Abplanalp, Samuel J; Buck, Benjamin; Gonzenbach, Virgilio; Janela, Carlos; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S
Through the use of lexical analysis software, researchers have demonstrated a greater frequency of negative affect word use in those with schizophrenia and schizotypy compared to the general population. In addition, those with schizotypy endorse greater emotional distress than healthy controls. In this study, our aim was to expand on previous findings in schizotypy to determine whether negative affect word use could be linked to emotional distress. Schizotypy (n=33) and non-schizotypy groups (n=33) completed an open-ended, semi-structured interview and negative affect word use was analyzed using a validated lexical analysis instrument. Emotional distress was assessed using subjective questionnaires of depression and psychological quality of life (QOL). When groups were compared, those with schizotypy used significantly more negative affect words; endorsed greater depression; and reported lower QOL. Within schizotypy, a trend level association between depression and negative affect word use was observed; QOL and negative affect word use showed a significant inverse association. Our findings offer preliminary evidence of the potential effectiveness of lexical analysis as an objective, behavior-based method for identifying emotional distress throughout the schizophrenia-spectrum. Utilizing lexical analysis in schizotypy offers promise for providing researchers with an assessment capable of objectively detecting emotional distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Alex S; Auster, Tracey L; McGovern, Jessica E; MacAulay, Rebecca K
Speech deficits are thought to be an important feature of schizotypy--defined as the personality organization reflecting a putative liability for schizophrenia. There is reason to suspect that these deficits manifest as a function of limited cognitive resources. To evaluate this idea, we examined speech from individuals with psychometrically-defined schizotypy during a low cognitively-demanding task versus a relatively high cognitively-demanding task. A range of objective, computer-based measures of speech tapping speech production (silence, number and length of pauses, number and length of utterances), speech variability (global and local intonation and emphasis) and speech content (word fillers, idea density) were employed. Data for control (n=37) and schizotypy (n=39) groups were examined. Results did not confirm our hypotheses. While the cognitive-load task reduced speech expressivity for subjects as a group for most variables, the schizotypy group was not more pathological in speech characteristics compared to the control group. Interestingly, some aspects of speech in schizotypal versus control subjects were healthier under high cognitive load. Moreover, schizotypal subjects performed better, at a trend level, than controls on the cognitively demanding task. These findings hold important implications for our understanding of the neurocognitive architecture associated with the schizophrenia-spectrum. Of particular note concerns the apparent mismatch between self-reported schizotypal traits and objective performance, and the resiliency of speech under cognitive stress in persons with high levels of schizotypy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hills, Peter J; Eaton, Elizabeth; Pake, J Michael
Psychometric schizotypy in the general population correlates negatively with face recognition accuracy, potentially due to deficits in inhibition, social withdrawal, or eye-movement abnormalities. We report an eye-tracking face recognition study in which participants were required to match one of two faces (target and distractor) to a cue face presented immediately before. All faces could be presented with or without paraphernalia (e.g., hats, glasses, facial hair). Results showed that paraphernalia distracted participants, and that the most distracting condition was when the cue and the distractor face had paraphernalia but the target face did not, while there was no correlation between distractibility and participants' scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was negatively correlated with proportion of time fixating on the eyes and positively correlated with not fixating on a feature. It was negatively correlated with scan path length and this variable correlated with face recognition accuracy. These results are interpreted as schizotypal traits being associated with a restricted scan path leading to face recognition deficits.
