threebasins, high dust aerosol index appears in both spring and summer, especially in Tarim Basin. Wind speed in springand precipitation in previous rainy season play important roles in controlling dust activities, higher wind speed andless precipitation than the normal are in favor of dust activities in spring. Temperature in spring and previous winteralso affect dust activity to a certain extent, but with contrary spatial distribution. Temperature in winter exert effectprincipally in west part, contrarily, temperature effect in spring is mainly shown in east part. Both of them havenegative correlation with dust activity.

  3. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.

  4. The Effects of US Army Chemical Protective Clothing on Speech Intelligibility, Visual Field, Body Mobility and Psychomotor Coordination of Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Perimetric measurements were made for 10 areas of the visual field of each eye. For each of the 10, a measure was taken of initial detection of the target...analyses were performed on the perimetric data. Means were calculated from the data of the 12 subjects to describe the visual field for each eye...BILL 33 LED RED SHED WED BED FED 34 COLD FOLD GOLD HOLD SOLD TOLD 35 SAKE SALE SAME SANE SAVE SAFE 36 PALE PANE FAVE PAY PACE PAGE 37 REEL EEL FEEL

  5. Labor Mobility, Social Network Effects, and Innovative Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas; Kaiser, Ulrich

    We study the mapping between labor mobility and industrial innovative activity for the population of R&D active Danish firms observed between 1999 and 2004. Our study documents a positive relationship between the number of workers who join a firm and the firm’s innovative activity....... This relationship is stronger if workers join from innovative firms. We also find evidence for positive feedback from workers who leave for an innovative firm, presumably because the worker who left stays in contact with their former colleagues. This implies that the positive feedback (“social network effects......”) that has been found by other studies not only exists but even outweighs the disruption and loss of knowledge occurring to the previous employer from the worker leaving. Summing up the effects of joining and leaving workers, we find ample evidence for mobility to be associated with an increase in total...

  6. Anticonvulsive effects of nimodipine on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağirici, Faruk; Bostanci, M Omer

    2006-01-01

    The common features of all types of epilepsy are synchronized and uncontrolled discharges of nerve cell assemblies. It is believed that calcium ions play an important role in the generation of epileptic activity. Excessive calcium influx into neurons is the first step toward a seizure. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the calcium channel blocker nimodipine has anticonvulsive effects. The left cerebral cortex was exposed by craniotomy in anaesthetized rats. An epileptic focus was produced by injection of penicillin G potassium (500 units) into the somatomotor cortex. After the epileptiform activity reached maximum frequency and amplitude; nimodipine was injected into the same area. Application of nimodipine caused an inhibition in the electrocorticograms (ECoG). Solvent alone did not affect the epileptiform activity. The results of this study indicate that nimodipine may have anticonvulsant effects.

  7. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  8. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of t

  9. Exploring the Greenhouse Effect through Physics-Oriented Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kerry P.; Laws, Priscilla W.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a new activity-based unit on global warming and the environment as part of the "Explorations in Physics Curriculum." We describe the current status of this unit, which focuses on helping students understand the greenhouse effect and its relationship to global warming. We outline several problems encountered in testing the unit…

  10. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  11. Active Reading Procedures for Moderating the Effects of Poor Highlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, Vicki S.; Herring, Daniel; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Kreiner, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two active reading techniques intended to eliminate the negative effect on reading comprehension of preexisting, inappropriate highlighting. College students read passages in three highlighting conditions: no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, and inappropriate highlighting. In Experiment 1, 30 students read the passages while…

  12. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in…

  13. Effect of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den S.G.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ari�ns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records. Comple

  14. An Activity for Teaching the Effects of Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; King, Eden B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel teaching activity that allows students in diversity, leadership, and communication courses to observe the powerful effects of nonverbal communication. The nonverbal experiences female leaders may encounter as they rise through the ranks of organizations are simulated and consequences discussed. Two student volunteers…

