Gooding, Diane Carol; Pflum, Madeline Johnson
The extent to which Theory of Mind impairments are a trait associated with schizotypy is unclear. To date, findings have been mixed. We compared two groups of psychometrically identified schizotypes, namely, those characterized by positive schizotypy (perceptual aberrations and magical ideation; n=36) and those characterized by negative schizotypy (social anhedonia; n=30) to a low schizotypy comparison group (n=68) in terms of their Theory of Mind performance. Theory of Mind was assessed in two ways: a composite Hinting Task and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. The groups were also compared in terms of their self-reported levels of referential thinking. Our results indicate that individuals characterized by positive schizotypy show Theory of Mind deficits, as measured by the Hinting Task. The three groups did not differ in terms of the Eyes Test. Referential thinking was significantly associated with the Eyes Test but not the Hinting Task. Overall these findings suggest that different aspects of schizotypy are associated differentially with Theory of Mind deficits. The results also provide further rationale for the inclusion of multiple tasks when attempting to study multifaceted constructs such as Theory of Mind. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theleritis, Christos; Vitoratou, Silia; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Constantinidis, Theodoros; Stefanis, Nicholas C
There is growing interest in the connection between neurological soft signs (NSS) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders such as schizotypal personality disorder. The association between NSS and schizotypy was investigated in a subgroup of 169 young healthy male military conscripts included in the Athens Study of Psychosis Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia. During their first 2 weeks in the National Basic Air Force Training Centre (T(1)-first assessment), subjects completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM). Then, 2 years later (T(2)-second assessment), at the time of military discharge, they were tested for NSS with the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) and reevaluated with the SPQ, the SCL-90-R and additionally the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders (SCID-II) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R). NSS were more prominent in conscripts with high schizotypy; scores on Sequencing of Complex Motor Acts (SCMA) and the "Other Soft Signs" (OSS) subscales were correlated with high schizotypy at both T(1) and T(2). Increased levels of SCMA as well as the total NSS score were correlated at both T(1) and T(2) with the interpersonal SPQ factor (reflecting negative schizotypy). The findings support the proposal that negative schizotypy might be associated with subtle neurodevelopmental abnormalities.
Wiebels, Kristina; Waldie, Karen E; Roberts, Reece P; Park, Haeme R P
Neuroimaging research into the brain structure of schizophrenia patients has shown consistent reductions in grey matter volume relative to healthy controls. Examining structural differences in individuals with high levels of schizotypy may help elucidate the course of disorder progression, and provide further support for the schizotypy-schizophrenia continuum. Thus far, the few studies investigating grey matter differences in schizotypy have produced inconsistent results. In the current study, we used a multivariate partial least squares (PLS) approach to clarify the relationship between psychometric schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and grey matter volume in 49 healthy adults. We found a negative association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the frontal and temporal lobes, as well as the insula. We also found a positive association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the parietal and temporal lobes, and in subcortical regions. Further correlational analyses revealed that positive and disorganised schizotypy were strongly associated with key regions (left superior temporal gyrus and insula) most consistently reported to be affected in schizophrenia and schizotypy. We also compared PLS with the typically used General Linear Model (GLM) and demonstrate that PLS can be reliably used as an extension to voxel-based morphometry (VBM) data. This may be particularly valuable for schizotypy research due to PLS' ability to detect small, but reliable effects. Together, the findings indicate that healthy schizotypal individuals exhibit structural changes in regions associated with schizophrenia. This adds to the evidence of an overlap of phenotypic expression between schizotypy and schizophrenia, and may help establish biological endophenotypes for the disorder.
Hills, Peter J; Eaton, Elizabeth; Pake, J Michael
Psychometric schizotypy in the general population correlates negatively with face recognition accuracy, potentially due to deficits in inhibition, social withdrawal, or eye-movement abnormalities. We report an eye-tracking face recognition study in which participants were required to match one of two faces (target and distractor) to a cue face presented immediately before. All faces could be presented with or without paraphernalia (e.g., hats, glasses, facial hair). Results showed that paraphernalia distracted participants, and that the most distracting condition was when the cue and the distractor face had paraphernalia but the target face did not, while there was no correlation between distractibility and participants' scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was negatively correlated with proportion of time fixating on the eyes and positively correlated with not fixating on a feature. It was negatively correlated with scan path length and this variable correlated with face recognition accuracy. These results are interpreted as schizotypal traits being associated with a restricted scan path leading to face recognition deficits.
Minor, Kyle S; Firmin, Ruth L; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Chun, Charlotte A; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S
Evidence suggests that divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creativity, is associated with positive schizotypy and cannabis use. Given the high rates of cannabis use among those with schizotypy, it is unclear if the relation of DT to schizotypy is due to co-occurring cannabis use. In this study, we examined the relations between DT, schizotypy, and cannabis use among positive schizotypy (n=66), negative schizotypy (n=22), and non-schizotypy (n=60) groups. Results revealed that DT was greater in the positive schizotypy group, on the order of small to medium effects, compared to negative and non-schizotypy groups. Cannabis use and DT were associated in the non-schizotypy group, but not in the positive or negative schizotypy groups. Across all groups, positive schizotypy significantly predicted DT; however, cannabis use was not a significant predictor of DT. In line with previous findings, cannabis use and DT were only related in individuals low in creativity. This suggests that a ceiling effect may be present, with only cannabis users who are low in creativity receiving any increase in DT. Future research should aim to clarify the DT-cannabis relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damien J. Mannion
Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the ability to detect a visual target pattern. Target detection is typically impaired by a surrounding pattern (context with an orientation that is parallel to the target, relative to a surrounding pattern with an orientation that is orthogonal to the target (orientation-dependent contextual modulation. Based on reports that this effect is reduced in those with schizophrenia, we hypothesised that there would be a negative relationship between the relative score on psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the relative effect of orientation-dependent contextual modulation. We measured visual contrast detection thresholds and scores on the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE from a non-clinical sample (N = 100. Contrary to our hypothesis, we find an absence of a monotonic relationship between the relative magnitude of orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection and the relative score on any of the subscales of the O-LIFE. The apparent difference of this result with previous reports on those with schizophrenia suggests that orientation-dependent contextual modulation may be an informative condition in which schizophrenia and psychometrically-defined schizotypy are dissociated. However, further research is also required to clarify the strength of orientation-dependent contextual modulation in those with schizophrenia.
Campellone, Timothy R; Elis, Ori; Mote, Jasmine; Sanchez, Amy H; Kring, Ann M
People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms. People high in schizotypy had more MAP negative symptoms than people low in schizotypy, but we found no group differences in EXP negative symptoms. Importantly, the relationship between MAP negative symptoms and schizotypy was fully mediated by cognitive depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms, specifically cognitive depressive symptoms, may be a pathway for motivation and pleasure impairment, in people at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N.A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P.K.
Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be psychometrica
Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N. A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P. K.
Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be psychometrica
Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Rózsa, Sándor; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Cloninger, C. Robert
Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) measures Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483), completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The “Borderline/Explosive temperament” (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence), “Schizotypal/Disorganized character” (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence), and “Low Ego Strength/Fragile” profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness) were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect), and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and research. PMID
Hunter, Helen K; Bolinskey, P Kevin; Novi, Jonathan H; Hudak, Daniel V; James, Alison V; Myers, Kevin R; Schuder, Kelly M
This study investigates the extent to which the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) profiles of 52 individuals making up a psychometrically identified schizotypes (SZT) sample could be successfully discriminated from the protocols of 52 individuals in a matched comparison (MC) sample. Replication analyses were performed with an additional 53 pairs of SZT and MC participants. Results showed significant differences in mean T-score values between these 2 groups across a variety of MMPI-2-RF scales. Results from discriminant function analyses indicate that schizotypy can be predicted effectively using 4 MMPI-2-RF scales and that this method of classification held up on replication. Additional results demonstrated that these MMPI-2-RF scales nominally outperformed MMPI-2 scales suggested by previous research as being indicative of schizophrenia liability. Directions for future research with the MMPI-2-RF are suggested.
Eysenck, H J; Barrett, P
The matrix of intercorrelations between scales of schizotypy presented by Kendler and Hewitt in 1992 was reanalyzed, and results rather different from those reported by the original authors were found. The new structure shows good agreement with the theory of personality disorder published by Eysenck in 1987. In all, the different scales seem to fall into three groups or factors, identified as Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Psychoticism (P). It is doubtful if there is a common element left over once these three groups have been eliminated.
Aguirre, Fabian; Sergi, Mark J; Levy, Cynthia A
The present study is the first to examine emotional intelligence in persons with schizotypy. Over 2100 undergraduates were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version. Forty participants identified as persons with high schizotypy and 56 participants identified as persons with low schizotypy completed assessments of emotional intelligence (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report), verbal episodic (secondary) memory (California Verbal Learning Test), and executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Persons high in schizotypy were impaired in overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions. Persons high in schizotypy were also impaired in three aspects of social functioning: peer relationships, family relationships, and academic functioning. Group differences in verbal episodic (secondary) memory and executive functioning were not observed. For persons with high schizotypy, overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions, were associated with peer relationship functioning. Overall emotional intelligence was associated with verbal episodic (secondary) memory, but not executive functioning, in persons with high schizotypy. The current findings suggest that emotional intelligence is impaired in persons with schizotypy and that these impairments affect their social functioning.
Full Text Available Schizotypy refers to a constellation of personality traits that are believed to mirror the subclinical expression of schizophrenia in the general population. Evidence from pharmacological studies indicates that dopamine is involved in the aetiology of schizophrenia. Based on the assumption of a continuum between schizophrenia and schizotypy, researchers have begun investigating the association between dopamine and schizotypy using a wide range of methods. In this article, we review published studies on this association from the following areas of work: (1 Experimental investigations of the interactive effects of dopaminergic challenges and schizotypy on cognition, motor control and behaviour, (2 dopaminergically supported cognitive functions, (3 studies of associations between schizotypy and polymorphisms in genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission, and (4 molecular imaging studies of the association between schizotypy and markers of the dopamine system. Together, data from these lines of evidence suggest that dopamine is important to the expression and experience of schizotypy and associated behavioural biases. An important observation is that the experimental designs, methods, and manipulations used in this research are highly heterogeneous. Future studies are required to replicate individual observations, to enlighten the link between dopamine and different schizotypy dimensions (positive, negative, cognitive disorganisation, and to guide the search for solid dopamine-sensitive behavioural markers. Such studies are important in order to clarify inconsistencies between studies. More work is also needed to identify differences between dopaminergic alterations in schizotypy compared to the dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia.
Fink, Andreas; Weber, Bernhard; Koschutnig, Karl; Mathias Benedek; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M
Behavioral research has revealed that some cognitive features may be similar between creative and psychotic/schizophrenic-like thoughts. In this study, we addressed the potential link between creativity and schizotypy at the level of the brain by investigating functional patterns of brain activity (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) during creative cognition in preselected groups with low versus high psychometrically determined schizotypy. Our findings revealed an association between the originality component of creativity and reduced deactivation of right parietal brain regions and the precuneus during creative cognition, congruent with the idea that more-creative people may include many more events/stimuli in their mental processes than do less-creative people. Similarly, the high-schizotypy group showed weaker deactivation of the right precuneus during creative cognition. The fact that originality and schizotypy show similar functional brain activity patterns during creative ideation (i.e., reduced deactivation of the right precuneus) strongly supports the contention that similar mental processes may be implicated in creativity and in psychosis proneness.
Matthew W. Roché
Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT to evaluate schizotypy through "The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment" (ESQUIZO-Q, in non-clinical adolescents. METHODS: The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤ 0.30 was of 34 items. CONCLUSION: The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.
Gross, Georgina M; Mellin, Juliann; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R
Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that captures the expression of schizophrenic symptoms and impairment from subclinical levels to full-blown psychosis. The present study examined the comparability of the factor structure of 2 leading psychometric measures of schizotypy: the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales (WSS) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Both the SPQ and WSS purportedly capture the multidimensional structure of schizotypy; however, whether they are measuring comparable factors has not been empirically demonstrated. This study provided support for a 2-factor model with positive and negative factors underlying the WSS; however, contrary to previous findings, the best fit for the SPQ was for a 4-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis, and a 2-factor model using exploratory factor analysis. The WSS factors were relatively distinct, whereas those underlying the SPQ showed high overlap. The WSS positive and SPQ cognitive-perceptual factors appeared to tap comparable constructs. However, the WSS negative and SPQ interpersonal factors appeared to tap somewhat different constructs based on their correlation and their patterns of associations with other schizotypy dimensions and the Five-Factor Model-suggesting that the SPQ interpersonal factor may not adequately tap negative or deficit schizotypy. Although the SPQ offers the advantage over the WSS of having a disorganization factor, it is not clear that this SPQ factor is actually distinct from positive schizotypy. Existing measures should be used with caution and new measures based on a priori theories are necessary to further understand the factor structure of schizotypy.
Wang, Yi; Shi, Hai-Song; Liu, Wen-Hua; Xie, Dong-Jie; Geng, Fu-Lei; Yan, Chao; Wang, Ya; Xiao, Ya-Hui; So, Suzanne H W; Chiu, Chui-De; Leung, Patrick W L; Cheung, Eric F C; Gooding, Diane C; Chan, Raymond C K
Schizotypy is a set of personality traits that convey liability to develop schizophrenia. Studying schizotypy in healthy individuals may facilitate the understanding of the psychopathological processes underlying schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of schizotypy over time using a longitudinal study design. The Chapman Scales for Psychosis Proneness were administered to 1541 college students at baseline, and subsequently at six-monthly intervals up to 18months. Latent class growth analysis was conducted to track the different trajectories. In addition, self-reported scales were used to measure idea of reference, emotional experiences and expression, stress and coping, as well as social functioning. We identified four latent classes with distinct trajectories: "nonschizotypy" group (LC1), "stable high schizotypy" group (LC3), "high reactive schizotypy" group (LC2) and "low reactive schizotypy" group (LC4). These findings suggest that there may be distinct developmental trajectories for schizotypy. Two groups may be of particular interest: the "stable high schizotypy" group that displayed the worst clinical and functioning outcomes on almost all measures and the "high reactive schizotypy" group characterized by a relatively rapid decline in functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Yin, Da-zhi; Fan, Ming-xia; Cheung, Eric F C; Pantelis, Christos; Chan, Raymond C K
The current study sought to examine the underlying brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy by integrating networks derived from brain structural and functional imaging. Individuals with high schizotypy (n = 35) and low schizotypy (n = 34) controls were screened using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent brain structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3T scanner. Voxel-based morphometric analysis and graph theory-based functional network analysis were conducted. Individuals with high schizotypy showed reduced gray matter (GM) density in the insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus. The graph theoretical analysis showed that individuals with high schizotypy showed similar global properties in their functional networks as low schizotypy individuals. Several hubs of the functional network were identified in both groups, including the insula, the lingual gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the rolandic operculum. More hubs in the frontal lobe and fewer hubs in the occipital lobe were identified in individuals with high schizotypy. By comparing the functional connectivity between clusters with abnormal GM density and the whole brain, individuals with high schizotypy showed weaker functional connectivity between the left insula and the putamen, but stronger connectivity between the cerebellum and the medial frontal gyrus. Taken together, our findings suggest that individuals with high schizotypy present changes in terms of GM and resting-state functional connectivity, especially in the frontal lobe.
Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Kwapil, Thomas R
Correlational methods, unlike cluster analyses, cannot take into account the possibility that individuals score highly on more than one symptom dimension simultaneously. This may account for some of the inconsistency found in the literature of correlates of schizotypy dimensions. This study explored the clustering of positive and negative schizotypy dimensions in nonclinical subjects and whether schizotypy clusters have meaningful patterns of adjustment in terms of psychopathology, social functioning, and personality. Positive and negative schizotypy dimensional scores were derived from the Chapman Psychosis-Proneness Scales for 6137 college students and submitted to cluster analysis. Of these, 780 completed the NEO-PI-R and Social Adjustment Scale-self report version, and a further 430 were interviewed for schizophrenia-spectrum, mood, and substance use psychopathology. Four clusters were obtained: low (nonschizotypic), high positive, high negative, and mixed (high positive and negative) schizotypy. The positive schizotypy cluster presented high rates of psychotic-like experiences, schizotypal and paranoid symptoms, had affective and substance abuse pathology, and was open to experience and extraverted. The negative schizotypy cluster had high rates of negative and schizoid symptoms, impaired social adjustment, high conscientiousness and low agreeableness. The mixed cluster was the most deviant on almost all aspects. Our cluster solution is consistent with the limited cluster analytic studies reported in schizotypy and schizophrenia, indicating that meaningful profiles of schizotypy features can be detected in nonclinical populations. The clusters identified displayed a distinct and meaningful pattern of correlates in different domains, thus providing construct validity to the schizotypy types defined. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kállai, János; Simon, Mária; Hartung, István; Birkás, Béla; Herold, Róbert
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities. Taking into consideration the symptoms enlisted in the diagnostic system of DSM-5, it is the task of experts of cultural anthropology, psychology, psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience to explore the referring ways of personality development, relationships and of conflict management. Notwithstanding, avoiding the psychopathological terminology, rather pointing at population characteristics, we need to identify personal functionings of the general features of perception, cognition and world views, which in the long run, may modify personal developmental possibilities, individual approaches to information technology, and emotional, family or professional motivations. Based on the respective literature and clinical experience, below we intend to explore the different aspects of schizotypy, which contribute to the formation of schizoid personality disorder. We analyze the interrelations of avoiding relationships and empathy toward relationship building.
Robert J. Thoma
Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetries (FA and minor physical anomalies (MPAs are markers of developmental instability (DI, an index of the degree to which an organism was subject to genomic or environmental stress during development. Measures of DI are characteristic of schizophrenia and are thought to reflect an underlying genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Whereas MPAs reflect developmental stress relatively early in the first trimester in utero, skeletal FAs reflect developmental stress throughout the lifespan. Both measures were collected to provide some indication of the associated developmental time course. In addition to DI measures, several psychometric measures of schizotypy were administered in a sample of university students (n = 81. It was hypothesized that increased DI may relate to schizotypal symptoms in a group of healthy undergraduate students. Schizotypy scores were positively correlated with FA, but not MPAs. This finding suggests that DI, as indexed by FA, is important for normal range variation in schizotypal characteristics, just as it is important for normal range variation in intelligence. Second, considered in the context of studies demonstrating that schizophrenia is associated with elevated MPAs, these results suggest that developmental stress likely occurs earlier in development for schizophrenia than schizotypy.
Evans, Kerry; Spiby, Helen; Morrell, C Jane
To report a systematic review of the psychometric properties of self-report instruments to identify the symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy to help clinicians and researchers select the most suitable instrument. Excessive anxiety in pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, developmental and behavioural problems in infants and postnatal depression. Despite recommendations for routine psychological assessment in pregnancy, the optimal methods to identify anxiety in pregnancy have not been confirmed. Psychometric systematic review. A systematic literature search of the multiple databases (1990-September 2014). Identification of self-report instruments to measure anxiety in pregnancy using COSMIN guidelines to assess studies reporting a psychometric evaluation of validity and reliability. Thirty-two studies were included. Studies took place in the UK, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Italy, Scandinavia, Spain and the Netherlands. Seventeen different instruments were identified. Measures of validity were reported in 19 papers and reliability in 16. The overall quality of the papers was rated as fair to excellent using the COSMIN checklist. Only one paper scored excellent in more than one category. Many instruments have been adapted for use in different populations to those for which they were designed. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale have been tested more frequently than other instruments, yet require further assessment to confirm their value for use in pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sim, Julius; Machin, Linda; Bartlam, Bernadette
Grief is a reaction to a significant loss that can profoundly affect all aspects of life and capacity to function well. The consequences can vary from severe psychological distress through to physical disturbances and significant social problems. This study sought to identify a measure of vulnerability in grief, by examining the psychometric properties of the Adult Attitude to Grief (AAG) scale in a sample of 168 people seeking help in their bereavement. The factor structure of the scale, its internal consistency, its construct validity and optimum classification cutoffs were tested. Confirmatory factor analysis broadly supported the factor structure of the AAG, but identified one item that could profitably be reworded. Internal consistency of the three subscales was acceptable. Construct validity and discriminative validity were supported by correlations with allied constructs (depression and anxiety) and a significant difference between scores for clients with Prolonged Grief Disorder and those without. A correlation with counsellors' own clinical ratings of vulnerability demonstrated criterion-related validity of the AAG. Using receiver operating characteristic methods, optimum cutoff scores on the scale were identified for the classification of different levels of vulnerability. The AAG was found to be a psychometrically promising tool for identifying vulnerability in grief.
Bolinskey, P Kevin; James, Alison V; Cooper-Bolinskey, Dianna; Novi, Jonathan H; Hunter, Helen K; Hudak, Daniel V; Schuder, Kelly M; Myers, Kevin R; Iati, Carina A; Lenzenweger, Mark F
Certain Personality Disorders (PDs) have been found to be present in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia at a higher rate than other personality disorders. Although schizotypal, paranoid, and schizoid PDs are traditionally viewed as spectra for schizophrenia, research suggests that avoidant PD should be included in this group (e.g., Fogelson et al., 2007). The present study examines whether a sample of psychometrically identified schizotypes (SZT) have higher incidence of schizophrenia-spectrum PDs, as well as more symptoms of these PDs, in general, than does a matched comparison (MC) sample. Eighty-five SZT and 78 MC participants were administered the Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (PDI-IV) to assess PD symptoms and diagnoses. Results indicate that the SZT group evidenced significantly more symptoms of avoidant, schizoid, paranoid, and schizotypal PDs than did the MC group. Further, there were significant differences in the incidence of these PDs between the groups.
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25. Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks. The positive schizotypy group did not demonstrate deficits on the above mentioned tasks. However, in contrast to the other groups, the positive schizotypy group showed an unexpected set-size effect on the cued-recall task. Set-size effect, which refers to the finding that words that have smaller networks of associates tend to have a memory advantage, is usually found in associative-cuing, but not cued-recall, tasks. The finding for the positive schizotypy group is consistent with heightened spreading activation and reduced executive control suggested to underlie psychotic symptoms. The findings support a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia, and suggest that positive and negative schizotypy involve differential patterns of cognitive impairment.
Cohen, Alex S; Callaway, Dallas A; Mitchell, Kyle R; Larsen, Jeff T; Strauss, Gregory P
Emotional abnormalities are prominent across the schizophrenia spectrum. To better define these abnormalities, we examined state emotional functions across opposing ends of the spectrum, notably in chronic outpatients with schizophrenia (Study 1) and college students with psychometrically defined schizotypy (Study 2). In line with existing studies, we predicted that individuals with schizophrenia would show unusually co-activated positive and negative emotions while college students with schizotypy would show abnormally low positive and abnormally high negative emotions. Drawing from the affective science literature, we employed continuous emotion ratings in response to a dynamic and evocatively "bittersweet" stimulus. Participants included 27 individuals with schizophrenia, 39 individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy and 26 community and 35 college control participants. Participants continuously rated their state happiness and sadness throughout a six-minute clip from a tragicomic film (i.e., Life is Beautiful). In contrast to expectations as well as the extant literature, there were no state emotional abnormalities noted from either schizophrenia-spectrum group. Of particular note, neither individuals with schizophrenia nor individuals with schizotypy were abnormal in their experience of state negative, positive or coactivated emotions. Conversely, abnormalities in trait emotion were observed in both groups relative to their respective control groups. These results help confirm that the schizophrenia-spectrum is not characterized by deficits in state emotional experience and suggest that sadness is not abnormally co-activated with pleasant emotions. These results are critical for clarifying the "chronometry" of emotional dysfunctions across the schizophrenia-spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The review of the literature suggests that the interpretation of the disruption of latent inhibition within the schizophrenia continuum remains elusive due to a number of methodological and theoretical problems. This thesis adopted a personality-based approach to experimental psychopathology testing alternative interpretations of latent inhibition deficits as a function of psychotic-like features in non-clinical participants. Results from 12 Experiments are discussed in terms of a two-compone...
Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin
There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.
Granger, Kiri T.; Moran, Paula M.; Buckley, Matthew G.; Haselgrove, Mark
Latent inhibition refers to a retardation in learning about a stimulus that has been rendered familiar by non-reinforced preexposure, relative to a non-preexposed stimulus. Latent inhibition has been shown to be inversely correlated with schizotypy, and abnormal in people with schizophrenia, but these findings are inconsistent. One potential contributing factor to this inconsistency is that many tasks that purport to measure latent inhibition are confounded by alternative effects that also re...
Park, Haeme R P; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E
Empirical studies indicate a link between creativity and schizotypal personality traits, where individuals who score highly on schizotypy measures also display greater levels of creative behaviour. However, the exact nature of this relationship is not yet clear, with only a few studies examining this association using neuroimaging methods. In the present study, the neural substrates of creative thinking were assessed with a drawing task paradigm in healthy individuals using fMRI. These regions were then statistically correlated with the participants' level of schizotypy as measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which is a questionnaire consisting of four dimensions. Neural activations associated with the creativity task were observed in bilateral inferior temporal gyri, left insula, left parietal lobule, right angular gyrus, as well as regions in the prefrontal cortex. This widespread pattern of activation suggests that creative thinking utilises multiple neurocognitive networks, with creative production being the result of collaboration between these regions. Furthermore, the correlational analyses found the Unusual Experiences factor of the O-LIFE to be the most common dimension associated with these areas, followed by the Impulsive Nonconformity dimension. These correlations were negative, indicating that individuals who scored the highest in these factors displayed the least amount of activation when performing the creative task. This is in line with the idea that 'less is more' for creativity, where the deactivation of specific cortical areas may facilitate creativity. Thus, these findings contribute to the evidence of a common neural basis between creativity and schizotypy.
Torbet, Georgina; Schulze, Dani; Fiedler, Anna; Reuter, Benedikt
This study explores whether self-disorders occur and can be assessed reliably in a non-clinical sample, and whether the prevalence of these anomalies depends upon the degree of psychometrically defined schizotypy. Participants with either high (n=30) or low (n=20) schizotypy scores were interviewed using a modified version of the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE). The degree to which interviewees experienced self-disorder symptoms was rated by the interviewer and an independent rater. Inter-rater reliability was calculated for each item, domain scores and the total score. For the total, sample most items (=66) showed substantial or perfect agreement (κ>0.61), with a few (=6) showing moderate agreement (κ>0.41). Reliability scores were only slightly lower when just the more homogeneous group of individuals with high Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores were examined. As expected, high SPQ scores were associated with a high level of self-disorders. In sum, the results suggest that self-disorders can be measured reliably in non-clinical samples and are particularly frequent in individuals with pronounced schizotypical traits.
Miller, Geoffrey F; Tal, Ilanit R
Schizophrenia-spectrum risk alleles may persist in the population, despite their reproductive costs in individuals with schizophrenia, through the possible creativity benefits of mild schizotypy in non-psychotic relatives. To assess this creativity-benefit model, we measured creativity (using 6 verbal and 8 drawing tasks), schizotypy, Big Five personality traits, and general intelligence in 225 University of New Mexico students. Multiple regression analyses showed that openness and intelligence, but not schizotypy, predicted reliable observer ratings of verbal and drawing creativity. Thus, the 'madness-creativity' link seems mediated by the personality trait of openness, and standard creativity-benefit models seem unlikely to explain schizophrenia's evolutionary persistence.
Sánchez-Bernardos, María Luisa; Avia, María Dolores
Previous research has found substantial relationships between fantasy proneness and schizotypy in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to examine the connections between these constructs in an adolescent sample. A sample of 511 adolescents filled out a measure of fantasy proneness and a measure of psychotic-like phenomena. The factorial pattern for schizotypal traits in adolescents replicate the earlier documented three-factor structure. Also, the full range of schizotypal features was found to be related to imaginative tendencies tapped by fantasy proneness. Finally, joint analysis of fantasy and schizotypy showed that, in adolescents, fantasy converges with magical ideation and the cognitive-perceptual dimension of schizotypy, but diverges from the interpersonal aspects of schizotypy.
Aims and Objectives The primary aim of the research was to investigate the nature of the relationships between self-compassion, self-esteem and schizotypy using a non-clinical sample. A secondary aim was to investigate the mechanisms which help to explain any relationships found. In utilising a non-clinical sample the study aimed to determine whether relationships exist between the variables prior to the onset of psychosis within a continuum approach to schizotypy. A final objective was to...
Full Text Available Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated. The main aim of this study was to explore whether deficits in cognitive and affective ToM can be found in high trait schizotypy, and to identify in what way these deficits are related to the positive and negative dimensions of schizotypy. The secondary aim was to examine whether these deficits correlate with executive functions. Based on the dimensional view of the schizophrenia spectrum, an extreme-group design was applied to non-clinical volunteers demonstrating high (N = 39 and low (N = 47 trait schizotypy. Affective and cognitive ToM were investigated using the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a sensitive and video-based measurement. Cognitive inhibition was assessed using the Stroop Test, and cognitive flexibility was analyzed using the Trail-Making Test. Agency was measured using a computerized self-agency paradigm. Participants in the high-schizotypy group performed significantly worse in the affective ToM task (d = 0.79, and their overall ToM performance was significantly impaired (d = 0.60. No between-group differences were found with regards to cognitive ToM, executive functions, and self-agency. Cognitive flexibility correlated negatively with positive schizotypy, and contributed to a worse overall and affective ToM. Impaired cognitive inhibition contributed to undermentalizing-type errors. It
Lam, B Y H; Yang, Y; Raine, A; Lee, T M C
Prior studies have established that schizotypal personality traits (schizotypy) were associated with antisocial behavior (crime), but it is unclear what neural factors mediate this relationship. This study assessed the mediating effect that sub-regional prefrontal gray, specifically the orbitofrontal gray matter volume, has on the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Five prefrontal sub-regional (superior, middle, inferior, orbitofrontal and rectal gyral) gray matter volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 90 adults from the community, together with schizotypy and antisocial behavior. Among all five prefrontal sub-regions, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was the major region-of-interest in the present study. Mediation analyses showed that orbitofrontal gray fully mediated the association between schizotypy and antisocial behavior. After having controlled the sex, age, socio-economic statuses, whole brain volumes and substance abuse/dependence of test subjects, the orbitofrontal gray still significantly mediated the effect of schizotypy on antisocial behavior by 53.5%. These findings are the first that document a neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Findings also suggest that functions subserved by the OFC, including impulse control and inhibition, emotion processing and decision-making, may contribute to the above comorbidity.
Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen
There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sample of British poets, visual artists, and other adults. We show that two components of schizotypy are positively correlated with mating success. For one component, this relationship is mediated by creative activity. Results are discussed in terms of the evolution of human creativity and the genesis of schizophrenia.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Additionally, we investigated whether such a relationship would be explained by individual differences in neuroticism, a non-specific measure of negative trait emotionality known to be correlated with schizotypy. METHODS: 106 healthy volunteers (mean age: 25.1, 60% females took part. Post-conflict adjustment was measured in a computer-based version of the Stroop paradigm. Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ and Neuroticism using the NEO-FFI. RESULTS: We found a negative correlation between schizotypy and post-conflict adjustment (r = -.30, p<.01; this relationship remained significant when controlling for effects of neuroticism. Regression analysis revealed that particularly the subscale No Close Friends drove the effect. CONCLUSION: Previous findings of deficits in cognitive control in schizophrenia patients were extended to the subclinical personality expression of the schizophrenia phenotype and found to be specific to schizotypal traits over and above the effects of negative emotionality.
Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Albert, Jacobo; Kessel, Dominique; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Carretié, Luis
Abstract Objectives: Schizotypy relates to rejection sensitivity (anxiety reflecting an expectancy of social exclusion) and neuroticism (excessive evaluation of negative emotions). Positive schizotypy (e.g., perceptual aberrations and odd beliefs) and negative schizotypy (e.g., social and physical anhedonia) could relate to altered attention to rejection because of neuroticism. Methods: Forty-one healthy individuals were assessed on positive and negative schizotypy and neuroticism, and event-related potentials during rejecting, accepting and neutral scenes. Participants were categorised into high, moderate and low neuroticism groups. Using temporo-spatial principal components analyses, P200 (peak latency =290 ms) and P300 amplitudes (peak latency = 390 ms) were measured, reflecting mobilisation of attention and early attention, respectively. Results: Scalp-level and cortical source analysis revealed elevated fronto-parietal N300/P300 amplitude and P200-related dorsal anterior cingulate current density during rejection than acceptance/neutral scenes. Positive schizotypy related inversely to parietal P200 amplitude during rejection. Negative schizotypy related positively to P200 middle occipital current density. Negative schizotypy related positively to parietal P300, where the association was stronger in high and moderate, than low, neuroticism groups. Conclusions: Positive and negative schizotypy relate divergently to attention to rejection. Positive schizotypy attenuates, but negative schizotypy increases rejection-related mobilisation of attention. Negative schizotypy increases early attention to rejection partly due to elevated neuroticism. PMID:26452584
Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Albert, Jacobo; Kessel, Dominique; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Carretié, Luis
Schizotypy relates to rejection sensitivity (anxiety reflecting an expectancy of social exclusion) and neuroticism (excessive evaluation of negative emotions). Positive schizotypy (e.g., perceptual aberrations and odd beliefs) and negative schizotypy (e.g., social and physical anhedonia) could relate to altered attention to rejection because of neuroticism. Forty-one healthy individuals were assessed on positive and negative schizotypy and neuroticism, and event-related potentials during rejecting, accepting and neutral scenes. Participants were categorised into high, moderate and low neuroticism groups. Using temporo-spatial principal components analyses, P200 (peak latency = 290 ms) and P300 amplitudes (peak latency = 390 ms) were measured, reflecting mobilisation of attention and early attention, respectively. Scalp-level and cortical source analysis revealed elevated fronto-parietal N300/P300 amplitude and P200-related dorsal anterior cingulate current density during rejection than acceptance/neutral scenes. Positive schizotypy related inversely to parietal P200 amplitude during rejection. Negative schizotypy related positively to P200 middle occipital current density. Negative schizotypy related positively to parietal P300, where the association was stronger in high and moderate, than low, neuroticism groups. Positive and negative schizotypy relate divergently to attention to rejection. Positive schizotypy attenuates, but negative schizotypy increases rejection-related mobilisation of attention. Negative schizotypy increases early attention to rejection partly due to elevated neuroticism.
Granger, K T; Prados, J; Young, A M J
Deficits in selective attention are seen in positively symptomatic schizophrenia sufferers, and in normal people displaying schizotypal traits. We investigated the relationship between selective attention and schizotypy in undergraduate students, by comparing participants' performance in two models of selective attention, overshadowing and latent inhibition, with psychoticism scores derived from the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE). Using a novel within-subject overshadowing task, we showed that the unusual experiences dimension of schizotypy, but not the other three O-LIFE dimensions, was negatively related to overshadowing score. We also replicated findings that the unusual experiences dimension of schizotypy was negatively related to latent inhibition score. These experiments provide evidence that selective attention is disrupted in normal individuals showing traits relating to positive-like schizophrenic symptoms, and has implications for interpreting selective attention deficits measured in schizophrenia patients.
Badcock, Johanna C; Barkus, Emma; Cohen, Alex S; Bucks, Romola; Badcock, David R
Loneliness is common in youth and associated with a significantly increased risk of psychological disorders. Although loneliness is strongly associated with psychosis, its relationship with psychosis proneness is unclear. Our aim in this paper was to test the hypothesis that loneliness and schizotypal traits, conveying risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, are similar but separate constructs. Pooling data from two non-clinical student samples (N = 551) we modeled the structure of the relationship between loneliness and trait schizotypy. Loneliness was assessed with the University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-3), whilst negative (Social Anhedonia) and positive (Perceptual Aberrations) schizotypal traits were assessed with the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales-Brief (WSS-B). Fit statistics indicated that the best fitting model of UCLA-3 scores comprises three correlated factors (Isolation, Related Connectedness, and Collective Connectedness), consistent with previous reports. Fit statistics for a two factor model of positive and negative schizotypy were excellent. Next, bi-factor analysis was used to model a general psychopatholgy factor (p) across the three loneliness factors and separate negative and positive schizotypy traits. The results showed that all items (except 1) co-loaded on p. However, with the influence of p removed, additional variance remained within separate sub-factors, indicating that loneliness and negative and positive trait schizotypy are distinct and separable constructs. Similarly, once shared variance with p was removed, correlations between sub-factors of loneliness and schizotypal traits were non-significant. These findings have important clinical implications since they suggest that loneliness should not be conflated with the expression of schizotypy. Rather, loneliness needs to be specifically targeted for assessment and treatment in youth at risk for psychosis.
Pickett, Clare; Cassaday, Helen J; Bibby, Peter A
There is evidence for impaired selective learning mechanisms in individuals high in schizotypy. Overshadowing provides a direct test of selective learning based on cue salience and has previously been reported to be impaired in relation to schizotypy scores. The present study tested for overshadowing using food allergy and Lego construction task variants. Both variants used the same number of conditioned stimulus (CS) cues and the same number of learning trials. CS cues were trained in compound pairs or in isolation and overshadowing was subsequently tested on trials followed by negative versus positive outcomes. Participants also completed the O-LIFE to measure schizotypy and BIS-BAS scales to measure reinforcement sensitivity. Learning was demonstrated for both cue variants; however overshadowing emerged only in the Lego variant and only on the trials followed by the negative outcome. Contrary to expectations, there was no evidence for any relationship between overshadowing and O-LIFE scores. However, there was evidence of a positive relationship between overshadowing and BAS-Drive as well as a negative relationship with BIS-Anxiety, for the trials followed by the positive outcome in the food allergy variant. These results suggest that the development of overshadowing depends on cue and reinforcement sensitivity, but not necessarily on schizotypy.
Vollema, MG; Ormel, J
We investigated the reliability of the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R). The original interview (SIS) was developed by Kendler, We revised the SIS, primarily by standardizing the rating procedures. Operational definitions and explicit criteria for rating were given. We introduced
Mohr, Christine; Claridge, Gordon
A long-standing tradition in personality research in psychology, and nowadays increasingly in psychiatry, is that psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning. Moreover, reflecting the multi-dimensionality of schizotypy, some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning while others less so. Here, we explored these possibilities by reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates. This research highlights the existence of healthy people with psychotic-like traits who mainly experience positive schizotypy (but also affective features mapping onto bipolar disorder). These individuals seem to benefit from a healthy way to organize their thoughts and experiences, that is, they employ an adaptive cognitive framework to explain and integrate their unusual experiences. We conclude that, instead of focusing only on the pathological, future studies should explore the behavioral, genetic, imaging, and psychopharmacological correlates that define the healthy expression of psychotic-like traits. Such studies would inform on protective or compensatory mechanisms of psychosis-risk and could usefully inform us on the evolutionary advantages of the psychosis dimension.
Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; Kater, Maartje; Sluis, Anne Fetsje
A number of studies have noted that dissociative symptoms (e.g., feelings of derealization, depersonalization, memory complaints, absorption) overlap with the tendency to report psychotic-like experiences (i.e., schizotypy). The question arises as to what may account for the shared variance between dissociation and schizotypy. The present study investigated whether fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and childhood trauma may jointly explain the dissociation-schizotypy link. To this end, we administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Schizotypal Personality Scale, the Creative Experiences Questionnaire, the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to a sample of undergraduates (N = 185). Fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and childhood trauma together explained substantial part (58%) of the dissociation-schizotypy link. The present study succeeded in explaining a considerate part of the shared variance between dissociation and schizotypy.
Rabin, Shai Joseph; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Avidan, Moran; Rozencwaig, Silvio; Shalev, Hadar; Kravetz, Shlomo
The current study examined a mediation model in which symptoms of schizophrenia and schizotypy traits mediate the positive relations between metacognition and Social Quality of Life (SQoL) among persons with schizophrenia and persons without mental illness. 39 persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and 60 persons without a severe mental illness diagnosis participated in this study. Instruments included the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), the SQoL scale of the QLI-MH, the PANSS scale and the O-LIFE self-report questionnaire that assesses schizotypy traits. Persons with schizophrenia exhibit lower SQoL and metacognitive abilities than persons without mental illness. For persons with schizophrenia, negative symptoms mediate the positive relation between the ability to understand other persons' minds and SQoL. However, although for persons without mental illness, understanding other minds was found to correlate negatively with introvertive anhedonia and SQoL, a mediation model was not confirmed. Understanding of others' minds seems relevant to the SQoL for both samples. In addition, negative symptoms of schizophrenia and introvertive anedonia traits are also related to SQoL among persons with schizophrenia and among persons without mental illness respectively. The lack of support for a mediation model for persons without mental illness is consistent with the theories that claim schizotypy is not a mirror image of schizophrenia and, therefore, may not necessarily lead to schizophrenia. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R
Schizotypy has been linked to suicide risk, but it is not known whether established suicide-related risk factors mediate this relation. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-esteem, and intimate disclosure in peer relationships in the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. This aim was tested in 590 young adults using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. After inclusion of the mediators, interpersonal schizotypy was no longer directly associated with either suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Depression and self-esteem mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation. No variables mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and lifetime suicide attempts, and there were no significant direct relations when mediators were included. Schizotypy appears to be a distal risk factor for suicidal behavior; assessing depressive symptoms and self-esteem may provide more proximal information about suicide risk, and may be targets for mitigating suicide risk in individuals with schizotypy.
Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males from the Buddhist tradition (meditators and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991, a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness. Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe, describing (Describe, acting with awareness (Awareness, non-judging of (Non-judgment and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.