Minor, Kyle S; Firmin, Ruth L; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Chun, Charlotte A; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S
Evidence suggests that divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creativity, is associated with positive schizotypy and cannabis use. Given the high rates of cannabis use among those with schizotypy, it is unclear if the relation of DT to schizotypy is due to co-occurring cannabis use. In this study, we examined the relations between DT, schizotypy, and cannabis use among positive schizotypy (n=66), negative schizotypy (n=22), and non-schizotypy (n=60) groups. Results revealed that DT was greater in the positive schizotypy group, on the order of small to medium effects, compared to negative and non-schizotypy groups. Cannabis use and DT were associated in the non-schizotypy group, but not in the positive or negative schizotypy groups. Across all groups, positive schizotypy significantly predicted DT; however, cannabis use was not a significant predictor of DT. In line with previous findings, cannabis use and DT were only related in individuals low in creativity. This suggests that a ceiling effect may be present, with only cannabis users who are low in creativity receiving any increase in DT. Future research should aim to clarify the DT-cannabis relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damien J. Mannion
Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the ability to detect a visual target pattern. Target detection is typically impaired by a surrounding pattern (context with an orientation that is parallel to the target, relative to a surrounding pattern with an orientation that is orthogonal to the target (orientation-dependent contextual modulation. Based on reports that this effect is reduced in those with schizophrenia, we hypothesised that there would be a negative relationship between the relative score on psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the relative effect of orientation-dependent contextual modulation. We measured visual contrast detection thresholds and scores on the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE from a non-clinical sample (N = 100. Contrary to our hypothesis, we find an absence of a monotonic relationship between the relative magnitude of orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection and the relative score on any of the subscales of the O-LIFE. The apparent difference of this result with previous reports on those with schizophrenia suggests that orientation-dependent contextual modulation may be an informative condition in which schizophrenia and psychometrically-defined schizotypy are dissociated. However, further research is also required to clarify the strength of orientation-dependent contextual modulation in those with schizophrenia.
Mimarakis, D; Roumeliotaki, T; Roussos, P; Giakoumaki, S G; Bitsios, P
Urbanicity, immigration and winter-birth are stable epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia, but their relationship to schizotypy is unknown. This is a first examination of the association of these epidemiological risk factors with positive schizotypy, in nonclinical adolescents, controlling for a range of potential and known confounders. We collected socio-demographics, life-style, family and school circumstances, positive schizotypy dimensions and other personality traits from 445 high school pupils (192 males, 158 immigrants) from 9 municipalities in Athens and Heraklion, Greece, which covered a range of host population and migrant densities. Using multivariate hierarchical linear regressions models, we estimated the association of schizotypy dimensions with: (1) demographics of a priori interest (winter-birth, immigrant status, urban characteristics), including family financial and mental health status; (2) factors resulting from principal component analysis (PCA) of the demographic and personal data; (3) factors resulting from PCA of the personality questionnaires. Adolescent women scored higher on schizotypy than men. High anxiety/neuroticism was the most consistent and significant predictor of all schizotypy dimensions in both sexes. In the fully adjusted models, urbanicity predicted magical thinking and unusual experiences in women, while winter-birth and immigration predicted paranoid ideation and unusual experiences respectively in men. These results support the continuum hypothesis and offer potential insights in the nature of risk conferred by winter-birth, urbanicity and immigration and the nature of important sex differences. Controlling for a wide range of potential confounding factors increases the robustness of these results and confidence that these were not spurious associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N. A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P. K.
Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be
Giakoumaki, Stella G; Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Rózsa, Sándor; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Cloninger, C Robert
Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) measures Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483), completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The "Borderline/Explosive temperament" (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence), "Schizotypal/Disorganized character" (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence), and "Low Ego Strength/Fragile" profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness) were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect), and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and research.
Stella G. Giakoumaki
Full Text Available Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R measures Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483, completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ. The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The “Borderline/Explosive temperament” (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence, “Schizotypal/Disorganized character” (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence, and “Low Ego Strength/Fragile” profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect, and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and
Hunter, Helen K; Bolinskey, P Kevin; Novi, Jonathan H; Hudak, Daniel V; James, Alison V; Myers, Kevin R; Schuder, Kelly M
This study investigates the extent to which the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) profiles of 52 individuals making up a psychometrically identified schizotypes (SZT) sample could be successfully discriminated from the protocols of 52 individuals in a matched comparison (MC) sample. Replication analyses were performed with an additional 53 pairs of SZT and MC participants. Results showed significant differences in mean T-score values between these 2 groups across a variety of MMPI-2-RF scales. Results from discriminant function analyses indicate that schizotypy can be predicted effectively using 4 MMPI-2-RF scales and that this method of classification held up on replication. Additional results demonstrated that these MMPI-2-RF scales nominally outperformed MMPI-2 scales suggested by previous research as being indicative of schizophrenia liability. Directions for future research with the MMPI-2-RF are suggested.
de Wachter, O; De La Asuncion, J; Sabbe, B; Morrens, M
Schizotypy is a personality organisation that is closely related to schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia and is characterised by deficits in social functioning. Although the dimensions of social dysfunction have not yet been fully explored certain aspects of social dysfunction are promising predictive markers for schizophrenia. To describe schizotypy and its influence on social functioning. We reviewed the literature systematically using the online databases PubMed and PsycINFO. The disorder known as schizotypy lies at the basis of schizotypal personality disorder. Both disorders are characterised by an increased risk for schizophrenia. The social dysfunctioning seen in schizotypy corresponds to the social dysfunction seen in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are causal factors of this social dysfunction. Both the negative and the positive dimension of schizotypy influence social cognition. More focused, objective and interactive research to the various aspects of social functioning in schizotypy is needed in order to discover potential premorbid markers for schizophrenia.