  15. Enhanced oxidation resistance of active nanostructures via dynamic size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Jianping; Yu, Liang; Liu, Qingfei; Ning, Yanxiao; Zhou, Zhiwen; Chen, Hao; Huang, Wugen; Liu, Ping; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge limiting the practical applications of nanomaterials is that the activities of nanostructures (NSs) increase with reduced size, often sacrificing their stability in the chemical environment. Under oxidative conditions, NSs with smaller sizes and higher defect densities are commonly expected to oxidize more easily, since high-concentration defects can facilitate oxidation by enhancing the reactivity with O2 and providing a fast channel for oxygen incorporation. Here, using FeO NSs as an example, we show to the contrary, that reducing the size of active NSs can drastically increase their oxidation resistance. A maximum oxidation resistance is found for FeO NSs with dimensions below 3.2 nm. Rather than being determined by the structure or electronic properties of active sites, the enhanced oxidation resistance originates from the size-dependent structural dynamics of FeO NSs in O2. We find this dynamic size effect to govern the chemical properties of active NSs.

  16. Effect of physical activity on vascular characteristics in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nikmah S; Evelein, Annemieke M V; Geerts, Caroline C; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2015-05-01

    Physical activity has long been proposed as an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in adults. We assessed whether physical activity already has an effect on childhood vasculature. In the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-in-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, we performed vascular ultrasound to measure carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and functional properties (distensibility, elastic modulus) at 5 and 8 years of age. Child typical physical activities were inquired using a questionnaire completed by parents. Linear regression was used with physical activity level, expressed as a standardized value of time-weighted metabolic equivalent (MET) as the independent variable and vascular properties as dependent variables with further confounder adjustment and evaluation for possible body mass index and sex effect modifications. In 595 5-year-old children and in 237 of those who had reached the age of 8 years, we did not find statistically significant associations between total time-weighted MET and each vascular parameter, neither in pooled nor stratified analysis. However, sport activities were associated with thinner cIMT (-3.20 µm/SD, 95% CI -6.34, -0.22, p = 0.04) at 5 years of age; a similar pattern was seen for organized sport. This effect was strongest in children in the highest body mass index tertile (-5.38 µm/SD, 95% CI -10.54, -0.19, p = 0.04). At the age of 8 years, higher sport level tended to be associated with higher vascular distensibility (2.64 × 10(3) kPa/SD, 95% CI -0.18, 5.45, p = 0.07) although this was not statistically significant. Sport activity may have beneficial effects on arteries of young children, particularly those with higher relative body weight. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Physician-based activity counseling: intervention effects on mediators of motivational readiness for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, B M; Lynn, H; Marcus, B H; DePue, J; Goldstein, M G

    2001-01-01

    In theory-based interventions for behavior change, there is a need to examine the effects of interventions on the underlying theoretical constructs and the mediating role of such constructs. These two questions are addressed in the Physically Active for Life study, a randomized trial of physician-based exercise counseling for older adults. Three hundred fifty-five patients participated (intervention n = 181, control n = 174; mean age = 65.6 years). The underlying theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the constructs of decisional balance (benefits and barriers), self-efficacy, and behavioral and cognitive processes of change. Motivational readiness for physical activity and related constructs were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 8 months. Linear or logistic mixed effects models were used to examine intervention effects on the constructs, and logistic mixed effects models were used for mediator analyses. At 6 weeks, the intervention had significant effects on decisional balance, self-efficacy, and behavioral processes, but these effects were not maintained at 8 months. At 6 weeks, only decisional balance and behavioral processes were identified as mediators of motivational readiness outcomes. Results suggest that interventions of greater intensity and duration may be needed for sustained changes in mediators and motivational readiness for physical activity among older adults.

  18. Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be

  19. The effects of the synthetic nocistatin on blood vessel activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nocistatin was synthesized by the solid-phase peptide synthesismethod. Its effects on rat systemic arterial pressure; rat hindquarter vascular bed resistance; tension of rabbit pectoral, abdominal, femoral aorta muscle strips without endothelium; and nociceptin induced decreases of rat systemic arterial pressure were determined. The results showed that nocistatin can increase the systemic arterial pressure, increase the hindquarter vascular bed resistance and induce the contraction significantly of abdominal, femoral aorta muscle strips without endothelium; it has no significant effect on tension of pectoral aorta muscle strips, it cannot antagonize significantly the decrease of rat systemic arterial pressure induced by nociceptin. These results suggest that nocistatin has some important effects on blood vessel activities.