Katie Ann Ragsdale
Full Text Available Existing research has suggested that comorbid psychopathy may explain one trajectory of violent behavior in a subset of individuals with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear which specific traits and symptoms are responsible for this relationship and whether it is limited to clinical and/or forensic categories, or if it reflects a dimensional relationship found in the general population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine differential relationships between specific factors of psychopathy and schizotypy in a nonpsychiatric and nonforensic sample. 212 undergraduate students (50% female completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R. Correlations revealed that the total SPQ score was positively related to the total PPI-R score and the Self-Centered Impulsivity factor, and negatively related to the Fearless Dominance factor. Self-Centered Impulsivity was positively related to all three SPQ factor scores, with the strongest relationship found with the Cognitive-Perceptual factor. In contrast, Fearless Dominance was negatively related to only the Interpersonal and Disorganized factors of the SPQ, with the strongest relationship found with the Interpersonal factor. Findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizotypy and the self-centered impulsivity aspect of psychopathy is not limited to extreme discrete populations, but exists in a more dimensional manner within a nonpsychiatric sample. In addition, it appears that schizotypy is negatively related to the fearless dominance aspect of psychopathy, which appears to be a novel finding. Results provide preliminary findings that may have implications for developing appropriate prediction, assessment, and treatment techniques for violent behavior in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alexander; Castro, Antonio; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth
Social anxiety due to rejection sensitivity (RS) exacerbates psychosis-like experiences in the general population. While reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during social rejection in high schizotypy has suggested self-distancing from rejection, earlier stages of mental processing such as feature encoding could also contribute to psychosis-like experiences. This study aimed to determine the stage of mental processing of social rejection that relates to positive schizotypy. Forty-one healthy participants were assessed for schizotypy and RS. Event-related potential amplitudes (ERPs) were measured at frontal, temporal and parieto-occipital sites and their cortical sources (dACC, temporal pole and lingual gyrus) at early (N100) and late (P300 and late slow wave, LSW) timeframes during rejection, acceptance and neutral scenes. ERPs were compared between social interaction types. Correlations were performed between positive schizotypy (defined as the presence of perceptual aberrations, hallucinatory experiences and magical thinking), RS and ERPs during rejection. Amplitude was greater during rejection than acceptance or neutral conditions at the dACC-P300, parieto-occipital-P300, dACC-LSW and frontal-LSW. RS correlated positively with positive schizotypy. Reduced dACC N100 activity during rejection correlated with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Reduced dACC N100 activity and greater RS independently predicted positive schizotypy. An N100 deficit that indicates reduced feature encoding of rejection scenes increases with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Higher RS shows that a greater tendency to misattribute ambiguous social situations as rejecting also increases with positive schizotypy. These two processes, namely primary bottom-up sensory processing and secondary misattribution of rejection, combine to increase psychosis-like experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The identification of football talent is a critical issue both for clubs and the families of players. However, despite its importance in a sporting, economic and social sense, there appears to be a lack of instruments that can reliably measure talent performance. The aim of this study was to design and validate the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT, with the aim of optimising the processes for identifying said talent. The scale was first validated through expert judgment, and then statistically, by means of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal reliability and convergent validity. The results reveal the presence of three factors in the scale’s factor matrix, with these results being confirmed by the CFA. The scale revealed suitable internal reliability and homogeneity indices. Convergent validity showed that it is teammates who are best able to identify football talent, followed by coaches and parents. It can be concluded that the NSIFT is suitable for use in the football world. Future studies should seek to confirm these results in different contexts by means of further CFAs.
Deptula, Andrew E; Bedwell, Jeffrey S
Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit a range of cognitive impairments, including tasks assessing theory of mind (ToM) and autobiographical memory (AM). This study appears to be the first to examine how ToM and AM abilities interact in relation to schizotypy. Forty-seven undergraduate students reporting a wide continuous range of scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) completed a measure of ToM and a measure assessing various phenomenological qualities of AM. Female participants exhibited a negative correlation between the ToM score and the SPQ total score and a positive correlation between enhanced phenomenological qualities of AM and the SPQ disorganized factor score. No statistically significant relationships were found for male participants. ToM was negatively correlated with AM across the entire sample, which was not moderated by sex or schizotypy. It is possible that distinct underlying mechanisms account for the observed sex differences on ToM and AM performance in schizophrenia-related conditions.
Marco Del Giudice
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder marked by an evolutionarily puzzling combination of high heritability, reduced reproductive success, and a remarkably stable prevalence. Recently, it has been proposed that sexual selection may be crucially involved in the evolution of schizophrenia. In the sexual selection model (SSM of schizophrenia and schizotypy, schizophrenia represents the negative extreme of a sexually selected indicator of genetic fitness and condition. Schizotypal personality traits are hypothesized to increase the sensitivity of the fitness indicator, thus conferring mating advantages on high-fitness individuals but increasing the risk of schizophrenia in low-fitness individuals; the advantages of successful schzotypy would be mediated by enhanced courtship-related traits such as verbal creativity. Thus, schizotypy-increasing alleles would be maintained by sexual selection, and could be selectively neutral or even beneficial, at least in some populations. However, most empirical studies find that the reduction in fertility experienced by schizophrenic patients is not compensated for by increased fertility in their unaffected relatives. This finding has been interpreted as indicating strong negative selection on schizotypy-increasing alleles, and providing evidence against sexual selection on schizotypy. METHODOLOGY: A simple mathematical model is presented, showing that reduced fertility in the families of schizophrenic patients can coexist with selective neutrality of schizotypy-increasing alleles, or even with positive selection on schizotypy in the general population. If the SSM is correct, studies of patients' families can be expected to underestimate the true fertility associated with schizotypy. SIGNIFICANCE: This paper formally demonstrates that reduced fertility in the families of schizophrenic patients does not constitute evidence against sexual selection on schizotypy-increasing alleles. Futhermore, it suggests
M. Carmen Aguilera Ruíz
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Inconsistencies in the relationship between schizotypy dimensions and neurocognitive functions found in correlational studies may be clarified with the use of alternative methodological approaches. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of different profiles of schizotypal traits and their neurocognitIve correlates in non-clinical subjects by means of cluster analysis. Methods: We examined seventy six healthy adults from the general population with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery and a schizotypal personality self-report. Results: Four neurocognitive factors were extracted: visuospatial, semantic evocation, verbal memory, and set-shifting. A three cluster model yielded the following clusters: "lowschizotypy", "positive schizotypy", and "negative/disorganized schizotypy". The positive and negative/disorganized schizotypy clusters showed poorer performance on semantic evocation compared with the low schizotypy cluster. Conclusions: We found different patterns of specific schizotypy features in a healthy adult community sample and these clusters presented differential performance in relation with the ability to evoke semantic information.
Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Chen, Wei J; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Hsiao, Po-Chang
Mixed-handedness, which has been associated with schizotypy in recent studies, might exist for at least two different reasons: it is innate or it has been forced. We examined whether the association between mixed-handedness and schizotypy differs depending on its source. We enrolled 3485 college students in Taiwan. We used both the Perceptual Aberration Scale and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess schizotypy, and the Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire to assess handedness. Two ways of classifying handedness were examined: the three-way classification based on Annett's categories and mixed- vs. non-mixed-handedness based on Degree of Handedness. Both mixed-handedness groups showed higher positive schizotypy scores. Among mixed handers, those who had been required to change their writing hand from left to right had higher positive schizotypy scores. Being forced to change writing hand seemed to be related to a higher level of schizotypy. The potential effect of the social pressure against using the left hand for writing is discussed.
Leslie E Horton
Full Text Available Paranoia is a dimension of clinical and subclinical experiences in which others are believed to have harmful intentions. Mild paranoid concerns are relatively common in the general population, and more clinically severe paranoia shares features with social anxiety and is a key characteristic of schizotypy. Given that subclinical manifestations of schizotypy and paranoia may predict the occurrence of more severe symptoms, disentangling the associations of these related constructs may advance our understanding of their etiology; however no known studies to date have comprehensively evaluated how paranoia relates to social anxiety and schizotypy. The current research sought to examine the association of paranoia, assessed across a broad continuum of severity, with 1 the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions and 2 social anxiety. Specifically, the study tested a series of six competing, a priori models using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 862 young adults. As hypothesized, the data supported a four-factor model including positive schizotypy, negative schizotypy, social anxiety, and paranoia factors, suggesting that these are distinct constructs with differing patterns of interrelationships. Paranoia had a strong association with positive schizotypy, a moderate association with social anxiety, and a minimal association with negative schizotypy. The results are consistent with paranoia being part of a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia. Prior studies treating schizotypy and schizophrenia as homogenous constructs often produce equivocal or non-replicable results because these dimensions are associated with distinct etiologies, presentations, and treatment responses; thus, the present conceptualization of paranoia within a multidimensional schizotypy framework should advance our understanding of these constructs.
Horton, Leslie E.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Silvia, Paul J.; Kwapil, Thomas R.
Paranoia is a dimension of clinical and subclinical experiences in which others are believed to have harmful intentions. Mild paranoid concerns are relatively common in the general population, and more clinically severe paranoia shares features with social anxiety and is a key characteristic of schizotypy. Given that subclinical manifestations of schizotypy and paranoia may predict the occurrence of more severe symptoms, disentangling the associations of these related constructs may advance our understanding of their etiology; however no known studies to date have comprehensively evaluated how paranoia relates to social anxiety and schizotypy. The current research sought to examine the association of paranoia, assessed across a broad continuum of severity, with 1) the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions and 2) social anxiety. Specifically, the study tested a series of six competing, a priori models using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 862 young adults. As hypothesized, the data supported a four-factor model including positive schizotypy, negative schizotypy, social anxiety, and paranoia factors, suggesting that these are distinct constructs with differing patterns of interrelationships. Paranoia had a strong association with positive schizotypy, a moderate association with social anxiety, and a minimal association with negative schizotypy. The results are consistent with paranoia being part of a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia. Prior studies treating schizotypy and schizophrenia as homogenous constructs often produce equivocal or non-replicable results because these dimensions are associated with distinct etiologies, presentations, and treatment responses; thus, the present conceptualization of paranoia within a multidimensional schizotypy framework should advance our understanding of these constructs. PMID:24914672
Rominger, Christian; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Bosch, Jannis; Papousek, Ilona
Positive schizotypy and creativity seem to be linked. However, the question still remains why they are related, and what may make the difference? As creative ideation is hypothesised as a dual process (association and inhibition), the propensity for remote associations might be a shared mechanism. However, positive schizotypy and creative thinking might be differentially linked to inhibition. Therefore, this study investigated a potentially overlapping feature of positive schizotypy and creativity (remote associations) as well as a potential dissociative factor (auditory inhibition). From a large screening sample, 46 participants covering a broad range of positive schizotypy were selected. Association proneness was assessed via two association tasks, auditory inhibition skill with the forced-left condition of the Dichotic Listening Test, and creative thinking by means of two creative ideation tests. Positive schizotypy and creative thinking were positively associated. Both traits were linked to lower rates of common associations. However, creative thinking was associated with higher and positive schizotypy with lower inhibitory control in the auditory domain. While creativity and positive schizotypy shared some variance (related to remote associations), profound inhibition skills may be vital for creative performance and may coincide with lower levels of positive schizotypy.
LeBoutillier, Nicholas; Barry, Richard; Westley, David
There are many anecdotal reports of a link between psychopathology and creativity. The strongest links have been purported between creativity psychosis, schizotypy, and personality. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between schizotypy and imagery-based measures of creativity; Barron's (1988) Symbolic Equivalence Test and Finke's…
LeBoutillier, Nicholas; Barry, Richard; Westley, David
There are many anecdotal reports of a link between psychopathology and creativity. The strongest links have been purported between creativity psychosis, schizotypy, and personality. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between schizotypy and imagery-based measures of creativity; Barron's (1988) Symbolic Equivalence Test and Finke's…
Harvey P. Jones
Full Text Available Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228 was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.
Jones, Harvey P; Testa, Renee R; Ross, Nola; Seal, Marc L; Pantelis, Christos; Tonge, Bruce
Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK)) and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing) and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228) was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.
Jang, Kerry L; Woodward, Todd S; Lang, Donna; Honer, William G; Livesley, W John
The clinical phenotype commonly referred to as schizotypy is used in two different ways in psychiatric practice. One usage emphasizes psychosis-proneness where schizotypy is considered part of the schizophrenia spectrum. The other emphasizes personality aberrations and is classed as a personality disorder. The present study provides evidence that schizotypy is a unitary construct and that features like schizophrenia and personality share a common genetic basis. A sample of 102 monozygotic and 90 dizygotic general population twin pairs completed measures of psychosis-proneness and traits delineating personality disorder. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that the observed relationship between psychotic and personality features is caused almost entirely by common genetic factors. Environmental factors appear to be unique to each measure. On the basis of these findings, it is suggested that the environment mediates change in personality function to psychosis as proposed by Meehl's original concept of schizotaxia.
Kane, Michael J; Meier, Matt E; Smeekens, Bridget A; Gross, Georgina M; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Kwapil, Thomas R
A large correlational study took a latent-variable approach to the generality of executive control by testing the individual-differences structure of executive-attention capabilities and assessing their prediction of schizotypy, a multidimensional construct (with negative, positive, disorganized, and paranoid factors) conveying risk for schizophrenia. Although schizophrenia is convincingly linked to executive deficits, the schizotypy literature is equivocal. Subjects completed tasks of working memory capacity (WMC), attention restraint (inhibiting prepotent responses), and attention constraint (focusing visual attention amid distractors), the latter 2 in an effort to fractionate the "inhibition" construct. We also assessed mind-wandering propensity (via in-task thought probes) and coefficient of variation in response times (RT CoV) from several tasks as more novel indices of executive attention. WMC, attention restraint, attention constraint, mind wandering, and RT CoV were correlated but separable constructs, indicating some distinctions among "attention control" abilities; WMC correlated more strongly with attentional restraint than constraint, and mind wandering correlated more strongly with attentional restraint, attentional constraint, and RT CoV than with WMC. Across structural models, no executive construct predicted negative schizotypy and only mind wandering and RT CoV consistently (but modestly) predicted positive, disorganized, and paranoid schizotypy; stalwart executive constructs in the schizophrenia literature-WMC and attention restraint-showed little to no predictive power, beyond restraint's prediction of paranoia. Either executive deficits are consequences rather than risk factors for schizophrenia, or executive failures barely precede or precipitate diagnosable schizophrenia symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record
Fuggetta, Giorgio; Bennett, Matthew A; Duke, Philip A
A theoretical framework has been put forward to understand attention deficits in schizophrenia (Luck SJ & Gold JM. Biological Psychiatry. 2008; 64:34-39). We adopted this framework to evaluate any deficits in attentional processes in schizotypy. Sixteen low schizotypal (LoS) and 16 high schizotypal (HiS) individuals performed a novel paradigm combining a match-to-sample task, with inhibition of return (using spatially uninformative cues) and memory-guided efficient visual-search within one trial sequence. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behaviourally, HiS individuals exhibited a spatial cueing effect while LoS individuals showed the more typical inhibition of return effect. These results suggest HiS individuals have a relative deficit in rule selection - the endogenous control process involved in disengaging attention from the uninformative location cue. ERP results showed that the late-phase of N2pc evoked by the target stimulus had greater peak latency and amplitude in HiS individuals. This suggests a relative deficit in the implementation of selection - the process of focusing attention onto target features that enhances relevant/suppresses irrelevant inputs. This is a different conclusion than when the same theoretical framework has been applied to schizophrenia, which argues little or no deficit in implementation of selection amongst patients. Also, HiS individuals exhibited earlier onset and greater amplitude of the mismatch-triggered negativity component. In summary, our results indicate deficits of both control and implementation of selection in HiS individuals.
The author examined the associations among sleep-related experiences (e.g., hypnagogic hallucinations, nightmares, waking dreams, and lucid dreams), dissociation, schizotypy, and the Big Five personality traits in 2 large student samples. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that (a) dissociation and schizotypy are strongly correlated-yet distinguishable-constructs, and (b) the differentiation between them can be enhanced by eliminating detachment/depersonalization items from the dissociation scales. A general measure of sleep experiences was substantially correlated with both schizotypy and dissociation (especially the latter) and more weakly related to the Big Five. In contrast, an index of lucid dreaming was weakly related to all of these other scales. These results suggest that measures of dissociation, schizotypy, and sleep-related experiences all define a common domain characterized by unusual cognitions and perceptions.
Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai
The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, <0.01) and "participation in social events" (z = -6.04, p < 0.01) than frail older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, <0.01) and "participation in social events" (z = -4.03, p < 0.01) than older people from day-care centres. The
Callaway, Dallas A; Cohen, Alex S; Matthews, Russell A; Dinzeo, Thomas
The psychometric screening and detection of schizotypy through the use of concise self-report assessment instruments such as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR; Cohen, Matthews, Najolia, & Brown, 2010) enables an expeditious identification of individuals at putatively elevated risk to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Using 2 large, culturally diverse, independent samples, this study expanded the psychometric evaluation of this instrument by presenting a series of confirmatory factor analyses; reviewing internal consistency reliabilities; and evaluating the construct validity of the scale by way of examining group differences in SPQ-BR scores between individuals with and without self-reported family histories of schizophrenia. The results indicate a 2-tier factor solution of the measure and indicate strong internal reliability for the scale. Findings regarding construct validity of the SPQ-BR are more variable with the Cognitive-Perceptual Deficits superordinate factor receiving the strongest evidentiary support. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While association studies on schizophrenia show conflicting results regarding the importance of the regulator of the G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4 gene, recent work suggests that RGS4 may impact on the structural and functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex. We aimed to study associations of common RGS4 variants with prefrontal dependent cognitive performance and schizotypy endophenotypes at the population level. Methods Four RGS4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP1 [rs10917670], SNP4 [rs951436], SNP7 [rs951439], and SNP18 [rs2661319] and their haplotypes were selected. Their associations with self-rated schizotypy (SPQ, vigilance, verbal, spatial working memory and antisaccade eye performance were tested with regressions in a representative population of 2,243 young male military conscripts. Results SNP4 was associated with negative schizotypy (higher SPQ negative factor for common T allele, p = 0.009; p = 0.031 for differences across genotypes and a similar trend was seen also for common A allele of SNP18 (p = 0.039 for allele-load model; but p = 0.12 for genotype differences. Haplotype analyses showed a similar pattern with a dose-response for the most common haplotype (GGGG on the negative schizotypy score with or without adjustment for age, IQ and their interaction (p = 0.011 and p = 0.024, respectively. There was no clear evidence for any association of the RGS4 variants with cognitive endophenotypes, except for an isolated effect of SNP18 on antisaccade error rate (p = 0.028 for allele-load model. Conclusion Common RGS4 variants were associated with negative schizotypal personality traits amongst a large cohort of young healthy individuals. In accordance with recent findings, this may suggest that RGS4 variants impact on the functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex, thus increasing susceptibility for psychotic spectrum disorders.
Stefanis, Nicholas C; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyrnis, Nikos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Hatzimanolis, Alex; Ioannidis, John Pa; Stefanis, Costas N
While association studies on schizophrenia show conflicting results regarding the importance of the regulator of the G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) gene, recent work suggests that RGS4 may impact on the structural and functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex. We aimed to study associations of common RGS4 variants with prefrontal dependent cognitive performance and schizotypy endophenotypes at the population level. Four RGS4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP1 [rs10917670], SNP4 [rs951436], SNP7 [rs951439], and SNP18 [rs2661319]) and their haplotypes were selected. Their associations with self-rated schizotypy (SPQ), vigilance, verbal, spatial working memory and antisaccade eye performance were tested with regressions in a representative population of 2,243 young male military conscripts. SNP4 was associated with negative schizotypy (higher SPQ negative factor for common T allele, p = 0.009; p = 0.031 for differences across genotypes) and a similar trend was seen also for common A allele of SNP18 (p = 0.039 for allele-load model; but p = 0.12 for genotype differences). Haplotype analyses showed a similar pattern with a dose-response for the most common haplotype (GGGG) on the negative schizotypy score with or without adjustment for age, IQ and their interaction (p = 0.011 and p = 0.024, respectively). There was no clear evidence for any association of the RGS4 variants with cognitive endophenotypes, except for an isolated effect of SNP18 on antisaccade error rate (p = 0.028 for allele-load model). Common RGS4 variants were associated with negative schizotypal personality traits amongst a large cohort of young healthy individuals. In accordance with recent findings, this may suggest that RGS4 variants impact on the functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex, thus increasing susceptibility for psychotic spectrum disorders.
Berry, Katherine; Band, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison
This paper investigates associations between adult attachment style, relationships with significant others during childhood, traumatic life-events and schizotypy. Relationships between attachment and hypothesized correlates were investigated in a cross-sectional design using an analogue sample. The reliability of the attachment and trauma measures was investigated using a test-retest design. Three hundred and four students completed the self-report version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), maternal and paternal versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Attachment History Questionnaire, a measure of trauma and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences scale through an internet website. As predicted, there were statistically significant associations between insecure attachment in adult relationships and experiences of negative interpersonal events. Both earlier interpersonal experiences and adult attachment style predicted schizotypy, and adult attachment style emerged as an independent predictor of positive schizotypal characteristics. The findings support associations between adult attachment style and previous interpersonal experiences and between adult attachment and schizotypy. The PAM is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to explore attachment styles in analogue samples and associations between attachment styles and psychotic symptoms in clinical samples.
Full Text Available Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9 from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic strips functional imaging task that specifically examined both empathy and ToM. In addition, they completed two self-report scales: the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scale and the Interpersonal Responsivity Index (IRI. Results showed that both empathy and ToM conditions of the task were associated with brain activity in the middle temporal gyrus, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, the precuneus, and the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, we found positive correlations between negative schizotypy and brain activity in regions involved in social cognition, namely, the middle temporal gyrus, the TPJ, as well as the medial prefrontal gyrus. These findings highlight that different dimensions of schizotypy may show different associations with brain regions involved in social cognitive abilities. More importantly, the positive correlation between brain activity and anhedonia suggests the presence of compensatory mechanisms in high-risk populations.
Full Text Available Hallucinatory experiences are by far not limited to patients with clinical psychosis. A number of internal and external factors may bring about such experiences in healthy individuals, whereby the personality trait of (positive schizotypy is a major mediator of individual differences. Psychotic experiences are defined as associating abnormal meaning to real but objectively irrelevant perceptions. Especially the ambiguity of a stimulus correlates positively with the likelihood of abnormal interpretation, and intelligence is believed to have an important influence and act as protective against clinical psychosis in highly schizotypic individuals.In this study we presented 131 healthy participants with 216 15-letter strings containing either a word, a non-word or only random letters and asked them to report, whether or not they believed to have seen a word. The aim was to replicate findings that participants with high values in positive schizotypy on the trait-level make more false-positive errors and assess the role of stimulus-ambiguity and verbal intelligence. Additionally, we wanted to examine whether the same effect could be shown for indices of state schizotypy.Our results support findings that both state and trait positive schizotypy explain significant variance in seeing things that are not there and that the properties of individual stimuli have additional strong effects on the false-positive hit rates. Finally, we found that verbal intelligence and positive schizotypy interact with stimulus-ambiguity in the production of false-positive perceptions.
Rominger, Christian; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M
Creativity is an important trait necessary to achieve innovations in science, economy, arts and daily life. Therefore, the enhancement of creative performance is a significant field of investigation. A recent experiment showed enhanced verbal creativity after unilateral left-hand contractions, which was attributed to elevated activation of the right hemisphere. The present study aimed to extend these findings to the domain of figural creativity. Furthermore, as creativity and positive schizotypy may share some neurobiological underpinnings associated with the right hemisphere, we studied the potential moderating effect of positive schizotypy on the effects of the experimental modification of relative hemispheric activation on creativity. In a gender-balanced sample (20 men and 20 women), squeezing a hand gripper with the left hand enhanced figural creativity on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking compared to squeezing the gripper with the right hand. However, this was only true when positive schizotypy was low. The moderating effect of schizotypy may be produced by relatively greater activity of certain parts of the right hemisphere being a shared neuronal correlate of creativity and positive schizotypy.
Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control
Brown, Corina E.
This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…
Dijkstra, Ate; Muszalik, Marta; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Kornatowski, Tomasz
The importance of this study lies in the availability of psychometrically sound assessment instruments, which are of critical importance for the study of patient's care dependency and the provision of care to these patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Ca
The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…
Fox, G.J.A.; Berg, van den S.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.
In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item resp
Fox, Gerardus J.A.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.
In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item
Torti, Maria Chiara; Buzzanca, Antonino; Squarcione, Chiara; Salerno, Carla; Mirigliani, Alessia; Di Fabio, Fabio; Biondi, Massimo
Schizotypy, or the set of personality traits related to schizophrenia, is considered an endophenotypic manifestation that is more represented in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia than in the general population. The assessment of schizotypy is primarily based on self-reports, and for this reason it presents several limitations. In order to assess schizotypy, this study proposes a diagnostic instrument based on clinical reports. A sample of 66 subjects, composed of 25 outpatients with schizophrenia, 18 siblings of these patients and 23 healthy controls, was subjected to the personality assessment test SWAP-200 by trained clinical interviewers. To test the hypothesis of the difference between the profiles of the Personality Disorders within the schizophrenia spectrum, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance and subsequent planned comparisons were conducted. Patients with schizophrenia scored higher than both their siblings and the controls on all SWAP-200 scales; their siblings, compared to the healthy controls, showed significant statistical differences, with higher mean scores for paranoid (F(1,63) = 7.02; p = 0.01), schizoid (F(1,63) = 6.56; p = 0.013) and schizotypal (F(1,63) = 6.47; p = 0.013) traits (PD T scores of Cluster A and Q-factor scores for the schizoid scale [F(1,63) = 6.47; p = 0.013]). Consistent with previous data, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored higher on schizophrenia-related personality traits than a general population comparison sample. SWAP-200, as an alternative diagnostic instrument to self-report measures, is able to reveal the higher prevalence of schizotypal traits in siblings of patients with schizophrenia, suggesting its possible use as a complementary instrument for the assessment of schizophrenia.
Natalie L Dinsdale
Full Text Available Both autism spectrum conditions (ASCs and schizophrenia spectrum conditions (SSCs involve altered or impaired social and communicative functioning, but whether these shared features indicate overlapping or different etiological factors is unknown. We outline three hypotheses (overlapping, independent, and diametric for the possible relationship between ASCs and SSCs, and compare their predictions for the expected relationships between autistic and schizotypal phenotypes using the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised from a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate students. Consistent with previous research, autistic features were positively associated with several schizotypal features, with the most overlap occurring between interpersonal schizotypy and autistic social and communication phenotypes. The first component of a principal components analysis (PCA of subscale scores reflected these positive correlations, and suggested the presence of an axis (PC1 representing general social interest and aptitude. By contrast, the second principal component (PC2 exhibited a pattern of positive and negative loadings indicative of an axis from autism to positive schizotypy, such that positive schizotypal features loaded in the opposite direction to core autistic features. These overall PCA patterns were replicated in a second data set from a Japanese population. To evaluate the validity of our interpretation of the PCA results, we measured handedness and mental rotation ability, as these are established correlates of SSCs and ASCs, respectively. PC2 scores were significantly associated with hand preference, such that increasingly 'schizotypal' scores predicted reduced strength of handedness, which is consistent with previous research. PC1 scores were positively related to performance on the mental rotation task, suggesting trade-offs between social skills and visual-spatial ability. These results provide
Koychev, I; Joyce, D; Barkus, E; Ettinger, U; Schmechtig, A; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Craig, K J; Deakin, J F W
The development of drugs to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia is a major unmet clinical need. A number of promising compounds failed in recent clinical trials, a pattern linked to poor translation between preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. Seeking proof of efficacy in early Phase 1 studies in surrogate patient populations (for example, high schizotypy individuals where subtle cognitive impairment is present) has been suggested as a strategy to reduce attrition in the later stages of drug development. However, there is little agreement regarding the pattern of distribution of schizotypal features in the general population, creating uncertainty regarding the optimal control group that should be included in prospective trials. We aimed to address this question by comparing the performance of groups derived from the general population with low, average and high schizotypy scores over a range of cognitive and oculomotor tasks. We found that tasks dependent on frontal inhibitory mechanisms (N-Back working memory and anti-saccade oculomotor tasks), as well as a smooth-pursuit oculomotor task were sensitive to differences in the schizotypy phenotype. In these tasks the cognitive performance of 'low schizotypes' was significantly different from 'high schizotypes' with 'average schizotypes' having an intermediate performance. These results indicate that for evaluating putative cognition enhancers for treating schizophrenia in early-drug development studies the maximum schizotypy effect would be achieved using a design that compares low and high schizotypes.
Cochrane, Mary; Petch, Ian; Pickering, Alan D
This research consisted of two studies, the fundamental aim of which was to delineate the pattern of relationships between measures of cognitive task performance and both symptom subtypes in schizophrenia and their corresponding schizotypal personality traits in healthy individuals. Study 1 compared these relationships in healthy individuals using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and Study 2 assessed the relationships between symptomatology assessed using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and cognitive task performance in a group of patients with schizophrenia. The contribution of fluid intelligence to task performance was also examined. In Study 1 high levels of negative schizotypy were associated with reduced verbal fluency, and high levels of disorganised schizotypy were associated with reduced negative priming in the healthy participants. In Study 2, closely corresponding relationships between symptom measures and these tasks were found in the patients with schizophrenia. The associations between the symptom and cognitive measures were independent of the effects of fluid IQ on performance.
Full Text Available There seems to be similarities between schizotypal personality and paranormal experiences, in fact, some of the symptoms of PTSD in DSM- match a number of anomalous/paranormal experiences. Positive schizotypy, including magical thinking, hallucinations and other unusual perceptual experiences, has also been associated with paranormal experiences and beliefs. However, paranormal experiences differ from psychotic experiences in nonclinical populations. In order to establish differences between positive and negative symptoms of schizotypy, we compared a group of believers in the paranormal (N= 121 and a sample of undergraduate students (N= 588. The hypothesis that believers would have higher scores in Schizotypy positive symptoms was confirmed. There was a significant difference in positive symptoms of schizotypy among the group of students with and no experiences, although not significant for negative symptoms
In this paper, some psychometric models will be presented that belong to the larger class oflatent response models (LRMs). First, LRMs are introduced by means of an application in the field ofcomponential item response theory (Embretson, 1980, 1984). Second, a general definition of LRMs (not specifi
Raballo, Andrea; Parnas, Josef
members of 6 extended multiplex families (assessed between 1989 and 1999 during the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Linkage Study) were stratified into 4 groups of increasing psychopathological expressivity: no mental illness (NMI), no mental illness with schizotypal traits (NMI-ST), personality disorders...... not fulfilling other personality disorders (OPDs), and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). We tested the distribution of SDs among the subgroups, the effect of SDs on the risk of belonging to the different subgroups, and the effect of experimental grouping and concomitant psychopathology (ie, negative...... the delineation of informative vulnerability phenotypes. Inspired by Meehl's schizotaxia-schizotypy heuristic model, we tested anomalous subjective experiences (self-disorders, SDs) as a candidate vulnerability phenotype in a sample of nonpsychotic, genetically high-risk subjects. A total of 218 unaffected...
Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas
Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations.
Kaplan, Oren; Lubow, Robert E
Latent inhibition (LI), poor evidence of learning following preexposure to a task-irrelevant stimulus, reflects the ability to ignore inconsequential events. Stroop interference represents a failure to inhibit processing of a task-irrelevant word when it is incongruent with the required naming of the word's print color. The apparent commonality between the two effects is in contradiction to the literature, which indicates that LI is affected by schizotypy and schizophrenia, and perhaps gender, while Stroop interference generated by the trial-to-trial procedure is unaltered by those variables. In the present experiment, low schizotypal healthy males, but not females, exhibited LI. The same groups did not differ on Stroop interference. The results are discussed in terms of different processing requirements for task-irrelevant stimuli that are an integral part of the task-relevant target stimulus (as in Stroop) or separated from it in space (as in LI).
Agnieszka eJanik McErlean
Full Text Available Synaesthesia is a condition in which one property of a stimulus triggers a secondary experience not typically associated with the first (e.g. seeing achromatic graphemes can evoke the perception of colour. Recent work has explored a variety of cognitive and perceptual traits associated with synaesthesia. One example is in the domain of personality, where higher rates of positive schizotypy, agreeableness, and openness to experience have been reported in synaesthetes that experience colour as their evoked sensation relative to typical adult controls. Additionally, grapheme-colour synaesthetes have previously been reported to show elevated mental imagery compared to typical adults. Here, we aimed to further elucidate the relationship between personality, synaesthesia, and other cognitive traits. In Study 1, we examined self-reported schizotypy and self-reported visual imagery vividness in grapheme-colour synaesthetes and typical adults. Our results partially replicated previous findings by showing that synaesthesia was associated with greater positive schizotypy and enhanced self-reported imagery vividness. The results also extend previous reports by demonstrating that differences in positive schizotypy and mental imagery vividness are not related in grapheme-colour synaesthesia. In Study 2, we sought to build on prior work showing lower agreeableness and increased openness to experience in synaesthetes by examining whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with other conceptually related traits; namely lower self-monitoring and increased sensation seeking. We did not find any differences between synaesthetes and controls on either of these traits. These findings are discussed in relation to potential factors that may contribute to the observed personality profile in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.
Janik McErlean, Agnieszka B; Banissy, Michael J
Synaesthesia is a condition in which one property of a stimulus triggers a secondary experience not typically associated with the first (e.g., seeing achromatic graphemes can evoke the perception of color). Recent work has explored a variety of cognitive and perceptual traits associated with synaesthesia. One example is in the domain of personality, where higher rates of positive schizotypy and openness to experience and lower agreeableness have been reported in synaesthetes who experience color as their evoked sensation relative to typical adult controls. Additionally, grapheme-color synaesthetes have previously been reported to show elevated mental imagery compared to typical adults. Here, we aimed to further elucidate the relationship between personality, synaesthesia, and other cognitive traits. In Study 1, we examined self-reported schizotypy and self-reported visual imagery vividness in grapheme-color synaesthetes and typical adults. Our results partially replicated previous findings by showing that synaesthesia was associated with greater positive schizotypy and enhanced self-reported imagery vividness. The results also extend previous reports by demonstrating that differences in positive schizotypy and mental imagery vividness are not related in grapheme-color synaesthesia. In Study 2, we sought to build on prior work showing lower agreeableness and increased openness to experience in synaesthetes by examining whether grapheme-color synaesthesia is associated with other conceptually related traits; namely lower self-monitoring and increased sensation seeking. We did not find any differences between synaesthetes and controls on either of these traits. These findings are discussed in relation to potential factors that may contribute to the observed personality profile in grapheme-color synaesthesia.
Koychev, I; D. Joyce; Barkus, E; Ettinger, U; Schmechtig, A; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Craig, K J; Deakin, J.F.W.
The development of drugs to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia is a major unmet clinical need. A number of promising compounds failed in recent clinical trials, a pattern linked to poor translation between preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. Seeking proof of efficacy in early Phase 1 studies in surrogate patient populations (for example, high schizotypy individuals where subtle cognitive impairment is present) has been suggested as a strategy to reduce attrition...
The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory (BAMBI). In a sample of 273 well-characterized children with ASD, we explored the factor structure of the BAMBI, determined the internal consistency of a newly derived factor structure and provide an empirically derived cut-off for the BAMBI total score. The new psychometrically identified structure consists of 4 factors: 1) Food Selectivity, 2) Disruptive Mealtime Behaviors, ...
I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…
I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…
Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F; Harvey, Philip D
Measurement of social cognition in treatment trials remains problematic due to poor and limited psychometric data for many tasks. As part of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, the psychometric properties of 8 tasks were assessed. One hundred and seventy-nine stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and a 2-4-week retest period at 2 sites. Tasks included the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task (BLERT), Penn Emotion Recognition Task (ER-40), Relationships Across Domains (RAD), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (Eyes), The Awareness of Social Inferences Test (TASIT), Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Tasks were evaluated on: (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) utility as a repeated measure, (iii) relationship to functional outcome, (iv) practicality and tolerability, (v) sensitivity to group differences, and (vi) internal consistency. The BLERT and Hinting task showed the strongest psychometric properties across all evaluation criteria and are recommended for use in clinical trials. The ER-40, Eyes Task, and TASIT showed somewhat weaker psychometric properties and require further study. The AIHQ, RAD, and Trustworthiness Task showed poorer psychometric properties that suggest caution for their use in clinical trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Lenzenweger, Mark F
The concept of schizotypy represents a rich and complex psychopathology construct. Furthermore, the construct implies a theoretical model that has considerable utility as an organizing framework for the study of schizophrenia, schizophrenia-related psychopathology (eg, delusional disorder, psychosis-NOS (not otherwise specified), schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorder), and putative schizophrenia endophenotypes as suggested by Rado, Meehl, Gottesman, Lenzenweger, and others. The understanding (and misunderstanding) of the schizophrenia-related schizotypy model, particularly as regards clinical illness, as well as an alternative approach to the construct require vigilance in order to ensure the methodological approach continues to yield the fruit that it can in illuminating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia-related psychopathology. The articles in the Special Section in this issue of Schizophrenia Bulletin highlight methodological and theoretical issues that should be examined carefully. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yssaad-Fesselier, Rosa; Knoblauch, Kenneth
We demonstrate some procedures in the statistical computing environment R for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of a psychometric function by fitting a generalized nonlinear regression model to the data. A feature for fitting a linear model to the threshold (or other) parameters of several psychometric functions simultaneously provides a powerful tool for testing hypotheses about the data and, potentially, for reducing the number of parameters necessary to describe them. Finally, we illustrate procedures for treating one parameter as a random effect that would permit a simplified approach to modeling stimulus-independent variability due to factors such as lapses or interobserver differences. These tools will facilitate a more comprehensive and explicit approach to the modeling of psychometric data.
Gregory, Virgil L
The purpose of the author in this systematic psychometric review includes: providing social work researchers, educators, and administrators with a summary of descriptive psychometric information pertaining to scales which measure social workers' beliefs about research and social work practice, evaluating chronological changes in psychometric/statistical methodology, and summarizing the role current and future scale development efforts have in improving the use of evidence-based social work practice. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic databases and reference lists of included studies were reviewed and coded for methodological and psychometric properties. Seventeen studies satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eleven unique scales measuring social worker beliefs regarding research and social work practice were identified. The majority of scales and subscales had Cronbach's alphas that exceeded .70. Most of the scales had evidence of content, factorial, construct, and/or criterion validity. Strategies for improving psychometric research and implications for evidence-based social work practice are discussed.
Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.
Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…
Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Nutt, David; Mohr, Christine
Cannabis use has been related to an elevated psychosis risk and attenuated cognitive functioning. Cannabis-related cognitive impairments are also observed in populations along the psychosis dimension. We here investigated whether a potential behavioral marker of the psychosis dimension (attenuated functional hemispheric asymmetry) is even further attenuated in individuals using cannabis (CU) vs those not using cannabis (nCU). We tested 29 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP; 11 CU) and 90 healthy controls (38 CU) on lateralized lexical decisions assessing left-hemisphere language dominance. In patients, psychotic symptoms were assessed by Positive & Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). In controls, self-reported schizotypy was assessed (The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences: O-LIFE). Results indicated that nCU FEP patients had a relative reduced hemispheric asymmetry, as did controls with increasing cognitive disorganization (CogDis) scores, in particular when belonging to the group of nCU controls. Positive, disorganized and negative PANSS scores in patients and negative and positive schizotypy in controls were unrelated to hemispheric asymmetry. These findings suggest that cannabis use potentially balances rather than exacerbates uncommon hemispheric laterality patterns. Moreover, in healthy populations, the potential stabilization of typical hemispheric asymmetry in CU might be most relevant to individuals with elevated CogDis. We discuss the potential beneficial and harmful effects of cannabis use along the psychosis dimension together with propositions for future studies that should account for the mediating role of additional substances (eg nicotine), cannabis composition (eg cannabidiol content), and individual differences (eg physical health, or absence of significant polysubstance use). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions
Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Eysenck and Eysenck identified the two-factor structure of personality, namely neuroticism and extraversion which has been widely used in clinical psychiatry, and generated much research on the psychometric properties of the scales. Using a classical psychometric approach the neuroticism...... and extraversion scales have shown robust psychometric properties. The present study used both classical psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses to evaluate the neuroticism and extraversion scales and improve scalability of the instrument neuroticism and extraversion. A first time depressed sample...... symptoms related to interpersonal sensitivity were identified. For the extraversion scale a shorter and psychometrically more robust version was identified together with a short introversion scale. Clinically discriminant validity was analysed using correlations. The correlation between depression (Ham...
Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; de Vries, Reinout E; Hendrickse, Joshua; Born, Marise Ph
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a new measure of maladaptive personality traits, has recently been developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup. The PID-5 variables were examined within the seven-factor space defined by the six HEXACO factors and the Schizotypy/Dissociation factor (Ashton & Lee, 2012) using participant samples from Canada (N = 378) and the Netherlands (N = 476). Extension analyses showed that several PID-5 facet-level scales represented each of the Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Schizotypy/Dissociation factors. In contrast, only one PID-5 scale loaded strongly on HEXACO Agreeableness, and no PID-5 scales loaded strongly on Openness to Experience. In addition, a joint factor analysis involving the PID-5 variables and facets of the Five-Factor Model was conducted in the Canadian sample and recovered a set of seven factors corresponding rather closely to the HEXACO factors plus Schizotypy/Dissociation. The authors discuss implications for the assessment and structure of normal and abnormal personality.
Morean, Meghan E; de Wit, Harriet; King, Andrea C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Rueger, Sandra Y; O'Malley, Stephanie S
The Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) is widely used in studies of acute subjective response (SR) to a variety of substances, but the format of the DEQ varies widely across studies, and details of its psychometric properties are lacking. Thus, the field would benefit from demonstrating the reliability and validity of the DEQ for use across multiple substances. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of several variations of DEQ items, which assessed the extent to which participants (1) feel any substance effect(s), (2) feel high, (3) like the effects, (4) dislike the effects, and (5) want more of the substance using 100-mm visual analog scales. DEQ data from three placebo-controlled studies were analyzed to examine SR to amphetamine, nicotine, and alcohol. We evaluated the internal structure of the DEQ for use with each substance as well as relationships between scale items, measures of similar constructs, and substance-related behaviors. Results provided preliminary psychometric support for items assessing each DEQ construct (feel, high, dislike, like, and more). Based on the study results, we identify several common limitations of extant variants of the DEQ and recommend an improved version of the measure. The simplicity and brevity of the DEQ combined with its promising psychometric properties support its use in future SR research across a variety of substances.
Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée
Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching
Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée
Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working
Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M; García-Fernández, José M
This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.
Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.
Bech, P; Bille, J; Møller, S B
BACKGROUND: The psychometric validity of many subscales of the 90-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the "Hamilton-subscales" for depression (SCL-D16), anxiety (SCL-A14), their 6......-item core-measures (SCL-D6 and SCL-A6), the anxiety symptom scale (SCL-ASS8) and the interpersonal sensitivity scale (IPS5). METHODS: The psychometric properties of the SCL-D16, SCL-A14, SCL-D6, SCL-A6, SCL-ASS8, and the IPS5 were evaluated based on SCL-90 ratings from 850 day patients from a Danish...... SCL-90 subscales were identified. Using these scales it is possible to perform a psychometrically valid evaluation of psychiatric patients regarding the severity of depression (HAM-D6), specific anxiety (SCL-ASS8) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS5)....
Kane, Michael T.