Aguirre, Fabian; Sergi, Mark J; Levy, Cynthia A
The present study is the first to examine emotional intelligence in persons with schizotypy. Over 2100 undergraduates were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version. Forty participants identified as persons with high schizotypy and 56 participants identified as persons with low schizotypy completed assessments of emotional intelligence (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report), verbal episodic (secondary) memory (California Verbal Learning Test), and executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Persons high in schizotypy were impaired in overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions. Persons high in schizotypy were also impaired in three aspects of social functioning: peer relationships, family relationships, and academic functioning. Group differences in verbal episodic (secondary) memory and executive functioning were not observed. For persons with high schizotypy, overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions, were associated with peer relationship functioning. Overall emotional intelligence was associated with verbal episodic (secondary) memory, but not executive functioning, in persons with high schizotypy. The current findings suggest that emotional intelligence is impaired in persons with schizotypy and that these impairments affect their social functioning.
Matthew W. Roché
Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT to evaluate schizotypy through "The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment" (ESQUIZO-Q, in non-clinical adolescents. METHODS: The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤ 0.30 was of 34 items. CONCLUSION: The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.
Blanchard, Jack J.; Collins, Lindsay M.; Aghevli, Minu; Leung, Winnie W.; Cohen, Alex S.
Social anhedonia has been employed in psychometric high-risk studies to identify putative schizotypes. To date, this research has focused almost exclusively on college samples. The current study sought to examine the validity of social anhedonia as an indicator of risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders within a community sample. Furthermore, we evaluated the role of other individual difference variables in accounting for variable clinical severity within the social anhedonia group including trait affectivity, social support, and family environment. Following the mailed questionnaire screening of 2434 eighteen-year olds, laboratory assessments were conducted with individuals identified as being high in social anhedonia (n = 86) and a comparison sample (n = 89). Compared with the control group, individuals in the social anhedonia group were found to have higher rates of mood disorders, elevated schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder characteristics, greater negative symptom characteristics, and lower global functioning. Individuals within the social anhedonia group also reported greater trait negative affectivity, lower positive affectivity, less social support, and more family conflict. Low social support and problematic family environment were found to be related to elevations in spectrum personality disorder characteristics and poorer functioning within the social anhedonia group. These cross-sectional findings from a community sample provide further support for social anhedonia as a possible indicator of schizotypy. PMID:19850669
Blanchard, Jack J; Collins, Lindsay M; Aghevli, Minu; Leung, Winnie W; Cohen, Alex S
Social anhedonia has been employed in psychometric high-risk studies to identify putative schizotypes. To date, this research has focused almost exclusively on college samples. The current study sought to examine the validity of social anhedonia as an indicator of risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders within a community sample. Furthermore, we evaluated the role of other individual difference variables in accounting for variable clinical severity within the social anhedonia group including trait affectivity, social support, and family environment. Following the mailed questionnaire screening of 2434 eighteen-year olds, laboratory assessments were conducted with individuals identified as being high in social anhedonia (n=86) and a comparison sample (n=89). Compared with the control group, individuals in the social anhedonia group were found to have higher rates of mood disorders, elevated schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder characteristics, greater negative symptom characteristics, and lower global functioning. Individuals within the social anhedonia group also reported greater trait negative affectivity, lower positive affectivity, less social support, and more family conflict. Low social support and problematic family environment were found to be related to elevations in spectrum personality disorder characteristics and poorer functioning within the social anhedonia group. These cross-sectional findings from a community sample provide further support for social anhedonia as a possible indicator of schizotypy. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yi; Shi, Hai-Song; Liu, Wen-Hua; Xie, Dong-Jie; Geng, Fu-Lei; Yan, Chao; Wang, Ya; Xiao, Ya-Hui; So, Suzanne H W; Chiu, Chui-De; Leung, Patrick W L; Cheung, Eric F C; Gooding, Diane C; Chan, Raymond C K