  20. Antiplatelet effect of active components derived from Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Da-Zhuo

    2015-10-10

    Atherothrombosis is the major cause of acute coronary syndromes and cardiovascular deaths. Platelets participate in the processes of forming and extending atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, antiplatelet therapy is a milestone in the primary and second prevention of atherothrombotic diseases. Along with the longterm use of antiplatelet agents, the safety and drug resistance has become a big concern in clinic and new drugs possessing higher effectiveness and fewer adverse effects are needed. Abundant recent data support that traditional Chinese herbs may be a good alternative and complementary choice of new antiplatelet drugs. This review highlights the progress of antiplatelet effect of active components derived from traditional Chinese herbs based on their chemical structures.

  1. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory.

  3. Escape rate of active particles in the effective equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Wittmann, R.; Brader, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The escape rate of a Brownian particle over a potential barrier is accurately described by the Kramers theory. A quantitative theory explicitly taking the activity of Brownian particles into account has been lacking due to the inherently out-of-equilibrium nature of these particles. Using an effective equilibrium approach [Farage et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 042310 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.042310] we study the escape rate of active particles over a potential barrier and compare our analytical results with data from direct numerical simulation of the colored noise Langevin equation. The effective equilibrium approach generates an effective potential that, when used as input to Kramers rate theory, provides results in excellent agreement with the simulation data.

  4. COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS IN ACTIVIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new methodological approaches in the study of development problems of scientific and technical activities in the information society. The essence and economic nature of development scientific and technical activities' from the standpoint of methodological collectivism are disclosed, a new phenomenon intensification of development scientific and technical activities by forming the global networks of scientific and technical knowledge users that provides sharing of the burden of transformation and transaction costs as generation as well as economic implementation of research and technical knowledge across the globe are showed. This study outlines the complementary effects in intensify development of scientific and technological activities components: research and development (RD, training of scientific personnel, provision of scientific and technical services, which generates of world market's complementary goods, being world market of educational services of scientific and technical information, industrial properties, high technology products, venture capital investments and stock market.

  5. The Effect of Whole-body Vibration on Muscle Activity in Active and Inactive Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhard, K; Vienneau, J; Friesenbichler, B; Nigg, S; Meste, O; Nigg, B M; Colson, S S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare lower limb muscle activity between physically active and inactive individuals during whole-body vibration exercises. Additionally, transmissibility of the vertical acceleration to the head was quantified. 30 active and 28 inactive participants volunteered to stand in a relaxed (20°) and a squat (60°) position on a side-alternating WBV platform that induced vibrations at 16 Hz and 4 mm amplitude. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured in selected lower limb muscles and was normalized to the corresponding sEMG recorded during a maximal voluntary contraction. The vertical acceleration on the head was evaluated and divided by the vertical platform acceleration to obtain transmissibility values. Control trials without vibration were also assessed. The outcomes of this study showed that (1) WBV significantly increased muscle activity in the active (absolute increase: +7%, P 0.05). However, (3), transmissibility to the head was greater in the active (0.080) than the inactive participants (0.065, P active counterparts, but are at lower risk for potential side-effects of vibration exposure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Active prospective control is required for effective sensorimotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winona Snapp-Childs

    Full Text Available Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy. Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance.

  7. Active prospective control is required for effective sensorimotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance.

  8. A comparison of the haemodynamic and behavioural effects of moxonidine and clonidine in normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, G J; Howie, C A; Elliott, H L; Reid, J L

    1992-01-01

    1. This randomised double-blind placebo controlled crossover study in healthy normotensive males compared the haemodynamic and behavioural responses following single oral doses of moxonidine (200 micrograms), clonidine (200 micrograms) and placebo. 2. Both active drugs significantly reduced blood pressure as compared with placebo: on average (over the study day) by -5.6/-0.8 with moxonidine and by -13.3/-5.3 mm Hg with clonidine. The hypotensive effect of clonidine was significantly greater (95% CI 3.2-12.2). Heart rate was unchanged by either drug. 3. Psychomotor testing, salivary flow and side effect reporting showed a consistent treatment rank order similar to that of the hypotensive response: clonidine greater than moxonidine greater than placebo. 4. Although moxonidine produced less adverse effects than clonidine, an equivalent hypotensive response was not demonstrated in normal subjects. Further study at comparable antihypertensive doses is required to clarify the relative side effect profile of these agents. PMID:1576046

  9. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control.