In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…
Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye
Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…
Full Text Available The present paper examined relationships between schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience; O-LIFE scale brief, belief in the paranormal (assessed via the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS and proneness to statistical bias (i.e., perception of randomness and susceptibility to conjunction fallacy. Participants were 254 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling. Probabilistic reasoning problems appeared framed within both standard and paranormal contexts. Analysis revealed positive correlations between the Unusual Experience subscale of O-LIFE and paranormal belief measures (RPBS full scale, traditional paranormal beliefs and new age philosophy. Performance on standard problems correlated negatively with Unusual Experience and belief in the paranormal (particularly the traditional paranormal belief dimension of the RPBS. Consideration of specific problem types revealed that perception of randomness associated more strongly with belief in the paranormal than conjunction; both problem types related similarly to Unusual Experience. Structural equation modelling specified that belief in the paranormal mediated the indirect relationship between Unusual Experience and statistical bias. For problems presented in a paranormal context a framing effect occurred. Whilst Unusual Experience correlated positively with conjunction proneness (controlling for perception of randomness, there was no association between Unusual Experience and perception of randomness (controlling for conjunction.
Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter
The present paper examined relationships between schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience; O-LIFE scale brief), belief in the paranormal (assessed via the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and proneness to statistical bias (i.e., perception of randomness and susceptibility to conjunction fallacy). Participants were 254 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling. Probabilistic reasoning problems appeared framed within both standard and paranormal contexts. Analysis revealed positive correlations between the Unusual Experience (UnExp) subscale of O-LIFE and paranormal belief measures [RPBS full scale, traditional paranormal beliefs (TPB) and new age philosophy]. Performance on standard problems correlated negatively with UnExp and belief in the paranormal (particularly the TPB dimension of the RPBS). Consideration of specific problem types revealed that perception of randomness associated more strongly with belief in the paranormal than conjunction; both problem types related similarly to UnExp. Structural equation modeling specified that belief in the paranormal mediated the indirect relationship between UnExp and statistical bias. For problems presented in a paranormal context a framing effect occurred. Whilst UnExp correlated positively with conjunction proneness (controlling for perception of randomness), there was no association between UnExp and perception of randomness (controlling for conjunction).
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III. Due to the prominent concept of schizotypy (Kety, Rado, Meehl) three split up diagnostic categories of schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders resulted. Cluster A personality disorders are frequent in community-based epidemiological studies. Health-care seeking behaviour due to primary personality-related problems, however, seems to be less paramount compared to cluster B and C personality disorders. Many family- and twin-based genetic studies convincingly stress a close link between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. This link is less pronounced for paranoid personality disorder, and even vanishingly low for schizoid personality disorder. From a perspective of schizophrenia spectrum disorders a vast amount of data from molecular genetic, neurobiological, neuropsychological and psychosocial research has impressingly confirmed this link for schizotypal personality disorder. Major research deficits, however, have to be noticed for paranoid and schizoid personality disorder.
Corlett, P R; Fletcher, P C
Healthy people sometimes report experiences and beliefs that are strikingly similar to the symptoms of psychosis in their bizarreness and the apparent lack of evidence supporting them. An important question is whether this represents merely a superficial resemblance or whether there is a genuine and deep similarity indicating, as some have suggested, a continuum between odd but healthy beliefs and the symptoms of psychotic illness. We sought to shed light on this question by determining whether the neural marker for prediction error - previously shown to be altered in early psychosis--is comparably altered in healthy individuals reporting schizotypal experiences and beliefs. We showed that non-clinical schizotypal experiences were significantly correlated with aberrant frontal and striatal prediction error signal. This correlation related to the distress associated with the beliefs. Given our previous observations that patients with first episode psychosis show altered neural responses to prediction error and that this alteration, in turn, relates to the severity of their delusional ideation, our results provide novel evidence in support of the view that schizotypy relates to psychosis at more than just a superficial descriptive level. However, the picture is a complex one in which the experiences, though associated with altered striatal responding, may provoke distress but may nonetheless be explained away, while an additional alteration in frontal cortical responding may allow the beliefs to become more delusion-like: intrusive and distressing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN, with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD and 54 healthy control (HC subjects. Results: The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Conclusion: Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.
Hélio Anderson Tonelli
Full Text Available Introduction: Disorders of thought are psychopathological phenomena commonly present in schizophrenia and seem to result from deficits of semantic processing. Schizotypal personality traits consist of tendencies to think and behave that are qualitatively similar to schizophrenia, with greater vulnerability to such disorder. This study reviewed the literature about semantic processing deficits in samples of individuals with schizotypal traits and discussed the impact of current knowledge upon the comprehension of schizophrenic thought disorders. Studies about the cognitive performance of healthy individuals with schizotypal traits help understand the semantic deficits underlying psychotic thought disorders with the advantage of avoiding confounding factors usually found in samples of individuals with schizophrenia, such as the use of antipsychotics and hospitalizations. Methods: A search for articles published in Portuguese or English within the last 10 years on the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycInfo, LILACS and Biological Abstracts was conducted, using the keywords semantic processing, schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder. Results: The search retrieved 44 manuscripts, out of which 11 were firstly chosen. Seven manuscripts were additionally included after reading these papers. Conclusion: The great majority of the included studies showed that schizotypal subjects might exhibit semantic processing deficits. They help clarify about the interfaces between cognitive, neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms underlying not only thought disorders, but also healthy human mind's creativity.
Nickitas, Donna M; Fealy, Gerard M; De Natale, Mary L
The aim was to develop an instrument to assess undergraduate nursing students' experience of service-learning to reveal benefits and identify service-learning as a professional value that leads to civic and social responsibility. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach that integrates academic learning with experiential community-centered foci. It provides structured opportunities for reflection on broader social and cultural dimensions of health. There is no valid and reliable instrument to measure service-learning experience of nursing students. A psychometric evaluation was conducted through item analysis, validity, and reliability. Face validity agreement was 80 percent; the content validity index was adjusted until 1 was achieved for each item. Two factors explained 58.64 percent of the total variance. Cronbach's α was .940 for the skills subscale and .932 for the personal insight subscale. The inventory demonstrated strong psychometric properties. Future research should focus on replication on diverse populations.
Stone, Wendy L; Coonrod, Elaine E; Turner, Lauren M; Pozdol, Stacie L
The STAT is an interactive screening measure for autism that assesses behaviors in the areas of play, communication, and imitation skills. In Study 1, signal detection procedures were employed to identify a cutoff score for the STAT using developmentally matched groups of 2-year-old children with autism and with nonspectrum disorders. The resulting cutoff yielded high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the development sample as well as for an independent validation sample. Study 2 examined psychometric properties of the STAT and revealed acceptable levels of interrater agreement, test-retest reliability, and agreement between STAT risk category and ADOS-G classification. The STAT demonstrates strong psychometric properties and shows promising utility as a Level 2 screening measure for autism.
Bialocerkowski, Andrea; O'shea, Kate; Pin, Tamis W
The aim of this review was to evaluate the psychometric properties of outcome measures used to quantify upper limb function in children and adolescents with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP). Eleven electronic databases were searched to identify studies on the effects of conservative management to improve upper limb function in young people with BPBP. Outcome measures used in these studies were extracted and used in a subsequent search to identify studies that evaluated the psychometric properties of these measures. The methodological quality of these studies was rated using a standardized critical appraisal tool. Thirty-three outcome measures and 12 psychometric studies were identified. Nine outcome measures had some psychometric evidence, which was variable in quality. The outcome measures which seem to have the most robust psychometric properties include the Active Movement Scale, Assisting Hand Assessment, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Index, and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Further research is required to determine the psychometric properties of outcome measures used for children and adolescents with BPBP. Caution is required when interpreting the results of commonly used outcome measures in this population owing to their relatively unknown psychometric properties. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Kirsten Rebecca Panton
Full Text Available Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli, in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e. perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls, and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -.523, p<.001. However, significant heterogeneity was also found amongst the schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = .012, p = .825. These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual
Schulte, Fiona; Barrera, Maru
This study was conducted to identify and describe the instruments that have been used to measure social competence in pediatric brain tumor patients and to summarize the psychometric properties of the most common instruments used to measure social competence in pediatric brain tumor patients. The following psychometric properties were assessed: (a) construct validity; (b) internal consistency reliability; (c) test retest and inter-rater reliability; and (d) responsiveness. Measures were evaluated based on published criteria for psychometric suitability. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the current review. Based on review of these studies, the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) yielded the most comprehensive data on psychometric properties. Psychometric properties for the SSRS were considered to be adequate in a pediatric brain tumor population. Specifically, the SSRS meets criteria for construct validity, internal consistency and responsiveness. Other commonly used measures included the CBCL/YSR, the PedsQL4.0 and the Revised Class Play each with sufficient psychometric properties. The SSRS is an appropriate tool to measure social competence in pediatric brain tumor patients. Data for inter-rater reliability and responsiveness in this population is still lacking.
Full Text Available An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981 moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc., as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia. The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychology, resident in the city of Antofagasta (a geographical zone with a highnumber of Latin-American inmigrants. Our findings show that the scale seems to be a reliable instrument to measurethe prejudice towards Bolivian immigrants in our social environment. Likewise, important differences among thesubjects are detected with high and low scores in the psychosocial variables used.
Resnick, Barbara; Boltz, Marie; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells, Chris
The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric testing of the Basic Physical Capability Scale. The study was a secondary data analysis of combined data sets from three studies. Study participants included 93 older adults, recruited from 2 acute-care settings and 110 older adults living in long-term care facilities. Rasch analysis was used for the testing of the measurement model. There was some support for construct validity based on the fit of the items to the scale across both samples. In addition, there was support for hypothesis testing as physical function was significantly associated with physical capability. There was evidence for internal consistency (Alpha coefficients of .77-.83) and interrater reliability based on an intraclass correlation of .81. This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Basic Physical Capability Scale, and guidance for scale revisions and continued use.
The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.
Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh
The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…
Bai, Jinbing; Jiang, Nan
Systematic pain assessment using reliable and valid pain scales is the foundation for optimal pain management in children. To evaluate the available scales for pain assessment in Chinese children, we systematically evaluated the psychometric properties of pain measurements used in Chinese children. We searched Chinese- and English-language databases from their inception to September 2013. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the psychometric properties of pain measures were examined in Chinese children (aged 0-18 years). Two bilingual reviewers independently evaluated the psychometric properties of the identified pain scales by a revised 11-item coding system. In all, 6 studies involving 775 participants were included in this review with six pain scales examined, including the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) Scale, COMFORT-Behavior Scale, Asian Version of Oucher Scale, Pain Observation Scale for Young Children (POCIS), Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and Pain Assessment Scale for Preterm Infants (PASPI). The FLACC, COMFORT-Behavior Scale, and PASPI had very good psychometric qualities when administered in Chinese children; the Asian Version of Oucher Scale and POCIS showed acceptable to good psychometric qualities; and the NFCS had unacceptable psychometric qualities. Further psychometric testing of these observational measures and self-report pain scales in particular are needed among Chinese children of various age groups and in different pain situations. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferrando, Pere J.; Masip-Cabrera, Antoni; Navarro-González, David; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano
The Psychometric Toolbox (PT) is a user-friendly, non-commercial package mainly intended to be used for instructional purposes in introductory courses of educational and psychological measurement, psychometrics and statistics. The PT package is organized in six separate modules or sub-programs: Data preprocessor (descriptive analyses and data…
Ponce D., Carlos; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Escurra M., Miguel; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
In the subsequent exploratory descriptive study, we formulated the following investigation question: Does the 2008-I admission exam of the Major National University of San Marcos, cover all the psychometric requirements demanded by an evaluation of that kind of nature? The General Objective of the investigation is to: Identify the basic psychometric characteristics which the 2008-I admission exam of the Major National University of San Marcos has presented, consisting in the reliability of th...
Joseph M. Barnby
Full Text Available Background The experience of ‘sensed presence’—a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence—is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date. Methods Based on phenomenological description in the literature, we created the 16-item Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ. We recruited participants from (i a general population sample, and; (ii a sample including specific selection for religious affiliation, to complete the SenPQ and additional measures of well-being, schizotypy, social anxiety, social imagery, and spiritual experience. We completed an analysis to test internal reliability, the ability of the SenPQ to distinguish between religious and non-religious participants, and whether the SenPQ was specifically related to positive schizotypical experiences and social imagery. A factor analysis was also conducted to examine underlying latent variables. Results The SenPQ was found to be reliable and valid, with religious participants significantly endorsing more items than non-religious participants, and the scale showing a selective relationship with construct relevant measures. Principal components analysis indicates two potential underlying factors interpreted as reflecting ‘benign’ and ‘malign’ sensed presence experiences. Discussion The SenPQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensed presence experience although further validation in neurological and psychiatric conditions is warranted.
Barnby, Joseph M; Bell, Vaughan
The experience of 'sensed presence'-a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence-is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date. Based on phenomenological description in the literature, we created the 16-item Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ). We recruited participants from (i) a general population sample, and; (ii) a sample including specific selection for religious affiliation, to complete the SenPQ and additional measures of well-being, schizotypy, social anxiety, social imagery, and spiritual experience. We completed an analysis to test internal reliability, the ability of the SenPQ to distinguish between religious and non-religious participants, and whether the SenPQ was specifically related to positive schizotypical experiences and social imagery. A factor analysis was also conducted to examine underlying latent variables. The SenPQ was found to be reliable and valid, with religious participants significantly endorsing more items than non-religious participants, and the scale showing a selective relationship with construct relevant measures. Principal components analysis indicates two potential underlying factors interpreted as reflecting 'benign' and 'malign' sensed presence experiences. The SenPQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensed presence experience although further validation in neurological and psychiatric conditions is warranted.
Eun-Hyun Lee, RN, PhD
Conclusion: Overall, the PSS is an easy-to-use questionnaire with established acceptable psychometric properties. However, future studies should evaluate these psychometric properties in greater depth, and validate the scale using diverse populations.
Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
that can identify underlying pain mechanisms are needed. The painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ) was originally designed to differentiate between pain phenotypes. The objectives were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PDQ in patients with inflammatory arthritis by applying Rasch analysis......) and classification consistency were calculated. RESULTS: The Rasch analysis revealed: (1) Acceptable psychometric rating scale properties; the frequency distribution peaked in category 0 except for item 5, threshold calibration >10 observations per category, no disorder in the category measures for all items, scale...
Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-child Version (CTSPC used to identify child abuse Propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do instrumento Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-child Version (CTSPC utilizado para identificar violência contra a criança
Michael Eduardo Reichenheim
Full Text Available This article follows another, which presented the first phase of the cross-cultural adaptation process examining the psychometric properties of the Conflict Tactics Scales, Parent-child Version (CTSPC, Portuguese version. Fieldwork took place in three public maternity wards in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from March to September 2000. Interviews relate to siblings of randomly selected live births. Respondents were mothers. Information on partners was obtained by proxy. Almost all intra-observer reliability kappa estimates were above 0.75. Depending on the scale and type of perpetrator, internal consistency (a estimates ranged from 0.49 to 0.68. Using the same sample, the iterated principal factor analysis identified four dimensions. Although most items performed well, some failed to adequately load in their expected factors. Construct validity involved exploring the relationship between several other theoretical dimensions and a variable encompassing the cumulative pattern of violence severity. All the hypotheses tested were corroborated. The current evaluation indicates that the CTSPC can be recommended for use in Portuguese-speaking contexts. Still, it also identified some important points needing further investigation and discussion.Este artigo segue outro que apresentava a primeira fase do processo de adaptação transcultural, examinando as propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do instrumento Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-child Version (CTSPC. O trabalho de campo ocorreu de março a setembro de 2000 em três maternidades públicas de grande porte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Irmãos de recém-nascidos foram amostrados aleatoriamente. Entrevistas foram realizadas com mães. Informações sobre parceiros foram obtidas por proxi. A maioria das estimativas de confiabilidade intra-observador (kappa se mostrou acima de 0,75. Consistência interna (a variou de 0,49-0,68, dependendo da escala e tipo de perpetrador. Usando a mesma amostra
Reid, Carol; Courtney, Mary; Anderson, Debra; Hurst, Cameron
The purpose of the study was to undertake rigorous psychometric testing of the Caring Efficacy Scale in a sample of Registered Nurses. A cross-sectional survey of 2000 registered nurses was undertaken. The Caring Efficacy Scale was utilized to inform the psychometric properties of the selected items of the Caring Efficacy Scale. Cronbach's Alpha identified reliability of the data. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were undertaken to validate the factors. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the development of two factors; Confidence to Care and Doubts and Concerns. The Caring Efficacy Scale has undergone rigorous psychometric testing, affording evidence of internal consistency and goodness-of-fit indices within satisfactory ranges. The Caring Efficacy Scale is valid for use in an Australian population of registered nurses. The scale can be used as a subscale or total score reflective of self-efficacy in nursing. This scale may assist nursing educators to predict levels of caring efficacy.
The use of psychometric tests in personnel selection has been regarded with an extraordinary degree of suspicion and scepticism. This is especially true when selection occurs in respect of a diverse applicant group. Concern is expressed about the seemingly uncritical embracing of specific tenets related to the use of psychometric tests in personnel selection in the absence of any systematic coherent psychometric argument to justify these beliefs. The absence of such a supporting psychometric ...
McMahon, James M; Volpe, Ellen M; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying
The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified, which reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales is reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (1) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (2) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (3) areas for future research.
Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison
Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…
Dixon, Dennis R.; Jang, Jina; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Jung, Woo Hyun; Matson, Johnny L.
Identifying the function of behavior is crucial in formulating functionally-based treatment programs for people with challenging behaviors. The Questions About Behavior Function (QABF) is a well-established instrument with sound psychometric properties. The present study describes the development process for a Korean version of the QABF. The…
Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben
The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... of the present study was both to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 22 and 12 item scales and of three new scales. The main study sample was a community sample comprising more than 6,000 men and women. In this sample the coefficients of homogeneity were all over 0.30 for the three new scales, but below...
Michels, Charlotte T J; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele
Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers' outcomes is a common problem. To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures' psychometric properties. A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zeileis, A.; Strobl, Carolin; Wickelmaier, F
Infrastructure for psychometric modeling such as data classes (e.g., for paired comparisons) and basic model fitting functions (e.g., for Rasch and Bradley-Terry models). Intended especially as a common building block for fitting psychometric mixture models in package ‘‘psychomix’’ and psychometric tree models in package ‘‘psychotree’’. License: GPL-2
Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven; Richardson, George B
A recent critique of Copping, Campbell, and Muncer raised several issues concerning the validity of psychometric assessment techniques in the study of life history (LH) strategies. In this reply, some of our key concerns about relying on aggregated psychometric measures are explained, and we raise questions generally regarding the use of higher order factor structures. Responses to some of the statistical issues raised by Figueredo et al. are also detailed. We stand by our original conclusions and call for more careful consideration of instruments used to evaluate hypotheses derived from LH theory.
Dunagan, Pamela B
To report the development of a tool to measure nurse's attitudes about quality improvement in their practice setting and to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Human factors such as nursing attitudes of complacency have been identified as root causes of sentinel events. Attitudes of nurses concerning use of Quality and Safety Education for nurse's competencies can be most challenging to teach and to change. No tool has been developed measuring attitudes of nurses concerning their role in quality improvement. A descriptive study design with preliminary psychometric evaluation was used to examine the preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Registered bedside clinical nurses comprised the sample for the study (n = 57). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha reliability. Total score and individual item statistics were evaluated. Two open-ended items were used to collect statements about nurses' feelings regarding their experience in quality improvement efforts. Strong support for the internal consistency reliability and face validity of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale was found. Total scale scores were high indicating nurse participants valued Quality and Safety Education for Nurse competencies in practice. However, item-level statistics indicated nurses felt powerless when other nurses deviate from care standards. Additionally, the sample indicated they did not consistently report patient safety issues and did not have a feeling of value in efforts to improve care. Findings suggested organisational culture fosters nurses' reporting safety issues and feeling valued in efforts to improve care. Participants' narrative comments and item analysis revealed the need to generate new items for the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale focused on nurses' perception of their importance in quality and
Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud
Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and
MacPherson, Alexandra; Akeroyd, Michael A
Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB), suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found. © The Author(s) 2014.
Tarbox, Sarah I.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.
Although generally accepted that schizotypal personality disorder diagnosis is more prevalent among relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and may be associated with genetic liability to schizophrenia, it seems likely that this diagnosis is itself heterogeneous and thus perhaps not as useful in identifying genes that affect schizophrenia risk (i.e. endophenotypes) as it could be. In contrast, symptoms and dimensions of schizotypal personality disorder may be more etiologically homogeneous, and thus more useful in genetic studies. The current review evaluated and consolidated evidence to date regarding specific symptoms and dimensions of schizotypal personality disorder among non-psychotic relatives of schizophrenia patients. Comparisons were made with relatives of affective disorder patients and non-psychiatric controls. Findings indicate strong support for elevation of social-interpersonal schizotypal symptoms among relatives of schizophrenia patients versus other groups along with moderate specificity. Results suggest only a small elevation of cognitive-perceptual and disorganized symptoms in relatives of schizophrenia patients and results for disorganized symptoms were inconsistent across studies. Thus, evidence to date supports further investigation of genetic associations between symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, and suggests that social-interpersonal symptoms may be particularly promising in genetic analyses of schizophrenia. PMID:21855827
Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne
This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…
Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.
The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…
Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne
This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…
Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing
Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…
Aman, Michael G.; And Others
Information is presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, a measure of psychotropic drug effects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the checklist appeared very good. Interrater reliability was generally in the moderate range. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior…
Cannito, Michael P.
This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…
Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick
What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…
Hammond, Sean M
Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming\\'s indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future
Hammond Sean M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89, subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the
Full Text Available Orientation: Researchers need to assess the psychometric rigour of resilience measuring scales. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator (ARI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample. They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure.Main findings: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings,covariances and error variances in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales.Practical/managerial implications: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts.Contribution/value-add: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.
Beck, Joy E.; Garber, Judy; Lambert, Warren
Objective To conduct a multimethod psychometric evaluation to refine the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) and to investigate its dimensionality. Method The CSI was administered to 876 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain at their initial visit to a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Tools from three psychometric models identified items that most effectively measured the construct of somatization and examined its dimensionality. Results Eleven statistically weak items were identified and removed, creating a 24-item CSI (CSI-24). The CSI-24 showed good psychometrics according to the three measurement models and correlated.99 with the original CSI. The CSI-24 has one dominant general factor but is not strictly unidimensional. Conclusions The CSI-24 is a reliable and psychometrically sound refinement of the original CSI. Findings are consistent with the view that somatization has a strong general factor that represents a continuum of symptom reporting, as well as minor components that represent specific symptom clusters in youth with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:18782857
Burton, Amy L; Abbott, Maree J; Modini, Matthew; Touyz, Stephen
Binge eating is a symptom common to bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa (binge/purge subtype), and binge eating disorder. There are many self-report measures available to aid the assessment of eating disorders symptoms, but there has not yet been a systematic review of the literature to identify the most valid and reliable measures for use in assessment and treatment of binge eating. A systematic review of the psychometric properties of self-report measures that assess binge eating symptoms and psychopathology was conducted. Two independent raters assessed the psychometric properties of each measure using a standardized quality analysis tool. Of the 2,927 studies identified, 72 studies met the inclusion criteria and described the psychometric properties of 29 different self-report measures, and nine specific subscales within these. Results from the quality analysis tool utilized in this study indicated that none of the included measures currently meet all nine criteria of adequate psychometric properties. Most of the included measures had evidence for some adequate psychometric properties. Two measures received six out of nine positive ratings for the assessed psychometric properties, the BITE and the BULIT-R, and thus appear to be the measures with the most evidence of their validity and reliability. Overall, our findings implicate a need for further investigation of the psychometric properties of the available self-report questionnaires in this field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marris, C; Langford, I; Saunderson, T; O'Riordan, T
The "psychometric paradigm" developed by Slovic, Fischhoff, and Lichtenstein was a landmark in research about public attitudes toward risks. One problem with work, however, was that (at least initially) it did not attempt to distinguish between individuals or groups of people, except "experts" vs. "lay people." This paradigm produced a "cognitive map" of hazards, and the assumption seemed to be that the characteristics identified were inherent attributes of risk. This paper examines the validity of this assumption. A questionnaire survey similar to those designed by Slovic et al. was conducted, but the data were analyzed at both the aggregate level, using mean scores, and at the level of individuals (N = 131 Norwich residents). The results reported here demonstrate that (1) individuals vary in their perception of the same risk issue; (2) individuals vary in their rating of the same risks characteristics on the same risk issue; and (3) some of the strong intercorrelations observed between risk characteristics at the aggregate level are not supported when the same data are analysed at the level of individuals. Despite these findings, the relationship between risk characteristics and risk perceptions inferred by the psychometric paradigm did hold true at the level of individuals, for most--but not all--of the characteristics. In particular, the relationship between "lack of knowledge to those exposed" and risk perceptions appears to be a complex one, a finding which has important implications for risk communication strategies.
Mateen, Bilal Akhter; Doogan, Catherine; Hayward, Kate; Hourihan, Susan; Hurford, Joanne; Playford, E Diane
To examine the state of psychometric validation in the health-related work outcome literature. We searched PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, Embase (plus Embase Classic), and PsycINFO from inception to January 2016 using the following search terms: stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, spinal cord injury, brain injury, musculoskeletal disease, work, absenteeism, presenteeism, occupation, employment, job, outcome measure, assessment, work capacity evaluation, scale, and questionnaire. From the 22,676 retrieved abstracts, 597 outcome measures were identified. Inclusion was based on content analysis. There were 95 health-related work outcome measures retained; of these, 2 were treated as outliers and therefore are discussed separately. All 6 authors individually organized the 93 remaining scales based on their content. A follow-up search using the same sources, and time period, with the name of the outcome measures and the terms psychometric, reliability, validity, and responsiveness, identified 263 unique classical test theory psychometric property datasets for the 93 tools. An assessment criterion for psychometric properties was applied to each article, and where consensus was not achieved, the rating delivered by most of the assessors was reported. Of the articles reported, 18 reporting psychometric data were not accessible and therefore could not be assessed. There were 39 that scored 80%. The 3 outcome measures associated with the highest scoring datasets were the Sheehan Disability Scale, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the assessment of the Subjective Handicap of Epilepsy. Finally, only 2 psychometric validation datasets reported the complete set of baseline psychometric properties. This systematic review highlights the current limitations of the health-related work outcome measure literature, including the limited number of robust tools available. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cosco, T D; Kaushal, A; Richards, M; Kuh, D; Stafford, M
To systematically review and examine the psychometric properties of established resilience scales in older adults, i.e. ≥60 years. A systematic review of Scopus and Web of Science databases was undertaken using the search strategy "resilience" AND (ageing OR aging)". Independent title/abstract and fulltext screening were undertaken, identifying original peer-reviewed English articles that conducted psychometric validation studies of resilience metrics in samples aged ≥60 years. Data on the reliability/validity of the included metrics were extracted from primary studies. Five thousand five hundred nine studies were identified by the database search, 426 used resilience psychometrics, and six psychometric analysis studies were included in the final analysis. These studies conducted analyses of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and its shortened 10-item version (CD-RISC10), the Resilience Scale (RS) and its shortened 5- (RS-5) and 11- (RS-11) item versions, and the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS). All scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency, convergent/discriminant validity and theoretical construct validity. Factor structures for the RS, RS-11 and CD-RISC diverged from the structures in the original studies. The RS, RS-5, RS-11, CD-RISC, CD-RISC10 and BRCS demonstrate psychometric robustness adequate for continued use in older populations. However, results from the current study and pre-existing theoretical construct validity studies most strongly support the use of the RS, with modest and preliminary support for the CD-RISC and BRCS, respectively. Future studies assessing the validity of these metrics in older populations, particularly with respect to factor structure, would further strengthen the case for the use of these scales.
Månsson, Catrin; Jakobsson, Ulf; Lundqvist, Pia
The aim was to translate the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS: NICU) into the Swedish language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version. The PSS: NICU was translated into Swedish using the process of forward-backward translation. Thereafter, an internal panel of neonatal nurses (n = 10) assessed face and content validity and a panel of parents (n = 10) assessed content validity. A sample of 95 parents recruited from three different neonatal units completed the PSS: NICU and answered some open-ended questions in which they could comment on language and wording. There were eight new items in the PSS: NICU, compared with the very first version of the instrument. These had not been psychometrically tested previously. In this study, the subscales and total scale were analysed both with and without the new items to determine whether or not to use them. Psychometric properties including internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha (if item deleted) and corrected item total were evaluated. The result indicates that the Swedish version of PSS: NICU, both with and without the nonvalidated items, has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in clinical practice in NICUs in Sweden. In order to meet the psychological needs of parents, healthcare professionals need to identify risk factors in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit that contribute to stress amongst parents. The Swedish version of the PSS: NICU can be used for this purpose. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Espen Røysamb; Joar Vittersø; Kristian Tambs
The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Relationship Satisfaction (RS) scale. Two population based samples were used: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, N=117,178) and The Quality of Life study (N=347). Convergent and discriminant validity was investigated in relation to the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Relationship Satisfaction of partner, Big Five personality traits (IPIP50) and future relatio...
May, Keith A.; Solomon, Joshua A.
In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, . This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull “slope” parameter, , can be approximated by , where is the of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for and , from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when , . We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4–0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is stimulus-independent, it has lower kurtosis than a Gaussian. PMID:24124456
Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher
This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...disparity. This paper details the psychometric validation of the stereoscopic rendering of a virtual environment using game-based simulation software...mounted display, near eye display, stereo display, stereo HMD, psychometric assessment, stereoscopic performance, eye-limited stereo vision. 16
Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S
-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory....
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the psychometric properties of a learning strategies scale for university students. The scale was composed of 49 Likert scale items related to cognitive and metacognitive strategies. It was applied in a sample of 1,490 university students. The factor analysis revealed that 35 items had acceptable loadings and identified a three factor structure: Factor 1 - Cognitive and Metacognitive Self-regulation, Factor 2 - Internal Resource and Context regulation, and Factor 3 - Social regulation. Its internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and was .87 for the total scale, .86 for Factor 1, .71 for Factor 2 and .65 for Factor 3. The total variance explained was 26.6%. Further studies are suggested based on confirmatory factor analyses, so that the scale can be better utilized in psychoeducational evaluation.
Bolejko, Anetta; Brodersen, John; Zackrisson, Sophia; Wann-Hansson, Christine; Hagell, Peter
To evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire addressing psychosocial consequences of false-positive mammographic screening. The Consequences of Screening--Breast Cancer and Lung Cancer questionnaires target psychosocial consequences of false-positive cancer screening. The Consequences of Screening--Breast Cancer questionnaire and ten items not considered lung cancer specific from the Lung Cancer questionnaire have been adapted for use in mammographic screening in Sweden, but remain psychometrically untested. Instrument development paper with psychometric cross-sectional and test-retest design. Twelve scales of a Swedish questionnaire version were tested by the Rasch model and traditional psychometric methods. Women with false-positive (Group I, n = 640) and negative (Group II, n = 802) screening mammography responded to the study questionnaire and the Nottingham Health Profile during 2009-2011. Iterative analyses resulted in nine scales demonstrating Rasch model fit, but all scales exhibited poor targeting with relatively large floor effects. Corrected item-total correlations exceeded the recommended criterion. Score differences between Groups I and II and correlations with Nottingham Health Profile sections followed an expected pattern. Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability was acceptable for group-level assessments for ten and seven scales, respectively. Five scales (Sense of dejection, Anxiety, Behavioural, Sleep and Existential values) of the Swedish questionnaire version demonstrated the best psychometric properties. Other scales should be used more cautiously. Although filling an important gap, causes of concern were identified across scales. The questionnaire should therefore be considered for group-level assessments rather than for measurement of individual degrees of psychosocial consequences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Buzgova, Radka; Kozakova, Radka; Sikorova, Lucie; Zelenikova, Renata; Jarosova, Darja
Although assessment of palliative patients' needs is a key issue in palliative care, a suitable instrument for identification of such needs is not available in Central European countries. Our objectives were to produce an adequate tool for identifying the importance and satisfaction of palliative patients' needs and to verify its psychometric properties. The patient needs assessment in palliative care (PNAP) instrument was constructed based on a literature review and qualitative research (focus groups, n = 5). The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were verified by a cross-sectional study. The convergent validity of the questionnaire was determined by confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were also tested. The qualitative research group comprised 30 participants (27 experts in palliative care, 1 patient, and 2 family members). Psychometric properties were evaluated in a group of 349 hospital inpatients terminally ill with chronic disease or cancer and receiving palliative care. Based on the qualitative data analysis, a questionnaire was constructed that contained 42 items grouped into 5 domains. When testing the psychometric properties of the questionnaire, a new model containing 40 items in 7 domains was produced. Cronbach's α for the entire PNAP questionnaire was 0.89 on the importance scale and 0.80 on the satisfaction scale. Test-retest reliability was higher than 0.7 for all domains in both scales. The results of tests on the psychometric properties of the PNAP questionnaire showed at least satisfactory validity and reliability, and it can be employed to assess the needs of palliative care patients in Central European countries.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Using valid and reliable instruments is an important way for collecting data in qualitative researches. This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the extent of psychometric properties of the scales in research papers published in Journal of Advanced Nursing. Methods: In this study, the Journal of Advanced Nursing was chosen for systematic review. All articles which were published during 2007-2009 in this journal were collected and articles related to instrument development were selected. Each article was completely reviewed to identify the methods of instrument validation and reliability. Results: From 980 articles published in Journal of Advanced Nursing during 2007-2009, 41 (4.18% articles were about research methodology. In these, 12 articles (29.27% were related to developing an instrument. In this study, review of 12 articles that published in Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2007-2009, showed that some of the articles did not measure psychometric properties properly, thus some of the developed scales need to measure other types of necessary validity. In addition, reliability testing needs to be performed on each instrument used in a study before other statistical analysis are performed. From 12 articles, all of the articles measured and reported Cronbach’s alpha, but four of them did not measure test-retest. Conclusions: Although researchers put a great emphasis on methodology and statistical analysis, they pay less attention to the psychometric properties of their new instruments. The authors of this article hope to draw the attention of researcher to the importance of measuring psychometric properties of new instruments. Keywords: PSYCHOMETRIC, SCALES, CRITICAL REVIEW
Denman, Deborah; Speyer, Renée; Munro, Natalie; Pearce, Wendy M.; Chen, Yu-Wei; Cordier, Reinie
Introduction: Standardized assessments are widely used by speech pathologists in clinical and research settings to evaluate the language abilities of school-aged children and inform decisions about diagnosis, eligibility for services and intervention. Given the significance of these decisions, it is important that assessments have sound psychometric properties. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the psychometric quality of currently available comprehensive language assessments for school-aged children and identify assessments with the best evidence for use. Methods: Using the PRISMA framework as a guideline, a search of five databases and a review of websites and textbooks was undertaken to identify language assessments and published material on the reliability and validity of these assessments. The methodological quality of selected studies was evaluated using the COSMIN taxonomy and checklist. Results: Fifteen assessments were evaluated. For most assessments evidence of hypothesis testing (convergent and discriminant validity) was identified; with a smaller number of assessments having some evidence of reliability and content validity. No assessments presented with evidence of structural validity, internal consistency or error measurement. Overall, all assessments were identified as having limitations with regards to evidence of psychometric quality. Conclusions: Further research is required to provide good evidence of psychometric quality for currently available language assessments. Of the assessments evaluated, the Assessment of Literacy and Language, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-5th Edition, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool: 2nd Edition and the Preschool Language Scales-5th Edition presented with most evidence and are thus recommended for use. PMID:28936189
Full Text Available Introduction: Standardized assessments are widely used by speech pathologists in clinical and research settings to evaluate the language abilities of school-aged children and inform decisions about diagnosis, eligibility for services and intervention. Given the significance of these decisions, it is important that assessments have sound psychometric properties.Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the psychometric quality of currently available comprehensive language assessments for school-aged children and identify assessments with the best evidence for use.Methods: Using the PRISMA framework as a guideline, a search of five databases and a review of websites and textbooks was undertaken to identify language assessments and published material on the reliability and validity of these assessments. The methodological quality of selected studies was evaluated using the COSMIN taxonomy and checklist.Results: Fifteen assessments were evaluated. For most assessments evidence of hypothesis testing (convergent and discriminant validity was identified; with a smaller number of assessments having some evidence of reliability and content validity. No assessments presented with evidence of structural validity, internal consistency or error measurement. Overall, all assessments were identified as having limitations with regards to evidence of psychometric quality.Conclusions: Further research is required to provide good evidence of psychometric quality for currently available language assessments. Of the assessments evaluated, the Assessment of Literacy and Language, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-5th Edition, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool: 2nd Edition and the Preschool Language Scales-5th Edition presented with most evidence and are thus recommended for use.
Lee, Sang E; Casado, Banghwa Lee
This study examined recognition of Alzheimer's disease symptoms among Korean Americans (KAs) and assessed psychometric properties of the Alzheimer's Disease Symptom Recognition Scale (ADSRS). A cross-sectional survey collected data from 209 KAs, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results show that KAs recognized symptoms related to memory and cognitive functioning well, but had very limited recognition of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychometric analysis of ADSRS identified 4 factors in their symptom recognition. Findings suggest a need to raise awareness of Alzheimer's symptoms over the course of the disease. Assessment using ADSRS can be incorporated in communication in the practice context and public outreach.
Kummer, Sonja; Walter, Fiona M; Chilcot, Joseph; Scott, Suzanne
Advanced stage cancer is frequently attributed to delays in presentation to a healthcare professional. To reduce undue delay, it is imperative to understand the reasons underlying help-seeking behaviour and to measure those using valid and reliable tools. This systematic review aimed to identify how studies have measured psychosocial factors affecting time to presentation for (potential) cancer symptoms. A total of 35 studies were included. Most studies failed to use valid and reliable tools, and predominantly provided inconclusive results regarding psychosocial factors and time to presentation when no or minimal psychometric evidence was present. Consequently, measure selection and future measure development should be guided by psychometric principles.
Fastenau, Philip S.; Shen, Jianzhao; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.
This study assessed rates of learning disabilities (LD) by several psychometric definitions in children with epilepsy and identified risk factors. Participants (N = 173, ages 8-15 years) completed IQ screening, academic achievement testing, and structured interviews. Children with significant head injury, chronic physical conditions, or mental…
Muhlenweg, Andrea; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Stichnoth, Holger; Laucht, Manfred
We identify effects of age at school entry (ASE) on the development of child temperament. Our analysis is based on psychometric measures from a longitudinal cohort study of children in the Rhine-Neckar region in central Germany. In children with a higher ASE due to a birthday late in the year, we find more favorable outcomes with respect to…
Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger
The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…
R. P. van der Merwe
Full Text Available This is a cumulative report on the findings of various exploratory research that were done with regard to the practice of psychometric testing in the Eastern Cape. Recent and ongoing developments in the South African labour legislation, and especially the implications of the Employment Equity Act, highlight once again the importance of the validation of all instruments to be used for human assessment and selection purposes. Information was gathered to establish which psychometric tests are used, and for what purposes, in industry today. Biographical information on each organisation is supplied, including the number of employees. The role of psychometric testing in the selection procedure is discussed. The different tests used, as well as the test users, are also indicated. The findings of other, related research, as well as comments, recommendations and shortcomings, are discussed. Opsomming Hierdie is ‘n kumulatiewe verslag wat die resultate verstrek van verskeie verkennende ondersoeke wat gedoen is na die aanwending van psigometriese toetsing in die Oos-Kaap. Onlangse en voortdurende ontwikkelinge in die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidswetgewing, en veral die implikasies van die Wet op Gelyke Indiensneming, beklemtoon weer eens die belangrikheid van die validering van enige instrumente wat gebruik word vir evaluerings- en keuringsdoeleindes van individue. Inligting is ingewin om te bepaal watter psigometriese toetse, sowel as vir watter doel, vandag in die bedryf gebruik word. Biografiese inligting oor die onderskeie organisasies, insluitende hul aantal werknemers, word verstrek. Die rol van psigometriese toetsing in die keuringsproses word bespreek. Die verskillende toetse wat deur die organisasies gebruik word, sowel as die toetsge-bruikers, word ook aangedui. Die bevindinge van ander, relevante navorsing, sowel as opmerkings, aanbevelings en tekortkominge word bespreek.
Powell, Lauren R.; Ojukwu, Elizabeth; Person, Sharina D.; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros C.
Background: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual’s comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research. Objectives: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties. Research Design: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial domains and items of the RaKS, and expert panel reviews and cognitive pretesting were done to refine the scale. We conducted psychometric analyses to evaluate the scale. Subjects: The cross-sectional survey was administered to a purposive community-based sample (n=430) using a Web-based data collection system and paper. Measures: We did classic theory testing on individual items and assessed test-retest reliability and Kuder-Richardson-20 for internal consistency. We conducted exploratory factor analysis and analysis of variance to assess differences in mean research literacy scores in sociodemographic subgroups. Results: The RaKS is comprised of 16 items, with a Kuder-Richardson-20 estimate of 0.81 and test-retest reliability 0.84. There were differences in mean scale scores by race/ethnicity, age, education, income, and health literacy (all P<0.01). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the RaKS. This scale can be used to measure research participants’ understanding about health-related research processes and identify areas to improve informed decision-making about research participation. PMID:27579914
Keith A May
Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is
Bolt, Daniel; Ark, L; Wang, Wen-Chung
The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) builds on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology. The chapters of this volume present cutting-edge work in the field. Topics include studies of item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Additional psychometric topics relate to structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis, among others. The papers in this volume will be especially useful for researchers in the social sciences who use quantitative methods. Prior knowledge of statistical methods is recommended. The 78th annual meeting took place in Arnhem, The Netherlands between July 22nd and 26th, 2013. The previous volume to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting is New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 201...
Full Text Available The use of psychometric tests in personnel selection has been regarded with an extraordinary degree of suspicion and scepticism. This is especially true when selection occurs in respect of a diverse applicant group. Concern is expressed about the seemingly uncritical embracing of specific tenets related to the use of psychometric tests in personnel selection in the absence of any systematic coherent psychometric argument to justify these beliefs. The absence of such a supporting psychometric rationale seems unfortunate in as far as it probably would inhibit the independent critical evaluation of the psychometric merits of these generally accepted beliefs. Specific beliefs related to selection fairness, measurement bias and adverse impact are critically examined.