Schizotypy is a set of personality traits that convey liability to develop schizophrenia. Studying schizotypy in healthy individuals may facilitate the understanding of the psychopathological processes underlying schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of schizotypy over time using a longitudinal study design. The Chapman Scales for Psychosis Proneness were administered to 1541 college students at baseline, and subsequently at six-monthly intervals up to 18months. Latent class growth analysis was conducted to track the different trajectories. In addition, self-reported scales were used to measure idea of reference, emotional experiences and expression, stress and coping, as well as social functioning. We identified four latent classes with distinct trajectories: "nonschizotypy" group (LC1), "stable high schizotypy" group (LC3), "high reactive schizotypy" group (LC2) and "low reactive schizotypy" group (LC4). These findings suggest that there may be distinct developmental trajectories for schizotypy. Two groups may be of particular interest: the "stable high schizotypy" group that displayed the worst clinical and functioning outcomes on almost all measures and the "high reactive schizotypy" group characterized by a relatively rapid decline in functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study assessed the extent to which within-individual variation in schizotypy and paranormal belief influenced performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks. A convenience sample of 725 non-clinical adults completed measures assessing schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences; O-Life brief, belief in the paranormal (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS and probabilistic reasoning (perception of randomness, conjunction fallacy, paranormal perception of randomness, and paranormal conjunction fallacy. Latent profile analysis (LPA identified four distinct groups: class 1, low schizotypy and low paranormal belief (43.9% of sample; class 2, moderate schizotypy and moderate paranormal belief (18.2%; class 3, moderate schizotypy (high cognitive disorganization and low paranormal belief (29%; and class 4, moderate schizotypy and high paranormal belief (8.9%. Identification of homogeneous classes provided a nuanced understanding of the relative contribution of schizotypy and paranormal belief to differences in probabilistic reasoning performance. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that groups with lower levels of paranormal belief (classes 1 and 3 performed significantly better on perception of randomness, but not conjunction problems. Schizotypy had only a negligible effect on performance. Further analysis indicated that framing perception of randomness and conjunction problems in a paranormal context facilitated performance for all groups but class 4.
Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew
This study assessed the extent to which within-individual variation in schizotypy and paranormal belief influenced performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks. A convenience sample of 725 non-clinical adults completed measures assessing schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences; O-Life brief), belief in the paranormal (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and probabilistic reasoning (perception of randomness, conjunction fallacy, paranormal perception of randomness, and paranormal conjunction fallacy). Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified four distinct groups: class 1, low schizotypy and low paranormal belief (43.9% of sample); class 2, moderate schizotypy and moderate paranormal belief (18.2%); class 3, moderate schizotypy (high cognitive disorganization) and low paranormal belief (29%); and class 4, moderate schizotypy and high paranormal belief (8.9%). Identification of homogeneous classes provided a nuanced understanding of the relative contribution of schizotypy and paranormal belief to differences in probabilistic reasoning performance. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that groups with lower levels of paranormal belief (classes 1 and 3) performed significantly better on perception of randomness, but not conjunction problems. Schizotypy had only a negligible effect on performance. Further analysis indicated that framing perception of randomness and conjunction problems in a paranormal context facilitated performance for all groups but class 4.
Borsboom, D.; Molenaar, D.; Wright, J.D.