  10. Effects of neurotrophins on gastrointestinal myoelectric activities of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-Li Chai; Lei Dong; Zong-Fang Li; Ke-Xin Du; Jian-Hua Wang; Li-Kun Yan; Xi-Lin Dong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF), rat recombinant brain derived neurotrophic factor (rm-BDNF) and recombinant human neurotrophin-3 (rh-NT3) on the gastrointestinal motility and the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in rat.METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled experiment was performed. 5-7 days after we chronically implanted four or five bipolar silver electrodes on the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and colon, 21 experimental rats were coded and divided into 3 groups and injected NGF, rm-BDNF, rh-NT-3 or placebo respectively via tail vein activity was recorded 2 hours before and after the test substance infusions in these consciously fasting rats.RESULTS: The neurotrophins-induced pattern of activity was characterized by enhanced spiking activity of different amplitudes at all recording sites, especially in the colon. In the gastric antrum and intestine, only rh-NT-3 had increased effects on the demographic characteristics of electrical activities (P<0.05), but did not affect the intervals of MMCs.In the colon, all the three kinds of neurotrophins could significantly increase the frequency, amplitude and duration levels of spike bursts, and also rh-NT-3 could prolong the intervals of MMC in the transverse colon (25±11 min vs 19±6 min, P<0.05). In the distal colon rh-NT-3 could evoke phase Ⅲ-like activity and disrupt the MMC pattern, which was replaced by a continuously long spike bursts (LSB) and irregular spike activity (ISA) for 48±6 min.CONCLUSION: Exogenous neurotrophic factors can stimulate gut myoelectric activities in rats.

  11. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Effects of Jinye Baidu Granule(金叶败毒颗粒) on Fetal Growth and Development with Maternal Active Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Jinye Baidu Granule (金叶败毒颗粒, JYBDG), a traditional Chinese medicine compound prescription, on fetal growth and development with maternal active human cytomegalovirus infection. Methods: A prospective, randomized and controlled trial was adopted during January 1996 to June 2002. From the pregnant women with an abnormal pregnant history, 240 cases were screened to be infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). They were assigned according to the random number table to two groups. The 122 cases in the treatment group were administrated with JYBDG, one package each time, three times a day for two continuous weeks, while the other 118 in the control group did not receive any treatment. The negative conversion rate of both HCMV-IgM and HCMV late mRNA,the positive rate of HCMV-DNA in placenta and the intrauterine transmission rate between the two groups were compared, and fetal growth and development in partial fetuses were also observed. Results: The negative conversion rate of both HCMV-IgM and HCMV late mRNA, the positive rate of HCMV-DNA in placenta and the intrauterine transmission rate in the treatment group were 77. 05% (94/122), 48. 98% (48/98) and 21.74% (10/46) respectively, while those in the control group were 38. 14% (45/118), 67.50% (54/80)and 52.63% (20/38) respectively, all showing significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01).Totally 35 normal infants and 11 abnormal infants were born in the treatment group, and the number in the control group was 20 and 18 respectively, and comparison between the two groups showed significant difference (P<0.01). Six months of child birth, the scores of both mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of infants were higher in the treatment group (20 cases) than those in the control group (20 cases), but there was no significant

  13. Lipases: particularly effective biocatalysts for cosmetic active ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvergnaux Florent

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are the tools of choice in the on-going quest for non-pollutant processes to discover molecules for use in skin products. Amongst these biocatalysts, lipases offer considerable potential in terms of ingredient development and are of interest in skin dermocosmetic formulations possessing sensory or biological activities. Lipases have been studied for around thirty years and, in most cases, these enzymes function under what are deemed to be mild conditions, displaying remarkable efficacy particularly in terms of selectivity. This particularly effective strategy will be illustrated through typical synthesis, demonstrating how ester or amide active ingredients are obtained.