Poku, Edith; Duncan, Rosie; Keetharuth, Anju; Essat, Munira; Phillips, Patrick; Woods, Helen Buckley; Palfreyman, Simon; Jones, Georgina; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Michaels, Jonathan
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is generally associated with considerable morbidity and reduced quality of life. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) provide important information about the burden of disease and impact of treatment in affected patients. The objective of the review was to identify and appraise studies reporting the psychometric evaluation of PROMs administered to a specified population of patients with PAD with a view to recommending suitable PROMs. A systematic review of peer-reviewed English language articles was undertaken to identify primary studies reporting psychometric properties of PROMs in English-speaking patients with various stages of PAD. Comprehensive searches were completed up until January 2015. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently by at least two researchers. Findings were presented as tabular and narrative summaries based on accepted guidance. Psychometric evaluation of 6 generic and 7 condition-specific PROMs reported in 14 studies contributed data to the review. The frequently reported measure was the SF-36 (n = 11 studies); others included the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (n = 8 studies), EQ-5D (n = 5 studies) and the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (n = 3 studies). Studies included a diverse PAD population and varied in methodology, including approach to validation of PROMs. Various PROMs have been validated in patients with PAD but no study provided evidence of a full psychometric evaluation in the patient population. Careful selection is required to identify reliable and valid PROMs to use in clinical and research settings.
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Brubaker, Michael D; Nedelec, Joseph L
Many published studies have employed the Mini-K to measure a single fast-slow life history dimension. However, the internal structure of the Mini-K has not been determined and it is not clear that a single higher order K-factor fits the data. It is also not clear that the Mini-K is measurement invariant across groups such as the sexes. To establish the construct validity of K as well as the broader usefulness of applying life history theory to humans, it is crucial that these psychometric issues are addressed as a part of measure validation efforts. Here we report on three studies that used latent variable modeling and data drawn from two college student samples ( ns = 361 and 300) to elucidate the psychometrics of the Mini-K. We found that (a) the Mini-K had a six dimensional first-order structure, (b) the K-factor provided a parsimonious explanation of the associations among the lower order factors at no significant cost to fit, (c) the Mini-K measured the same K-factor across the sexes, (d) K-factor means did not have the same meaning across the sexes and thus the first-order factors should be used in studies of mean sex differences, and finally, (e) the K-factor was only associated with environment and aspects of mating competition in females. Implications and future directions for life history research are discussed.
Full Text Available A psicometria fundamenta-se na teoria da medida em ciências para explicar o sentido que têm as respostas dadas pelos sujeitos a uma série de tarefas e propor técnicas de medida dos processos mentais. Neste artigo são apresentados os conceitos e modelos da psicometria moderna e discutidos os parâmetros de validade e precisão dos testes.La Psicometría se fundamenta en la teoría de la medida en las ciencias buscando explicar el sentido en las respuestas de los que fueron sujetos a una serie de tareas, además de proponerse técnicas de medida de sus procesos mentales. En este artículo son presentados los conceptos y modelos de psicometría moderna, así como son discutidos los parámetros de validez y precisión de los testes.Psychometrics has foundations on the theory of measurement in Sciences and is aimed at explaining the meaning of responses provided by subjects submitted to a series of tasks, and proposing techniques for the measurement of mental processes. This article presents concepts and models of modern psychometrics and discusses the validity and reliability parameters of the applied tests.
Luz, Laércio Lima; Santiago, Lívia Maria; Silva, João Francisco Santos da; Mattos, Inês Echenique
This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13). Interviews were carried out with individuals aged 60 years and over receiving care at an ambulatory cancer centre. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficients and Cohen's kappa coefficient. Construct validity was assessed by testing convergent and discriminant validity using principal component analysis and Varimax rotation. The Spearman correlation coefficient value of the comparison between test and retest scores was 0.98 (p < 0.001). All intraclass correlation coefficient values were higher than 0.60 and kappa coefficients varied between 0.33 and 0.94. Three identified factors explained 72.6% of overall sample variance. VES-13 presented good convergent validity and reasonable discriminant validity. The psychometric properties of the adapted version of the VES-13 are consistent and adequate for use with the Brazilian population.
Kramer-Jackman, Kelli L; Popkess-Vawter, Sue
The purpose of this article is to summarize the psychometric results from studies of the last 25 years of the Overeating Tension Scale, Exercise Tension Scale, Feelings Tension Scale, and Feelings About Weight Tension Scale. These reliable and valid technology-delivered weight management scales can be used by clinicians independently or in combination to longitudinally identify specific triggers of overeating, skipping exercise, feeling low or down, and strong feelings about one's body weight; motivational states, and related tension levels. Through cognitive behavior therapy, individuals can learn to shift to another motivational state and employ healthy coping mechanisms to avoid related negative behaviors. Psychometric results from seven developmental studies are described, including technology-delivery adaptation results from the original paper and pencil versions. Future tension scale development priorities also are discussed.
Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G; Kruitwagen, Cas; Schuurmans, Marieke J
To assess the content validity and psychometric characteristics of the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz (KOP-Q), which measures nurses' knowledge regarding older hospitalized adults and their certainty regarding this knowledge. Cross-sectional. Content validity: general hospitals. Psychometric characteristics: nursing school and general hospitals in the Netherlands. Content validity: 12 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Psychometric characteristics: 107 first-year and 78 final-year bachelor of nursing students, 148 registered nurses, and 20 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Content validity: The nurse specialists rated each item of the initial KOP-Q (52 items) on relevance. Ratings were used to calculate Item-Content Validity Index and average Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI/ave) scores. Items with insufficient content validity were removed. Psychometric characteristics: Ratings of students, nurses, and nurse specialists were used to test for different item functioning (DIF) and unidimensionality before item characteristics (discrimination and difficulty) were examined using Item Response Theory. Finally, norm references were calculated and nomological validity was assessed. Content validity: Forty-three items remained after assessing content validity (S-CVI/ave = 0.90). Psychometric characteristics: Of the 43 items, two demonstrating ceiling effects and 11 distorting ability estimates (DIF) were subsequently excluded. Item characteristics were assessed for the remaining 30 items, all of which demonstrated good discrimination and difficulty parameters. Knowledge was positively correlated with certainty about this knowledge. The final 30-item KOP-Q is a valid, psychometrically sound, comprehensive instrument that can be used to assess the knowledge of nursing students, hospital nurses, and nurse specialists in geriatrics regarding older hospitalized adults. It can identify knowledge and certainty deficits for research purposes or serve as a tool in educational
Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine
Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L.
McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Leach, Candace
Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, McCrory P. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 (suppl 1):i3-i12. Which self-report symptom scales or checklists are psychometrically sound for clinical use to assess sport-related concussion? Articles available in full text, published from the establishment of each database through December 2008, were identified from PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and AMED. Search terms included brain concussion, signs or symptoms, and athletic injuries, in combination with the AND Boolean operator, and were limited to studies published in English. The authors also hand searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional searches of books, conference proceedings, theses, and Web sites of commercial scales were done to provide additional information about the psychometric properties and development for those scales when needed in articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Articles were included if they identified all the items on the scale and the article was either an original research report describing the use of scales in the evaluation of concussion symptoms or a review article that discussed the use or development of concussion symptom scales. Only articles published in English and available in full text were included. From each study, the following information was extracted by the primary author using a standardized protocol: study design, publication year, participant characteristics, reliability of the scale, and details of the scale or checklist, including name, number of items, time of measurement, format, mode of report, data analysis, scoring, and psychometric properties. A quality assessment of included studies was done using 16 items from the Downs and Black checklist1 and assessed reporting, internal validity, and external validity. The initial database search identified 421 articles. After 131 duplicate
Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
AIMS: Mental disorders often go undetected in primary care, for persons awarded disability pension, and in sick-leave certificates. No validity tests of instruments for detection and measurement of mental disorders have been performed in long-term sickness absence (LSA). This is the aim...... of the present study for Common Mental Disorders - Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: It is validity tested in a well-defined Danish population comprising all persons on continuous sickness absence just exceeding eight weeks. CMD-SQ is composed of SCL-SOM (somatization), Whiteley-7 (illness worry...... of SC-ANX4, SCL-DEP6, and SCL-8, called SCL-8AD, showed the best and excellent psychometric and screening statistics. CONCLUSIONS: SCL-8AD, a sub-scale of CMD-SQ, is a promising candidate for screening and measurement of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence....
Seydel, C; Zirke, N; Haupt, H; Szczepek, A; Olze, H; Mazurek, B
Tinnitus is a very complex phenomenon with various mechanisms of origin. Multimodal and interdisciplinary treatment is the most effective form of treatment for patients with chronic tinnitus. In order to assess existing comorbidity in tinnitus patients as well as to treat the patients individually, a comprehensive and differentiated diagnosis is needed. Since standardized guidelines for the use of relevant instruments in the diagnosis of tinnitus have been lacking hitherto, we present here psychometric questionnaires which have already been used effectively in the research, diagnosis and therapy of tinnitus in the present article. The questionnaires measure the severity of tinnitus, depression and anxiety, the perceived stress, personal resources as well as the quality of life of patients.
This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.
Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Howard, Elizabeth
Translation of instruments needs to ensure equivalence between the source and the target language to establish the psychometric properties of the translated version. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) instrument. The 12-item English version of the SDSCA was translated into Arabic using back translation on a sample of 140 Lebanese participants with Type 2 diabetes. Construct validity was measured using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. Multitrait scaling analysis was used to test for item convergent and discriminant validity based on item-scale correlations. Conceptual and content validity were examined by an expert panel in diabetes. Internal consistency reliability R was assessed using interitem correlations. The average interitem correlation for the four subscales ranged between--.05 for Diet and .66 for Glucose Testing. Factor analysis identified four factors which accounted for 60% of the variance. The preliminary results of Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities-Arabic Version (SDSCA-Ar) are comparable to the psychometric properties the original SDSCA. SDSCA-Ar is a valid measure of diabetes self-care in Lebanese patients with diabetes.
Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M
To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garmy, Pernilla; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K; Hagell, Peter; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) in an adolescent population. The investigation was performed among Swedish students aged 13-15 years ( n = 817; 58% girls). The SHIS was assessed for respondent acceptability, and its psychometric properties were evaluated according to classical test theory (regarding unidimensionality, targeting, reliability, and external construct validity). The adolescents found it easy to complete the questionnaire, which was completed in an average of 4 minutes. Exploratory factor analysis, which is based on polychoric correlations, identified one factor, supporting the instrument's unidimensionality. Floor/ceiling effects were ⩽ 3.3%. Reliability estimates yielded a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.93; the test-retest reliability ( n = 50; 2-week interval) coefficients were 0.89 for the total SHIS score and 0.52-0.79 for item scores. Spearman correlations with other variables were based on a priori expectations (self-rated general health, 0.595; depressive symptoms, -0.773; anxiety, -0.577; and sleep problems, 0.519). Our observations support both the acceptability and the psychometric properties of the SHIS as a brief, unidimensional assessment tool for salutogenic health in adolescents. Further studies using modern test theory are needed to better understand the measurement properties of the SHIS, including the functioning of its response categories and its comparability between adolescents and adults.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI among a mixed-gender sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72, in a school context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor first-order structure. Cross-gender measurement invariance and cross-sample measurement invariance using a forensic sample of institutionalized males were also confirmed. The Portuguese version of the YPI demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity of statistically significant associations with conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex. In terms of known-groups validity, males scored higher than females, and males from the school sample scored lower than institutionalized males. The use of the YPI among the Portuguese male and female youth population is psychometrically justified, and it can be a useful measure to identify adolescents with high levels of psychopathic traits.
Wiberg, Marie; Culpepper, Steven; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wang, Wen-Chung
This proceedings volume compiles and expands on selected and peer reviewed presentations given at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and held in Asheville, North Carolina, July 11th to 17th, 2016. IMPS is one of the largest international meetings focusing on quantitative measurement in psychology, education, and the social sciences, both in terms of participants and number of presentations. The meeting built on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology, addressing a diverse set of psychometric topics including item response theory, factor analysis, structural equation modeling, time series analysis, mediation analysis, cognitive diagnostic models, and multi-level models. Selected presenters were invited to revise and expand their contributions and to have them peer reviewed and published in this proceedings volume. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society�...
Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Chow, Sy-Miin
These research articles from the 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 79th annual meeting took place in Madison, WI between July 21nd and 25th, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013) and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (Springer, 2015).
OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety......, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) RESULTS: Symptom rating...... scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total...
Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wiberg, Marie
The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 80th annual meeting took place in Beijing, China, between the 12th and 16th of July, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013), Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (Springer, 2015), and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Wisconsin, USA, 2014 (Springer, 2015).
Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete
The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....
García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli
Recent studies reported that flanking stimuli broaden the psychometric function and lower detection thresholds. We measured psychometric functions for detection and discrimination with and without flankers to investigate whether these effects occur throughout the contrast continuum. Our results confirm that lower detection thresholds with flankers are accompanied by broader psychometric functions. Psychometric functions for discrimination reveal that discrimination thresholds with and without flankers are similar across standard levels, and that the broadening of psychometric functions with flankers disappears as standard contrast increases, to the point that psychometric functions at high standard levels are virtually identical with or without flankers. Threshold-versus-contrast (TvC) curves with flankers only differ from TvC curves without flankers in occasional shallower dippers and lower branches on the left of the dipper, but they run virtually superimposed at high standard levels. We discuss differences between our results and other results in the literature, and how they are likely attributed to the differential vulnerability of alternative psychophysical procedures to the effects of presentation order. We show that different models of flanker facilitation can fit the data equally well, which stresses that succeeding at fitting a model does not validate it in any sense. PMID:21264745
Carle, Adam C; Cella, David; Cai, Li; Choi, Seung W; Crane, Paul K; Curtis, S McKay; Gruhl, Jonathan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Reise, Steven P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Thissen, David; Wu, Eric J; Hays, Ron D
In 2002, the NIH launched the 'Roadmap for Medical Research'. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is one of the Roadmap's key aspects. To create the next generation of patient-reported outcome measures, PROMIS utilizes item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing. In 2009, the NIH funded the second wave of PROMIS studies (PROMIS II). PROMIS II studies continue PROMIS's agenda, but also include new features, including longitudinal analyses and more sociodemographically diverse samples. PROMIS II also includes increased emphasis on pediatric populations and evaluation of PROMIS item banks for clinical research and population science. These aspects bring new psychometric challenges. To address this, investigators associated with PROMIS gathered at the Third Psychometric Summit in September 2010 to identify, describe and discuss pressing psychometric issues and new developments in the field, as well as make analytic recommendations for PROMIS. The summit addressed five general themes: linking, differential item functioning, dimensionality, IRT models for longitudinal applications and new IRT software. In this article, we review the discussions and presentations that occurred at the Third PROMIS Psychometric Summit.
Quan, Peng; Zheng, Pei-Yong; You, Sheng-Fu; Hua, Yong-Qiang; Song, Yi; Liu, Tao; Wan, Chong-Hua; Lu, Jin-Gen
To establish questionnaire scaling and reliability and examine the clinical and psychometric validity of the quality of life assessment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine for advanced gastric cancer (QLASTCM-Ga). The QLASTCM-Ga was developed based on programmed decision procedures with multiple nominal and focus group discussions, in-depth interview, pretesting and quantitative statistical procedures. The questionnaire was administered to 240 patients diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer before and after treatment. Structured group methods were employed to establish a general and a specifific module respectively. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated with respect to validity, reliability and responsiveness. The three identified scales of the QLASTCM-Ga and the total score demonstrated good psychometric properties. Test-retest reliability of the total scale and all domains ranged from 0.90 to 0.94, and internal consistency ranged from 0.86 to 0.93. Correlation and factor analysis demonstrated good construct validity. Signifificant difference in the subscales and the total score were found among groups differing in traditional Chinese medicine syndrome, supporting the clinical sensitivity of the QLASTCM-Ga. Statistically signifificant changes were found for each scale and the total score. Responsiveness was also good. The QLASTCM-Ga demonstrates good psychometric and clinical validity to assess quality of life in patients with advanced gastric cancer undergoing traditional Chinese medicine therapy. This study is an important fifirst step for future research in this area.
Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M
Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report measure of desire thinking. In Study 1 we constructed the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and conducted a preliminary factor analysis which identified two factors. The first factor concerned the perseveration of verbal thoughts about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Verbal Perseveration'. The second factor concerned the tendency to prefigure images about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Imaginal Prefiguration'. In Study 2 we performed a confirmatory factor analysis which provided support for this two factor solution, with both factors achieving adequate internal consistency. Divergent validity was also established through correlation analyses. In Study 3 the temporal stability of the DTQ was examined and confirmed. Finally, in Study 4, the predictive validity of the DTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers was investigated. The DTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity. This self-report measure may aid future research into desire thinking and craving, as well as facilitate assessment and case formulation within the context of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders.
Reid, Rory C; Garos, Sheila; Fong, Timothy
Background and aims The past decade has seen an increased interest in understanding hypersexual behavior and its associated features. Beyond the obvious risks for sexually transmitted infections, there is a paucity of literature examining specific challenges encountered by hypersexual individuals. This study investigated and developed a new scale, the Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale (HBCS), to assess the various consequences reported among hypersexual patients. Methods Participants were drawn from a sample of patients recruited in a DSM-5 Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder (HD). Participants completed the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, a structured diagnostic interview to assess for psychopathology and HD, and self-report measures of personality, life satisfaction, and the initial item pool for the HBCS. Results Factor analysis reduced the HBCS items to a single factor solution which showed high internal consistency and stability over time. Higher HBCS scores were positively correlated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness and lower levels of satisfaction with life and happiness. HBCS scores among the hypersexual patients were significantly higher than non-hypersexual patients. Conclusions The HBCS possesses good psychometric properties and appears to capture various consequences associated with the DSM-5 proposed criteria for HD. The HBCS can be used to aid clinicians and researchers in identifying consequences associated with hypersexual behavior. The HBCS may also prove a useful tool to guide treatment interventions aimed at reducing the negative impact of hypersexuality in patient populations.
Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonar, Erin E
Researchers and clinicians suggest that excessive tanning may be a behavioral addiction. Given the significance of craving in substance use, craving may be a useful construct to assess in those who tan. We designed this study to assess the psychometric properties of an alcohol craving measure adapted to measure past-week craving to tan. Undergraduate students (n = 421) who reported past-month tanning completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed demographics, tanning-related characteristics, and psychopathology, in addition to the Craving to Tan Questionnaire (CTQ). Analyses provided support for a single factor CTQ with good internal consistency, construct validity and convergent validity. CTQ scores were significantly higher among problematic versus non-problematic and dependent versus non-dependent tanners. CTQ scores were also associated with several tanning-related characteristics, such money spent on tanning in a typical month, frequency of tanning, and frequency of tanning-related problems. Additional analyses found that past-week craving to tan was significantly associated with greater obsessive compulsive and body dysmorphic symptoms. It may be useful in clinical settings to identify those experiencing problems with tanning and in research to further clarify the conceptualization of addiction-like tanning. However, the CTQ needs further evaluation.
Bridger, Robert S; Johnsen, Svein Åge Kjøs; Brasher, Kate
The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is used in ergonomics research to measure behavioural problems associated with attentiveness and memory in everyday life. CFQ scores have been related to constructs such as accident proneness and outcomes such as human error and psychological strain. The two-year test-retest reliability of the CFQ is reported together with the findings of factor analyses of CFQ data from 535 respondents. Evidence for the predictive and criterion validity and internal reliability of the CFQ is provided. Psychological strain was measured concurrently with CFQ on both testing occasions, two years apart. The test-retest reliability of the summated CFQ score was found to be 0.71, while for the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) strain measure it was 0.32.The relative variance stability was five times greater for the CFQ than the GHQ, indicating that scores on these questionnaires are not covariates. The use of the CFQ as a measure of cognitive control capacity is also discussed. Ergonomists have long been interested in human error and the role of high work demands due to poor equipment design and excessive workload. The CFQ measures attentiveness in daily life and is shown to have excellent psychometric properties that make it suitable for use in both laboratory and field studies as a trait measure of attentiveness in daily life.
Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold
Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.
Holly G Prigerson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bereavement is a universal experience, and its association with excess morbidity and mortality is well established. Nevertheless, grief becomes a serious health concern for a relative few. For such individuals, intense grief persists, is distressing and disabling, and may meet criteria as a distinct mental disorder. At present, grief is not recognized as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV or ICD-10. The goal of this study was to determine the psychometric validity of criteria for prolonged grief disorder (PGD to enhance the detection and potential treatment of bereaved individuals at heightened risk of persistent distress and dysfunction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 291 bereaved respondents were interviewed three times, grouped as 0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 mo post-loss. Item response theory (IRT analyses derived the most informative, unbiased PGD symptoms. Combinatoric analyses identified the most sensitive and specific PGD algorithm that was then tested to evaluate its psychometric validity. Criteria require reactions to a significant loss that involve the experience of yearning (e.g., physical or emotional suffering as a result of the desired, but unfulfilled, reunion with the deceased and at least five of the following nine symptoms experienced at least daily or to a disabling degree: feeling emotionally numb, stunned, or that life is meaningless; experiencing mistrust; bitterness over the loss; difficulty accepting the loss; identity confusion; avoidance of the reality of the loss; or difficulty moving on with life. Symptoms must be present at sufficiently high levels at least six mo from the death and be associated with functional impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The criteria set for PGD appear able to identify bereaved persons at heightened risk for enduring distress and dysfunction. The results support the psychometric validity of the criteria for PGD that we propose for inclusion in DSM-V and ICD-11. Please see later in the article for
Saltychev, Mikhail; Mattie, Ryan; McCormick, Zachary; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of individuals with chronic low back pain by defining its internal consistency, construct structure and validity, and its ability to differentiate between different degrees of functional limitation. A total of 837 consecutive outpatient patients with low back pain were studied. The internal consistency of ODI was assessed by Cronbach's α, construct structure by exploratory factor analysis, construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and discrimination was determined by item response theory analysis. The ODI showed good internal consistency (α=0.85). Explanatory factor analysis showed that ODI is a unidimensional test measuring functional level and nothing else. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the standardized regression weights of all ODI items were relatively high, varying from 0.5 to 0.7. The item response theory analysis suggested that eight out of 10 ODI items have a close to perfect ability to measure functional limitations in accordance with the actual severity of disability experienced by the respondents. Discrimination of all the items was high to perfect (1.08-2.01). The test characteristic and test information curves showed that the discriminative ability of the ODI is superior at higher levels of disability. The present data showed that the ODI is an internally consistent, unidimensional scale with overall excellent construct validity and ability to discriminate the severity of functional disability. The analysis suggests that the ODI may better distinguish between the relative degrees of function at above-average disability levels.
Watson, Andrew B
QUEST+ is a Bayesian adaptive psychometric testing method that allows an arbitrary number of stimulus dimensions, psychometric function parameters, and trial outcomes. It is a generalization and extension of the original QUEST procedure and incorporates many subsequent developments in the area of parametric adaptive testing. With a single procedure, it is possible to implement a wide variety of experimental designs, including conventional threshold measurement; measurement of psychometric function parameters, such as slope and lapse; estimation of the contrast sensitivity function; measurement of increment threshold functions; measurement of noise-masking functions; Thurstone scale estimation using pair comparisons; and categorical ratings on linear and circular stimulus dimensions. QUEST+ provides a general method to accelerate data collection in many areas of cognitive and perceptual science.
Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L
Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings.
Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military Suicide Attitudes Questionnaire (MSAQ) by Marcus VanSickle...MEDICAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE PROGRAM Title of Dissertation: "Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military Suicide Attitudes...hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: "Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military
Gil-Monte, P R; Manzano-García, G
The burnout syndrome contributes to the deterioration in the quality of personal life as well as lower quality practice in healthcare personnel. Researchers have been concerned about the psychometric limitations of some previous questionnaires designed to evaluate burnout. The Spanish Burnout Inventory was developed to address the problems associated with other instruments, but it has not yet been validated in staff nurses. This study provides evidence that the Spanish Burnout Inventory has adequate psychometric properties to estimate burnout in staff nurses. The Spanish Burnout Inventory offers a theoretical proposal to explain the different components of burnout. The Spanish Burnout Inventory provides researchers and practitioners with an expanded conceptualization of the burnout syndrome, which can facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of nursing professionals. Researchers have been concerned about the psychometric limitations of the some previous questionnaires designed to evaluate burnout. To address these problems associated with previous instruments, the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI) was developed. The instrument has not yet been validated in staff nurses. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SBI. The sample consisted of 720 staff nurses from two Spanish general hospitals. The instrument is composed of 20 items distributed in four dimensions: Enthusiasm towards the job (five items), Psychological exhaustion (four items), Indolence (six items) and Guilt (five items). Data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. To assess the factorial validity of the SBI, four alternative models were tested. Results show that the four-factor model of the SBI has adequate psychometric properties for the study of burnout in staff nurses. This model fitted the data better than the alternative models. The study provides evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of a measure to evaluate burnout in nursing professionals. The
McCoy, Michelle A; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Pitt, Victoria
This paper reports the development and psychometric testing of the Ascent to Competence Scale, an instrument designed to measure nursing students' perceptions of the quality of their clinical placement experience. The key purpose of clinical placements is to facilitate students' learning and progress toward the attainment of competence. The attainment of competence requires personal commitment and active involvement of students; support and guidance of clinical and academic staff; and clinical environments that are welcoming and inclusive of students. The items for the Ascent to Competence Scale were identified following a critical review of the literature. Content and face validity were established by an expert panel. During 2010 the instrument was tested with third year nursing students (n=88) from one Australian university. Exploratory factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was used to determine construct validity and Cronbach's coefficient alpha determined the scale's internal consistency reliability. The final scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha 0.98). Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-component structure termed "Being welcomed"; "Belongingness" and "Learning and competence". Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency: 0.89; 0.96; and 0.95 respectively. The Ascent to Competence Scale provides a fresh perspective on clinical placements as it allows for the relationship between belongingness, learning and competence to be explored. The scale was reliable and valid for this cohort. Further research in different contexts would be valuable in extending upon this work. The Ascent to Competence Scale profiled in this paper will be of benefit to both educational and healthcare institutions. The use of a quantified yardstick, such as the Ascent to Competence Scale, is important in evaluating the efficacy of programs, placements and partnerships between higher education and health services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd
Rosneck, James S; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John; Josephson, Richard; Noe, Donald A; Waechter, Donna
This article describes the systematic construction and psychometric analysis of a knowledge assessment instrument for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients measuring risk modification disease management knowledge and behavioral outcomes derived from national standards relevant to secondary prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. First, using adult curriculum based on disease-specific learning outcomes and competencies, a systematic test item development process was completed by clinical staff. Second, a panel of educational and clinical experts used an iterative process to identify test content domain and arrive at consensus in selecting items meeting criteria. Third, the resulting 31-question instrument, the Cardiac Knowledge Assessment Tool (CKAT), was piloted in CR patients to ensure use of application. Validity and reliability analyses were performed on 3638 adults before test administrations with additional focused analyses on 1999 individuals completing both pretreatment and posttreatment administrations within 6 months. Evidence of CKAT content validity was substantiated, with 85% agreement among content experts. Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated via factor analysis identifying key underlying factors. Estimates of internal consistency, for example, Cronbach's α = .852 and Spearman-Brown split-half reliability = 0.817 on pretesting, support test reliability. Item analysis, using point biserial correlation, measured relationships between performance on single items and total score (P knowledge instrument specifically designed for an adult CR population was systematically developed and tested in a large representative patient population, satisfying psychometric parameters, including validity and reliability.
Follingstad, Diane R; Coker, Ann L; Garcia, Lisandra S; Bush, Heather M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of complementary and novel measures of partner interfering and partner supportive behaviors in cancer care (PIB-C and PSB-C). Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 378 women (aged 18-79) in partnered relationships and recruited from the Kentucky Cancer Registry. Psychometric analyses of PIB-C and PSB-C were used to determine scale reliability, and scale construct and predictive validity (correlations with indicators of partner abuse, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress after cancer). Cronbach's alpha and split-half calculations indicated excellent internal consistency of the 20-item PIB-C (0.936 and 0.87, respectively) and 12-item PSB-C (0.930 and 0.89). Three thematic clusters for the PIB-C and two for the PSB-C were identified through factor analyses. Regarding construct validity, higher PIB-C and lower PSB-C scores were associated with a measure of psychological impacts from abuse. Predictive validity was suggested through (1) lower PSB-C associated with depression, (2) higher PIB-C associated with anxiety, and (3) higher perceived stress associated with higher PIB-C/lower PSB-C scores. Both PIB-C and PSB-C have strong psychometric properties and distinguish partner behaviors more likely to negatively impact women's depression, anxiety, and stress during cancer care/recovery. Use of these measures may assist clinical teams in comprehensively assessing women patients' home environment to best ensure cancer care/recovery. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bastos, Joao Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller; Faerstein, Eduardo; Barros, Aluisio J D
The literature addressing the use of the race variable to study causes of racial inequities in health is characterized by a dense discussion on the pitfalls in interpreting statistical associations as causal relationships. In contrast, fewer studies have addressed the use of racial discrimination scales to estimate discrimination effects on health, and none of them provided a thorough assessment of the scales' psychometric properties. Our aim was to systematically review self-reported racial discrimination scales to describe their development processes and to provide a synthesis of their psychometric properties. A computer-based search in PubMed, LILACS, PsycInfo, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted without any type of restriction, using search queries containing free and controlled vocabulary. After initially identifying 3060 references, 24 scales were included in the review. Despite the fact that discrimination stands as topic of international relevance, 23 (96%) scales were developed within the United States. Most studies (67%, N = 16) were published in the last 12 years, documenting initial attempts at scale development, with a dearth of investigations on scale refinements or cross-cultural adaptations. Psychometric properties were acceptable; sixteen of all scales presented reliability scores above 0.7, 19 out of 20 instruments confirmed at least 75% of all previously stated hypotheses regarding the constructs under consideration, and conceptual dimensional structure was supported by means of any type of factor analysis in 17 of 21 scales. However, independent researchers, apart from the original scale developers, have rarely examined such scales. The use of racial terminology and how it may influence self-reported experiences of discrimination has not yet been thoroughly examined. The need to consider other types of unfair treatment as concurrently important health-damaging exposures, and the idea of a universal instrument which would permit cross
Ashktorab, Tahereh; Hasanvand, Shirin; Seyedfatemi, Naemeh; Zayeri, Farid; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Pournia, Yadollah
Belongingness has been identified both as a fundamental human need and as a prerequisite for nursing students' clinical learning. Belongingness has also been associated with students' academic achievement, retention, self-esteem, self-directed learning, and self-efficacy. The Belongingness Scale-Clinical Placement Experience is a valid and reliable measure of nursing students' belongingness scores; however, a Persian version of this scale is not currently available. This study aimed to translate the Belongingness Scale-Clinical Placement Experience into Persian, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to measure the belongingness experiences of Iranian nursing students. Following translation and initial validity and reliability testing of the scale, 300 nursing students from three universities in Iran completed the survey. Further psychometric testing was undertaken followed by analysis of descriptive statistics. Based on the results of confirmatory factor analysis two items were removed from the scale. The mean score of Persian version of the Belongingness Scale-Clinical Placement Experience was 3.21 (0.57). The whole scale had a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92). The alpha coefficients of the subscales of "self-esteem", "connectedness", and "efficacy" were 0.85, 0.86, and 0.80 respectively. Similar to previous versions of the Belongingness Scale-Clinical Placement Experience, the Persian version demonstrated strong psychometric properties with strong validity and reliability, indicating its utility and appropriateness when measuring Iranian nursing students' belongingness experiences. Further testing with other cohorts would strengthen these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sleddens, Ester F C; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice C; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom
Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child's behavioral patterns (i.e., Surgency, Negative Affectivity Effortful Control) using both scales. Psychometrics of the 36-item Children's Behavior Questionnaire were examined using classical test theory, principal factor analysis, and item response modeling. Classical test theory analysis demonstrated adequate internal consistency and factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Potential improvements to the measure were identified using item response modeling. A one-item (three response categories) temperament scale was validated against the three temperament factors of the 36-item scale. The temperament response categories correlated with the temperament factors of the 36-item scale, as expected. The one-item temperament scale may be applicable for clinical use.
Kira, Ibrahim A; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Lewandowski, Linda; Mohanesh, Jamal; Abdul-Khalek, Husam
The study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the ISMI measure on an Arab sub-sample (N = 330) in a health clinic that served mostly refugees in Michigan, USA. Study measures included the ISMI, PTSD, depression, anxiety, CTD (Cumulative Trauma Disorders), and traumatic stress measures. Data analysis included factor analysis, correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The Arabic form of the measure was found to have robust psychometric qualities, with high reliability construct and predictive validity. Factor analysis identified a general stigma factor and different levels of stigma resistance factors. General stigma was significantly associated with and predicted post-trauma symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD and CTD (complex PTSD), while tough stigma resistance was associated negatively with PTSD and depression and positively with positive appraisal of traumatic events. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nast, Irina; Bolten, Margarete; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Hellhammer, Dirk H
A growing body of literature documents associations of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy with fetal, infant and child behaviour and development. However, findings across studies are often inconsistent, which may in part be due to differences in stress definitions and assessments. We systematically reviewed methods applied to assess maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy in studies looking at associations with biobehavioural outcomes in the offspring. A systematic literature search was performed on Web of Science and PubMed for the time period between January 1999 and October 2009. Psychometric instruments assessing maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy were identified and described if data on psychometric properties were available. We identified 115 publications that assessed psychosocial stress during pregnancy with validated methods. These publications applied overall 43 different instruments assessing constructs falling under seven categories, ordered according to their frequency of use: anxiety, depression, daily hassles, aspects of psychological symptomatology (not reduced to anxiety or depression), life events, specific socio-environmental stressors and stress related to pregnancy and parenting. If available, we provide information on validity and reliability of the instruments for samples of pregnant women. Within the 'prenatal stress' research, a broad range of instruments is applied to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy. Prenatal stress research should take into consideration that the variety of methods in use might hamper the comparability of stress research results. In each category of stress constructs, one instrument with good psychometric properties in pregnant women is highlighted as the best currently available measure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
spontaneously see the "aura" or energy field of a person, also tend to exhibit elevated levels of imaginative processing or fantasy proneness. There are some indications that those who have a high capacity for absorption usually also experience different parasomatic shapes, tactile hallucinations and sensations of subtle energies, as well as schizotypical ideation, perceptual error and increased synesthesia. The objective is to calculate the correlations of psychological absorption scores, dissociation, fantasy proneness, intensity of imagination and the schizotypical tendency of people who claim to see auras (N=83, in comparison to a group of people lacking these experiences (N=503. The results indicate a higher level of cognitive perceptual schizotypy than for those who do not have this experience. Possibly, these people have a much more intense imaginative life. This does not necessarily have any psychopathological implications for the individual; people who see auras might simply be sensitive to anomalous perceptual experiences.
Huang, Hsiaomin; Grant, John A; Miller, Bruce S; Mirza, Faisal M; Gagnier, Joel J
Many patient-reported outcome instruments (or questionnaires) have been developed for use in patients with rotator cuff disease. Before an instrument is implemented, its psychometric properties should be carefully assessed, and the methodological quality of papers that investigate a psychometric component of an instrument must be carefully evaluated. Together, the psychometric evidence and the methodological quality can then be used to arrive at an estimate of an instrument's quality. To identify patient-reported outcome instruments used in patients with rotator cuff disease and to critically appraise and summarize their psychometric properties to guide researchers and clinicians in using high-quality patient-reported outcome instruments in this population. Systematic review. Systematic literature searches were performed to find English-language articles concerning the development or evaluation of a psychometric property of a patient-reported outcome instrument for use in patients with rotator cuff disease. Methodological quality and psychometric evidence were critically appraised and summarized through 2 standardized sets of criteria. A total of 1881 articles evaluating 39 instruments were found per the search strategy, of which 73 articles evaluating 16 instruments were included in this study. The Constant-Murley score, the DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index were the 3 most frequently evaluated instruments. In contrast, the psychometric properties of the Korean Shoulder Scoring System, Shoulder Activity Level, Subjective Shoulder Value, and Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder index were evaluated by only 1 study each. The Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index was found to have the best overall quality of psychometric properties per the established criteria, with positive evidence found in internal consistency, reliability, content validity, hypothesis testing, and responsiveness. The DASH, Shoulder Pain
Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai
In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…
Coakley, Tanya M.; Orme, John G.
Objective: The psychometric properties of a new measure of foster parents' openness toward participating in activities that promote children's cultural development are evaluated. The measure is titled the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale (CRFS). Method: Data from 304 foster mothers who completed the CRFS and a battery of measures on…
Pignotti, Monica; Abell, Neil
Objectives: The current study presents an initial psychometric analysis of a three-dimensional scale designed to measure stereotyping of people who are single, defined as not currently legally married. Methods: Following expert review, proposed scale items are administered to 178 graduate and undergraduate students. Reliability analysis and…
The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…
Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William
Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…
Dijkstra, A.; Brown, L.; Havens, B.; Romeren, T.I.; Zanotti, R.; Dassen, T.; van den Heuvel, W.
In an international study, psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) were examined by analysing data gathered in Dutch, Canadian, Italian and Norwegian nursing homes. For that purpose, from these countries a convenience sample was developed consisting of 525 patients with dementia.
Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew
School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…
T. H. Veldsman
Full Text Available Psychometric testing is an important, valuable, widespread and legally protected activity in South Africa. Within the ambit of the organizational context a psychometric policy is required to guide and direct this activity. The purpose of this article is to show how the need for such a policy within an organization can be fulfilled. The article proceeds as follows: firstly, the positioning of a psychometric policy within the overall human resource management of an organization is discussed; secondly, a definition of the term 'psychometric policy' and the aims thereof are given; thirdly, a suggested content for such a policy is outlined; fourthly a method of generating this policy is proposed; and lastly, the role of the psychologist in this regard is indicated. Opsomming Psigometriese toetsing is 'n belangrike, waardevolle, algemene en wetlik beskermde aktiwiteit in Suid-Afrika. Binne organisatoriese verband word 'n psigometriese beleid benodig om hierdie aktiwiteit te lei en rig. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te toon hoe die behoefte aan sodanige beleid in 'n organisasie vervul kan word. Die artikel verloop soos volg: eerstens, word die plasing van 'n psigometriese beleid binne die algemene menslike hulpbronbestuur van die organisasie bespreek; tweedens, word 'n definisie van die begrip "psigometriese beleid" en die doelwitte daarvan gegee; derdens, word 'n voorgestelde inhoud vir sodanige beleid aan die orde gestel; uierdens, word 'n metode aangedui waarvolgens hierdie beleid daargestel kan word; en laastens, word die rol van die sielkundige in hierdie area aangedui.
Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James
This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…
Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.
The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…
Yi, Yongwoo; Merfeld, Daniel M
Perceptual thresholds are commonly assayed in the laboratory and clinic. When precision and accuracy are required, thresholds are quantified by fitting a psychometric function to forced-choice data. The primary shortcoming of this approach is that it typically requires 100 trials or more to yield accurate (i.e., small bias) and precise (i.e., small variance) psychometric parameter estimates. We show that confidence probability judgments combined with a model of confidence can yield psychometric parameter estimates that are markedly more precise and/or markedly more efficient than conventional methods. Specifically, both human data and simulations show that including confidence probability judgments for just 20 trials can yield psychometric parameter estimates that match the precision of those obtained from 100 trials using conventional analyses. Such an efficiency advantage would be especially beneficial for tasks (e.g., taste, smell, and vestibular assays) that require more than a few seconds for each trial, but this potential benefit could accrue for many other tasks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Some psychometric properties of the Affect Balance Scale have been tested on a random sample of 354 elderly people in the Netherlands. Internal reliability estimates were comparable with prior ones, and the 8-wk. test-retest reliability is reasonable for these 5-item measures.
Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William
Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…
Niclasen, Janni; Teasdale, Thomas William; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural five factor instrument developed to assess emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties for parent and teacher ratings in the Danish...
Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J
This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.
Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min
This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…
Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…
DeMand, Alexandra; Johnson, Cynthia; Foldes, Emily
The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory (BAMBI). In a sample of 273 well-characterized children with ASD, we explored the factor structure of the BAMBI, determined the internal consistency of a newly derived factor structure and provide an empirically derived cut-off for…
Oon, Pey-Tee; Fan, Xitao
Students' attitude towards science (SAS) is often a subject of investigation in science education research. Survey of rating scale is commonly used in the study of SAS. The present study illustrates how Rasch analysis can be used to provide psychometric information of SAS rating scales. The analyses were conducted on a 20-item SAS scale used in an…
Meerkerk, G.J.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Garretsen, H.F.L.
The present study aimed to develop a short, easily administered, psychometrically sound, and valid instrument to assess the severity of compulsive Internet use. A set of criteria was determined based on the addiction literature. Next, the internal consistency and convergent validity were determined,
Kampen, van D.
Abstract This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal
A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…
Hollar, David W.
Research has indicated declining empathy within specific professions and social structures. Few psychometric instruments have addressed empathy within the context of psychological distance/relatedness to other individuals and even to other species, relationships that can be important contributors to psychological well-being and health. We…
Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Zhizhang; Liu, Tianyuan
Objectives: The Flourishing Scale (FS) was developed to measure psychological well-being from the eudaimonic perspective, highlighting the flourishing of human functioning. This article evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the simplified Chinese version of FS among a Chinese community population. Method: A total of 433 participants from…
Deng, Lifang; Marcoulides, George A.; Yuan, Ke-Hai
Certain diversity among team members is beneficial to the growth of an organization. Multiple measures have been proposed to quantify diversity, although little is known about their psychometric properties. This article proposes several methods to evaluate the unidimensionality and reliability of three measures of diversity. To approximate the…
Appell, Julian; Kazarian, Shahe S.
Evaluated prognostic validity of clinical and psychometric variables in psychogeriatric inpatients. Divided elderly patients into three outcome groups: nondischarged (n=29), discharged-readmitted (n=38), and discharged-nonreadmitted (n=67). Discriminant analysis of data yielded two predictive functions, which appeared to represent physical status…
Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret
Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…
Reneman, Michiel F.; Dijkstra, Arie; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter
Background: Theoretically, acceptance of chronic pain (CP) is an important determinant in the functional status and well-being of patients with CP. Several questionnaires that aim to measure acceptance of CP have been developed. An overview of the psychometric properties of these questionnaires is
Meerkerk, G.J.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Garretsen, H.F.L.
The present study aimed to develop a short, easily administered, psychometrically sound, and valid instrument to assess the severity of compulsive Internet use. A set of criteria was determined based on the addiction literature. Next, the internal consistency and convergent validity were determined,
Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea
The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…
Glad, Johan; Kottorp, Anders; Jergeby, Ulla; Gustafsson, Carina; Sonnander, Karin
Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to explore psychometric properties of two versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory in a Swedish social service sample. Method: Social workers employed at 22 Swedish child protections agencies participated in the data collection. Both classic test theory approaches and…
Tylka, Tracy L.