Psychometrics is a scientific discipline concerned with the construction of measurement models for psychological data. In these models, a theoretical construct (e.g., intelligence) is systematically coordinated with observables (e.g., IQ scores). This is often done through latent variable models,
Zou, Lai-Quan; Zhou, Han-Yu; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ya; Gan, Jun; Zhu, Xiong-Zhao; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K
Olfactory identification impairments have been consistently found in schizophrenia patients. However, few previous studies have investigated this in first-episode patients. There are also inconsistent findings regarding olfactory identification ability in psychometrically-defined schizotypy individuals. In this study, we directly compared the olfactory identification ability of first-episode schizophrenia patients with schizotypy individuals. The relationship between olfactory identification impairments and hedonic traits was also examined. Thirty-five first-episode schizophrenia patients, 40 schizotypy individuals as defined by the Chapman's Anhedonia Scales and 40 demographically matched controls were recruited. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was administered. Hedonic capacity was assessed using the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). The results showed that both the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups showed poorer olfactory identification ability than controls, and the impairment was significantly correlated with reduced pleasure experiences. Our findings support olfactory identification impairment as a trait marker for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farmer, Antoinette Y.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Identify as a Professional Social Worker Subscale, which assessed the Council on Social Work Education--prescribed competency "identify as a professional social worker and conduct oneself accordingly." The results of confirmatory factory analysis indicated that…
Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Yin, Da-zhi; Fan, Ming-xia; Cheung, Eric F C; Pantelis, Christos; Chan, Raymond C K
The current study sought to examine the underlying brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy by integrating networks derived from brain structural and functional imaging. Individuals with high schizotypy (n = 35) and low schizotypy (n = 34) controls were screened using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent brain structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3T scanner. Voxel-based morphometric analysis and graph theory-based functional network analysis were conducted. Individuals with high schizotypy showed reduced gray matter (GM) density in the insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus. The graph theoretical analysis showed that individuals with high schizotypy showed similar global properties in their functional networks as low schizotypy individuals. Several hubs of the functional network were identified in both groups, including the insula, the lingual gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the rolandic operculum. More hubs in the frontal lobe and fewer hubs in the occipital lobe were identified in individuals with high schizotypy. By comparing the functional connectivity between clusters with abnormal GM density and the whole brain, individuals with high schizotypy showed weaker functional connectivity between the left insula and the putamen, but stronger connectivity between the cerebellum and the medial frontal gyrus. Taken together, our findings suggest that individuals with high schizotypy present changes in terms of GM and resting-state functional connectivity, especially in the frontal lobe. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E
Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25. Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks. The positive schizotypy group did not demonstrate deficits on the above mentioned tasks. However, in contrast to the other groups, the positive schizotypy group showed an unexpected set-size effect on the cued-recall task. Set-size effect, which refers to the finding that words that have smaller networks of associates tend to have a memory advantage, is usually found in associative-cuing, but not cued-recall, tasks. The finding for the positive schizotypy group is consistent with heightened spreading activation and reduced executive control suggested to underlie psychotic symptoms. The findings support a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia, and suggest that positive and negative schizotypy involve differential patterns of cognitive impairment.
Muris, Peter; Merckelbach, Harald
To examine the relationship between thought-action fusion (TAF) and schizotypy. In two separate samples of undergraduate students (Ns = 77 and 64), correlations were computed between a measure of TAF and indices of schizotypy and fantasy proneness. Positive correlations were found between TAF and various aspects of schizotypy (i.e. perceptual aberration, magical ideation, schizotypal personality characteristics, disposition to hallucinate). However, correlations between TAF and schizotypy no longer attained significance when controlling for fantasy proneness. At least in the non-clinical population, the connection between TAF and schizotypy seems to be a by-product of fantasy-prone individuals' tendency to report unusual experiences.
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Gooding, Diane C; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Pflum, Madeline; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José
This study is an attempt to evaluate extant psychometric indicators using latent profile analysis for classifying community-derived individuals based on a set of clinical, behavioural, and personality traits considered risk markers for psychosis spectrum disorders. The present investigation included four hundred and forty-nine high-school students between the ages of 12 and 19. We used the following to assess risk: the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief (PQ-B), Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire (ESQUIZO-Q), Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale-Adolescent version (ACIPS-A), and General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Using Latent profile analysis six latent classes (LC) were identified: participants in class 1 (LC1) displayed little or no symptoms and accounted for 38.53% of the sample; class 2 (LC2), who accounted for 28.06%, also produced low mean scores across most measures though they expressed somewhat higher levels of subjective distress; LC3, a positive schizotypy group (10.24%); LC4 (13.36%), a psychosis high-risk group; LC5, a high positive and negative schizotypy group (4.45%); and LC6, a very high distress, severe clinical high-risk group, comprised 5.34% of the sample. The current research indicates that different latent classes of early individuals at risk can be empirically defined in adolescent community samples using psychometric indicators for psychosis spectrum disorders. These findings may have implications for early detection and prevention strategies in psychosis spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin
There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.