  14. Substituent Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Spirodiazaselenuranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devappa S. Lamani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spirodiazaselenuranes are structurally interesting compounds and the stability of these compounds depends highly on the nature of the substituents attached to the nitrogen atoms. Aromatic substituents are known to play important roles in stabilizing the Se-N bonds in spiro compounds. In this study, several spirodiazaselenuranes are synthesized by introducing benzylic and aliphatic substituents to understand their effect on the stability of the Se-N bonds and the antioxidant activity. Replacement of phenyl substituent by benzyl/alkyl groups significantly reduces the stability of the spirodiazaselenuranes and slows down the oxidative cyclization process. The selenium centre in the spiro compounds undergoes further oxidation to produce the corresponding selenurane oxides, which are stable at room temperature. Comparison of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx mimetic activity of the compounds showed that the diaryl selenides having heterocyclic rings are significantly more active due to the facile oxidation of the selenium centre. However, the activity is reduced significantly for compounds having aliphatic substituents. In addition to GPx activity, the compounds also inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated nitration and oxidation reaction of protein and small molecules, respectively. The experimental observations suggest that the antioxidant activity is increased considerably upon substitution of the aromatic group with the benzylic/aliphatic substituents on the nitrogen atoms.

  15. 24-Hour motor activity and autonomic cardiac functioning in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Volkers (Anita)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe studies of this thesis concern the spontaneous pattern of motor activity and autonomic cardiac functioning in major depressive disorder. The main purpose of the studies was to obtain insight in the psychomotor and autonomic cardiac dysfunction in depression by investigating the 24-ho

  16. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  17. Active Teaching Strategies for a Sense of Salience: End-of-Life Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared active teaching strategies with passive lecture by evaluating cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning outcomes, while highlighting end-of-life communication in nursing education. The problem addressed was twofold: First, passive lecture prevents transfer to situational decision-making, or a sense of salience (Benner,…

  18. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  19. The Effect of Progressive Aerobic Exercise On G6PD Activity Among Active and Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Allah Dashtiyan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erythrocyte glucose–6–phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity is highly associated with free radical production. G6PD deficiency can increase the sensitivity of erythrocytes to oxidative stress resulting in hemolytic anemia. Aim: to study the main effect of progressive aerobic exercise on G6PD activity in active and sedentary men. Material and Methods: the study comprised 10 active men and 10 sedentary men. The protocol, started with running at approximately %75 of their maximal oxygen uptake for 30 min x times a week for y weeks. Venous blood samples (5ml were collected prior to, immediately after, 2 hours and 24 hours after exercise. G6PD activity was evaluated with auto-Analyzer Method. Result: G6PD was not significantly higher in the active men in comparison with the sedentary men at baseline (10.5 ± 1.2 (IU/gHb VS 9.5 ± 1.0 (IU/gHb, P ≤ 0.05. G6PD activity was increased significantly in both groups immediately after exercise but was not considerably different between the groups (11.6 ± 2.7 (IU/gHb VS 9.9 ± 1.1 (IU/gHb, for active and sedentary men, respectively; P ≤ 0.05. G6PD returned to the baseline levels 2 hours after exercise in active men but remained high in sedentary men (10.5 ± 1.4 (IU/gHb VS 10.1 ± 1.1 (IU/gHb, P ≤ 0.05. Also, G6PD levels showed a significant increase 24 hours after exercise in the active men in comparison with the sedentary men (11.8 ± 2.5 (IU/gHb VS 9.5 ± 1.5 (IU/gHb, P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: In this regard, it can be concluded that, progressive aerobic exercise may be an effective factor affecting the levels of G6PD significantly, and as a home message it is useful for controlling the hemolytic anemia among sedentary population. Keywords: G6PD activity, progressive aerobic exercise, hemolytic anemia