Intuitive eating is characterized by eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues and is associated with psychological well-being. This study reports on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with data collected in 4 studies from 1,260 college…
Copeland, H. Liesel; Hewson, Mariana
This report describes the development and psychometric qualities of a new instrument to assess clinical teaching effectiveness in medical education. The strength of the instrument is seen to lie in the qualitative development process involving iterative checking with key stakeholders; its high reliability, validity, and feasibility; and its ease…
Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…
Ryan, Rebecca G.; Wilson, Janie H.; Pugh, James L.
In this study, the authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale, the first scale to measure professor-student rapport. The scale was found to have adequate test-retest and internal-consistency reliability. In addition to these findings, measures used to determine convergent validity included the Working…
Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret
Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…
Kampen, van D.
Abstract This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic sym
Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…
Petscher, Yaacov; Connor, Carol McDonald; Al Otaiba, Stephanie
This study investigated the psychometrics of the "Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Screening Test" (DELV-S) test using confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, and differential item functioning (DIF). Responses from 1,764 students in kindergarten through second grade were used in the study, with results indicating…
Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…
Robinson, Carrie H.; Betz, Nancy E.
This study describes the psychometric evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (SWVI-R), an instrument comprised of 12 scales measuring the relative importance placed on the following work-related value dimensions: Achievement, Coworkers, Creativity, Income, Independence, Lifestyle, Mental Challenge, Prestige, Security, Supervision,…
Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others
Results obtained from scaling the "Drug and Alcohol Survey" (DAS), a questionnaire that assesses the drug involvement of secondary school students are documented. The scales are evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties, their compatability with a change model, and their utility as outcome measures of substance abuse prevention…
The 10-item version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is ... [1-6]. There is a need to investigate the psychometric properties of the Malay version of ... 2015, IP: 18.104.22.168] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal ...
Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.
This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…
Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Brand, Ralf; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Lazuras, Lambros; Lucidi, Fabio
One of the fundamental challenges in anti-doping is identifying athletes who use, or are at risk of using, prohibited performance enhancing substances. The growing trend to employ a forensic approach to doping control aims to integrate information from social sciences (e.g., psychology of doping) into organised intelligence to protect clean sport. Beyond the foreseeable consequences of a positive identification as a doping user, this task is further complicated by the discrepancy between what constitutes a doping offence in the World Anti-Doping Code and operationalized in doping research. Whilst psychology plays an important role in developing our understanding of doping behaviour in order to inform intervention and prevention, its contribution to the array of doping diagnostic tools is still in its infancy. In both research and forensic settings, we must acknowledge that (1) socially desirable responding confounds self-reported psychometric test results and (2) that the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that, to date, both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better understanding of doping behaviour, not to establish evidence for doping. A false 'positive' psychological profile for doping affects not only the individual
Schizotypal personality can be perceived as a personality trait and considered as a dimension. In recent decades, this way of thinking has been promoted by a British psychologist Gordon Clar - idge, the main author of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE schizotypy scale, which is the subject of this arti - cle. In such dimensional model, schizotypy rep - resents a continuum, including the characteris - tics predisposing to psychosis. Thus, schizotypal features are observed in the general population, Daria Dembińska-Krajewska, Janusz Rybakowski : De - patrtment of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Scienc - es. Correspondence address : email@example.com Acknowledgements : The authors thank Prof. Geoffrey Shaw for his linguistic review of the text . and they may sometimes be linked with health and sometimes with disease [1, 2]. Schizophren - ic subjects, even when in remission, achieve high scores on schizotypy tests. However, “non-clini - cal” subjects can obtain high scores on these tests but do not necessarily present symptoms of the schizophrenia spectrum . Schizotypal dimensions correspond to the fac - torial models of schizophrenia. The two-factor model reflects both positive and negative schizo - typy. The three-factor model adds cognitive dis - organization. Negative schizotypal symptoms include withdrawal from social activities, distur - bances in close relationships and anhedonia, all similar to the symptoms of schizophrenic defi - cit. Positive schizotypy includes features such as ideas of reference, perceptual and cognitive dis - tortion and magical thinking, all related to psy - chotic symptoms . The positive schizotypal The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE schizotypy scale in psychiatry
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe a schizotypy scale, the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, and its use in psychiatry. Schizotypy is a strongly biologically determined personality phenomenon. Schizotypal disorder, as a diagnostic category in contemporary psychiatric classifications, has been included in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This may reflect similarities in neurobiological and neuropsychological features between persons with schizotypy and patients with schizophrenia. However, schizotypal traits are also more marked in bipolar disorder (BD compared with those in healthy subjects. The O-LIFE was created by Claridge and his co-workers and consists of four dimensions: unusual expe - riences, cognitive disorganisation, introvertive anhedonia and impulsive nonconformity. Studies using O- LIFE in psychiatry, demonstrated a number of associations between the dimensions of the O-LIFE and the clinical features of schizophrenia, in mood disorders and in healthy persons. In patients with BD treat - ed with lithium carbonate, worse effects of lithium were observed in subjects with high scores on the O- LIFE dimensions (particularly cognitive disorganisation. Recently, some molecular-genetic associations have also been shown between O-LIFE dimensions and polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system and circadian rhythm genes.
Chan, C W
Individuals' perceptions of coronary heart disease (CHD) have implications for the ways in which they respond to the disease, process risks, make decisions, and take action to reduce CHD risks. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the perceptions of coronary heart disease scale (PCS) among a Hong Kong Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample (n = 232) of participants recruited from a variety of catchments including public domains, a cardiac unit, and a cardiac rehabilitation and prevention center. Exploratory factor analysis identified a nine-item, two-factor model that accounted for 52.5% of the total explained variance. The two factors were the perceived risk (five items) and perceived seriousness (four items) of CHD. The PCS demonstrated good content validity; acceptable total, and subscale internal consistency (.73, .61 - .81); and significant contrast-group differences with higher levels of CHD perceptions among males (p = .002), younger participants (p psychometric properties as a short measurement scale, which supports its use in future research. Future validation of this scale is warranted.
Johansson, Unn-Britt; Kaila, Päivi; Ahlner-Elmqvist, Marianne; Leksell, Janeth; Isoaho, Hannu; Saarikoski, Mikko
This article is a report of the development and psychometric testing of the Swedish version of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale. To achieve quality assurance, collaboration between the healthcare and nursing systems is a pre-requisite. Therefore, it is important to develop a tool that can measure the quality of clinical education. The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale is a previously validated instrument, currently used in several universities across Europe. The instrument has been suggested for use as part of quality assessment and evaluation of nursing education. The scale was translated into Swedish from the English version. Data were collected between March 2008 and May 2009 among nursing students from three university colleges, with 324 students completing the questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on the 34-item scale to determine construct validity and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the internal consistency. The five sub-dimensions identified in the original scale were replicated in the exploratory factor analysis. The five factors had explanation percentages of 60.2%, which is deemed sufficient. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale was 0.95, and varied between 0.96 and 0.75 within the five sub-dimensions. The Swedish version of Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale has satisfactory psychometric properties and could be a useful quality instrument in nursing education. However, further investigation is required to develop and evaluate the questionnaire.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Craving Beliefs Questionnaire (CCBQ, an easy-to-administer assessment instrument of measurement of craving beliefs for heroin abusers. Methods Participants were 445 heroin abusers from four methadone clinics in Northern Taiwan. Fifty-one of the participants were tested twice within a two-week period at a different hospital to examine test-retest reliability. Results Three-factor solution using principal component analysis was identified in the CCBQ: will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping, accounting for 54.6% of the variance. Internal consistency analysis indicated that the three factors have strong reliability, with Cronbach alphas ranging from .81 to .92. The test-retest ICC coefficient is .80. The test-retest coefficients for the subscales will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping are .76, .51, and .64, respectively. Overall, the data show that the CCBQ has acceptable reliability and validity, demonstrating that it can be a research instrument for assessing heroin craving beliefs. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the CCBQ seem promising for both research and clinical purposes, and the scale thus deserves further refinement and validation with heroin abusers.
Sady, Maegan D.; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Gioia, Gerard A.
Psychometric characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) were examined in both concussed (n = 633) and uninjured (n = 1,273) 5 to 18 year olds. Parent- and self-report forms were created with developmentally appropriate wording and content. Factor analyses identified physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep factors; that did not load strongly or discriminate between groups were eliminated. Internal consistency was strong for the total scales (α = 0.8–0.9). Test–retest reliability for the self-report forms was moderate to strong (intraclass coeffecients, ICCs = 0.65–0.89). Parent and self-report concordance was moderate (r = .44–.65), underscoring the importance of both perspectives. Convergent validity with another symptom measure was good (r = .8). Classification analyses indicated greater discriminability from parent report, but caveats to this are presented. With strong psychometric characteristics, the four versions of the PCSI capture important postconcussion symptoms and can be utilized to track recovery from pediatric concussion and guide treatment recommendations. PMID:24739735
Eggleton, Kyle; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Henning, Marcus; Jones, Rhys; Shulruf, Boaz
The aim of this study was to develop an instrument (University of Auckland General Practice Report of Educational Environment: UAGREE) with robust psychometric properties that measured the educational environment of undergraduate primary care. The questions were designed to incorporate measurements of the teaching of cultural competence. Following a structured consensus process and an initial pilot, a list of 55 questions was developed. All Year 5 and 6 students completing a primary care attachment at Auckland University were invited to complete the questionnaire. The results were analysed using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis resulting in a 16-item instrument. Three factors were identified explaining 53% of the variance. The items' reliability within the factors were high (Learning: 0.894; Teaching: 0.871; Cultural competence: 0.857). Multiple groups analysis by gender; and separately across ethnic groups did not find significant differences between groups. UAGREE is a specific instrument measuring the undergraduate primary care educational environment. Its questions fit within established theoretical educational environment frameworks and the incorporation of cultural competence questions reflects the importance of teaching cultural competence within medicine. The psychometric properties of UAGREE suggest that it is a reliable and valid measure of the primary care education environment.
Background Hip arthroscopies are often used in the treatment of intra-articular hip injuries. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are an important parameter in evaluating treatment. It is unclear which PRO questionnaires are specifically available for hip arthroscopy patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which PRO questionnaires are valid and reliable in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Methods A search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1931 to October 2010. Studies assessing the quality of PRO questionnaires in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included. The quality of the questionnaires was evaluated by the psychometric properties of the outcome measures. The quality of the articles investigating the questionnaires was assessed by the COSMIN list. Results Five articles identified three questionnaires; the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The NAHS scored best on the content validity, whereas the HOS scored best on agreement, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The quality of the articles describing the HOS scored highest. The NAHS is the best quality questionnaire. The articles describing the HOS are the best quality articles. Conclusions This systematic review shows that there is no conclusive evidence for the use of a single patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Based on available psychometric evidence we recommend using a combination of the NAHS and the HOS for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:21619610
Full Text Available Partimos de una muestra de 94 participantes, seleccionados de la muestra de referencia de 1206 personas que ya habían participado en un estudio que valoraba la estructura factorial del Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE. Estas 94 personas fueron asignadas en grupos diferenciados en términos de bajo, moderado o altos niveles de esquizotipia positiva. Todos completaron también la Escala de Experiencias Disociativas (DES y el Inventario de Sugestionabilidad (IOS. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el aumento de los niveles informados de las experiencias disociativas y mayor sugestionabilidad, ambos, de forma independiente, predicen puntuaciones más altas de la esquizotipia positiva, pero la sugestión parece ser un predictor más potente que la disociación.
Emma Barkus; John Stirling; John Cavill
Partimos de una muestra de 94 participantes, seleccionados de la muestra de referencia de 1206 personas que ya habían participado en un estudio que valoraba la estructura factorial del Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE). Estas 94 personas fueron asignadas en grupos diferenciados en términos de bajo, moderado o altos niveles de esquizotipia positiva. Todos completaron también la Escala de Experiencias Disociativas (DES) y el Inventario de Sugestionabilidad (IOS). N...
Lopes, Sónia; Graça, Patrícia; Teixeira, Salete; Serrano, Ana Maria; Squires, Jane
The essential underlying foundations of Early Intervention (EI), in which parents/family play a critical role in their child's development, leads us to conclude that their contribution assessing early detection of problems is fundamental. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) is a standardized screening instrument that has been successfully studied in different countries and cultures. Translate and study the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese version of the 9, 18 and 30month questionnaires of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3). Cross-sectional study. Validity and reliability were studied in a sample of 234 parents of children within 9, 18 and 30months. The results indicated that the questionnaires had good internal consistency, strong agreement between observers and between observations with two weeks interval, and strong Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between the overall and the total for each domain. The cutoff points (i.e. 2 standard deviations below the mean domain score), that identifies children who should receive further referral for more comprehensive assessment, were close to those determined in the original ASQ-3 psychometric studies. Cronbach's alpha ranging from .42 to .70 and Pearson's r values varies from .22 to .60. Although some weaknesses were noted in psychometric qualities analysis, it can be concluded that the ASQ-PT of 9, 18 and 30months of age fulfills the requirements of a screening tool validated for the Portuguese population. To allow the early identification of children with developmental problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive abilities assessment, is considered to be one of the most complicated and controversial issues in psychological tests. In spite of great usage of new version of Tehran- Stanford- Binet intelligence scale in screening and diagnosis, they have not made so many endeavors to use this valid test in our country and little researches have been conducted to survey psychometric characteristics of mentioned scale. Given the above considerations, the aim of this study is to investigate Tehran-Stanford-Binet intelligence scale psychometric characteristics in dyslectic children. Materials and Methods: In this psychometric study with classical approach, the statistical society was all the students with dyslexia in the elementary schools of Tehran provinces in 1390. The sample size was equal with 120 students with dyslexia who were selected based on purposive sampling. The new version of Tehran-Stanford-Binet intelligence Scale which includes 10 subtests in verbal and nonverbal domains (fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual spatial processing and working memory and eight IQ was used for them. Findings highlight characteristics of this tool is its ability to calculate the combined scores connected to the reading skills. ROC curve methods, kronbach alpha and pearson correlation was used to analyze the data. Results: Result show that SB5 Test has a good reliability and diagnostic validity. It has 98% sensitivity and a desirable potential to identify student with dyslexia (72%. Conclusion: SB5 could be used as an identificationtoal test for dyslexia.
Cook, Nicola A; Kim, Jin Un; Pasha, Yasmin; Crossey, Mary ME; Schembri, Adrian J; Harel, Brian T; Kimhofer, Torben; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D
Background Psychometric testing is used to identify patients with cirrhosis who have developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Most batteries consist of a series of paper-and-pencil tests, which are cumbersome for most clinicians. A modern, easy-to-use, computer-based battery would be a helpful clinical tool, given that in its minimal form, HE has an impact on both patients’ quality of life and the ability to drive and operate machinery (with societal consequences). Aim We compared the Cogstate™ computer battery testing with the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) tests, with a view to simplify the diagnosis. Methods This was a prospective study of 27 patients with histologically proven cirrhosis. An analysis of psychometric testing was performed using accuracy of task performance and speed of completion as primary variables to create a correlation matrix. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with backward elimination, using analysis of variance. Results Strong correlations were found between the international shopping list, international shopping list delayed recall of Cogstate and the PHES digit symbol test. The Shopping List Tasks were the only tasks that consistently had P values of battery correlated very strongly with the digit symbol component of PHES in discriminating severity of HE. These findings would indicate that components of the current PHES battery with the international shopping list tasks of Cogstate would be discriminant and have the potential to be used easily in clinical practice. PMID:28919805
Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Márquez, Sara
The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate a Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport (ISCCS), establishing its psychometric properties and its dimensional structure. Participants were 306 athletes from different sports, aged between 14 and 28 years (45.7% males and 54.3% females), who completed the ISCSS along with other measures of constructs theoretically related to coping. Factor analysis identified eight factors that merged in three high-order dimensions representing task-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping and disengagement-oriented coping. The factors showed appropriate reliability (Cronbach alpha and factor correlations), convergent validity (correlations with COPE Inventory scales) and concurrent validity (correlations with CSAI-2 and PANAS scales). It is concluded that the Spanish version of the ISCCS has proved to be a valid and reliable instrument to identify and assess competitive coping strategies, allowing psychological intervention to improve athletes' performance.
Piredda, Michela; Ghezzi, Valerio; Fenizia, Elisa; Marchetti, Anna; Petitti, Tommasangelo; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Sili, Alessandro
To develop and psychometrically test the Italian-language Nurse Caring Behaviours Scale, a short measure of nurse caring behaviour as perceived by inpatients. Patient perceptions of nurses' caring behaviours are a predictor of care quality. Caring behaviours are culture-specific, but no measure of patient perceptions has previously been developed in Italy. Moreover, existing tools show unclear psychometric properties, are burdensome for respondents, or are not widely applicable. Instrument development and psychometric testing. Item generation included identifying and adapting items from existing measures of caring behaviours as perceived by patients. A pool of 28 items was evaluated for face validity. Content validity indexes were calculated for the resulting 15-item scale; acceptability and clarity were pilot tested with 50 patients. To assess construct validity, a sample of 2,001 consecutive adult patients admitted to a hospital in 2014 completed the scale and was split into two groups. Reliability was evaluated using nonlinear structural equation modelling coefficients. Measurement invariance was tested across subsamples. Item 15 loaded poorly in the exploratory factor analysis (n = 983) and was excluded from the final solution, positing a single latent variable with 14 indicators. This model fitted the data moderately. The confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1018) returned similar results. Internal consistency was excellent in both subsamples. Full scalar invariance was reached, and no significant latent mean differences were detected across subsamples. The new instrument shows reasonable psychometric properties and is a promising short and widely applicable measure of inpatient perceptions of nurse caring behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brédart, A; Kop, J-L; Efficace, F; Beaudeau, A; Brito, T; Dolbeault, S; Aaronson, N
Cancer care is increasingly provided in the outpatient setting, requiring specific monitoring of care quality. The patients' perspective is an important indicator of care quality and needs to be assessed with well designed, psychometrically sound questionnaires. We performed a systematic literature review of currently available patient satisfaction measures for use in cancer outpatient care settings. We carried out MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus searches of papers published over the past 15 years that describe cancer patient satisfaction questionnaires for use in the outpatient setting. We used the adapted COSMIN checklist to assess the quality of the questionnaires' measurement properties. A total of 6677 citations were identified and 76 relevant articles were read, of which 55 were found either not to be relevant or to provide insufficient psychometric information. The remaining 21 studies pertained to 14 patient satisfaction questionnaires. Continuity and transition, accessibility, and involvement of family/friends were less frequently addressed despite their relevance in outpatient oncology. Almost half of the psychometric studies did not provide information on item level missing data. Most internal consistency estimates (Cronbach's α) were satisfactory. Few studies reported test-retest assessment (n = 5), used confirmatory factor analysis (n = 2), or assessed fit to a graded response item response theory model (n = 3). Only three questionnaires were cross-culturally validated. Important aspects of care may be missed by current patient satisfaction questionnaires for use in the cancer outpatient setting. Additional evidence is needed of their psychometric performance, especially for cross-cultural comparative assessments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – short form (VSS-SF, a condition-specific measure of dizziness, following translation of the scale into Norwegian. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine the factor structure, internal consistency and discriminative ability (sample I, n = 503. A cross-sectional pre-intervention design was used to examine the construct validity (sample II, n = 36 of the measure and a test-retest design was used to examine reliability (sub-sample of sample II, n = 28. Results The scree plot indicated a two factor structure accounting respectively for 41% and 12% of the variance prior to rotation. The factors were related to vertigo-balance (VSS-V and autonomic-anxiety (VSS-A. Twelve of the items loaded clearly on either of the two dimensions, while three items cross-loaded. Internal consistency of the VSS-SF was high (alpha = 0.90. Construct validity was indicated by correlation between path length registered by platform posturography and the VSS-V (r = 0.52, but not with the VSS-A. The ability to discriminate between dizzy and not dizzy patients was excellent for the VSS-SF and sub-dimension VSS-V (area under the curve 0.87 and 0.91, respectively, and acceptable for the sub-dimension VSS-A (area under the curve 0.77. High test-retest reliability was demonstrated (ICC VSS-SF: 0.88, VSS-V: 0.90, VSS-A: 0.90 and no systematic change was observed in the scores from test to retest after 2 days. Conclusion Using a Norwegian translated version of the VSS-SF, this is the first study to provide evidence of the construct validity of this instrument demonstrating a stable two factor structure of the scale, and the identified sub-dimensions of dizziness were related to vertigo-balance and autonomic-anxiety, respectively. Evidence regarding a physical construct underlying the vertigo-balance sub-scale was provided. Satisfactory internal
Caro-Bautista, Jorge; Martín-Santos, Francisco Javier; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel
To determine the psychometric properties and theoretical grounding of instruments that evaluate self-care behaviour or barriers in people with type 2 diabetes. There are many instruments designed to evaluate self-care behaviour or barriers in this population, but knowledge about their psychometric validation processes is lacking. Systematic review. We conducted a search for psychometric or validation studies published between January 1990-December 2012. We carried out searches in Pubmed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuolid, BibliPRO and Google SCHOLAR to identify instruments that evaluated self-care behaviours or barriers to diabetes self-care. We conducted a systematic review with the following inclusion criteria: Psychometric or clinimetric validation studies that included patients with type 2 diabetes (exclusively or partially) and which analysed self-care behaviour or barriers to self-care and proxies like self-efficacy or empowerment, from a multidimensional approach. Language: Spanish or English. Two authors independently assessed the quality of the studies and extracted data using Terwee's proposed criteria: psychometrics properties, dimensionality, theoretical ground and population used for validation through each included instrument. Sixteen instruments achieved the inclusion criteria for the review. We detected important methodological flaws in many of the selected instruments. Only the Self-management Profile for Type 2 Diabetes and Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale met half of Terwee's quality criteria. There are no instruments for identifying self-care behaviours or barriers elaborated with a strong validation process. Further research should be carried out to provide patients, clinicians and researchers with valid and reliable instruments that are methodologically solid and theoretically grounded. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmidt, Lee A
The Writing-To-Learn Attitude Survey (WTLAS) was developed to measure the effects of using writing-to-learn activities in the classroom, but adequate psychometric data have not been reported for the measure. Using the pretest scores from 149 basic and RN-to-BSN nursing students enrolled in a Nursing Management and Leadership course, the reliability and validity of the WTLAS were evaluated. The initial 30-item measure demonstrated acceptable reliability, but the item intercorrelations suggested revision of the subscales was appropriate. After exploratory factor analyses, the WTLAS was revised to 21 items and consists of two factors: Apprehensions about Writing Abilities and Perceived Benefits of Writing-To-Learn Activities. Both subscales possess acceptable internal consistency reliability and conceptually sound, significant correlations with a separate measure of writing apprehension. The revised WTLAS appears to have adequate psychometric properties for further use in the evaluation of students' perceptions of writing-to-learn activities.
Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; He, Hong-Gu
This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) given conflicting findings in the literature. A cross-sectional, nonexperimental research was used with a convenience sample of 271 American female health care professionals. Data were collected by using self-reported questionnaires. A series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs), confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), and structural equation modeling (SEM) were performed to examine underlying dimensions of the GHQ-30. Results from EFAs and CFAs revealed the three-factor composition (positive affect, anxiety, and depressed mood). All factor loadings were statistically significant, and one pair of error variance was allowed to be correlated. All factors contained questionnaire items with acceptable face validity and demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. Results from SEM further confirmed underlying constructs of the scale. To our knowledge, this is the first study that extensively tested the psychometric properties of the GHQ-30, taking both statistical and substantive issues into consideration.
Van Ngo, Khai; Storvik, Jehans J.; Dokkeberg, Christopher A.; Farup, Ivar; Pedersen, Marius
QuickEval is a web application for carrying out psychometric scaling experiments. It offers the possibility of running controlled experiments in a laboratory, or large scale experiment over the web for people all over the world. It is a unique one of a kind web application, and it is a software needed in the image quality field. It is also, to the best of knowledge, the first software that supports the three most common scaling methods; paired comparison, rank order, and category judgement. It is also the first software to support rank order. Hopefully, a side effect of this newly created software is that it will lower the threshold to perform psychometric experiments, improve the quality of the experiments being carried out, make it easier to reproduce experiments, and increase research on image quality both in academia and industry. The web application is available at www.colourlab.no/quickeval.
Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.
Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.
Schenk, Elizabeth; Corbett, Cynthia F; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Postma, Julie; Butterfield, Patricia
Nurses are committed to practice in an environmentally safe and healthy manner. However, nursing practice contributes significant negative impacts to the natural environment. We analyzed the psychometric properties of the Nurses Environmental Awareness Tool (NEAT), composed of 6 subscales, measuring awareness of environmental impacts and their health risks and ecological behaviors at work and home. The NEAT was given to 689 nurses via online survey software. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha were examined for each of the 6 subscales. The 6 subscales resulted in one-factor models with items demonstrating adequate reliability (α > .67). The NEAT is a psychometrically sound scale to measure nurses' awareness and behavior related to environmental impacts of nursing practice.
Full Text Available After many decades of romantic relationship research, there is a new focus on a multidimensional model of love. This empirical study examines the multidimensionality and psychometrics of Passionate and Companionate love, based on an extensive study of 413 participants using Multidimensional Love Scale (MLS. A new statistical approach employed in this study explores the typology and structure of love. The statistical approach included the combination of Two-Step Cluster Analysis of cases and Principle Component Analysis of dimensions while using centered variable scores. The results reveal a typology of love based on its multidimensional structure. Further analysis revealed two main types of love: Passionate and Companionate, both containing several factors allowing for interpretation of their multidimensional structures. The MLS subscales and detailed psychometric analysis measuring specific love dimensions are incorporated to allow further research in other studies.
Bragadóttir, Helga; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Smáradóttir, Sigríður Bríet; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund
The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Teamwork Survey-Icelandic (NTS-Icelandic), which was translated from US English to Icelandic. The Nursing Teamwork Survey, with 33 items, measures overall teamwork and five factors of teamwork: trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental models, and team leadership. The psychometric testing of the NTS-Icelandic was carried out on data from a pilot study and a national study. The sample for a pilot study included 123 nursing staff from five units, and the sample for a national study included 925 nursing staff from 27 inpatient units. The overall test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient in the pilot study was 0.693 (lower bound = 0.498, upper bound = 0.821) (p teamwork. The NTS-Icelandic tested valid and reliable in this study. Study findings support further use of the Nursing Teamwork Survey internationally.
Kennerly, Susan M; Yap, Tracey L; Hemmings, Annette; Beckett, Gulbahar; Schafer, John C; Borchers, Andrea
A valid and reliable nursing culture assessment tool aimed at capturing general aspects of nursing culture is needed for use in health care settings to assess and then reshape indicated troubled areas of the nursing culture. This article summarizes the Nursing Culture Assessment Tool's (NCAT) development and reports on a cross-sectional, exploratory investigation of its psychometric properties. The research aims were to test the tool's psychometric properties; discover its dimensionality; and refine the item structure to best represent the construct of nursing culture, an occupational subset of organizational culture. Empirical construct validity was tested using a sample of licensed nurses and nursing assistants (n = 340). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and logistical regression yielded a 6-factor, 19-item solution. Evidence supports the tool's validity for assessing nursing culture as a basis for shaping the culture into one that supports change, thereby accelerating, improving, and advancing nursing best practices and care outcomes.
Mcewen, Marylyn M; Pasvogel, Alice; Murdaugh, Carolyn L
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) self-management among Hispanic adults occurs in a family context. Self-efficacy (SE) affects T2DM self-management behaviors; however, no instruments are available to measure family diabetes self-efficacy. The study's purpose was to test the psychometric properties of the Family Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Scale (FSE). Family members (n = 113) of adults with T2DM participated. Psychometric analysis included internal consistency reliability and concurrent and construct validity. Internal consistency reliability was .86. Items loaded on 2 factors, Family SE for Supporting Healthy Behaviors and Family SE for Supporting General Health, accounting for 71% of the variance. FSE correlated significantly with 3 diabetes-related instruments. The FSE is a reliable and valid instrument. Further testing is needed in diverse populations and geographic areas.
Van Diest, Ilse; Smits, Dirk; Decremer, Davina; Maes, Lori; Claes, Laurence
Fear of suffocation and fear of restriction are thought to underlie claustrophobia and can be assessed with the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ; Radomsky et al., 2001). A first study tested the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CLQ. Students (N=363) completed a Dutch translation of the CLQ and a set of other questionnaires assessing other specific fears, anxiety or depression. Results confirmed the two-factor structure and showed that the Dutch version of the CLQ has good psychometric properties. A second study tested the predictive validity of the Dutch CLQ. Participants (N=23) were exposed each to nine claustrophobic situations with elements of suffocation, restriction or both. The Dutch CLQ was found to be a significant predictor of fear and respiratory reactivity during claustrophobic exposure. It can be concluded that the Dutch version of the CLQ is a reliable and valid instrument to assess claustrophobic fear. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paula Inez Cunha Gomide
Full Text Available Abstract The development of forensic evaluation scales is fundamental. This study's purpose was to explore the psychometric properties of a parental alienation scale. Forensic technicians completed 193 scales concerning parents involved in a lawsuit: 48 families with at least one parent indicated as the alienator (group A and 48 families with no parental alienation claim (group B. The scale consisted of five categories and 69 items: denying access to the child; derogatory comparisons; emotional manipulation; behavior of parent and child during assessment. The results show Cronbach's alpha = .965 and split-half = .745; KMO = .884 and Bartlett's sphericity test ( p < .001. Concurrent criterion validity applied to data showed that the scale is able to distinguish between the alienator and target parent. The results showed significant and consistent standards in the instrument's psychometric characteristics.
Roncero, María; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Perpiñá, Conxa
Orthorexia nervosa has recently been defined as excessive preoccupation with healthy eating, causing significant nutritional deficiencies and social and personal impairments. The ORTO-15 is the most widely used instrument to evaluate orthorexia nervosa, although previous studies obtained inconsistent results about its psychometric properties, and there are no data on the Spanish version. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the ORTO-15. In order to cross-validate the results, two independent samples were used (Sample 1: n = 807, 74.1% women; Sample 2: n = 242, 63.2% women). The results did not support the original recoding and reversal of the items; thus, the original scores were maintained. The analysis of the internal structure showed that the best interpretable solution was unidimensional, and due to low loadings, four items were removed. The internal consistency (α = .74) and temporal stability (r = .92; p orthorexia nervosa.
Lewis, Adrian S
Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...
Mills, Sarah D; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Fox, Rina S.; Sadler, Georgia Robins
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Brief Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BASH), a four-item, language-based measure of acculturation. Participants in the study were 435 Hispanic Americans from a large metropolitan area with English or Spanish language preference. Internal consistency reliability was strong in both language-preference groups. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the structural validity of the measure. A unidimensional factor s...
Ahi, Julide Ceren
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived risk level indicated by audiences for six contemporary hazards in an open door music festival, seeing as it is an overlooked issue in the literature. In order to measure the risk perceptions of participants The Psychometric Paradigm Model was utilized together with the perceived controllability arguments of Optimism Bias Theory. The data was collected from 230 participants of Landstreff 2013 Stavanger through online survey in coope...
Jenkin, Clinton M.
This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (July 2006), v.2 no.2 While expert risk analyses are based on calculations of probability and damage, public estimates of risk are more often based on qualitative factors. It is important to understand how the public, not just homeland security experts, perceive and react to the threat of terrorism. Risk perception research in general, and the psychometric paradigm in particular, offer a basis for empirically examining attitudes toward pot...
Pin, Tamis W
To systematically review the psychometric evidence on the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). Electronic searches of databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and DARE were done until February 2014 using a combination of subject headings and free texts. Studies were included if psychometric properties of the 2MWT were (1) evaluated; (2) written as full reports; and (3) published in English language peer-reviewed journals. A modified consensus-based standard for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist was used to rate the methodological quality of the included studies. A quality assessment for statistical outcomes was used to assess the measurement properties of the 2MWT. Best-evidence synthesis was collated from 25 studies of 14 patient groups. Only 1 study was found that examined the 2MWT in the pediatric population. The testing procedures of the 2MWT varied across the included studies. Reliability, validity (construct and criterion), and responsiveness of the 2MWT also varied across different patient groups. Moderate to strong evidence was found for reliability, convergent validity, discriminative validity, and responsiveness of the 2MWT in frail elderly patients. Moderate to strong evidence for reliability, convergent validity, and responsiveness was found in adults with lower limb amputations. Moderate to strong evidence for validity (convergent and discriminative) was found in adults who received rehabilitation after hip fractures or cardiac surgery. Limited evidence for the psychometric properties of the 2MWT was found in other population groups because of methodological flaws. There is inadequate breadth and depth of psychometric evidence of the 2MWT for clinical and research purposes-specifically, minimal clinically important changes and responsiveness. More good-quality studies are needed, especially in the pediatric population. Consensus on standardized testing procedures of
Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V
A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.
Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice
Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted.
Pais, João; Silva, Artur; Guimarães, Bruno; Povo, Ana; Coelho, Elisabete; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Lourinho, Isabel; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Severo, Milton
The psychometric characteristics of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) changed when taking into account their anatomical sites and the presence of item-writing flaws (IWF). The aim is to understand the impact of the anatomical sites and the presence of IWF in the psychometric qualities of the MCQ. 800 Clinical Anatomy MCQ from eight examinations were classified as standard or flawed items and according to one of the eight anatomical sites. An item was classified as flawed if it violated at least one of the principles of item writing. The difficulty and discrimination indices of each item were obtained. 55.8 % of the MCQ were flawed items. The anatomical site of the items explained 6.2 and 3.2 % of the difficulty and discrimination parameters and the IWF explained 2.8 and 0.8 %, respectively. The impact of the IWF was heterogeneous, the Writing the Stem and Writing the Choices categories had a negative impact (higher difficulty and lower discrimination) while the other categories did not have any impact. The anatomical site effect was higher than IWF effect in the psychometric characteristics of the examination. When constructing MCQ, the focus should be in the topic/area of the items and only after in the presence of IWF.
Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B
The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p Heritage of the Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.
Morgan, Michael; Dillenburger, Barbara; Raphael, Sabine; Solomon, Joshua A
Psychometric sensory discrimination functions are usually modeled by cumulative Gaussian functions with just two parameters, their central tendency (μ) and their slope (1/σ). These correspond to Fechner's "constant" and "variable" errors, respectively. Fechner pointed out that even the constant error could vary over space and time and could masquerade as variable error. We wondered whether observers could deliberately introduce a constant error into their performance without loss of precision. In three-dot vernier and bisection tasks with the method of single stimuli, observers were instructed to favour one of the two responses when unsure of their answer. The slope of the resulting psychometric function was not significantly changed, despite a significant change in central tendency. Similar results were obtained when altered feedback was used to induce bias. We inferred that observers can adopt artificial response criteria without any significant increase in criterion fluctuation. These findings have implications for some studies that have measured perceptual "illusions" by shifts in the psychometric functions of sophisticated observers.
Schuwirth, Lambert W T; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
To describe the weaknesses of the current psychometric approach to assessment as a scientific model. The current psychometric model has played a major role in improving the quality of assessment of medical competence. It is becoming increasingly difficult, however, to apply this model to modern assessment methods. The central assumption in the current model is that medical competence can be subdivided into separate measurable stable and generic traits. This assumption has several far-reaching implications. Perhaps the most important is that it requires a numerical and reductionist approach, and that aspects such as fairness, defensibility and credibility are by necessity mainly translated into reliability and construct validity. These approaches are more and more difficult to align with modern assessment approaches such as mini-CEX, 360-degree feedback and portfolios. This paper describes some of the weaknesses of the psychometric model and aims to open a discussion on a conceptually different statistical approach to quality of assessment. We hope that the discussion opened by this paper will lead to the development of a conceptually different statistical approach to quality of assessment. A probabilistic or Bayesian approach would be worth exploring.
Carmen Gloria Fernández Baeza
Full Text Available The Gilliam Asperger’s Disorder Scale (GADS is a norm-referenced assessment designed to help professionals in Asperger Syndrome (AS diagnosis. This scale is used to evaluate subjects between 3 and 22 years old and it can be completed by anyone who has regular contact with a subject with AS. The only known psychometric studies with positive results are those of the normative sample. Thus this research attempts to explain whether GADS retains the psychometric properties of the normative sample when applied to the Chilean population with AS. To this purpose it was selected a probabilistic intentional sample compose of 36 subjects in the pilot phase and 111 subjects in the final phase. The subscales obtained a Cronbach’s alpha between 0,73 and 0,87, while the global scored 0,92. It was carried out an exploratory factor analysis, thought which it was obtained a factor solution of 8 in the final phase. The results obtained allow to conclude that GADS has adequate psychometric properties, which means GADS is a valid and reliable instrument to be applied to Chilean population.
1 Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0021 TITLE: Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4 (ANAM4): Examination of Select Psychometric ...NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0021 Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4 (ANAM4): Examination of Select Psychometric Properties and...testing scenarios. The primary objective of this project is to examine select psychometric and administration properties of the ANAM4. Four studies were
Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le
AIMS: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. METHODS: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed....
Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le
Aims: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. Methods: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed. Key words: validity, reliability, health, Activity...
Choi, Byung-Sun; Chung, Ik Jae [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
A survey of technological risk perception in Korea was administered in 2001 with a special emphasis on nuclear risks. This paper summarizes the characteristics of risk perception through the analytic lens of psychometric paradigm. A group of experts identified 8 dimensions of risk; voluntariness, severity, effect manifestation, exposure pattern, controllability, familiarity, benefit and necessity. The survey with sample size of 1870 evaluates the perceived level of 25 technological risks including transportation, chemicals, environmental, industrial, as well as nuclear areas. Research findings confirm that the risk characteristics or dimensions are significant predictors of risk perception. Nuclear risks are perceived as involuntary, catastrophic, delayed, occasional, controllable, beneficiary, unfamiliar, and necessary. The paper underlines the need and the importance of nuclear power generation as an environmentally-friendly energy resource in Korea. Effective risk communication can improve the awareness and the understanding of nuclear risks as well as other technological risk, and ultimately foster the public acceptance of nuclear facilities.
Settanni, Michele; Longobardi, Claudio; Sclavo, Erica; Fraire, Michela; Prino, Laura E
The purpose of this study is the construction and validation of an Italian Short Form version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Fraire et al., 2013). The analyses were conducted on 1256 students and 210 teachers. The STRS is a self-report measure assessing teachers' perception of the quality of their relationship with students ranging from preschool to third grade. The items were selected from the original Italian adaptation of the regular STRS (Pianta, 2001) through Rasch (1960/1980) analysis, which allowed us to identify a subset of items with proven psychometric properties. The STRS-SF consists of two subscales: Conflict (eight items) and Closeness (six items). Results indicate that the 14-item instrument shows good internal consistency (α>0.80), high correlations with the scales from the regular STRS (r > 0.90) and equivalence across gender.
Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C
Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves.
Wainer, Allison L; Berger, Natalie I; Ingersoll, Brooke R
Despite the expansion of early intervention approaches for young children with ASD, investigators have struggled to identify measures capable of assessing social communication change in response to these interventions. Addressing recent calls for efficient, sensitive, and reliable social communication measures, the current paper outlines the refinement and validation of the Social Communication Checklist (SCC). We discuss two small studies exploring the psychometric properties of the SCC and the SCC-R (revised Social Communication Checklist), including sensitivity to change, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability, in two samples of children with ASD and one sample of typically-developing children. Results indicate this measure is reliable, sensitive to change after a brief social communication intervention, and strongly related to well-established measures of social communicative functioning.
Rash, Carla J; Coffey, Scott F; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among treatment-seeking substance abusers. Despite the high prevalence of these co-occurring conditions, few PTSD screening tools have been evaluated for their utility in identifying PTSD in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in a sample of 124 substance dependent individuals. All participants had a history of a DSM-IV Criterion A traumatic event, and 71 individuals met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Participants with comorbid PTSD reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD compared to substance dependent individuals without PTSD. Acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity of the IES-R were established among a substance dependent sample. Examination of diagnostic effectiveness suggested a cutoff value of 22 as optimal for a substance using population, resulting in adequate classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the construction and validation of an Italian Short Form version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (Pianta 2001; STRS-SF in the Italian educational setting for 1256 Students and 210 teachers. The STRS-SF is a self-report measure assessing teacher perceptions of the quality of their relationship with students from grade 3 to grade 8. The items were selected from the original Italian adaptation of the regular STRS through Rasch analysis, which allowed us to identify a subset of items with proven psychometric properties. The STRS-SF consists of two subscales: Conflict (8 items and Closeness (6 items. Results indicate that the 14-item short form can be used as a viable substitute for the regular STRS.
Dixon, Dennis R; Jang, Jina; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Jung, Woo Hyun; Matson, Johnny L
Identifying the function of behavior is crucial in formulating functionally-based treatment programs for people with challenging behaviors. The Questions About Behavior Function (QABF) is a well-established instrument with sound psychometric properties. The present study describes the development process for a Korean version of the QABF. The factor structure was examined in a sample of 153 QABF-K assessments, which yielded a five-factor-solution identical to the original English version. In terms of reliability, internal consistency was good with Chronbach's alpha ranging from 0.80 to 0.87 and test-retest reliability was found to be good with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.73 to 0.91. Based upon the present results, the QABF-K appears to be a promising tool for use with informants whose primary language is Korean.
Baghaei, Purya; Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D
The validity and psychometric properties of a new Persian adaptation of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale were investigated. The scale was translated into Persian and administered to 160 undergraduate students (131 women, 29 men; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 4.3). Rasch model analysis on the scale's original 20 items revealed that the data do not fit the partial credit model. Principal components analysis identified three factors: one related to feelings of anxiety about reading, the second reflected the reverse-worded items, and the third related to general ideas about reading in a foreign language. In a re-analysis, the 12 items that loaded on the first factor showed a good fit with the partial credit model.
Full Text Available This article aims to present the adaptation and the search for psychometrics evidence of an academic self-efficacy scale. High school students (N = 453 participated of the research (mean age 15.93; SD 1.2. The Academic Self-efficacy Scale for High School is an adapted scale composed of 16 items and organized into three factors: self-efficacy for learning, self-efficacy to act in school life, and self-efficacy for the career decision. Through exploratory factor analysis, a KMO = 0.90 was verified, and 56.57% of the variance was explained. The internal consistency was 0.88. The scale demonstrated good conditions to identify academic self-efficacy of high school students.
Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K
Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred....../15, p psychometrically measurable cognitive deficits, whereas those with ESRF or DMII had not. This adds to the understanding of the clinical consequences of chronic heart- and lung disease, and implies...... that the psychometric tests should be interpreted with great caution in cirrhosis patients with heart- or lung comorbidity....
Larouche, Richard; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Prista, Antonio; Onywera, Vincent; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Tremblay, Mark S
Previous systematic reviews indicate that active transportation (AT; the use of non-motorized travel modes such as walking, running and cycling) is an important source of daily physical activity (PA). However, no previous systematic review has examined travel behaviours among African children and youth or the psychometric properties of measurement tools used among children and youth worldwide. Studies on AT among African children and youth (aged 5-17 years) were identified through 1) the MEDLINE and Embase databases; 2) manual searches of six African journals that are not indexed in these databases; and 3) the articles included in a previous systematic review on PA among children and youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, literature on the psychometric properties of measurement tools for children and youth was searched using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycInfo, SportDiscus, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments databases. Study quality was assessed with a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Twenty studies reported original data on AT among African children and youth. This evidence suggests that rates of AT to/from school are lower in urban areas and in youth attending higher SES schools. Two population-based studies reported rates of AT ranging between 19.8% and 66.6% in multiple countries. Studies conducted in Africa seldom examined non-school travel and only one reported data on the psychometric properties of their measures of travel behaviours. Nineteen studies conducted predominantly in high-income countries provided psychometric data. Child and parent reports were used in 17 studies, and these measures generally showed substantial to almost perfect test-retest reliability and convergent validity for school trips. Limited information was available regarding non-school trips. Objective measures of travel behaviours have been used much less often, and further validity and reliability assessments are
Wai Tong Chien
Full Text Available This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76–0.95 and ICC = 0.81–0.92, test-retest reliability (r = 0.89–0.95, P<0.01, and internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.86–0.92. Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement, accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (χ2/df = 1.93, P=0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78 to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = −0.54 and family burden (r = 0.49 and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90. The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P<0.01. The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families’ expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries.
Tyer-Viola, Lynda A; Duffy, Mary E
This paper is a report of the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale. Previous research has identified that attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS have been judgmental and could affect clinical care and outcomes. Stigma towards persons with HIV has persisted as a barrier to nursing care globally. Women are more vulnerable during pregnancy. An instrument to specifically measure obstetric care provider's attitudes toward this population is needed to target identified gaps in providing respectful care. Existing literature and instruments were analysed and two existing measures, the Attitudes about People with HIV Scale and the Attitudes toward Women with HIV Scale, were combined to create an initial item pool to address attitudes toward HIV-positive pregnant women. The data were collected in 2003 with obstetric nurses attending a national conference in the United States of America (N = 210). Content validity was used for item pool development and principal component analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine construct validity. Reliability was analysed using Cronbach's Alpha. The new measure demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha estimates = 0.89). Principal component analysis yielded a two-component structure that accounted for 45% of the total variance: Mothering-Choice (alpha estimates = 0.89) and Sympathy-Rights (alpha estimates = 0.72). These data provided initial evidence of the psychometric properties of the Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale. Further analysis is required of the validity of the constructs of this scale and its reliability with various obstetric care providers.
Liu, Jianghong; Li, Libo; Fang, Fan
The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) is a widely used assessment tool for measuring parental characteristics that affect parent-child bonds. The measure was developed for and has been most administered in Western populations. Psychometric analyses have yielded discrepant results as to whether the PBI is best represented by a two-factor model (care and overprotection) or a three-factor model (care, overprotection, and autonomy). Little is known about how the PBI performs in Chinese samples, and there is limited data from Eastern populations as a whole. The purpose of this study is to: (1) explore the data and identify the underlying structural model that best fits the Chinese culture, and (2) to further compare the factor structure that emerges in a Chinese sample with that which has emerged in other Eastern cultures (i.e., Japanese) and Western countries. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the PBI among a sample (N=1417) of mothers of kindergarten children. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the most adequate model. Results supported a four-factor model that included an indifference factor (χ(2)/df5.0; RMSEA>0.08; SRMR>1.0; CFIChinese translated version of the PBI was successful. Support for the four-factor model is consistent with findings from previous studies of Eastern populations and discrepant from those among Western samples. The indifference factor may reflect aspects of parenting specific to Eastern cultures, which tend to value group cohesion over individualization and independence. More research is needed to determine whether these findings are generalizable to all Eastern countries and whether aspects of Chinese culture (e.g., the single-child law) produce unique effects that may impact PBI administration in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research seeks to identify possible predictors of the difficulty level of reading comprehension items used in a standardized psychometric test for university admission. Several potential predictors of difficulty were proposed, namely, propositional density, negations, grammatical structure, vocabulary difficulty, presence of enhancement elements (words highlighted typographically, item abstraction level and degree of similarity between correct option and relevant text to resolve the item. By Linear Logistic Test Model (Fisher, 1973 it was found that the number of propositions, the syntactic structure, and fundamentally, the presence of difficult words contributed to the prediction of the item difficulty level.
Full Text Available Background - The present paper reports the development and psychometric evaluation of a Hindi version of the Positive-Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS originally developed in English by Watson, Clark, and Tellegen (1988. The PANAS is widely used tool for assessment of positive and negative affect in clinical as well as non-clinical setting and has also been used as a differential diagnostic tool for distinguishing the clinical depression from anxiety. Material & Method - A Hindi version of the PANAS (PANAS-H was developed using the contemporary psychometric standards for developing transliteral equivalents and cross-cultural adaptation of psychological tests/scales. In order to evaluate the psychometric properties, the PANAS-H was administered on a relatively heterogeneous sample of 179 participants. The obtained data was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis which identified two theoretically significant orthogonal factors. The mood adjectives reflecting the positive affect loaded significantly on factor-1 whereas the affective lexicons representing the negative emotional engagement loaded significantly on factor-2. On the basis of this pattern of factor loading the first factor was labeled as ′Positive Affect′ (PA and the second factor as ′Negative Affect′ (NA. Results : A significant but low negative correlation was observed between PA and NA which suggests that PA and NA are not independent of each other. Item analysis done for each subscales revealed that the Hindi affective lexicon used for tapping the dimensions of PA and NA are reliable and valid and form a homogeneous item-pool. Conclusion : The reliability of the PA and NA subscales as well as that of the whole scale was found to be highly satisfactory (0.804 for PA, 0.776 for NA, and 0.658 for full scale. Overall, the findings suggest that 1 the PANAS-H can reliably and validly measure the PA and NA of Hindi speaking individuals, and 2 the
Hajian, Sepideh; Mehrabi, Esmat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid; Hajian, Parastoo
Background Cancer diagnosis for everybody may be perceived as crisis and breast cancer, as the most common malignancy in women, can influence their well-being and multiple aspects of their health. So understanding that how women in various contexts and communities adjust to the illness is necessary to facilitate this adjustment and improve their quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study was to: 1) identify the core components of coping strategies to adjust to the illness in Iranian women with breast cancer perspective, 2) to develop and determine psychometric properties of a native self-report instrument to assess coping behaviors and measure the degree of adjustment with the breast cancer. Methods The present exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two consecutive stages: 1) the hermeneutic phenomenological study was done to explore the life experiences of coping styles to adjust with the breast cancer using in-depth interviews with patients that lead to item generation; 2) psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the instrument were evaluated recruiting 340 eligible women. The item pool was reduced systematically and resulted in a 49-item instrument. Results From the qualitative stage, item pool containing 78 items related to coping strategies to adjust with the breast cancer. After eliminating unwanted statements from the results, qualitative and quantitative face and content validity, the 10 factors extracted employing construct validity were: feeling of guilt, abstention-diversion, role preservation and seeking support, efforts for threat control, confronting, fear and anxiety, role wasting, maturation and growth, isolation, and fatalism. These factors accounted for the 59.1% of variance observed. The Cronbach reliability test was carried out and alpha value of 10 factors was calculated from 0.78 to 0.87 confirming all factors were internally consistent. The scale’s stability was tested using the test-retest method. Conclusions
Psychometric analysis and critical appraisal of the original, revised, and modified versions of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
Furlan, Julio C; Catharine Craven, B
OBJECTIVE Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of nontraumatic spinal cord impairment and disability in the world. Given that the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score is the most frequently used outcome measure in clinical research and practice for treating patients with CSM, this review was undertaken to comprehensively and critically evaluate the psychometric properties of the JOA score. METHODS The authors identified studies (published in the period of January 1975 to November 2015) on the psychometric properties of the original, revised, and modified versions of the JOA score in Medline, PsycINFO, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), American College of Physicians Journal Club, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Additional publications were captured in a secondary search of the bibliographies in both original research articles and literature reviews identified in the original search. The JOA scores were evaluated for item generation and reduction, internal consistency, reliability, validity, and responsiveness. This review included all those versions of the JOA score whose psychometric properties had been reported in at least 2 published studies. RESULTS The primary search strategy identified 59 studies, of which 9 fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. An additional 18 publications were captured in the secondary search and included in the analysis. The key findings from the 27 studies analyzed indicated the following: 1) the original JOA score (1975) was the source for the revised JOA score (1994) and 3 modified versions (1991, 1993, and 1999 JOA scores) reported or used in at least 2 published studies; 2) the revised and modified versions of the JOA score are markedly different from each other; 3) only the revised JOA score (1994) was validated with the original JOA score; and 4) the 1975 JOA score is the most appropriate instrument for assessing patients in Asian populations (especially from Japan) because
Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.
The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…
Boeckstyns, Michel E H; Merser, Søren
INTRODUCTION: Patient-rated outcome measures are frequently used to assess the results of total wrist arthroplasty, but their psychometric properties have not yet been evaluated in this group of patients. The purpose of our study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Danish Quick...
Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan
This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…
Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Novak, Scott P.; Sam, Ann M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Guillen, Chelsea
Few psychometrically valid scales exist to assess family outcomes and the helpfulness of early intervention. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised. The revision was prompted by the need to (a) create a new format that would be easier for parents to understand, (b) revise and expand…
Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura
Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…
Heiser, Willem; Hubert, Lawrence
A review is provided for the creation of the Psychometric Society in 1935, and the establishment of its journal, Psychometrika, in 1936. This document is part of the 80th anniversary celebration for Psychometrika's founding, held during the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society in July of 2016 in Asheville, NC.
Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J.
Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be…
Grol Richard PTM
Full Text Available Abstract Background To increase the effectiveness of quality-improvement collaboratives (QICs, it is important to explore factors that potentially influence their outcomes. For this purpose, we have developed and tested the psychometric properties of an instrument that aims to identify the features that may enhance the quality and impact of collaborative quality-improvement approaches. The instrument can be used as a measurement instrument to retrospectively collect information about perceived determinants of success. In addition, it can be prospectively applied as a checklist to guide initiators, facilitators, and participants of QICs, with information about how to perform or participate in a collaborative with theoretically optimal chances of success. Such information can be used to improve collaboratives. Methods We developed an instrument with content validity based on literature and the opinions of QIC experts. We collected data from 144 healthcare professionals in 44 multidisciplinary improvement teams participating in two QICs and used exploratory factor analysis to assess the construct validity. We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency. Results The 50-item instrument we developed reflected expert-opinion-based determinants of success in a QIC. We deleted nine items after item reduction. On the basis of the factor analysis results, one item was dropped, which resulted in a 40-item questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model provided the best fit. The components were labeled 'sufficient expert team support', 'effective multidisciplinary teamwork', and 'helpful collaborative processes'. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (alphas between .85 and .89. Conclusions This newly developed instrument seems a promising tool for providing healthcare workers and policy makers with useful information about determinants of success in QICs. The psychometric properties of the instrument are
Bernhofer, Esther I; St Marie, Barbara; Bena, James F
All nurses care for patients with pain, and pain management knowledge and attitude surveys for nurses have been around since 1987. However, no validated knowledge test exists to measure postlicensure clinicians' knowledge of the core competencies of pain management in current complex patient populations. To develop and test the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure pain management knowledge of postlicensure nurses. Psychometric instrument validation. Four large Midwestern U.S. hospitals. Registered nurses employed full time and part time August 2015 to April 2016, aged M = 43.25 years; time as RN, M = 16.13 years. Prospective survey design using e-mail to invite nurses to take an electronic multiple choice pain knowledge test. Content validity of initial 36-item test "very good" (95.1% agreement). Completed tests that met analysis criteria, N = 747. Mean initial test score, 69.4% correct (range 27.8-97.2). After revision/removal of 13 unacceptable questions, mean test score was 50.4% correct (range 8.7-82.6). Initial test item percent difficulty range was 15.2%-98.1%; discrimination values range, 0.03-0.50; final test item percent difficulty range, 17.6%-91.1%, discrimination values range, -0.04 to 1.04. Split-half reliability final test was 0.66. A high decision consistency reliability was identified, with test cut-score of 75%. The final 23-item Clinical Pain Knowledge Test has acceptable discrimination, difficulty, decision consistency, reliability, and validity in the general clinical inpatient nurse population. This instrument will be useful in assessing pain management knowledge of clinical nurses to determine gaps in education, evaluate knowledge after pain management education, and measure research outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana
To examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context and to determine the relationships between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, alexithymia and death anxiety. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is one of the most widely used self-report measures for assessing perceived emotional intelligence. However, in the nursing context, no extensive analysis has been conducted to examine its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1417 subjects participated in the study (1208 nursing students and 209 hospital nurses). The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Death Anxiety Inventory were all applied to half of the sample (n = 707). A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and statistical analyses examined the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, as well as its relationship with relevant variables. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three dimensions of the original scale (Attention, Clarity and Repair). The instrument showed adequate internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational results indicated that nurses with high scores on emotional Attention experience more death anxiety, report greater difficulties identifying feelings and have less self-esteem. By contrast, nurses with high levels of emotional Clarity and Repair showed less death anxiety and higher levels of self-esteem. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is an effective, valid and reliable tool for measuring perceived emotional intelligence in the nursing context. Training programmes should seek to promote emotional abilities among nurses. Use of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context would provide information about nurses' perceived abilities to interpret and manage emotions when interacting with patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective To systematically review the scientific literature on the psychometric properties of international instruments for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD in the Brazilian population. Methods A search of bibliographic references was conducted in six electronic databases: PsycINFO, PubMed, IndexPsi, Lilacs, Capes (theses and dissertations and SciELO. The studies were selected by two independent researchers. Results The procedure identified 11 studies of the Brazilian population that encompassed six ASD assessment tools. Given the information provided, the adaptation of the M-CHAT, a screening instrument, was the best conducted. All steps of the adaptation process were described and the changes made to the final version of the instrument were presented, which was not addressed in other studies. In terms of reliability, all of the instruments that assessed internal consistency showed adequate values. In addition, the ADI-R and the CARS adaptations also satisfactorily contemplated inter-rater reliability and test-retest indices, respectively. Finally, all studies aiming to validate instruments showed evidence of validity and sensitivity, and specificity values above 0.90 were observed in the ASQ, ADI-R and ABC. Conclusion Considering both the psychometric aspects and the copyright information, the screening instrument that currently appears to be best indicated for clinical and research use is the M-CHAT. It was also noticed that there are still no specific ASD diagnostic tools available for use in Brazil. This lack of diagnostic instruments consists in a critical situation for the improvement of clinical practice and the development of research in this area.
Theodore, John L; Shidlo, Ariel; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Dorfman, David; Dahlman, Karen L; Hamid, Sahira
The Multi-Axial Gay Men's Inventory-Men's Short Version (MAGI-MSV) assesses internalized homophobia via 20 items and 3 dimensions. This study extended the psychometric examination of the MAGI-MSV. The instrument was administered to 228 ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay men seeking counseling in New York City (mean age = 35, age range = 16-70). Following principal axis factoring and parallel analyses, 4 factors emerged and 14 items were retained. The descriptive labels for factors included gay self-assurance and worth, public appearance of homosexuality, and impact of HIV/AIDS on homosexuality. The new, fourth factor was named maladaptive measures to eliminate homosexuality.
Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.
Longo, Joy; Newman, David
Inappropriate behaviors of healthcare workers can threaten the delivery of safe, quality care. The purpose of this research was to develop a research instrument specific to the construct of horizontal violence and conduct foundational psychometric testing of the newly developed instrument. The overall findings on the fit indices suggest that this model does adequately measure the underlying construct of horizontal violence. The instrument can be used as a way to determine the existence and extent of horizontal violence in practice settings and used to augment the study of the work environment, particularly in relation to healthy work environments.
Vlada I. Pishchik
Full Text Available The article analyzes the mentality phenomenon in psychology and states the lack of clear, definite positions, concerning mentality, presents author's concept of mentality system, including nuclear and peripheral elements. On this basis, the initial survey, helping to develop the method of mentality measurement was conducted. The article presents author's method of generations’ mentality type measurement, carries out psychometric testing of method paragraphs. The paragraphs were tested on reliability-stability, reliability-conformity, factorial, convergent, constructive and empirical validities. The data of method testing on different samples are cited
Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, D.A., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha
Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Bech, Per
In recent years, much effort has been invested in the development of new instruments for assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For many new instruments, modern psychometric methods, such as item response theory (IRT) models, have been used, either as supplemental to classical...... psychometric testing or as the primary methodological approach. We will use the term modern psychometric methods to refer to psychometric methods for multi-item scales that (1) examine the contribution of each item to the measurement properties of the overall scale and (2) recognize that items are categorical....... The models include Rasch models (Rasch 1980; Fischer and Molenaar 1995), other IRT models (Samejima 1969; van der Linden and Hambleton 1997), and factor analytic models for categorical data (Muthén 1984). “Modern” psychometric methods have actually a rather long history within psychiatric research (both...
Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J
Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be presently underway. We argue for caution, in that the psychometrics approach and the quantitative account of competencies that it reflects is based on a rich discussion regarding measurement and scaling that led to the establishment of this paradigm. Rather than reflecting a homogeneous discipline focused on core competencies devoid of consideration of context, the psychometric community has a history of discourse and debate within the field, with an acknowledgement that the techniques and instruments developed within psychometrics are heuristics that must be used pragmatically.
Hélio Anderson Tonelli
possible alterations of ToM processing in individuals with schizotypy or subsyndromal psychotic symptoms. METHODS: We performed a search on MedLine database for articles published in English or Portuguese between 1990 and 2008, using the phrase "Schizotypal Personality Disorder [MeSH] AND "Theory of Mind" OR "Mentalising". RESULTS: Fifteen manuscripts have been selected, which used diverse experimental designs and instruments to evaluate schizotypal traits, vulnerability to psychosis and ToM abilities. DISCUSSION: The reviewed articles aimed to establish relationships between vulnerability to psychosis and alterations in ToM processing. Some articles also approached the trait or state dependence character of ToM impairments. The great majority of the selected manuscripts suggested that individuals who scored high in schizotypy scales, as well as schizophrenic relatives, do show problems in ToM processing (which suggests a trait dependence character. However, these results should be interpreted carefully due to methodological problems seen in the majority of the studies.
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Nordström, Gun
The aim was to test the construct validity of the Nurse Competence Scale. The Nurse Competence Scale has been used in hospital settings for various purposes in several countries. Despite this, confirmatory factor analyses are scarcely reported. The present study is based on re-analyses of data from 2007 (i.e. psychometric testing) and 593 newly graduated nurses working in various contexts were included. Confirmatory as well as exploratory factor analyses (Principal Component Analysis) were carried out. The original 7-factor model of the Nurse Competence Scale (73 items) was not confirmed. The exploratory factor analyses resulted in a Norwegian Nurse Competence Scale consisting of 46 items in the following competence categories: Planning and delivery of care, Teaching functions, Professional leadership, Research utilization and nursing values and Professional awareness. The results underline the needs for psychometric testing of an instrument after translation processes. The instrument is suitable for describing and comparing nurse competence for various reasons. It may also be helpful in creating competence development programs at an individual as well as at an organizational level. Further studies with a broader sample are recommended.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Internalizing the pervasive weight bias commonly directed towards individuals with overweight and obesity, co-occurs with increased psychopathology and impaired quality of life. This study sought to establish population norms and psychometric properties of the most widely used self-report questionnaire, the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS, in a representative community sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a survey of the German population, N = 1158 individuals with overweight and obesity were assessed with the WBIS and self-report measures for convergent validation. RESULTS: Item analysis revealed favorable item-total correlation of all but one WBIS item. With this item removed, item homogeneity and internal consistency were excellent. The one-factor structure of the WBIS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was shown through significant associations with measures of depressive and somatoform symptoms. The WBIS contributed to the explanation of variance in depressive and somatoform symptoms over and above body mass index. Higher WBIS scores were found in women than in men, in individuals with obesity than in individuals with overweight, and in those with lower education or income than those with higher education or income. Sex-specific norms were provided. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed good psychometric properties of the WBIS after removal of one item. Future research is warranted on further indicators of reliability and validity, for example, retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and prognostic validity.
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B
The psychometric properties of the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning (LEAF) scale were investigated in an outpatient clinical pediatric sample. As a part of clinical testing, the LEAF scale, which broadly measures neuropsychological abilities related to executive functioning and learning, was administered to parents of 118 children and adolescents referred for psychological testing at a pediatric psychology clinic; 85 teachers also completed LEAF scales to assess reliability across different raters and settings. Scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and academic achievement were abstracted from charts. Psychometric analyses of the LEAF scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, parent-teacher inter-rater reliability in the small to large effect size range, and test-retest reliability in the large effect size range, similar to values for other executive functioning checklists. Correlations between corresponding subscales on the LEAF and other behavior checklists were large, while most correlations with neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and achievement were significant but in the small to medium range. Results support the utility of the LEAF as a reliable and valid questionnaire-based assessment of delays and disturbances in executive functioning and learning. Applications and advantages of the LEAF and other questionnaire measures of executive functioning in clinical neuropsychology settings are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) and then recommend revisions. The MCI was administered to a sample of 303 undergraduate engineering students enrolled in a materials engineering course taught by an instructor unrelated to this study. The MCI demonstrated adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha was .73) and strong discriminatory power (Ferguson's delta was 0.96). A pretest MCI was given only two days into the course and was able to predict the final course grade (r = .30, p fit by the empirical data [chi-squared (194) = 196.03, p = .426; and root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) was .007; and comparative fit index (CFI) was .996]. The Cronbach's alpha of the refined-MCI was 0.75, suggesting 'good' reliability. The six factors could only be interpreted by an integration of cognitive processes with content. Those six factors were labeled: (1) compare and contrast ductile and brittle material, (2) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from stretching, (3) understand and analyze the structure and properties of glass, (4) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from bending, (5) understand and analyze the structure and properties of metals, and (6) synthesize and apply graphs and proportions with relation to various materials engineering concepts. Results related to the psychometrics of the refined version of the Materials Concept Inventory are promising, but based on this study's results, further revision may be required.
Full Text Available In a real e-commerce website, usually only a small number of users will give ratings to the items they purchased, and this can lead to the very sparse user-item rating data. The data sparsity issue will greatly limit the recommendation performance of most recommendation algorithms. However, a user may register accounts in many e-commerce websites. If such users’ historical purchasing data on these websites can be integrated, the recommendation performance could be improved. But it is difficult to align the users and items between these websites, and thus how to effectively borrow the users’ rating data of one website (source domain to help improve the recommendation performance of another website (target domain is very challenging. To this end, this paper extended the traditional one-dimensional psychometrics model to multidimension. The extended model can effectively capture users’ multiple interests. Based on this multidimensional psychometrics model, we further propose a novel transfer learning algorithm. It can effectively transfer users’ rating preferences from the source domain to the target domain. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the recommendation performance.
The growing literature relating to job satisfaction among nurses concludes that more research is required to understand the organizational, professional, and personal variables that improve nurse satisfaction and retention. This study developed and psychometrically tested a nurse satisfaction questionnaire, suitable for the nurses' working conditions in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, in Greek, was conducted in three public hospitals. Two-hundred and twenty-five Greek nurses evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek Nurses' Job Satisfaction Scale (GNJSS). The 18-item questionnaire showed a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.907) and revealed four factors that are consistent with the predetermined subscales and the conceptual base of the GNJSS. The factors, which explain 62.420% of variance, are associated with interaction and recognition, leadership style and organizational policies, self-growth and responsibility, and remuneration and work itself. Although it would be useful to carry out further analyses to assess time-based properties of reliability, the GNJSS questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to assess nurses' job satisfaction.
Aldea, Mirela A; Geffken, Gary R; Jacob, Marni L; Goodman, Wayne K; Storch, Eric A
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FOCI [Storch, E. A., Stigge-Kaufman, D., Bagner, D., Merlo, L. J., Shapira, N. A., Geffken, G. R., et al. (2007). Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 851-859]). Participants were 89 adults with OCD presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic. A trained clinician administered the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and patients completed the FOCI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and State Trait Anxiety Inventory at baseline and following 14 weekly or daily cognitive behavioral therapy sessions. The internal consistency of FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale were good, and the concurrent and divergent validity of the FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale was supported through its associations with clinician-rated OCD symptom severity, and self-reported OCD, depressive, and anxiety measures. In addition, sensitivity to cognitive-behavioral treatment effects was shown as the Severity Scale scores were significantly lower following treatment compared to baseline. These findings not only replicate Storch et al. [Storch, E. A., Stigge-Kaufman, D., Bagner, D., Merlo, L. J., Shapira, N. A., Geffken, G. R., et al. (2007). Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 851-859] but also add unique construct validity data in support of the psychometrics of the FOCI.
Finger, Monika E; Escorpizo, Reuben; Bostan, Cristina; De Bie, Rob
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has proven to be a valuable framework for vocational rehabilitation (VR). No reliable and valid ICF-based instruments to capture work functioning is known, hence, the aims of this study were: (1) to outline the process for developing an ICF-based questionnaire, the Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire (WORQ) to assess functioning in VR and (2) to report preliminary psychometric evidence. ICF categories were selected from the ICF Core Sets for VR using explorative Rasch-analysis and VR literature review. Questions were worded to assess identified ICF categories. WORQ was translated from English to German. Psychometrics for the German version of WORQ was examined in one VR centre in Switzerland. 44 ICF categories were selected which resulted in 36 questions related to functioning. The psychometric evaluation of WORQ showed high test-retest reliability (Spearman correlation 0.79) (n = 53) and good internal consistency (Cronbachs Alpha 0.88) (n = 74) WORQ showed moderate correlation with Beck Depression Inventory II (Spearman correlation 0.511) and low correlation (Spearman correlation -0.353) with SF-36. WORQ appears to be a reliable, ICF-based questionnaire to evaluate functioning in VR, easy to administer by health or vocational professionals. The additional information gained when using WORQ would contribute to improving interdisciplinary understanding of the patient's situation and therefore support the integrative planning of the return-to-work process or engagement in gainful employment. However, further studies are needed to further examine its use in clinical practice and research, when validated in other patient populations and settings.
Full Text Available Marija Spasenoska,1 Shane Costello,1 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Objective: The purpose of this present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy – student version (JSPE-S. Subjects and methods: This study recruited 193 Malaysian medical students enrolled in year one and year two studies. A principal-component analysis with Varimax rotation was conducted. Procrustes rotation was used to confirm the item to model fit, which allows for a comparison of actual structure against an ideal hypothesized structure. Items were systematically removed based on low communalities of < 0.3 and poor loading of items onto components. Results: A two-component solution was found, comprised of “perspective taking” and “compassionate care”. Following item removal, eleven items remained. A Procrustes analysis revealed that this eleven-item measure demonstrated an excellent model fit. A possible third component was identified, though is not recommended for use, due to construct underrepresentation. Conclusion: This study found the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy fitted best to a two-component model using eleven items. Item, component, and overall congruence were very high, and scale reliabilities were adequate. The results of this study suggest that the eleven-item, two-component solution demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and structural validity in a Malaysian medical student population. Future research could consider using the short eleven-item measure in both student and health care profession samples to investigate the role of empathy in health care. Keywords: empathy, medical students, psychometrics
Full Text Available In the present study we devised scales for teachers’ and parents’ estimation of intellectual, creative and social abilities of fourth grade elementary school pupils. Their scores were related to psychometrically determined ability scores. Ninety-three school pupils in the age range between 9.3 and 11.2 years, as well as their parents and teachers took part. The new rating checklists proved as sufficiently reliable (particularly the teachers’ version. Analyses of validity showed a high correspondence in parents’ and teachers’ estimations of cognitive intelligence, but much lower correspondence for creativity and social ability. Correlating teachers’ and parents’ estimates with the respective psychometric tests shows that teachers and parents were better at identifying intellectual (highability than detecting creative and social abilities. With the exception of social (highability, where girls were usually regarded as highly socially gifted by their parents, there were no differences in parents’ and teachers’ estimations of boys and girls.
Cordier, Reinie; Speyer, Renée; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony
Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.
Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C
Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population.
Chen, Yen-Ting; Peng, Chung-Yu; Hua, Mau-Sun; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo
Alphabetic working memory (WM) tests, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and IV Letter Number Sequencing, are not appropriate for nonalphabetic cultures. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Taiwan Odd-Even Number Sequencing Test (TOENST) and identified representative norms. The TOENST and other mental screening tasks were administered to 300 randomly selected healthy participants, 32 purposive sampling patients with schizophrenia, and 32 quota sampling controls. To investigate reliability and validity, a subset of the 300 healthy participants was randomly selected to receive a second TOENST (n = 30) or conventional WM tests (n = 42). The split-half reliability of the TOENST ranged from 0.69 to 0.95, and its test-retest reliability was 0.75. Criterion validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with conventional WM measures (all p < .05, except semantic verbal fluency), and construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with aging (main effect, F10,259 = 10.99, p < .001). Normative data were established, and performance was significantly associated with age and education. TOENST scores of patients with schizophrenia were significantly lower and correlated with frontal lobe tests, but not demographical or clinical characteristics. The TOENST has adequate psychometric properties and clinical utility and is as a viable alternative WM task for nonalphabetic cultures.
Revicki, Dennis A; Gnanasakthy, Ari; Weinfurt, Kevin
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) are willing to consider including information on patient reported outcomes (PROs) in product labeling and advertising. Pharmaceutical industry researchers must provide sufficient evidence supporting PRO benefit before an approval may be granted. This report describes the purpose and content of a PRO Evidence Dossier, which consists of important information supporting PRO claims. The dossier should be completed by pharmaceutical industry or other researchers to document the planning of the PRO assessment strategy, psychometric evidence, desired target labeling statements, and the clinical trial evidence of PRO benefits. The systematic reporting and documentation of information on the rationale for including PROs, rationale for the selection of specific PRO instruments, evidence on the psychometric qualities of the PRO measures, and guidelines for interpreting PRO findings will facilitate achieving a PRO labeling or promotional claim. Combining all the relevant information into a single document will facilitate the review and evaluation process for clinical and regulatory reviewers. The PRO Evidence Dossier may also be helpful to industry and academic researchers in identifying further information that will need to be developed to support the clinical development program and the PRO endpoints.
Marta Beatriz Aller
Full Text Available Background: The CCAENA questionnaire was developed to assess care continuity across levels from the patients’ perspective. The aim is to provide additional evidence on the psychometric properties of the scales of this questionnaire. Methods: Cross-sectional study by means of a survey of a random sample of 1500 patients attended in primary and secondary care in three healthcare areas of the Catalan healthcare system. Data were collected in 2010 using the CCAENA questionnaire. To assess psychometric properties, an exploratory factor analysis was performed (construct validity and the item-rest correlations and Cronbach’s alpha were calculated (internal consistency. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated (multidimensionality and the ability to discriminate between groups was tested. Results: The factor analysis resulted in 21 items grouped into three factors: patient-primary care provider relationship, patient-secondary care provider relationship and continuity across care levels. Cronbach’s alpha indicated good internal consistency (0.97, 0.93, 0.80 and the correlation coefficients indicated that dimensions can be interpreted as separated scales. Scales discriminated patients according to healthcare area, age and educational level. Conclusion: The CCAENA questionnaire has proved to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring patients’ perceptions of continuity. Providers and researchers could apply the questionnaire to identify areas for healthcare improvement.
Lorber, Michael F; Xu, Shu; Slep, Amy M Smith; Bulling, Lisanne; O'Leary, Susan G
The psychometrics of the Parenting Scale's Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were evaluated using item response theory (IRT) techniques. The IRT analyses were based on 2 community samples of cohabiting parents of 3- to 8-year-old children, combined to yield a total sample size of 852 families. The results supported the utility of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales, particularly in discriminating among parents in the mid to upper reaches of each construct. The original versions of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were more reliable than alternative, shorter versions identified in replicated factor analyses from previously published research and in IRT analyses in the present research. Moreover, in several cases, the original versions of these subscales, in comparison with the shortened versions, exhibited greater 6-month stabilities and correlations with child externalizing behavior and couple relationship satisfaction. Reliability was greater for the Laxness than for the Overreactivity subscale. Item performance on each subscale was highly variable. Together, the present findings are generally supportive of the psychometrics of the Parenting Scale, particularly for clinical research and practice. They also suggest areas for further development.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple instruments exist to measure dementia behaviors, but the nursing staff perspective on those behaviors and their level of burden has not been well measured. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric performance of the Modified Nursing Care Assessment Scale (M-NCAS, a 28-item nurse rating of burden associated with care for institutionalized individuals with dementia. Nurses rate items in terms of extent to which the behavior or characteristic is present ("attitude" domain, and extent to which it is a burden ("strain" domain. Methods Data from 282 patients enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing risperidone treatment to placebo was used to evaluate M-NCAS item performance, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity. Empirical subscales were identified via exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Results Four poorly-performing items were deleted from further analyses. EFA identified 3 "attitude" subscales and 5 "strain" subscales. Cronbach's alphas were 0.65 and above. Correlation with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the BEHAVE-AD, clinical ratings of dementia behaviors, were low to moderate. Conclusion The M-NCAS provides a valid and reliable means of obtaining care burden ratings from formal caregivers in long-term care, and provides a method for evaluating dementia interventions from the perspective of nursing staff.
Recio, Patricia; Cuadrado, Isabel; Ramos, Esther
In this article, it is assumed that gender violence, or violence against women, has mainly a sociocultural basis. A scale (Adolescent Sexism Detection; ASD) to detect sexism in adolescents was developed and its psychometric properties were analysed. 245 adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age participated in the study. As a result of the factor analyses carried out, the hostile and benevolent dimensions of sexism were clearly differentiated. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by its high correlations with the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Participants scored higher in benevolent than in hostile sexism, an effect even stronger in female participants. These findings suggest that the ASD scale is a valid instrument to measure sexism among adolescents. The main findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies using the ASI. The potential of this scale to appropriately detect sexism among adolescents is discussed.
Tutelyan, V A; Chatterji, S; Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Kishko, O N; Akolzina, S E
This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of the Health and Functioning ICF-60 (HF-ICF-60) measure, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) 'International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: ICF' (2001). The aims of the present study were to test psychometric properties of the HF-ICF-60, developed as a measure that would be responsive to change in functioning through changes in health and nutritional status, as a prospective measure to monitor health and nutritional status of populations and to explore the relationship of the HF-ICF-60 with quality of life measures such as the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment in relation to non-communicable diseases. The HF-ICF-60 measure consists of 60 items selected from the ICF by an expert panel, which included 18 items that cover Body Functions, 21 items that cover Activities and Participation, rated on five-point scales, and 21 items that cover Environmental Factors (seven items cover Individual Environmental Factors and 14 items cover Societal Environmental Factors), rated on nine-point scales. The HF-ICF-60 measure was administered to the Russian nationally representative sample within the Russian National Population Quality of Life, Health and Nutrition Survey, in 2004 (n = 9807) and 2005 (n = 9560), as part of the two waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS). The statistical analyses were carried out with the use of both classical and modern psychometric methods, such as factor analysis, and based on Item Response Theory, respectively. The HF-ICF-60 questionnaire is a new measure derived directly from the ICF and covers the ICF components as follows: Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental Factors (Individual Environmental Factors and Societal Environmental Factors). The results from the factor analyses (both Exploratory Factor Analyses and Confirmatory Factor Analyses) show good support for the
Carmen Maganto Mateo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know Psychology students of the Basque Country’ evaluation of assessment instruments regarding these criteria: learning difficulties, utility for their professional practice. A sudents sample attending the fifth course, with similar acedemic curriculum was studied. Results show that students are interested in psychometric as well as in projective techniques; they consider that both techniques will be highly useful in their professional practice. They are also awared thay they need to adquire a deeper knowledge on them. In order to achieve that aim, they requiere more class hours devoted to the study of both types of techniques, specially the projective ones due to the high difficulty they involve.
Krogh, Mary Anne; Muckle, Timothy
Alternative items were added as scored items to the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists (NCE) in 2010. A common concern related to the new items has been their measurement attributes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the psychometric impact of adding these items to the examination. Candidates had a significantly higher ability estimate in alternative items than in multiple choice questions and 6.7 percent of test candidates performed significantly differently in alternative item formats. The ability estimates of multiple choice questions correlated at r = .58. The alternative items took significantly longer time to answer than standard multiple choice questions and discriminated to a higher degree than MCQs. The alternative items exhibited unidimensionality to the same degree as MCQs and the BIC confirmed the Rasch model as acceptable for scoring. The new item types were found to have acceptable attributes for inclusion in the certification program.
Alberto Nuviala Nuviala
Full Text Available The understanding of user satisfaction and consumers of services is a necessity for those responsible for them. There’s a variety of instruments that assess the perceived quality but are criticized for several reasons: concepts, procedures, lack of specificity... EPOD is a scale with 29 items integrated in four dimensions, direct practical application which had been previously validated. However, nobody had checked the psychometric properties of the instrument. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine them. The sample was 463 users of sports services who were given the instrument. The results show good internal and external validity, while it has a high reliability. Therefore, EPOD becomes a tool to assess the perceived quality of service provided by the sports organizations in a valid, reliable, simple and brief way, considering the different dimensions that make up the provision of sports services.
Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe
Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process. PMID:26339285
Full Text Available Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal. In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants’ perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process.
Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A
More and more American older adults are relocating to retirement communities, and they experience challenges in adjusting to new surroundings that may increase their depression and mortality. An instrument not previously tested in the United States, the Index of Relocation Adjustment (IRA), may help in early identification of poor relocation adjustment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the IRA using secondary data from a convenience sample of 104 older adults who relocated to 6 retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. Cronbach's alpha was .86. The IRA was correlated with measures of positive cognitions (r = .48, p controllability (r = -.62, p IRA is potentially useful as a screening measure for early detection of poor adjustment among relocated older adults.
Comparative Analysis of Russian and Foreign Systems for The Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Children From the Standpoint of the Psychometric Approach and its Limitations When Used in Clinical Practice
Mikhail A. Berebin
Full Text Available Modern approaches to the psychological diagnostics of children are based onneed analysis and the systematization of existing trends in domestic and foreignchildren’s neuropsychological diagnoses. This article highlights the strengths andweaknesses of each approach, as well as identifying possible areas of integration.One of the most acute problems is the development of experimental psychologicalmethods to determine the quantitative and expressed characteristics of themental development of children by flexibly combining qualitative and quantitativeapproaches, with a view to putting into practice foreign neuroscience principlesand standards of evidence. An analysis of contemporary publications onneuropsychological diagnosis reveals the need to consider the standardization ofneuropsychological research in the context of current approaches, requirements,and psychodiagnostic criteria. In the domestic neuropsychological literature, theseissues are need attention: standardized procedures for presenting stimuli are not,as a rule, described; basic psychometric assessment of the results of the tests islacking; no investigation of their clinical and psychometric validity is carried out.An analysis was made of the nature of the psychometric approach in foreign childneuropsychology, which relies on mathematical procedures of processing qualitative(ordinal data converted into quantitative indicators. We examined separatelythe mathematical software for clinical trials (based on the principles of «evidencebasedmedicine», which relies on the «abnormal» nature of the distribution ofclinical phenomena.
Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Saez-Castillo, Antonio J; Fuentes-Rodriguez, Gema
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders in adolescence. There is a need for brief screening tools to identify adolescents at risk for anxiety disorders. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 has been recently developed to assess youths' anxiety symptoms in terms of the current classification system. The goal of this study is to provide a first test of its psychometric properties in a community sample of adolescents in Spain. The sample consisted of 505 13- to 17-year-old adolescents who completed Part I of the YAM-5 (YAM-5-I), which measures symptoms of the major anxiety disorders. Data indicated that the YAM-5-I displays appropriate internal consistency reliability. In addition, support was also found for the construct validity of the measure: most items loaded on a factor that represented the hypothesized anxiety syndromes, although it should also be noted that some items exhibited issues and therefore had to be discarded. Cross-cultural and trans-national studies are needed to determine psychometric properties of scale across languages and cultures. Our findings suggest that the YAM-5-I has satisfactory psychometric properties, which indicates that it can be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents from the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fania R Gärtner
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire (NWFQ is a 50-item self-report questionnaire specifically developed for nurses and allied health professionals. Its seven subscales measure impairments in the work functioning due to common mental disorders. Aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the NWFQ, by assessing reproducibility and construct validity. METHODS: The questionnaire was administered to 314 nurses and allied health professionals with a re-test in 112 subjects. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlations coefficients (ICC and the standard error of measurement (SEM. For construct validity, correlations were calculated with a general work functioning scale, the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS (convergent validity and with a physical functioning scale (divergent validity. For discriminative validity, a Mann Whitney U test was performed testing for significant differences between subjects with mental health complaints and without. RESULTS: All subscales showed good reliability (ICC: 0.72-0.86, except for one (ICC = 0.16. Convergent validity was good in six subscales, correlations ranged from 0.38-0.62. However, in one subscale the correlation with the EWPS was too low (0.22. Divergent validity was good in all subscales based on correlations ranged from (-0.06-(-0.23. Discriminative validity was good in all subscales, based on significant differences between subjects with and without mental health complaints (p<0.001-p = 0.003. CONCLUSION: The NWFQ demonstrates good psychometric properties, for six of the seven subscales. Subscale "impaired decision making" needs improvement before further use.
Marc, Linda G.; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A.