  20. Evaluation of Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant-, and Anxiolytic-like Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Cultured Mycelia of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socala, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Grzywnowicz, Krzysztof; Stefaniuk, Dawid; Wlaz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known medicinal mushroom with a long history of use. This study was designed to assess the anticonvulsant potential of an aqueous extract from cultured G. lucidum mycelium in 3 acute seizure models: timed intravenous pentylenetetrazole infusion, maximal electroshock seizure threshold, and 6-Hz-induced psychomotor seizure tests in mice. Moreover, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of G. lucidum were evaluated using the forced swim test and the elevated plus maze test in mice, respectively. No changes in seizure thresholds in the intravenous pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock seizure threshold tests after acute treatment with G. lucidum extract (200-600 mg/kg) was observed. However, the studied extract (100-400 mg/kg) significantly increased the threshold for psychomotor seizures in the 6-Hz seizure test. In the forced swim test, G. lucidum (100-400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of immobility. No anxiolytic-like or sedative effects were reported in mice pretreated with the extract (400-600 mg/kg). G. lucidum extract (50-2400 mg/kg) did not produce toxic effects in the chimney test (motor coordination) or grip-strength test (neuromuscular strength). Further studies are required to explain the neuropharmacological effects of G. lucidum and to identify its active ingredients that may affect seizure threshold, mood, or anxiety.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation Induces Hepatic Steatosis, Suggesting an Adverse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Chao; Cao, Mingfeng; Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Tingting; Yu, Chunxiao; Jing, Fei; Chen, Wenbin; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome. Antihyperlipidemic drugs are recommended as part of the treatment for NAFLD patients. Although fibrates activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), leading to the reduction of serum triglyceride levels, the effects of these drugs on NAFLD remain controversial. Clinical studies have reported that PPARα activation does not improve hepatic steatosis. In the present study, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of PPARα activation on hepatic triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice, Pparα-null mice and HepG2 cells were treated with fenofibrate, one of the most commonly used fibrate drugs. Both low and high doses of fenofibrate were administered. Hepatic steatosis was detected through oil red O staining and electron microscopy. Notably, in fenofibrate-treated mice, the serum triglyceride levels were reduced and the hepatic triglyceride content was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining of liver sections demonstrated that fenofibrate-fed mice accumulated abundant neutral lipids. Fenofibrate also increased the intracellular triglyceride content in HepG2 cells. The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and the key genes associated with lipogenesis were increased in fenofibrate-treated mouse livers and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect was strongly impaired in Pparα-null mice treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate treatment induced mature SREBP-1c expression via the direct binding of PPARα to the DR1 motif of the SREBP-1c gene. Taken together, these findings indicate the molecular mechanism by which PPARα activation increases liver triglyceride accumulation and suggest an adverse effect of

  3. MDMA, Methylone, and MDPV: Drug-Induced Brain Hyperthermia and Its Modulation by Activity State and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn E

    2017-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants are frequently used by humans to intensify the subjective experience of different types of social interactions. Since psychomotor stimulants enhance metabolism and increase body temperatures, their use under conditions of physiological activation and in warm humid environments could result in pathological hyperthermia, a life-threatening symptom of acute drug intoxication. Here, we will describe the brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA, MDPV, and methylone, three structurally related recreational drugs commonly used by young adults during raves and other forms of social gatherings. After a short introduction on brain temperature and basic mechanisms underlying its physiological fluctuations, we will consider how MDMA, MDPV, and methylone affect brain and body temperatures in awake freely moving rats. Here, we will discuss the role of drug-induced heat production in the brain due to metabolic brain activation and diminished heat dissipation due to peripheral vasoconstriction as two primary contributors to the hyperthermic effects of these drugs. Then, we will consider how the hyperthermic effects of these drugs are modulated under conditions that model human drug use (social interaction and warm ambient temperature). Since social interaction results in brain and body heat production, coupled with skin vasoconstriction that impairs heat loss to the external environment, these physiological changes interact with drug-induced changes in heat production and loss, resulting in distinct changes in the hyperthermic effects of each tested drug. Finally, we present our recent data, in which we compared the efficacy of different pharmacological strategies for reversing MDMA-induced hyperthermia in both the brain and body. Specifically, we demonstrate increased efficacy of the centrally acting atypical neuroleptic compound clozapine over the peripherally acting vasodilator drug, carvedilol. These data could be important for understanding the potential

  4. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  5. Effects of active-sterile neutrino mixing during primordial nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Saez, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we discuss the effects of the inclusion of sterile-active neutrino oscillations during the production of primordial light-nuclei. We assume that the sterile neutrino mass-eigenstate might oscillate with the two lightest active neutrino mass- eigenstates, with mixing angles ${\\phi}_1$ and ${\\phi}_2$. We also allow a constant renormalization (represented by a parameter (${\\zeta}$)) of the sterile neutrino occupation factor. Taking ${\\zeta}$ and the mixing angles as free parameters, we have computed distribution functions of active and sterile neutrinos and primordial abundances. Using observable data we set constrains in the free parameters of the model. It is found that the data on primordial abundances are consistent with small mixing angles and with a value of ${\\zeta}$ smaller than 0.65 at 3${\\sigma}$ level.