The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms. PMID:22409246
Rashvand, Farnoosh; Ebadi, Abbas; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Salsali, Mahvash; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Griffiths, Pauline; Sieloff, Christina
To develop an instrument for the assessment of safe nursing care (ASNC) within the Iranian context and psychometrically evaluate its reliability and validity. There is a need for a valid and reliable instrument to assess how nurses employ the components of safe nursing care in clinical practice in non-Western countries. This methodological study was conducted in two phases: (1) a qualitative phase of instrument development, and (2) a quantitative phase of psychometric evaluation of the assessment of safe nursing care (ASNC). The instrument's content validity was assessed by experts in the field of safe nursing care. The reliability of this instrument was examined using internal consistency reliability and intra-rater reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to establish the instrument's initial construct validity. The instrument developed was a questionnaire with 32 items. The Cronbach's alpha of the scale was 0.92, and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient for intra-rater reliability was 0.78. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution: (1) evaluation of nursing skills, (2) assessing the patient's psychological needs, (3) assessing the patient's physical need, and (4) Assessing nurses' teamwork. The four factors accounted for 63.54% of the observed variance. The ASNC can be applied to a wide variety of settings because of the broad range of methods utilised to generate items and domains, its comprehensive consideration of the principles of safe care, and its initial reliability and validity. The ASNC can help nurse managers assess whether clinical nurses are prepared to apply their safe care skills in clinical practice. It can also be used by clinical nurses to assess their own and peers' practice to detect potential areas for improvement in nursing care and help nurse managers with planning appropriate quality improvement programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Jacelon, Cynthia S; Choi, Jeungok
To develop and psychometrically test the Jacelon Attributed Dignity Scale (JADS). The JADS was designed to measure self-perceived attributed dignity in community-dwelling older adults. Attributed dignity was conceived of as a state characteristic of the self. The JADS is a short, positively scored, norm-referenced, evaluation index designed to measure self-perceived attributed dignity during the last week. Instrument development and testing including psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure, temporal stability and construct validity. Using a quota sample, 289 older adults (65-99 years old) were recruited from senior centres in western New England to complete the JADS, demographic information, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Social Desirability Scale during 2010-2011. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, construct validity and temporal stability were evaluated. The resulting positively scored 18-item scale has four factors with high internal consistency for each factor and the entire scale. Construct validity was established by examining correlations with instruments that measured self-esteem and social desirability. Attributed dignity is a unique concept that is stable over time. The JADS is an 18-item Likert-scaled instrument designed to measure attributed dignity. Attributed dignity is a concept with four factors and is defined as a cognitive component of the self-connoting self-value, perceived value from others, self in relation to others and behaving with respect. The importance of attributed dignity for older adults in relation to health, function, independence, quality of life and successful ageing can now be evaluated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knauth, Donna G; Skowron, Elizabeth A
Evidence of psychometric support is needed for use of the Differentiation of Self Inventory with adolescents as a clinical assessment instrument to evaluate psychotherapeutic progress and outcomes, and for its use as a research instrument to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on the basis of Bowen family systems theory. To examine the reliability and validity of the 46-item, self-report Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI) for use with adolescents. An ex post facto research design was used to determine the psychometric properties of the DSI for adolescents, and to test theoretically grounded hypotheses drawn from Bowen theory that linked differentiation of self with chronic anxiety and symptom development. The DSI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Pattern Scale were administered to an ethnically diverse sample of 363 adolescents 14 to 19 years of age. The DSI full scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of.84. Factor analysis yielded a six-factor structure, representing the multidimensionality of the DSI items among adolescents. As hypothesized, differentiation of self mediated the relation between chronic anxiety and symptom development (p <.001), indicating that greater differentiation of self predicted fewer symptoms over and above chronic anxiety, and lending support to the construct validity of the DSI in adolescent populations. The results of this study support the use of the DSI with adolescents. Future longitudinal studies are needed for definitive causal conclusions regarding the role that differentiation of self plays as a mediator between the relation of chronic anxiety and symptom development.
Full Text Available Georgios N Lyrakos,1,2 Demetra Vini,2 Helen Aslani,2 Marouso Drosou-Servou212nd Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Pain Clinic, Attikon University Hospital, 2Thalassemia Unit, General Hospital of Nikaia Ag. Panteleimon, Athens, GreeceBackground: No specific questionnaire has been developed to assess the health-related quality of life of thalassemia patients. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop, according to psychometric standards, a self-administered Specific Thalassemia Quality of Life Instrument (STQOLI for adult patients.Methods: First, a qualitative phase was conducted to generate items and identify domains using the critical analysis incident technique and a literature review. A list of easily comprehensible, non-redundant items was defined using the Delphi technique and a pilot study on ten thalassemia patients. This phase involved both patients and experts. The second step was a quantitative validation phase comprising a study of 128 thalassemia patients in a single hospital. It was designed to select items, identify dimensions, and measure reliability and internal and concurrent validity. The psychometric and scaling properties of the proposed 41-item Specific Thalassemia Quality of Life Instrument were then assessed among patients recruited from the Thalassemia Unit at the General Hospital of Nikaia, Greece.Results: The final questionnaire had 41 items comprising four main domains and one global item about general health. The factorial structure was satisfactory (loading > 0.40 on each factor of the four domains for all items. Interscale correlations ranged from 0.06 to 0.78, Cronbach's α-coefficients were 0.78 for the psychosocial domain, 0.77 for the chelation domain, 0.72 for the transfusion domain, 0.81 for the disease and symptoms domain, and 0.840 for the total score of the questionnaire.Conclusion: The 41-item Specific Thalassemia Quality of Life Instrument seems to be a
Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Felvinczi, Katalin; Oláh, Attila; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Demetrovics, Zsolt
The rise and growing popularity of online games has led to the appearance of excessive gaming that in some cases can lead to physical and psychological problems. Several measures have been developed to explore the nature and the scale of the phenomenon. However, few measures have been validated psychometrically. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the 12-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire Short-Form (POGQ-SF) and to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming. Data collection was carried out to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national representative adolescent sample by using an offline (pen and pencil) method. A total of 5,045 secondary school students were assessed (51% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years) of which 2,804 were gamers (65.4% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the measurement model of problematic online gaming, and latent profile analysis was used to identify the proportion of gamers whose online game use can be considered problematic. Results showed that the original six-factor model yielded appropriate fit to the data, and thus the POGQ-SF has appropriate psychometric properties. Latent profile analysis revealed that 4.6% of the adolescents belong to a high risk group and an additional 13.3% to a low risk group. Due to its satisfactory psychometric characteristics, the 12-item POGQ-SF appears to be an adequate tool for the assessment of problematic online gaming.
Jan Blecharz; Karolina Horodyska; Karolina Zarychta; Aleksandra Adamiec; Aleksandra Luszczynska
The study investigated psychometric properties of the Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6), assessing intrinsic regulation, four extrinsic regulation constructs, and amotivation among athletes competing at a regional and national level...
Kempen, G.I J M; Miedema, I; Ormel, J.; Molenaar, W.
The conceptual framework, psychometric properties, descriptive statistics, and the rules for administration and scoring of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (CARS) for assessing disability in the area of ADL (Activities of Daily Living including mobility) as well as IADL (Instrumental
Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H.; Barkoukis, Vassilis
confounds self-reported psychometric test results. Further, the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field...... settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy...... guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better...
Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias
The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role......-Z) was presented at the centre of the screen. Exposure duration was varied from 5 to 210 milliseconds. The letter was followed by a pattern mask. Three subjects each completed 54,080 trials in a 26-Alternative Forced Choice procedure. We compared the exponential, the gamma and the Weibull psychometric functions......, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially...
Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Expectations concerning barriers to children's psychosocial care seem to be major drivers when seeking help, but validated questionnaires measuring expectations are not available. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties of the parent and adolescent versions of the Barriers to
The psychometric characteristics of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Iranian groups correlated significantly with measures of other conceptually-related variables such as depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Factorial structure supported the multidimensionality of the scale. (Author/PN)
The psychometric characteristics of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Iranian groups correlated significantly with measures of other conceptually-related variables such as depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Factorial structure supported the multidimensionality of the scale. (Author/PN)
Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Olivares Faúndez, Víctor E
While the most commonly employed burnout measure has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), researchers have been troubled by some of the psychometric limitations of this instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" (SBI). The psychometric properties were analysed with data from a sample of 277 Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The psychometric properties of the SBI were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, reliability Cronbach's alpha, and concurrent validity with the MBI. The hypothesized four factor model obtained an adequate data fit for the sample (chi2(164) = 285.32, p burnout in the Chilean cultural context.
Beauchamp, Marla K; Schmidt, Catherine T; Pedersen, Mette M
The choice of measure for use as a primary outcome in geriatric research is contingent upon the construct of interest and evidence for its psychometric properties. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) has been widely used to assess functional limitations and disability...... in studies with older adults. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current available evidence for the psychometric properties of the LLFDI....
Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Godballe, Christian; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse
OBJECTIVE: Otitis media in children may have a considerable impact on caregiver quality of life. The disease-specific Caregiver Impact Questionnaire is designed to assess caregiver quality of life in relation to child otitis media. Assessment of the psychometric properties of this instrument...... is limited. This study assesses the psychometric properties of this instrument including validity, reproducibility, responsiveness, and interpretability. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal validation study. SETTING: Secondary care units. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 435 families. Validity was assessed...
Kemp, Joanne L; Collins, Natalie J; Roos, Ewa M.
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown.......Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown....
Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild
PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort....... The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. CONCLUSION: The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients....
Díaz-Redondo, A.; Rodríguez-Blázquez, C.; Ayala, A; Martinez-Martin, P; Forjaz, M.J.; On behalf of Spanish Research Group on Quality of Life and Ageing
Aim: Measurement of health-related quality of life in people with dementia is a challenge, because of their special characteristics and the difficulties that this term entails itself. The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D rated by a familiar or a professional caregiver of institutionalized older adults with dementia. Methods: We analyzed the EQ-5D psychometric properties from 525 questionnaires rated by proxy, in a sample of institutionalize...
Ohlsson Bodil; Bengtsson Mariette; Ulander Kerstin
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, it...
Bengtsson, Mariette; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ulander, Kerstin
Background: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods: The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, item-redu...
Judy R. Wilkerson; William Steve Lang
Since about 90% of schools, colleges, and departments of education are currently using portfolios of one form or another as decision-making tools for standards-based decisions regarding certification or licensure (as well as NCATE accreditation), it is appropriate to explore the legal and psychometric aspects of this assessment device. The authors demonstrate that portfolios being used in a high-stakes context are technically testing devices and therefore need to meet psychometric standards o...
van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Johannes H
Online questionnaires for measuring common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are increasingly used. The psychometrics of several pen-and-paper questionnaires have been re-examined for online use and new online instruments have been developed and tested for validity as well. This study aims to review and synthesise the literature on this subject and provide a framework for future research. We searched Medline and PsycINFO for psychometric studies on online instruments for common mental health disorders and extracted the psychometric data. Studies were coded and assessed for quality by independent raters. We included 56 studies on 62 online instruments. For common instruments such as the CES-D, MADRS-S and HADS there is mounting evidence for adequate psychometric properties. Further results are scattered over different instruments and different psychometric characteristics. Few studies included patient populations. We found at least one online measure for each of the included mental health disorders and symptoms. A small number of online questionnaires have been studied thoroughly. This study provides an overview of online instruments to refer to when choosing an instrument for assessing common mental health disorders online, and can structure future psychometric research.
Scarcella, Akimi; Page, Ruairi; Furtado, Vivek
Background Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. Method A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics. Information extracted was consolidated into two different tables and a 26-item checklist, reporting respectively background information, the psychometric properties of each tool, and the methodological quality markers of these tools. 37 articles met our criteria, which included a total of 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, 17 tools developed as research measures, and 9 inventories that have not been generated from a study. Results Just over half of the methodological quality markers required for a transparent methodological description of the instruments were reported. The amount of reported psychological properties was even fewer, with only a third of them available across the different studies. The category presenting the least satisfactory results was that containing the 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, which can be explained by the fact that half of them refrained from publishing the major part of their findings and relevant guidelines. Conclusions A great number of flaws have been identified through this systematic review. The authors encourage future researchers to be more thorough, comprehensive and transparent in their methodology. They also recommend the creation of a multi
Raquel Batista Dantas
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. METHODS The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20. RESULTS The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94–73.17, with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82–83.03. When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3 or absence (score < 3 of vulnerability to abuse, with clinical and health conditions, we found statistically significant differences for self-perception of health (p = 0.002, depressive symptoms (p = 0.000, and presence of rheumatism (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes. The Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale acceptably evaluated validity in the transcultural adaptation process, demonstrating dimensionality coherent with the original proposal (four factors. In the internal consistency analysis, the instrument presented good results (KR-20 = 0.69 and the reliability via reproducibility was considered excellent for the global scale (Kp = 0
Denis, A; Callahan, S; Bouvard, M
Prenatal attachment (PA) is defined as the relationship that develops between a woman and her foetus. Three measurements exist for evaluating PA: the Maternal Foetal Attachment Scale (MFAS), the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) and the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI). Of these three, only the PAI has been used in French. The overall objective of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of this second measure of PA: the MAAS. This scale was developed in 1993 by Condon. The MAAS is a 19-item self-report questionnaire which allows for calculating a total attachment score and two subscale scores; one score estimating the quality of the affective attachment experience and the other that estimates the intensity of concern about the foetus. For each item, the future mother provided an appreciation on a 5-point Likert scale (1=absence of feelings for the foetus; 5=very strong feelings for the foetus). The sample was composed of 117 primiparous French females (27.5 ± 4.27 years) in the third trimester of pregnancy (32.84 ± 3.77 weeks of amenorrhea). The study was carried out over a period of 5 months (January-May 2012). Each woman was asked to provide demographic data, a French version of the MAAS, a validated French version of the PAI, and a scale evaluating depressive symptoms (Edinburgh PostNatal Depression Scale, EPDS). The MAAS demonstrated moderately good psychometric properties. Condon's two-factor structure of MAAS was not supported in our sample. Four factors were identified with exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the global scale and for the factor 1 but not sufficiently adequate for the other factors. Concurrent validity was indicated by moderate correlations between the global MAAS scores with the total PAI score. A weak but significant inverse correlation was found between the MAAS and the EPDS suggesting good divergent validity. The authors suggest that additional research be conducted on
Dantas, Raquel Batista; Oliveira, Graziella Lage; Silveira, Andréa Maria
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. METHODS The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp) statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20). RESULTS The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94–73.17), with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82–83.03). When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3) or absence (score < 3) of vulnerability to abuse, with clinical and health conditions, we found statistically significant differences for self-perception of health (p = 0.002), depressive symptoms (p = 0.000), and presence of rheumatism (p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences between sexes. The Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale acceptably evaluated validity in the transcultural adaptation process, demonstrating dimensionality coherent with the original proposal (four factors). In the internal consistency analysis, the instrument presented good results (KR-20 = 0.69) and the reliability via reproducibility was considered excellent for the global scale (Kp = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS
Massof, Robert W.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Laby, Daniel M.; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David
Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model.
Uijen, Annemarie A; Schers, Henk J; Schellevis, François G; Mokkink, Henk GA; van Weel, Chris; van den Bosch, Wil JHM
Background Recently, the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire (NCQ) was developed. It aims to measure continuity of care from the patient perspective across primary and secondary care settings. Initial pilot testing proved promising. Aim To further examine the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. Design A prospective psychometric instrument validation study in primary and secondary care in the Netherlands. Method The NCQ was administered to patients with a chronic disease recruited from general practice (n = 145) and hospital outpatient departments (n = 123) (response rate 76%). A principal component analysis was performed to confirm three subscales that had been found previously. Construct validity was tested by correlating the NCQ score to scores of other scales measuring quality of care, continuity, trust, and satisfaction. Discriminative ability was tested by investigating differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test–retest reliability was analysed in 172 patients. Results Principal factor analysis confirmed the previously found three continuity subscales — personal continuity, care provider knows me; personal continuity, care provider shows commitment; and team/cross-boundary continuity. Construct validity was demonstrated through expected correlations with other variables and discriminative ability through expected differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test–retest reliability was high (the intraclass correlation coefficient varied between 0.71 and 0.82). Conclusion This study provides evidence for the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. The NCQ can be of value to identify problems in continuity of care. PMID:22782001
Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen
There are presently no validated scales to adequately measure the stigma of suicide in the community. The Stigma of Suicide Scale (SOSS) is a new scale containing 58 descriptors of a "typical" person who completes suicide. To validate the SOSS as a tool for assessing stigma toward suicide, to examine the scale's factor structure, and to assess correlates of stigmatizing attitudes. In March 2010, 676 staff and students at the Australian National University completed the scale in an online survey. The construct validity of the SOSS was assessed by comparing its factors with factors extracted from the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ). Three factors were identified: stigma, isolation/depression, and glorification/normalization. Each factor had high internal consistency and strong concurrent validity with the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. More than 25% of respondents agreed that people who suicided were "weak," "reckless," or "selfish." Respondents who were female, who had a psychology degree, or who spoke only English at home were less stigmatizing. A 16-item version of the scale also demonstrated robust psychometric properties. The SOSS is the first attitudes scale designed to directly measure the stigma of suicide in the community. Results suggest that psychoeducation may successfully reduce stigma.
Cross, Rachel; Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Busija, Lucy; Currey, Judy
Single checking medications has been increasingly adopted over the past decade by nurses in Australian healthcare services. However, attitudes toward the practice of only one nurse checking medications remain unclear. The aim of this article is to report on the development, reliability, and validity of a tool to measure nurses' attitudes to single checking medications in a health service in which single checking has been in place for over a decade. In a cross-sectional survey design, the Single Checking and Administration of Medications Scale (SCAMS-II) was used to measure the attitudes of 299 registered nurses (RNs) who were single checking medications in one metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the dimensions that best represented the SCAMS-II. Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency of the identified subscales. To test the construct validity of the emergent questionnaire, Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch analyses were performed. The psychometric properties of the SCAMS-II revealed 12 items with three reliable subscales: a five-item accountability model; a four-item efficiency model; and a three-item knowledge model. In settings where single checking is current practice, the SCAMS-II is recommended as a reliable tool to measure nurses' attitudes toward the single checking of medications. The findings from this study may assist healthcare organizations in the development of policy and procedure guidelines for the safe administration of medications. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Agustín Freiberg Hoffmann
Full Text Available Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire’s psychometric properties were analyzed. In order to do this, two different studies were developed: content and facies validity in one hand, and construct validity procedures in the other. The very first examined items and scale by expert judgment. The second one used principal components analysis (PCA and internal consistency in a preliminary stage, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA in the following. Two independent Argentinian college student samples were analyzed. Content validity results indicate the needing of modifying 8 items. Dichotomous answer scale was preserved. According to the results of construct validity, CPA showed four dimensions with better fit and good internal consistency. Only one of them -pragmatic component- responded to the original model. The remaining factors –assimilatory, convergent, adaptive- were identified as belonging to Kolb´s (1984 theoretical model. Confirmatory factor analysis compared PCA model with Alonso, Gallego and Honey´s model (1994, obtaining a better fit for the first. Results support PCA´s structural dimensions for the questionnaire.
Carlson, Eve B.; Field, Nigel P.; Ruzek, Josef I.; Bryant, Richard A.; Dalenberg, Constance J.; Keane, Terence M.; Spain, David A.
Objectives Ambulatory assessment data collection methods are increasingly used to study behavior, experiences, and patient reported outcomes (PROs) such as emotions, cognitions, and symptoms in clinical samples. Data collected close in time at frequent and fixed intervals can assess PROs that are discrete or changing rapidly and provide information about temporal dynamics or mechanisms of change in clinical samples and individuals, but clinical researchers have not yet routinely and systematically investigated the reliability and validity of such measures or their potential added value over conventional measures. The present study provides a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the psychometrics of several Proximal Intensive Assessment (PIA) measures in a clinical sample and investigates whether PIA appears to assess meaningful differences in phenomena over time. Methods Data was collected on a variety of psychopathology constructs on handheld devices every 4 hours for 7 days from 62 adults recently exposed to traumatic injury of themselves or a family member. Data was also collected on standard self-report measures of the same constructs at the time of enrollment, one week after enrollment, and two months after injury. Results For all measure scores, results showed good internal consistency across items and within persons over time, provided evidence of convergent, divergent, and construct validity, and showed significant between and within-subject variability. Conclusions Results indicate that PIA measures can provide valid measurement of psychopathology in a clinical sample. PIA may be useful to study mechanisms of change in clinical contexts, identify targets for change, and gauge treatment progress. PMID:26567018
Cheng, Li; Leung, Doris Y P; Wu, Yu-Ning; Sit, Janet W H; Yang, Miao-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire (C-PDQ). The PDQ was translated into Chinese using a forward and backward translation approach. After being reviewed by an expert panel, the C-PDQ was administered to a convenience sample of 346 adults with Type 2 diabetes. The Chinese version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (C-SDSCA) was also administered. The results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure for the Diet Knowledge, Decision-Making, and Eating Problems subscales and a two-factor structure for the barriers-related subscales. The criterion and convergent validity were supported by significant correlations of the subscales of the C-PDQ with the glycated hemoglobin values and the parallel subscales in the C-SDSCA, respectively. The C-PDQ subscales also showed acceptable internal consistency (α = .61-.89) and excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients: .73-.96). The results provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the C-PDQ. This comprehensive, patient-centered instrument could be useful to identify the needs, concerns, and priorities of Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The analysis was conducted in two stages using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cross validation was tested with a North West of England comparison sample. Results 783 questionnaires were successfully completed from Beijing, 468 from England. The Chinese MDAS consisted of two factors: anticipatory dental anxiety (ADA and treatment dental anxiety (TDA. Internal consistency coefficients (tau non-equivalent were 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement properties were virtually identical for male and female respondents. Relationships of the Chinese MDAS with gender, age and dental attendance supported predictions. Significant structural parameters between the two sub-scales (negative affectivity and autonomic anxiety of the HADS anxiety items and the two newly identified factors of the MDAS were confirmed and duplicated in the comparison sample. Conclusion The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects.
Müller, Jochen; Dettmer, Dorothee; Macht, Michael
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality, emotionality, and tests of the pleasantness, sweetness, and intensity of sugar and chocolate was examined. The results yielded a clear two-factor structure of the ACQ: The first factor (guilt) was composed of items concerning negative consequences of chocolate eating including the feeling of guilt. The second factor (craving) comprised items related to craving and emotional chocolate eating. Guilt correlated significantly with "emotional eating", "restrained eating", and with neuroticism. Craving correlated significantly with "emotional eating" and "external eating", with neuroticism, and with the "difficulty identifying feelings" facet of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale; further, it correlated highly with the average reported chocolate consumption and with the ratings of the intensity of taste of sugar. In conclusion, results support the validity of the German version of the ACQ and showed a stable factor structure and a good internal consistency.
O'Rourke, Norm; Heisel, Marnin J; Canham, Sarah L; Sixsmith, Andrew; Yaghoubi-Shahir, Hamed; King, David B
Across age groups, bipolar disorder (BD) carries the greatest risk of death by suicide of all psychiatric conditions; 25%-50% of those with BD will make one or more suicide attempt. Psychometrically sound instruments are required to reliably measure suicide ideation and risk of self-harm for older adults with BD. For this study, we validate the geriatric suicide ideation scale (GSIS) with adults 50+ years with BD. We recruited a global sample of 220 older adults with BD (M = 58.50 years of age) over 19 days using socio-demographically targeted, social media advertising and online data collection. To demonstrate the construct validation of GSIS responses by older adults with BD, we computed correlations and performed regression analyses to identify predictors of suicide ideation. Our analyses support a four-factor model of responses to the GSIS (ideation, death ideation, loss of personal and social worth, and perceived meaning in life) measuring a higher order latent construct. Older adults with BD reporting low satisfaction with life and current depressive symptoms, and who misuse alcohol, report significantly higher levels of suicide ideation. Sleep quality and cognitive failures are also correlated with GSIS responses. Results support the factorial validity of the GSIS with older adults with BD. Similar to other populations, the GSIS measures a four-factor structure of suicide ideation. Across BD subtypes, the GSIS appears to reliably measure suicide ideation among older adults with BD.
Baker, Jess R; Low, Lee-Fay; Goodenough, Belinda; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Tsang, Ruby S M; Bryden, Christine; Hutchinson, Karen
Children may have a foundational role in efforts to raise community awareness about dementia. There is some qualitative work with children with a relative with dementia, but little work into the insights of children as general citizens without affected family. One issue is an absence of measurement tools; thus the study aimed to design and pilot a psychometrically sound self-report measure of dementia attitudes for children. Using a multi-staged scale development process, stakeholder and expert input informed a 52-item Kids Insight into Dementia Survey (KIDS). After a pretest of KIDS with 21 Australian schoolchildren aged 10-12 years, exploratory factor analysis and reliability and validity testing were run on a revised KIDS with data from 203 similar-aged schoolchildren. The KIDS was reduced from 52 to 14 items, and a three-factor solution identified: 'Personhood,' 'Stigma,' and 'Dementia Understanding.' A strong positive correlation with an adult measure of dementia attitudes (r = .76) and a moderate positive correlation with a child measure of attitudes towards older adults (r = .47) indicated good concurrent validity. Internal consistency of .83 indicated good reliability. Results support the use of KIDS as a tool to measure children's insight into dementia, and to evaluate dementia education initiatives targeting the youth.
Pucciarelli, Gianluca; Savini, Serenella; Byun, Eeeseung; Simeone, Silvio; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Vela, Raúl Juárez; Alvaro, Rosaria; Vellone, Ercole
To evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Caregiver Preparedness Scale (CPS) in caregivers of stroke survivors. Caregiver preparedness can have an important impact on both the caregiver and the stroke survivor. The validity and reliability of the CPS has not been tested for the stroke-caregiver population. We used a cross-sectional design to study a sample of 156 caregivers of stroke survivors. Construct validity of the CPS was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also evaluated. Caregivers were, on average, 54 year old (SD = 13.2) and most were women (64.7%). CFA supported the unidimensionality of the scale (comparative fit index = 0.98). Reliability was also supported: item-reliability index and item-total correlations above 0.30; composite reliability index = 0.93; Cronbach's alpha = 0.94; factor score determinacy = 0.97; and test-retest reliability = 0.92. The CPS is valid and reliable in caregivers of stroke survivors. Scores on this scale may assist health-care providers in identifying caregivers with less preparedness to provide specific interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palladino, Benedetta Emanuela; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia
The present study tried to answer the research need for empirically validated and theoretically based instruments to assess cyberbullying and cybervictimization. The psychometric properties of the Florence CyberBullying-CyberVictimization Scales (FCBVSs) were analyzed in a sample of 1,142 adolescents (Mage=15.18 years; SD=1.12 years; 54.5% male). For both cybervictimization and cyberbullying, results support a gender invariant model involving 14 items and four factors covering four types of behaviors (written-verbal, visual, impersonation, and exclusion). The second-order confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that a "global," second-order measure of cyberbullying and cybervictimization fits the data well. Overall, the scales showed good validity (construct, concurrent, and convergent) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest). In addition, using the global key question measure as a criterion, ROC analyses, determining the ability of a test to discriminate between groups, allowed us to identify cutoff points to classify respondents as involved/not involved starting from the continuum measure derived from the scales.
Heaton Lisa J
Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish
Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate
Nangle, D W; Johnson, W G; Carr-Nangle, R E; Engler, L B
Proposed binge eating disorder (BED) diagnostic criteria were investigated to provide necessary psychometric characteristics and explore their utility in assessment. One hundred four subjects (52 self-referred bingers, 52 comparison subjects) completed an initial administration of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP). The results supported the ability of the two core BED criteria (i.e., episodic overeating, loss of control) to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical binge eaters. Thirty-nine of the self-referred and 40 of the comparison subjects completed a second QEWP administration 3 weeks later. Results indicated that the BED diagnosis was moderately stable over the 3-week interval (kappa = .58, combined sample). Using self-monitoring data completed by the self-referred subjects, predictive efficiency analyses indicated that the QEWP was able to identify both high and low probability binge eaters. Implications of the findings for the definition, assessment, and utility of the BED diagnosis are discussed.
Paschall, Mallie J; Fishbein, Diana H; Hubal, Robert C; Eldreth, Diana
This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents...
Tan, Jing-Yu; Suen, Lorna K P; Molassiotis, Alex
This paper aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT) for measuring chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This was a psychometric study using a panel of experts and a prospective observational design. Six experts were invited to identify the content validity and face validity of the MAT, and 115 cancer patients were then recruited from three provincial medical centers in Fuzhou, China. The MAT was self-completed by the patients on the first and the fifth day after receiving the most recent chemotherapy, and patients also rated daily the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) during the first 5 days after chemotherapy. Content validity was measured by the index of the content validity (CVI). Construct validity was estimated by the contrasted groups approach. Concurrent validity was measured by exploring the correlations between the INVR and MAT scores. The reliability of the MAT was examined by Cronbach's alpha and item-to-total correlations. One hundred and eleven subjects returned the completed measures. High content validity was determined. Contrasted groups analysis clearly discriminated the differences on the CINV symptom experiences between different age and gender groups. Excellent concurrent validity was identified, with the Spearman's correlation coefficient between the MAT total score and the INVR overall total score of 0.94 (P < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha for the MAT was 0.73, and the item-to-total correlations ranged from 0.50 to 0.71. The MAT Chinese version is a valid, reliable, and convenient instrument for measuring CINV in Chinese cancer patients.
Sánchez, Daniel; Chala, Andrés; Alvarez, Andrés; Payan, Catalina; Mendoza, Tito; Cleeland, Charles; Sanabria, Alvaro
The assessment of cancer-related symptoms requires culturally adapted and psychometrically validated symptom assessment tools. The M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN) is a useful instrument for measuring symptom burden that was specifically developed for head and neck cancer patients. To validate the Spanish version of the MDASI-HN. We evaluated the psychometric features of the MDASI-HN in patients with head and neck cancer. We evaluated the item-scale correlations and the internal consistency. We conducted principal axis factoring to identify the underlying dimensions as a measure of construct validity. The convergence/concurrent validity was assessed with the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire for Head and Neck Patients, and known-group validity and test-retest reliability also were assessed. One hundred thirty patients were included. The mean ± SD age was 60.5 ± 13.6 years; 68% of patients were male, 42% had laryngeal tumors, and 45.9% had Stage III tumors. Forty-seven percent of the patients underwent surgery, 55% underwent radiotherapy, and 36% underwent chemotherapy. The global Cronbach alpha for the HN module was 0.81. The factor analysis identified two factors (Factor 1: speech, mucus, coughing, and constipation; Factor 2: teeth, taste, sores, swallowing, and skin). The correlation with the global score of the University of Washington Quality of Life was -0.68. The difference in the MDASI-HN scores according to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was statistically significant (2.72 vs. 4.01, P = 0.006). The intraclass test-retest correlation was 0.62. The Spanish version of the MDASI-HN is reliable and valid for evaluating cancer-related symptoms in head and neck cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was designed to assess staff views on patient safety culture in hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the multilevel psychometric properties of the survey. Methods Survey data from 331 U.S. hospitals with 2,267 hospital units and 50,513 respondents were analyzed to examine the psychometric properties of the survey's items and composites. Item factor loadings, intraclass correlations (ICCs), design effects, internal consistency reliabilities, and multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) were examined as well as intercorrelations among the survey's composites. Results Psychometric analyses confirmed the multilevel nature of the data at the individual, unit and hospital levels of analysis. Results provided overall evidence supporting the 12 dimensions and 42 items included in the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture as having acceptable psychometric properties at all levels of analysis, with a few exceptions. The Staffing composite fell slightly below cutoffs in a number of areas, but is conceptually important given its impact on patient safety. In addition, one hospital-level model fit indicator for the Supervisor/Manager Expectations & Actions Promoting Patient Safety composite was low (CFI = .82), but all other psychometrics for this scale were good. Average dimension intercorrelations were moderate at .42 at the individual level, .50 at the unit level, and .56 at the hospital level. Conclusions Psychometric analyses conducted on a very large database of hospitals provided overall support for the patient safety culture dimensions and items included in the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey's items and dimensions overall are psychometrically sound at the individual, unit, and hospital levels of analysis and can be used by researchers and hospitals interested in assessing patient safety culture
Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the construction and validation of a scale designed to assess the quality of the supervised classes: Interaction on Supervised Classes Scale (ISCS. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive correlational study. For the construction of the scale three phases were performed in which different experts assessed the adequacy of the items. Finally, the psychometric properties of the final version were studied in a sample of 314 consumers (69.1% women aged between 18 and 77 with an average of 39.33 years (SD=12.25. Findings: The scale presents adequate validity and reliability, being a useful tool for measuring the interaction in Supervised Classes. Research limitations/implications: The sampling, non-probabilistic or convenience, have taken the sample of a unique sports facility and the small sample size. Practical implications: The ISCS allows managers to receive better feedback, allowing them to obtain deeper insight into the quality and satisfaction of the service. According to its results, the managers may implement different strategies to improve quality in a key service within sports centers. Originality/value: For the first time the interaction between customers and between customers and employees is evaluated both inside and outside the center, a topic that had not yet been studied in the scientific literature. The scale can be applied to any type of directed activity, and will allow a greater understanding of the quality of service.
Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (Pnutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
Roghaieh Rahmani Bilandi
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examin the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of Reproductive Health Assessment Questionnaire for Women of Reproductive Age (RHAQWRA.Materials and methods: This study was a cross sectional study. We selected 150 women aged 18- 45 years based on convenience sampling method who lived in the Quake-hit areas in eastern part of Iran in 2013. Some previously recognized and established instructions were undertaken in translating and adapting the RHAQWRA questionnaire culturally. We sought help and feedback from teenagers and experts in the fields of midwifery, sociology, and epidemiology to establish the face and content validity of the questionnaire. To examine the test-retest reliability indices of all the items, we used Kappa and McNemar tests.Results: The Content Validity Index (CVI and Content Validity Ratio (CVR scores for RHAQWRA were above 0.70. Results from Kappa and McNemar tests indicated a high degree of test-retest reliability. In order to evaluate the construct validity, known- group comparison (women with and without unwanted pregnancy was used. The internal consistency reliability indexes for the subscales obtained through Cronbach’s alpha were between 0.68 and 0.87.Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Iranian version of RHAQWRA is a valid and reliable questionnaire which can be used for measuring reproductive health needs during disasters.
To test the psychometric properties of a boundary spanning measure by nurse managers. The health-care environment requires hospital units to coordinate efforts autonomously across their boundaries and to manage relationships with other professionals, units and departments. Boundary spanning has become increasingly important for first-line nurse managers as unit gatekeepers; however, the available measures are limited. The 30-item instrument was developed from a literature review. Survey participants were 4918 nurses at 231 hospital units. Statistical analyses of construct validity and internal consistency were performed. Furthermore, the correlation between nurses' scores on the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale and nurses' evaluations of their managers were examined. Three factors and 26 items were derived from factor analyses: connecting and mediating, informing and feedback utilisation, and resource acquisition. Cronbach's subscales' alpha coefficients were above 0.9. Correlation analysis indicated that the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale score correlated with nurses' positive perceptions of their managers. This study demonstrates tentative support for the validity and reliability of the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale. Although further study is needed, the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale shows possibilities as a new measurement of nursing leadership. This study underscores measures to build on nurse managers' roles by building on the limited research available. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oswald, W D; Fleischmann, U M
Description, explanation and prediction of changes occurring in old age, which are based on intervention, are outlined as a basic goal in gerontological research. Appropriate psychological assessment techniques are necessary to reach this goal. The Nuremberg Gerontopsychological Inventory (NAI) is introduced as a set of psychological measurements which enable reliable, valid and sensitive evaluation of intervention-induced changes in old age. Four independent assessment levels, i.e. standardized performance tests, observer-ratings, self-ratings and a personality rating are the core components of this inventory. All assessment techniques are adapted for elderly subjects. Standard scores are available for the age range 55-90 years. Interrelations between the applied independent assessment levels are reported and taken to link different aspects of intervention-induced changes. Measuring psychological performance thus gains practical significance, e.g. in terms of activities-of-daily-living. From 14 independent studies the drug sensitivity of the applied measurements is shown. Finally, some recommendations for future psychometrical research are given.
To translate and culturally adapt the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), a widely used instrument for evaluating disability associated with elbow injuries, into Turkish (MEPS-T) and to determine psychometric properties of the translated version. The MEPS was translated into Turkish using published methodological guidelines. The measurement properties of the MEPS-T (construct validity and floor and ceiling effects) were tested in 91 patients with elbow pathology. The reproducibility of the MEPS-T was tested in 59 patients over 7-14 days. The responsiveness of the MEPS-T was tested in a subgroup of 46 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and who received conservative treatment for 6 weeks. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate the test-retest reliability. The construct validity was analyzed with the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Effect size (ES) was used to assess the responsiveness. The distribution of floor and ceiling effects was determined. The MEPS-T showed very good test-retest reliability (ICC 0.89). The correlation coefficients between the MEPS-T and DASH and VAS were -0.61 and -0.53, respectively (p elbow disease.
Ançel, Gülsüm; Kabakçi, Elif
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT) developed by C. Hughes Hammer, D. S. Martsolf, and R. A. Zeller (1998a, 1998b) for Turkish students and investigated the relationship of codependency with attachment styles and family problems. After the translation of the CODAT, Beck Depression Inventory, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, and Family Problems of Young Adulthood Evaluation Scale, each was administrated to Turkish female nurse students (n = 400). Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha values were then computed. Five-factor solution revealed a similar factor structure for the Turkish version of CODAT compared with that of the original tool. Five factors explained 48.38% of the variance. All of the items (with one exception) loaded on their original factors. Cronbach's alpha values for factors ranged between .62 and .78. For the total score, Cronbach's alpha was found to be .75. After statistically controlling for the effects of depressive symptoms, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to investigate if the attachment styles and family problems would change depending on codependency levels. For ANCOVAs, CODAT scores were treated at three levels. Students with higher CODAT scores had more attachment-related anxiety and reported more family problems after controlling for the effects of depressive symptoms. Our research results support the internal consistency and validity of the Turkish version of CODAT.
l. S. Shaw
Full Text Available Personal computers in psychometric testing represent an efficient, inexpensive, user-friendly, and reliable tool for research and training. They offer a number of substantial advantages for both test subjects and test directors. Personal computer-aided testing programs provide for the instruction of test subjects, the presentation of test patterns, the automatic evaluation of results, automatic data collection and statistical processing. Test results can be saved, compared with standard values, and printed out in various formats. User-friendly programming reduces the test directors' work to a minimum and relieve them from routine tasks. Flexibility and low cost are further advantages. Opsomming Die gebruik van persoonlike rekenaars vir .psigometriese toetse word as doeltreffende, goedkoop, gebruikerriendelike en betroubare werktuie vir navorsing en opieiding beskou. Hulle bled 'n aantal belangrike voordele aan vir toetslinge asook toetsleiers. Persoonlike rekenaarondersteunde toetsprogramme behels die voorligting van toetslinge, die vertoning van toetspatrone, die outomatiese evaluering van toetsresultate, outomatiese dataversameling asook statistiese dataverwerking. Toetsresultate kan gestoor, met standaardwaardes vergelyk en in verskeie formate uitgedruk word. Die toetsleier se werkbelading word deur middel van gebruikervriendelike programmering tot 'n minimum verminder en hy word ook van routine take bevry. Verdere voordele soos buigsaamheid en lae koste word ook beklemtoon.
Maria Regina Ferreira Brandão
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Burnout Inventory for Referees (BIR in Portuguese in a sample of professional soccer referees and to explore the nomological validity of the inventory through concurrent validation. The analysis showed a factorial structure of burnout for the referees with one second order factor and three first order factors; physical and emotional exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. A cross-validation procedure showed that the factor structure was replicable, and the inventory demonstrated internal reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, the study assessed the concurrent validity of the inventory by examining the correlation between the scores of the Burnout Inventory for Referees and the scores of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. The subscales of burnout and total burnout were positively correlated with tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion and negatively with vigor, as expected. In conclusion, the Portuguese version of BIR presents good evidence of validity and reliability in the assessment of referees who may be at risk of suffering from burnout.
Full Text Available The Tonic Immobility Scale has been only studied in abuse and/or sexual assault survivors, but tonic immobility (TI also occurs after other types of traumatic events. Consequently, we modified the scale for this purpose and studied its factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent, divergent and discriminant validity in 392 university students, most of whom had suffered one or more traumatic events of various kinds. The Fear subscale of the Modified Tonic Immobility Scale (MTIS showed very low internal consistency, and must be eliminated or reformulated. Discrimination indices of items 5 and 8 were very low, and tríese items must be reformulated or removed. After removing the five previous items, the shortened version of the MTIS had a one-factor structure, although model fit was not completely satisfactory. This scale showed acceptable levels of reliability, convergent validity with post-traumatic symptomatology, divergent validity with measures of depression and anxiety, and discriminant validity differentiating between groups that had and had not experienced traumatic events. The psychometric properties of the shortened version of the MTIS should be studied further. It may also be advisable to add new items of TI in order to establish whether this is a construct with more than one dimension.
Full Text Available Nowadays, teaching statistics is almost undisputedly always done using some sort of software for carrying out the computations. Indeed, the range of choices available for that purpose is wide and with a lot of variety. The present work describes the capabilities of one of the systems currently available for teaching of statistics: ViSta, the Visual Statistics System. As ViSta’s developers, we wish to point out the following features as specially appealing for using it at the classroom: a price and availability, it is free and can be downloaded on-line; b flexibility, it is an open system, extensible and adaptable for different users and needs; c simplicity, it has a simple and intuitive user interface that facilitates the management, transformation and data analysis; and d its graphical power, as it implements visualization methods that allow carrying out demonstrations of concepts and data analysis techniques. These capabilities are illustrated using a specific application to the teaching of psychometrics. The limitations and perspectives of development of the system are finally discussed.
Somaya H. Malkawi
Full Text Available Background. The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS. Methods. One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings. The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α=.859 for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r=.976, p<.001. Conclusion. The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.
Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Amro, Ahmad F.; Almasri, Nihad A.
Background The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS) is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS). Methods One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α = .859) for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r = .976, p < .001). Conclusion The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.
Bilger, R C; Matthies, M L; Meyer, T A; Griffiths, S K
In the determination of the speech-reception threshold (SRT), spondaic words are assumed to be homogeneous with respect to intelligibility; and the assumption of equal intelligibility requires that the words be comparable for all signal levels. Previous attempts to assess the equal intelligibility assumption using word thresholds as the sole criterion are not an adequate basis for specifying the equality of intelligibility. In the present study, the recorded spondaic words (Tillman recording) were analyzed in an attempt to create a more homogeneous set of spondaic words for future laboratory work. To achieve this goal, the data reported by Young, Dudley, and Gunter (1982) and data collected in our laboratory were fitted to a logistic function (psychometric function) from which a 50% point (threshold) and slope were obtained. To specify their acoustical parameters, the recorded spondaic words were digitized and the RMS level and duration of each syllable and word were calculated. None of the RMS or duration measures were correlated with word thresholds, so no attempt was made to equate level or duration. On the other hand, when the threshold of each word was adjusted to equal the mean threshold of the set (n = 36), the dispersion among word thresholds and slopes was greatly reduced. Further, we recommend that small sets of "equally intelligible" spondaic words not be used for clinical testing because set size is a strong factor in determining threshold for spondees (Meyer & Bilger, 1997; Punch & Howard, 1985).
Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth
Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed.
Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen
To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.