  6. The effects of physical activity on brain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eThomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.

  7. Adsorption mechanisms and the effect of oxytetracycline on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiancai; Liu, Dongfang; Zhang, Guowei; Frigon, Matthew; Meng, Xianrong; Li, Kexun

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption mechanisms and the effect of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge were studied. The results show that the adsorption of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge was coincident with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model had the best fit which suggested that chemical adsorption mechanism was dominant. The influences including pH and metal ions on the OTC were examined. It was demonstrated that the adsorption process was highly pH-dependant, which indicate that cationic exchange mechanisms may play an important role in the adsorption process. Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Cd(2+) ions more or less inhibited the adsorption of OTC on activated sludge while Cu(2+) enhanced the adsorption ability. The phenomenon may reflect the result that a surface complexation mechanism could involved in the adsorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and characterization of PERK activators by phenotypic screening and their effects on NRF2 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Xie

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a critical role to restore the homeostasis of protein production in eukaryotic cells. This vital process is hence involved in many types of diseases including COPD. PERK, one branch in the ER stress signaling pathways, has been reported to activate NRF2 signaling pathway, a known protective response to COPD. Based on this scientific rationale, we aimed to identify PERK activators as a mechanism to achieve NRF2 activation. In this report, we describe a phenotypic screening assay to identify PERK activators. This assay measures phosphorylation of GFP-tagged eIF2α upon PERK activation via a cell-based LanthaScreen technology. To obtain a robust assay with sufficient signal to background and low variation, multiple parameters were optimized including GFP-tagged eIF2α BacMam concentration, cell density and serum concentration. The assay was validated by a tool compound, Thapsigargin, which induces phosphorylation of eIF2α. In our assay, this compound showed maximal signal window of approximately 2.5-fold with a pEC50 of 8.0, consistent with literature reports. To identify novel PERK activators through phosphorylation of eIF2α, a focused set of 8,400 compounds was screened in this assay at 10 µM. A number of hits were identified and validated. The molecular mechanisms for several selected hits were further characterized in terms of PERK activation and effects on PERK downstream components. Specificity of these compounds in activating PERK was demonstrated with a PERK specific inhibitor and in PERK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells. In addition, these hits showed NRF2-dependent anti-oxidant gene induction. In summary, our phenotypic screening assay is demonstrated to be able to identify PERK specific activators. The identified PERK activators could potentially be used as chemical probes to further investigate this pathway as well as the link between PERK activation and NRF2 pathway activation.

  9. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium.

  10. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  11. Effect of sedentary activities on resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W H; Bandini, L G; Morelli, J A; Peers, K F; Ching, P L

    1994-03-01

    We examined the effect of television viewing on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 9 obese and 18 nonobese girls aged 10.4 +/- 1.1 y. RMR was measured while girls watched television, read, or sat quietly for 15 min. Movement was assessed by using activity monitors and a manual count of movements observed on a videotape. Absolute RMR was greater for the obese girls, but no significant treatment effect existed for absolute RMR within either group. Although measured activity did not differ, observed movements were greater when the girls were sitting quietly. Total observed and measured movements were significantly correlated with the CV of the minute-by-minute RMR. These results suggest that television viewing does not alter RMR. Although children appear to fidget more when sitting quietly than when they read or watch television, fidgeting appears to affect the minute-to-minute variation of RMR rather than the level of resting energy expenditure.

  12. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  13. Create Effective Activities for Students to Learn English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建萍; 谷婷婷; 田颖慧

    2013-01-01

    Rather than only learning English grammar and some other language knowledge about English, learning English litera⁃ture is another effective way for students to learn English since they can not only learn the native English by reading some English literature but also get familiar with different cultures and background knowledge of English countries. As an English teacher, the main job in the literature class is to design effective activities for students in order to let them comprehend texts that they read and improve their critical thinking. This paper is tend to discuss some activities, including pre-reading, reading and post-reading ac⁃tivities, which was used in my literature class and how they help the students learn English and improve their critical thinking.

  14. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Lijesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present research work Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB has been presented. Various possible failures modes of AMBs and the corresponding effects of those failures on performance of AMBs have been identified. The identified failure modes of AMBs will facilitate designer to incorporate necessary design features that would prevent the occurrence of the failure. The severity, occurrence and detection of the failures modes are determined based on a rating scale of 1 to 5 to quantify the Risk Priority Number (RPN of the failure modes. The methods to eliminate or reduce the high-risk-failure modes are proposed.

  16. Promoting effective decision-making in sexually active adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauer, K M

    1983-06-01

    Promoting effective decision-making in adolescents who are active sexually and those who are not incorporates knowledge of the changes occurring in the intellectual, psychological, and emotional realms. The health professional must provide comprehensive and effective counseling in a variety of creative ways during the adolescent period. The time to begin is with the young adolescent, 10 or 11 years old, and continue over time. The key to success is prevention: prevention of sex without full consent, unwanted pregnancy, ignorance of one's own body, and decisions by default.

  17. The effect of Peltier heat during current activated densification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Angst, S.; Schmitz, A.; Engenhorst, M.; Stoetzel, J.; Gautam, D.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D. E.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

    2012-07-01

    It is shown that current-activated pressure-assisted densification (CAPAD) is sensitive to the Peltier effect. Under CAPAD, the Peltier effect leads to a significant redistribution of heat within the sample during the densification. The densification of highly p-doped silicon nanoparticles during CAPAD and the properties of the obtained samples are investigated experimentally and by computer simulation. Both, simulation and experiments, indicate clearly a higher temperature on the cathode side and a decreasing temperature from the center to the outer shell. Furthermore, computer simulations provide additional insights into the temperature profile which explain the anisotropic properties of the measured sample.

  18. Modulation Effects of Curcumin on Erythrocyte Ion-Transporter Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin ((1E,6E-1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, the yellow biphenolic pigment isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa, has various medicinal benefits through antioxidation, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular protection, immunomodulation, enhancing of the apoptotic process, and antiangiogenic property. We explored the effects of curcumin in vitro (10−5 M to 10−8 M and in vivo (340 and 170 mg/kg b.w., oral on Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE activity, and membrane lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH in control and experimental oxidative stress erythrocytes of Wistar rats. As a result, we found that curcumin potently modulated the membrane transporters activity with protecting membrane lipids against hydro-peroxidation in control as well as oxidatively challenged erythrocytes evidenced by stimulation of NKA, downregulation of NHE, and reduction of ROOH in the membrane. The observed results corroborate membrane transporters activity with susceptibility of erythrocyte membrane towards oxidative damage. Results explain the protective mechanism of curcumin against oxidative stress mediated impairment in ions-transporters activity and health beneficial effects.

  19. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation.

  20. Effect of Magnesium Acetate on the Antimold Activity of Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kycia, Katarzyna; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna; Kraśniewska, Karolina; Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Anna; Gniewosz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The antimold activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is used in food biopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of magnesium acetate added to de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium on the antimold activity of three LAB strains ( Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus brevis , and Lactobacillus fermentum ) against molds contaminating food ( Aspergillus oryzae , Aspergillus niger , Penicillium chrysogenum , Fusarium avenaceum , and Rhizopus arrhizus ) and their ability to produce organic acids (acetic acid, lactic acid, and phenyllactic acid). The antimold activity of LAB strains was evaluated using the overlay method, and the concentration of the organic acids was determined with the gas chromatography technique. Changes in viable cell counts and the pH of LAB culture also were monitored over a 48-h period. The results show that the growth inhibition of all the molds (except R. arrhizus ) was higher in LAB strain cultures on MRS with magnesium acetate agar than on MRS agar, and inhibition increased over the 48 h. Magnesium acetate added to MRS broth stimulated the production of acetic acid by all LAB strains in the first 8 h and slightly stimulated the production of lactic acid by L. plantarum during the first 24 h. No adverse effect of magnesium acetate on growth of LAB strains was noted. The results confirm that magnesium acetate enhances the antimold activity of LAB strains.