Juliane Callegaro Borsa
Full Text Available This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Positivity Scale (P-Scale. Participants were 730 subjects (65% women, aged from 17 to 70 years old (M = 31.0 years; SD = 11.43, from 21 Brazilian states. The sample was randomly split in two halves to cross-validate the results. With the first half of the sample (n1 = 365, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted. With the second half of the sample (n2 = 365, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA assessed the fit of the exploratory model. Convergent validity and group differences were also evaluated. The EFA and CFA presented a one-dimensional structure for the P-Scale. Moderate correlations were found between the P-Scale and mental-health, subjective happiness and life-satisfaction. The levels of positivity presented a low positive correlation with age, educational level and financial income. Slightly significant effects were found for occupational status and marital status. Positivity appears to be more closely related to personal dispositions than to sociodemographic aspects. Our results suggest that the P-Scale is a reliable measure with which to evaluate the levels of positivity in Brazil.
Markowetz, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Montag, Christian; Switala, Christina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E
For the first time in history, it is possible to study human behavior on great scale and in fine detail simultaneously. Online services and ubiquitous computational devices, such as smartphones and modern cars, record our everyday activity. The resulting Big Data offers unprecedented opportunities for tracking and analyzing behavior. This paper hypothesizes the applicability and impact of Big Data technologies in the context of psychometrics both for research and clinical applications. It first outlines the state of the art, including the severe shortcomings with respect to quality and quantity of the resulting data. It then presents a technological vision, comprised of (i) numerous data sources such as mobile devices and sensors, (ii) a central data store, and (iii) an analytical platform, employing techniques from data mining and machine learning. To further illustrate the dramatic benefits of the proposed methodologies, the paper then outlines two current projects, logging and analyzing smartphone usage. One such study attempts to thereby quantify severity of major depression dynamically; the other investigates (mobile) Internet Addiction. Finally, the paper addresses some of the ethical issues inherent to Big Data technologies. In summary, the proposed approach is about to induce the single biggest methodological shift since the beginning of psychology or psychiatry. The resulting range of applications will dramatically shape the daily routines of researches and medical practitioners alike. Indeed, transferring techniques from computer science to psychiatry and psychology is about to establish Psycho-Informatics, an entire research direction of its own.
Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Donis, Karina Carvalho; Serrano-Munuera, Carmen; Genis, David; Ramirez, Luís Torres; Mazzetti, Pilar; Pérez, Luis Velázquez; Latorre, Pilar; Sequeiros, Jorge; Matilla-Dueñas, Antoni; Jardim, Laura Bannach
We aimed to perform a comprehensive systematic review of the existing ataxia scales. We described the disorders for which the instruments have been validated and used, the time spent in its application, its validated psychometric properties, and their use in studies of natural history and clinical trials. A search from 1997 onwards was performed in the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane databases. The web sites ClinicalTrials.gov and Orpha.net were also used to identify the endpoints used in ongoing randomized clinical trials. We identified and described the semiquantitative ataxia scales (ICARS, SARA, MICARS, BARS); semiquantitative ataxia and non-ataxia scales (UMSARS, FARS, NESSCA); a semiquantitative non-ataxia scale (INAS); quantitative ataxia scales (CATSYS 2000, AFCS, CCFS and CCFSw, and SCAFI); and the self-performed ataxia scale (FAIS). SARA and ICARS were the best studied and validated so far, and their reliability sustain their use. Ataxia and non-ataxia scores will probably provide a better view of the overall disability in long-term trials and studies of natural history. Up to now, no clear advantage has been disclosed for any of them; however, we recommend the use of specific measurements of gait since gait ataxia is the first significant manifestation in the majority of ataxia disorders and comment on the best scales to be used in specific ataxia forms. Quantitative ataxia scales will be needed to speed up evidence from phase II clinical trials, from trials focused on the early phase of diseases, and for secondary endpoints in phase III trials. Finally, it is worth remembering that estimation of the actual minimal clinically relevant difference is still lacking; this, together with changes in quality of life, will probably be the main endpoints to measure in future therapeutic studies.
Latimer, Shane; Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Tennant, Alan
Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) is the intentional destruction of healthy body tissue without suicidal intent. DSH behaviours in non-clinical populations vary, and instruments containing a range of behaviours may be more informative than ones with restricted content. The Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) is a widely used measure of DSH in clinical populations (mental and physical health) and covers a broad range of behaviours (self-injury, risk taking and self-defeating acts). The test authors recommend the SHI to screen for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) using a cut-off score of five or more. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the SHI in non-clinical samples. The SHI was administered to a sample of 423 non-clinical participants (university students, age range 17 to 30). External validation was informed by the administration of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21) to a sub-sample (n = 221). Rasch analysis of the SHI was conducted to provide a stringent test of unidimensionality and to identify the DSH behaviours most likely to be endorsed at each total score. The SHI showed adequate fit to the Rasch model and no modifications were required following checks of local response dependency, differential item functioning and unidimensionality. The scale identified gender and age differences in scores, with females and older participants reporting higher levels of DSH. SHI scores and DASS-21 scores were related. The recommended cut-off point of five is likely to comprise mild forms of DSH and may not be indicative of psychopathology in a non-clinical population. Rather it may be more indicative of developmentally related risk taking behaviours while a higher cut-off point may be more suggestive of psychopathology as indicated by higher levels of depression, stress and anxiety.
Full Text Available Objective: It is important to consider the health concerns of adolescents before developing and implementing public health promotion or health education curriculum programs aimed at ameliorating priority health problems experienced by adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the original Adolescent Health Concern Inventory (AHCI for use with an Iranian population.Methods: This was a methodological study in which 50 adolescents with age range of 14-18 years were selected using convenience sampling. The translation and cultural adaptation process of The AHCI followed recognized and established guidelines. The face and content validity was established by analyzing feedback solicited from teenagers and professionals with expertise in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was examined using test-retest and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency reliability. Kappa and McNemar tests were used to examine test-retest reliability for each item.Results: Minor cultural differences were identified and resolved during the translation process and determining the validity of the checklist. Results from Kappa and McNemar tests indicate a high degree of test-retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach’s alpha for the subscales were between 0.68 and 0.87 with total instrument reliability of 0.96 indicating considerable overall reliability.Conclusion: The Persian version of the AHCI appears valid and reliable. Hence, it can be used for filling a gap in identifying the adolescents' health concerns in the research and community settings and school health education programs in Iran to design appropriate interventions.
Cumming Steven R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH is the intentional destruction of healthy body tissue without suicidal intent. DSH behaviours in non-clinical populations vary, and instruments containing a range of behaviours may be more informative than ones with restricted content. The Self-Harm Inventory (SHI is a widely used measure of DSH in clinical populations (mental and physical health and covers a broad range of behaviours (self-injury, risk taking and self-defeating acts. The test authors recommend the SHI to screen for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD using a cut-off score of five or more. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the SHI in non-clinical samples. Methods The SHI was administered to a sample of 423 non-clinical participants (university students, age range 17 to 30. External validation was informed by the administration of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21 to a sub-sample (n = 221. Rasch analysis of the SHI was conducted to provide a stringent test of unidimensionality and to identify the DSH behaviours most likely to be endorsed at each total score. Results The SHI showed adequate fit to the Rasch model and no modifications were required following checks of local response dependency, differential item functioning and unidimensionality. The scale identified gender and age differences in scores, with females and older participants reporting higher levels of DSH. SHI scores and DASS-21 scores were related. Conclusion The recommended cut-off point of five is likely to comprise mild forms of DSH and may not be indicative of psychopathology in a non-clinical population. Rather it may be more indicative of developmentally related risk taking behaviours while a higher cut-off point may be more suggestive of psychopathology as indicated by higher levels of depression, stress and anxiety.
Richard, Aline; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Schwappach, David D L
Speaking up about safety concerns by staff is important to prevent medical errors. Knowledge about healthcare workers' speaking up behaviors and perceived speaking up climate is useful for healthcare organizations (HCOs) to identify areas for improvement. The aim of this study was to develop a short questionnaire allowing HCOs to assess different aspects of speaking up among healthcare staff. Healthcare workers (n = 523) from 2 Swiss hospitals completed a questionnaire covering various aspects of speak up-related behaviors and climate. Psychometric testing included descriptive statistics, correlations, reliabilities (Cronbach α), principal component analysis, and t tests for assessing differences in hierarchical groups. Principal component analysis confirmed the structure of 3 speaking up behavior-related scales, that is, frequency of perceived concerns (concern scale, α = 0.73), withholding voice (silence scale, α = 0.76), and speaking up (speak up scale, α = 0.85). Concerning speak up climate, principal component analysis revealed 3 scales (psychological safety, α = 0.84; encouraging environment, α = 0.74; resignation, α = 0.73). The final survey instrument also included items covering speaking up barriers and a vignette to assess simulated behavior. A higher hierarchical level was mostly associated with a more positive speak up-related behavior and climate. Patient safety concerns, speaking up, and withholding voice were frequently reported. With this questionnaire, we present a tool to systematically assess and evaluate important aspects of speaking up in HCOs. This allows for identifying areas for improvement, and because it is a short survey, to monitor changes in speaking up-for example, before and after an improvement project.
Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.
Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J
Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095
Winser, Stanley J; Smith, Catherine M; Hale, Leigh A; Claydon, Leica S; Whitney, Susan L; Mehta, Poonam
To review systematically the psychometric properties of balance measures for use in people with cerebellar ataxia. Medline, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched between 1946 and April 2014. Two reviewers independently searched data sources. Cerebellar-specific and generic measures of balance were considered. Included studies tested psychometric properties of balance measures in people with cerebellar ataxia of any cause. Quality of reported studies was rated using the Consensus Based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Twenty-one articles across which 16 measures had been tested were included for review. Using the COSMIN, quality of methodology in studies investigating psychometric properties of generic balance measures (n=10) was rated predominantly as 'poor'. Furthermore, responsiveness has not been tested for any generic measures in this population. The quality of studies investigating psychometric properties of balance sub-components of the cerebellar-specific measures (n=6) ranged from 'poor' to 'excellent'; however, Minimally Clinically Important Difference has not been determined for these cerebellar-specific measures. The Posture and Gait (PG) sub-component of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) demonstrates the most robust psychometric properties with acceptable clinical utility. © The Author(s) 2014.
Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J
Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.
Zürcher, Simeon Joel; Vangelooven, Christa; Borter, Natalie; Schnyder, Daniel; Hahn, Sabine
The aim of this study was to test psychometrically the Italian and French versions of the Care Dependency Scale. The Care Dependency Scale assesses changes in patients' level of care dependency including important functional and mental dimensions. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Italian version is still ongoing. The French version has to date not been validated. Nationwide cross-sectional point prevalence study. Data were extracted from the national, annual prevalence survey of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and inpatient falls in Swiss acute care hospitals in 2011. A total of 799 Italian and 1068 French-speaking patients were included in the analysis. For the evaluation, the psychometric properties were tested for each language both separately and conjointly. The scales revealed high internal consistency. Factor analysis presented a one-factor solution for both versions separately as well as combined. Comparison of internal structure revealed an excellent degree of equivalence between the versions. Highly significant Spearman correlations between the Care Dependency Scale and the Braden Scale sum scores indicated satisfactory criterion validity. Both the Italian and the French versions of the Care Dependency Scale showed satisfactory psychometric properties and a high level of equivalence. Further psychometric testing, using modern test theory approaches, is required. However, the scale is recommended as a valid instrument for further use in Italian and French. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Serguei Petrovich Yelshansky
Full Text Available Purpose. Satisfaction with life is one of the basic concepts of positive psychology. Unsa-tisfied with the life person is unlikely to feel happy or to experience any positive feeling. The article presents the results of research on psychometric indicators of the Russian version of the scale of satisfaction with life. The number of points of the scale shows the level of life satisfaction. The subjects of the study were psychometric indicators of Russian language version of the scale – reliability, validity, internal consistency.Methodology. We used standard psychometric procedures for checking these parameters. Assessment of the retest reliability of the test and its validity (by analyzing correlations with contrasted and similar parameters, as well as an analysis of several indicators of internal consistency have been done.Results. In the study, the authors developed an original Russian-language version of the test; new data on its psychometric indicators have been received. The results of psychometric studies have found high retest reliability of the Russian version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale, its good internal consistency, confirmed its validity.Practical implications. Presented original translation of the scale can be used in work with Russian-speaking examinees in scientific psychological research, and in the work of psychologists-practitioners and psychotherapists focused on positive psychology and methods of development of personal potential.
correctly identify adherent patients with undetectable viral load were also observed for three studies. Although the data provided in the reports were heterogeneous, these were valuable and reported enough evidence of validity for the instrument. The selected studies represented 41.7 % of those initially identified, and only eight out of 20 documents were peer reviewed. The CEAT-VIH has been used for a variety of individuals of different ages, sex, socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. It has been a reliable and valid tool in measuring adherence to HIV treatment among different samples, and has been used with a wide range of study populations and countries (i.e., Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania and Spain). Encouraging data reported here may allow the recommendation of the CEAT-VIH as a valuable measure to use in HIV adherence research, especially in countries where the questionnaire already has available psychometric evidence.
Visinet, A; Soumet-Leman, C; Baptista, A; Bungener, C; Jouvent, R
Metacognition describes the process of thinking about one's own thought processes. This concept was introduced by Flavell in 1979 and has since been widely developed in the cognitive approach to mood and anxiety disorders. As it happens, many recent studies have underlined the links between metacognition and anxio-depressive symptoms, pointing out the interest of assessing its various dimensions. The short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire is a brief multidimensional measure of a range of metacognitive processes and metacognitive beliefs about worry and cognition relevant to the vulnerability to and the maintenance of emotional disorders. The aim of this study was twofold: firstly to adapt and validate a French version of the short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) and to assess its psychometric properties in a clinical sample, and secondly to investigate metacognitive predictors of anxiety and depression in this sample. The sample included 55 clinical participants (24 men, 31 women, mean age=51.33±14.62) with DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder). Instrument reliability (internal consistency), construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis), and convergent validity were measured. The total score and the five subscale scores were also compared with previous results in non-clinical samples. Reliability analyses indicated that the French version of the MCQ-30 possessed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.84), and confirmatory factor analysis supported the MCQ's original five-factor structure. Correlation with measurements of depression, anxiety and pathological worry demonstrated convergent validity (r=0.62, Pmetacognition, in relation to the anxio-depressive symptomatology and the subsequent management of patients. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Boyd, S; Kerr, R; Murray, P
Work Positive is Ireland's national policy initiative to control work-related stress. Since the introduction of the UK Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards (MS) in 2004, a number of studies have been undertaken to assess the potential adaptation of the MS framework within Ireland. To investigate the dimensionality, reliability and validity of the Irish version of the MS Indicator Tool (ROI-MSIT). Between February 2011 and June 2014, we collected data from a wide range of public and private sector organizations that used the ROI-MSIT. In addition to the ROI-MSIT, respondents completed the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine whether the ROI-MSIT maintained the structure of the UK instrument. The internal consistency of the ROI-MSIT was also assessed to determine its reliability, while its criterion-related validity was explored through correlation analysis with the WHO-5. Data were collected from 7377 participants. The factor structure of the ROI-MSIT consisted of six factors; the Demands, Control, Peer Support, Relationships and Role factors were equivalent to the original UK factors. Like the Italian version, a principal factor emerged that combined the Manager Support and Change domains. Cronbach's alpha scores ranged from 0.75 to 0.91. Finally, the ROI-MSIT's subscales and WHO-5 were positively correlated (r = 0.42-0.59, P psychometric evaluation of the ROI-MSIT is recommended. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Torabizadeh, Camellia; Yousefinya, Amirhossein; Zand, Farid; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Fararooei, Mohammad
Alarm fatigue can adversely affect nurses' efficiency and concentration on their tasks, which is a threat to patients' safety. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric accuracy of an alarm fatigue questionnaire for nurses. This study was conducted in two stages: in stage one, in order to establish the different aspects of the concept of alarm fatigue, the researchers reviewed the available literature-articles and books-on alarm fatigue, and then consulted several experts in a meeting to define alarm fatigue and develop statements for the questionnaire. In stage two, after the final draft had been approved, the validity of the instrument was measured using the two methods of face validity (the quantitative and qualitative approaches) and content validity (the qualitative and quantitative approaches). Test-retest, Cronbach's alpha, and Principal Component Analysis were used for item reduction and reliability analysis. Based on the results of stage one, the researchers extracted 30 statements based on a 5-point Likert scale. In stage two, after the face and content validity of the questionnaire had been established, 19 statements were left in the instrument. Based on factor loadings of the items and "alpha if item deleted" and after the second round of consultation with the expert panel, six items were removed from the scale. The test of the reliability of nurses' alarm fatigue questionnaire based on the internal homogeneity and retest methods yielded the following results: test-retest correlation coefficient = 0.99; Guttman split-half correlation coefficient = 0.79; Cronbach's alpha = 0.91. Regarding the importance of recognizing alarm fatigue in nurses, there is need for an instrument to measure the phenomenon. The results of the study show that the developed questionnaire is valid and reliable enough for measuring alarm fatigue in nurses.
McGilton, Katherine S
To describe the development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale (SSS). The development of the items of the scale was based on Winnicott's relationship theory and on focus groups with 26 healthcare aides (HCAs) and 30 supervisors from six long-term care (LTC) facilities in Ontario, Canada. Content validity of the 15-item instrument was established by a panel of experts. Based on a secondary analysis of data collected from 222 HCAs in 10 LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada, the SSS was subjected to principal components analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with the theoretical conceptualization of the instrument. Factor I was labeled Respects Uniqueness and Factor II was labeled Being Reliable. Internal consistency of Factor I was .95, and that of Factor II was .91. Discriminant validity was also established. The focus groups revealed that "being available to staff" while "recognizing the HCA as an individual, and taking a moment to get to know them" was essential to feeling supported by their supervisor. The SSS is a reliable and valid measure of supervisory support of supervisors working in LTC facilities. At the core of supportive supervision is the supervisor's ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with each HCA. It is through respecting the uniqueness of each HCA and being reliable that supervisor-HCA relationships can flourish. Supportive leadership in LTC settings is a major contributor to HCAs' job satisfaction and retention and to quality of patient care. Therefore, a tool developed and tested to measure supervisors' supportive capacities in LTC is primal to evaluate the effectiveness of supervisors in these environments.
Full Text Available Background: During the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the negative effects that providing therapy may have on therapists. Of special interest is a phenomenon called secondary traumatization, which can arise while working with traumatized clients. To develop a simple screening tool for secondary traumatization, a quantitative assessment instrument was constructed using a data-driven approach based on qualitative interviews with affected trauma therapists as well as experienced supervisors in trauma therapy. Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the newly developed Questionnaire for Secondary Traumatization (FST acute and lifetime version and to determine the most appropriate scoring procedure. Method: To this end, three independent samples of psychotherapists (n=371, trauma therapists in training (n=80, and refugee counselors (n=197 filled out an online questionnaire battery. Data structure was analyzed using factor analyses, cluster analyses, and reliability analyses. Results: Factor analyses yielded a six-factor structure for both the acute and the lifetime version with only a small number of items loading on differing factors. Cluster analyses suggested a single scale structure of the questionnaire. The FST total score showed good internal consistencies across all three samples, while internal consistency of the six extracted factors was mixed. Conclusion: With the FST, a reliable screening instrument for acute and lifetime secondary traumatization is now available which is free of charge and yields a sum score for quick evaluation. The six-factor structure needs to be verified with confirmatory factor analyses.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Measurement of treatment satisfaction in diabetes is important as it has been shown to be associated with positive outcomes, reduced disease cost and better health. The aim of this study was to assess the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Greek version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ. Methods A sample of type II diabetes patients (N = 172 completed the DTSQ status version, the SF-36 health survey and also provided data regarding treatment method, clinical and socio-demographic status. Instrument structure, reliability (Cronbach's a and construct validity (convergent, discriminative, concurrent and known-groups were assessed. Results The DTSQ measurement properties were confirmed in the Greek version with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Scale reliability was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92. Item-scale internal consistency and discriminant validity were also good, exceeding the designated success criteria. Significant correlations were observed between DTSQ items/overall score and SF-36 scales/component scores, which were hypothesized to measure similar dimensions. Known groups' comparisons yielded consistent support of the construct validity of the instrument. Conclusions The instrument was well-accepted by the patients and its psychometric properties were similar to those reported in validation studies of other language versions. Further research, incorporating a longitudinal study design, is required for examining test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument, which were not addressed in this study. Overall, the present results confirm that the DTSQ status version is a reasonable choice for measuring diabetes treatment satisfaction in Greece.
Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos M. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.
P>Title. D-Catch instrument: development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals. Aim. This paper is a report of the development and testing of the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the accuracy of nursing documentation in general
Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin
This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…
Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin
This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…
Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike
Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs' cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs' cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension's Cronbach's α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs' cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive assessment of HCPs' cultural competence, and has the
Dovey, Terence M; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I; Wilken, Markus; Meyer, Caroline
This study assessed the specificity and sensitivity of two commonly used psychometric methods to assess ARFID in children. To achieve this, a sample of 329 mothers and one father completed the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that both measures were able to successfully differentiate a known clinical sample from those of typically developing population. Although the BPFAS was more accurate at differentiating ARFID from the general population, the CFNS was acceptable and on some metrics better than its longer counterpart. The ability of a food neophobia scale to differentiate clinical and population samples, and detect gradation of food avoidance within the population sample, suggests that the multitude of psychometric measures available may be measuring similar constructs. Therefore, confidence can be expected in cross-site comparisons despite each using different psychometric measures of food avoidance in children. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tylka and Wood-Barcalow (2015b) developed the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) as a psychometrically robust measure that is conceptually consistent with recent findings on positive body image. The present study aimed to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the BAS-2 in Iran. Participants were 568 men and 525 women from seven universities in Tehran, Iran. Two exploratory factor analyses were performed on data from women and men separately. Similar to the original English version, the Persian BAS-2 had a one-factor solution. Persian BAS-2 scores had satisfactory convergent validity (indexed by significantly correlations with self-esteem and life satisfaction) and internal consistency. Men had significantly higher scores on BAS-2 compared to women. The present study suggests that the Persian BAS-2 has adequate psychometric properties to assess body appreciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings......-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement ,and Enjoyment, were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties...... despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other...
Prior, Nieves; Remor, Eduardo; Pérez-Fernández, Elia
was to perform a cross-cultural validation and psychometric study of the HAE-QoL in an international setting. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spanish HAE-QoL draft version and an international rating phase with experts were performed. The resultant version of the HAE-QoL, a clinical questionnaire......, and Short Form 36-item Health Survey Version 2.0 (SF-36v2) were pilot tested internationally. Item reduction was based on both descriptive and exploratory factor analysis. Psychometric properties were assessed. RESULTS: Cross-cultural adaptation of the HAE-QoL was performed in 18 countries. The draft...... and social functioning, concern about offspring, perceived control over illness, and mental health). Strong psychometric properties were observed (Cronbach's α 0.92; test-retest reliability 0.87). Convergent validity showed mild to moderate correlations with SF-36v2 physical and mental component summaries (0...
Gobbett, Matthew J; Sellen, Joselyn L
The most widely implemented offending behaviour programme in the United Kingdom was Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS), a cognitive-behavioural group intervention that aimed to develop participant's general cognitive skills. A new offending behaviour programme has been developed to replace ETS: the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP). This study reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of TSP using psychometric assessments. Phasing of the two programmes created an opportunity to compare the two programmes consecutively. Forty participants, 20 from each programme, completed a range of psychometric measures to examine cognition, attitudes, and thinking styles. Analysis of pre- and post-programme psychometric results indicated that participants of TSP demonstrated improvements on 14 of the 15 scales, 9 of which were statistically significant. Effect sizes between pre-post results were generally greater for TSP than ETS, demonstrating that TSP had a more positive impact on the thinking styles and attitudes of participants than the ETS programme.
Darrow, Sabrina M; Callaghan, Glenn C; Bonow, Jordan T; Follette, William C
The evidence based assessment (EBA) movement stresses the importance of psychological measures with strong psychometric properties and clinical utility. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template system (FIAT; Callaghan, 2006) is a functional analytic behavioral approach to the assessment of interpersonal functioning for use with therapies like Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991). While research has begun to demonstrate the clinical utility of the FIAT, its psychometric properties have not been explored. The present study examines the Functional Idiographic Assessment Template-Questionnaire (FIAT-Q), a self-report measure contained in the FIAT. Two different approaches are used to explore the psychometric properties and structure of the FIAT-Q, and test-retest reliability is examined. These methods are discussed along with the use of the FIAT-Q as an alternative to nosological assessment of client behaviors.
Hajós, Tibor R S; Pouwer, F; Skovlund, S E
OBJECTIVE: The 5-item World Health Organization well-being index is a commonly used measure of emotional well-being, but research on psychometric properties in outpatients with diabetes is scarce. We examined psychometric and screening properties for depression of this index in a large sample...... index cut-off of psychometrically sound...
Neubauer, Alioscha C.; Spinath, Frank M.; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Borkenau, Peter
Administered 2 elementary cognitive task (ECT) tests and 2 psychometric intelligence tests to 169 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs of twins in Germany. Reaction times correlated negatively with psychometric intelligence, and habitability estimates were substantial for both psychometric intelligence and reaction times on the ECTs. Multivariate…
Aktas, Aynur; Walsh, Declan; Kirkova, Jordanka
Various instruments are used to assess both individual and multiple cancer symptoms. We evaluated the psychometric properties of cancer multisymptom assessment instruments. An Ovid MEDLINE search was done. All searches were limited to adults and in English. All instruments published from 2005 to 2014 (and with at least one validity test) were included. We excluded those who only reported content validity. Instruments were categorized by the three major types of symptom measurement scales employed as follows: visual analogue (VAS), verbal rating (VRS), and numerical rating (NRS) scales. They were then examined in two areas: (1) psychometric thoroughness (number of tests) and (2) psychometric strength of evidence (validity, reliability, generalizability). We also assigned an empirical global psychometric quality score (which combined the concepts of thoroughness and strength of evidence) to rank the instruments. We analyzed 57 instruments (17 original, 40 modifications). They varied in types of scales used, symptom dimensions measured, and time frames evaluated. Of the 57, 10 used VAS, 28 VRS, and 19 NRS. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), ESAS-Spanish, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI)-Russian, and MDASI-Taiwanese were the most comprehensively tested for validity and reliability. The ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, ASDS-2, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)-SF, POMS, SDS, MDASI (and some translations), and MDASI-Heart Failure all showed good validity and reliability. The MDASI appeared to be the best overall from a psychometric perspective. This was followed by the ESAS, ESAS-Spanish, POMS, SDS, and some MDASI translations. VRS-based instruments were most common. There was a wide range of psychometric rigor in validation. Consequently, meta-analysis was not possible. Most cancer multisymptom assessment instruments need further extensive validation
Timmerman, Angelique A; Speyer, Renée; Heijnen, Bas J; Klijn-Zwijnenberg, Iris R
Dysphagia can have severe consequences for the patient's health, influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Sound psychometric properties of HRQoL questionnaires are a precondition for assessing the impact of dysphagia, the focus of this study, resulting in recommendations for the appropriate use of these questionnaires in both clinical practice and research contexts. We performed a systematic review starting with a search for and retrieval of all full-text articles on the development of HRQoL questionnaires related to oropharyngeal dysphagia and/or their psychometric validation from the electronic databases PubMed and Embase published up to June 2011. Psychometric properties were judged according to quality criteria proposed for health status questionnaires. Eight questionnaires were included in this study. Four are aimed solely at HRQoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia: the deglutition handicap index (DHI), dysphagia handicap index (DHI'), M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), and SWAL-QOL, while the EDGQ, EORTC QLQ-STO 22, EORTC QLQ-OG 25 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 focus on other primary diseases resulting in dysphagia. The psychometric properties of the DHI, DHI', MDADI, and SWAL-QOL were evaluated. For appropriate applicability of HRQoL questionnaires, strong scores on the psychometric criteria face validity, criterion validity, and interpretability are prerequisites. The SWAL-QOL has the strongest ratings for these criteria, while the DHI' is the most easy to apply given its 25 items and the use of a uniform scoring format. For optimal use of HRQoL questionnaires in diverse settings, it is necessary to combine psychometric and utility approaches.
Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels
, was used to test the psychometric properties of this scale in a sample of 566 Danish school children between 6 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that parents and teachers had different frames of reference when rating symptoms in the mADHD-RS. There was support for the unidimensionality...... of the three subscales when parent and teacher ratings were analyzed independently. Nonetheless, evidence for differential item functioning was found across gender and age for specific items within each of the subscales. The findings expand existing psychometric information about the mADHD-RS and support its...
Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse; Anttila, Heidi
(Participation Repertoire). PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate a range of psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 in a sample of adult powered mobility device (PMD) users. METHOD: Data collected from PMD users ( N = 248) in Denmark, Finland, and Norway as part of a larger study were analyzed using state...... scale and six components of the Frequency scale. IMPLICATIONS: The NOMO 1.0 should be used for research purposes and not for clinical practice. Better reliability should be established for the Need for Assistance and Ease/Difficulty scales prior to further psychometric testing to establish the validity...
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos
The study analyzed psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 400 men and 453 women who had had a partner for the last 6 mo. or longer at the time of the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution with the factors Initiation and No shyness/Refusal. Internal consistency values for total scores were .87 and .83 for the factors, respectively. Convergent validity tests were also satisfactory. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the Spanish version of the scale has appropriate psychometric properties.
Serguei Petrovich Yelshansky; Aleksandr Fedorovich Anufriev; Zulfiya Faridovna Kamaletdinova; Oleg Evgenievich Saparin; Dmitrij Vladimirovich Semyonov
Purpose. Satisfaction with life is one of the basic concepts of positive psychology. Unsa-tisfied with the life person is unlikely to feel happy or to experience any positive feeling. The article presents the results of research on psychometric indicators of the Russian version of the scale of satisfaction with life. The number of points of the scale shows the level of life satisfaction. The subjects of the study were psychometric indicators of Russian language version of the scale – reliabil...
Rodriguez, A Noel; DeWitt, Peter; Fisher, Jennifer; Broadfoot, Kirsten; Hurt, K Joseph
To characterize the psychometric properties of a novel Obstetric Communication Assessment Tool (OCAT) in a pilot study of standardized difficult OB communication scenarios appropriate for undergraduate medical evaluation. We developed and piloted four challenging OB Standardized Patient (SP) scenarios in a sample of twenty-one third year OB/GYN clerkship students: Religious Beliefs (RB), Angry Father (AF), Maternal Smoking (MS), and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). Five trained Standardized Patient Reviewers (SPRs) independently scored twenty-four randomized video-recorded encounters using the OCAT. Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient-2 (ICC-2) were used to estimate internal consistency (IC) and inter-rater reliability (IRR), respectively. Systematic variation in reviewer scoring was assessed using the Stuart-Maxwell test. IC was acceptable to excellent with Cronbach's alpha values (and 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]): RB 0.91 (0.86, 0.95), AF 0.76 (0.62, 0.87), MS 0.91 (0.86, 0.95), and IPV 0.94 (0.91, 0.97). IRR was unacceptable to poor with ICC-2 values: RB 0.46 (0.40, 0.53), AF 0.48 (0.41, 0.54), MS 0.52 (0.45, 0.58), and IPV 0.67 (0.61, 0.72). Stuart-Maxwell analysis indicated systematic differences in reviewer stringency. Our initial characterization of the OCAT demonstrates important issues in communications assessment. We identify scoring inconsistencies due to differences in SPR rigor that require enhanced training to improve assessment reliability. We outline a rational process for initial communication tool validation that may be useful in undergraduate curriculum development, and acknowledge that rigorous validation of OCAT training and implementation is needed to create a valuable OB communication assessment tool.
Foa, Edna B; McLean, Carmen P; Zang, Yinyin; Zhong, Jody; Powers, Mark B; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Rauch, Sheila; Porter, Katherine; Knowles, Kelly
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(10) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2016-36101-001). In the article, the third sentence of the Internal Consistency subsection of the Results section should read: Item 8, “Not being able to remember important parts of the trauma,” had an item–total correlation of .34, and Item 16, “Taking more risks or doing things that might cause you or others harm” had an item–total correlation of .44; the range of item–total correlations for the remaining 18 items was .62–.82, with an average of .70.”] The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for DSM–5 (PDS–5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on diagnostic criteria of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Participants were 242 urban community residents, veterans, and college undergraduates recruited from 3 study sites who had experienced a DSM–5 Criterion A traumatic experience. The PDS–5 demonstrated excellent internal consistency (α = .95) and test–retest reliability (r = .90) and good convergent validity with the PTSD Checklist—Specific Version (r = .90) and the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview Version for DSM–5 (PSSI–5; r = .85). The PDS–5 also showed good discriminant validity with the Beck Depression Inventory—II and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory—Trait scale (all ZH > 3.05, ps < .01). There was 78% agreement between the PDS–5 and the PSSI–5. Receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded a cutoff score of 28 for identifying a probable PTSD diagnosis. The PDS–5 is a valid and reliable measure of DSM–5 PTSD symptomatology.
Al Thobaity, Abdulellah; Williams, Brett; Plummer, Virginia
All nurses must have core competencies in preparing for, responding to and recovering from a disaster. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), as in many other countries, disaster nursing core competencies are not fully understood and lack reliable, validated tools. Thus, it is imperative to develop a scale for exploring disaster nursing core competencies, roles and barriers in the KSA. This study's objective is to develop a valid, reliable scale that identifies and explores core competencies of disaster nursing, nurses' roles in disaster management and barriers to developing disaster nursing in the KSA. This study developed a new scale testing its validity and reliability. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to develop and test psychometric properties of the new scale. The PCA used a purposive sample of nurses from emergency departments in two hospitals in the KSA. Participants rated 93 paper-based, self-report questionnaire items from 1 to 10 on a Likert scale. PCA using Varimax rotation was conducted to explore factors emerging from responses. The study's participants were 132 nurses (66% response rate). PCA of the 93 questionnaire items revealed 49 redundant items (which were deleted) and 3 factors with eigenvalues of >1. The remaining 44 items accounted for 77.3% of the total variance. The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.96 for all factors: 0.98 for Factor 1, 0.92 for Factor 2 and 0.86 for Factor 3. This study provided a validated, reliable scale for exploring nurses' core competencies, nurses' roles and barriers to developing disaster nursing in the KSA. The new scale has many implications, such as for improving education, planning and curricula. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poghosyan, Lusine; Nannini, Angela; Finkelstein, Stacey R; Mason, Emanuel; Shaffer, Jonathan A
Policy makers and healthcare organizations are calling for expansion of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce in primary care settings to assure timely access and high-quality care for the American public. However, many barriers, including those at the organizational level, exist that may undermine NP workforce expansion and their optimal utilization in primary care. This study developed a new NP-specific survey instrument, Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire (NP-PCOCQ), to measure organizational climate in primary care settings and conducted its psychometric testing. Using instrument development design, the organizational climate domain pertinent for primary care NPs was identified. Items were generated from the evidence and qualitative data. Face and content validity were established through two expert meetings. Content validity index was computed. The 86-item pool was reduced to 55 items, which was pilot tested with 81 NPs using mailed surveys and then field-tested with 278 NPs in New York State. SPSS 18 and Mplus software were used for item analysis, reliability testing, and maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis. Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire had face and content validity. The content validity index was .90. Twenty-nine items loaded on four subscale factors: professional visibility, NP-administration relations, NP-physician relations, and independent practice and support. The subscales had high internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's alphas ranged from.87 to .95. Having a strong instrument is important to promote future research. Also, administrators can use it to assess organizational climate in their clinics and propose interventions to improve it, thus promoting NP practice and the expansion of NP workforce.
Jones, Richard N.; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Mitchell, Susan L.
Objective The majority of scales to measure family member distress in dementia are designed for community settings and do not capture the unique burdens of the nursing home (NH) environment. We report the psychometric properties of a new Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale for use in the NH setting. Design, Setting, Participants Cross-sectional questionnaire of 130 family member health care proxies of NH residents with advanced dementia in 31 Boston-area NHs. Methods Thirty-one initial items were evaluated, measuring the frequency over the past 3 months of sources of distress. Exploratory factor analysis identified domains of distress; Cronbach’s alpha was computed for each domain. Associations between the domains and other measures were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients, including measures of depression (PHQ-9), satisfaction with care (Satisfaction with Care at the End-of-Life in Dementia [SWC-EOLD]) and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview short version). Results Factor analysis suggested three domains: Emotional Distress (9 items), Dementia Preparedness (5 items), and NH Relations (7 items). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.82, 0.75 and 0.83 respectively. The PHQ-9 correlated most strongly with the Emotional Distress factor (r = 0.34), the SWC-EOWD correlated most strongly with the NH Relations factor (r = 0.35), as did the Zarit Burden Scale (r = 0.50). Conculsions The Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale encompasses three domains of distress. This scale represents a much needed tool to assess distress among family members of NH residents with advanced dementia and provides a metric to evaluate interventions in the population. PMID:25940236
Parmar, Arpita; Kwan, Matthew; Rodriguez, Christine; Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John
It is important to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) early in a child's life to allow for proper and timely intervention and support, and to reduce the negative secondary consequences associated with this condition. In this study we assessed the psychometric properties (construct validity, concurrent validity, reliability and test accuracy) of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q-07) in preschool children. A community-based sample of children ages 4-6 (n=181) were screened for motor difficulties using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC-2). Use of the M-ABC-2 resulted in the identification of 29 children below the 15th percentile, which we classified as probable DCD. Parents of these children concurrently completed the DCD-Q-07 to report their child's motor performance. The DCD-Q-07 demonstrated high internal consistency for both the full scale (alpha=0.881) and each subscale: control during movement (alpha=0.813), fine motor and handwriting (alpha=0.869) and general coordination (alpha=0.728). Moderate correlations (r=0.47-0.63) were also seen between the subscales on the DCD-Q-07, the strongest correlation being between control during movement and general coordination (r=0.63). Based on published age and sex cut points, the DCD-Q-07 showed poor sensitivity (20.7%) but high specificity (92.1%) against the M-ABC-2. Overall agreement with the M-ABC-2 was low using ROC analysis (area under the curve=0.654). Although it is important to screen for DCD in young children, the DCD-Q-07 may not be the best choice as a screening tool for DCD in preschool children ages 4-6 due to its low test accuracy.
von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N
The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Male, Leanne; Noble, Adam; Atkinson, Jessica; Marson, Tony
Knowledge about patient experience within emergency departments (EDs) allows services to develop and improve in line with patient needs. There is no standardized instrument to measure patient experience. The aim of this study is to identify patient reported experience measures (PREMs) for EDs, examine the rigour by which they were developed and their psychometric properties when judged against standard criteria. Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science were searched from inception to May 2015. Studies were identified using specific search terms and inclusion criteria. A total of eight articles, reporting on four PREMs, were included. Data on the development and performance of the four PREMs were extracted from the articles. The measures were critiqued according to quality criteria previously described by Pesudovs K, Burr JM, Harley C, et al. (The development, assessment, and selection of questionnaires. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84:663-74.). There was significant variation in the quality of development and reporting of psychometric properties. For all four PREMs, initial development work included the ascertainment of patient experiences using qualitative interviews. However, instrument performance was poorly assessed. Validity and reliability were measured in some studies; however responsiveness, an important aspect on survey development, was not measured in any of the included studies. PREMS currently available for use in the ED have uncertain validity, reliability and responsiveness. Further validation work is required to assess their acceptability to patients and their usefulness in clinical practice.
Full Text Available The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test is a popular measure of individual differences in Theory of Mind that is often applied in the assessment of particular clinical populations (primarily, individuals on the autism spectrum. However, little is known about the test’s psychometric properties, including factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity evidence. We present a psychometric analysis of the test followed by an evaluation of other empirically proposed and statistically identified structures. We identified, and cross-validated in a second sample, an adequate short-form solution that is homogeneous with adequate internal consistency, and is moderately related to Cognitive Empathy, Emotion Perception, and strongly related to Vocabulary. We recommend the use of this short-form solution in normal adults as a more precise measure over the original version. Future revisions of the test should seek to reduce the test’s reliance on one’s vocabulary and evaluate the short-form structure in clinical populations.
Scarinci, Nerina; Worrall, Linda; Hickson, Louise
The effects of hearing impairment on the person with the impairment and on their significant others are pervasive and affect the quality of life for all involved. The effect of hearing impairment on significant others is known as a third-party disability. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically test a scale to measure the third-party disability experienced by spouses of older people with hearing impairment. The Significant Other Scale for Hearing Disability (SOS-HEAR) was based on results of a previous qualitative study investigating the effect of hearing impairment on a spouse's everyday life. Psychometric testing with 100 spouses was conducted using item analysis, Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, and test-retest reliability. Principal components analysis identified six key underlying factors. A combined set of 27 items was found to be reliable (alpha = 0.94), with weighted kappa for items ranging from fair to very good. The SOS-HEAR is a brief, easy to administer instrument that has evidence of reliability and validity. The SOS-HEAR could serve as a means of identifying spouses of older people with hearing impairment in need of intervention, directed towards either the couple or the spouse alone.
Bech, Per; Tanghøj, Per; Cialdella, Philippe; Andersen, Henning Friis; Pedersen, Anders Gersel
In continuation of a previous psychometric analysis of dose-response data for citalopram in depression, the corresponding study data for escitalopram is of interest, since escitalopram is the active enantiomer of citalopram and because citalopram was used as the active control. Revisiting those corresponding data, the psychometric properties of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were investigated by focusing on the unidimensional HAMD6 and MADRS6. Effect sizes were calculated and compared for two dosages of escitalopram (10 mg and 20 mg daily) and between each of these two dosages and 40 mg citalopram daily. The results showed that the three depression scales MADRS6, MADRS10 and HAMD6 were psychometrically acceptable (coefficient of homogeneity of 0.40 or higher). In the severely depressed patients (MADRS10> or =30) a rather clear dose-response relationship for escitalopram was seen on all three scales after 6 and 8 wk of therapy. Thus, the effect size for 10 mg escitalopram ranged from 0.28 to 0.38 while the effect sizes for 20 mg escitalopram ranged from 0.57 to 0.77. This difference was statistically significant (pescitalopram and 40 mg citalopram was seen after 8 wk of therapy for MADRS10 (effect size 0.71 vs. 0.37). An item analysis identified 'suicidal thoughts' to be the most discriminating item in this respect. These results for the severely depressed patients were confirmed by the patients self-reported quality of life evaluation. When all included patients were analysed, however, no clear dose-response relationship was seen. In conclusion, a dose-response relationship for escitalopram was seen in the severely depressed patients on all outcome scales after 6 and 8 wk of treatment. After 8 wk of treatment 20 mg escitalopram was superior to 40 mg citalopram, but not after 2 wk of treatment.