Full Text Available Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated. The main aim of this study was to explore whether deficits in cognitive and affective ToM can be found in high trait schizotypy, and to identify in what way these deficits are related to the positive and negative dimensions of schizotypy. The secondary aim was to examine whether these deficits correlate with executive functions. Based on the dimensional view of the schizophrenia spectrum, an extreme-group design was applied to non-clinical volunteers demonstrating high (N = 39 and low (N = 47 trait schizotypy. Affective and cognitive ToM were investigated using the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a sensitive and video-based measurement. Cognitive inhibition was assessed using the Stroop Test, and cognitive flexibility was analyzed using the Trail-Making Test. Agency was measured using a computerized self-agency paradigm. Participants in the high-schizotypy group performed significantly worse in the affective ToM task (d = 0.79, and their overall ToM performance was significantly impaired (d = 0.60. No between-group differences were found with regards to cognitive ToM, executive functions, and self-agency. Cognitive flexibility correlated negatively with positive schizotypy, and contributed to a worse overall and affective ToM. Impaired cognitive inhibition contributed to undermentalizing-type errors. It
Morrison, Sean C.; Cohen, Alex S.
Introduction Ideas of reference (IOR), paranoia, and social anxiety are features of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, which appear to be conceptually related; however, the precise nature of these relationships is unclear. These relationships may be partially explained by perceived intentionality (PI), a social-cognitive bias for perceiving other people’s actions during unpleasant situations as being directed at oneself in an intentionally malicious manner. Our primary aim was to examine the moderating role of PI on the relationships between IOR and paranoia, and between IOR and social anxiety amongst individuals with psychometrically-defined schizotypy. Methods We assessed IOR, paranoia, and social anxiety amongst individuals with psychometrically-defined schizotypy (n = 44) and controls (n = 36), and examined the moderating effects of PI within each group. Results As hypothesized, PI moderated the relationship between IOR and paranoia such that higher PI predicted higher levels of paranoia as IOR increased. Additionally, we found that PI moderated the relationship between IOR and social anxiety such that higher PI predicted lower levels of social anxiety as IOR increased. Discussion Theoretical and practical implications are discussed including the potential for assessing PI as a proxy for paranoia when clinicians suspect a client is underreporting paranoia due to positive impression management. PMID:24987988
Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee
Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057
Völter, Christoph; Strobach, Tilo; Aichert, Désirée S.; Wöstmann, Nicola; Costa, Anna; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Schubert, Torsten; Ettinger, Ulrich
Objective In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Additionally, we investigated whether such a relationship would be explained by individual differences in neuroticism, a non-specific measure of negative trait emotionality known to be correlated with schizotypy. Methods 106 healthy volunteers (mean age: 25.1, 60% females) took part. Post-conflict adjustment was measured in a computer-based version of the Stroop paradigm. Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and Neuroticism using the NEO-FFI. Results We found a negative correlation between schizotypy and post-conflict adjustment (r = −.30, p<.01); this relationship remained significant when controlling for effects of neuroticism. Regression analysis revealed that particularly the subscale No Close Friends drove the effect. Conclusion Previous findings of deficits in cognitive control in schizophrenia patients were extended to the subclinical personality expression of the schizophrenia phenotype and found to be specific to schizotypal traits over and above the effects of negative emotionality. PMID:22363416
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Additionally, we investigated whether such a relationship would be explained by individual differences in neuroticism, a non-specific measure of negative trait emotionality known to be correlated with schizotypy. METHODS: 106 healthy volunteers (mean age: 25.1, 60% females took part. Post-conflict adjustment was measured in a computer-based version of the Stroop paradigm. Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ and Neuroticism using the NEO-FFI. RESULTS: We found a negative correlation between schizotypy and post-conflict adjustment (r = -.30, p<.01; this relationship remained significant when controlling for effects of neuroticism. Regression analysis revealed that particularly the subscale No Close Friends drove the effect. CONCLUSION: Previous findings of deficits in cognitive control in schizophrenia patients were extended to the subclinical personality expression of the schizophrenia phenotype and found to be specific to schizotypal traits over and above the effects of negative emotionality.
Najolia, Gina M; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S
Emerging research suggests that cannabis use might be related to psychosis onset in people vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Furthermore, individuals with high-positive and disorganized schizotypy traits report more cannabis use and cannabis-related problems than controls. Social anxiety, a frequently co-occurring schizotypal feature, is related to increased cannabis-related problems in the general population. Building on this research, we explored the impact of social anxiety, measured by the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and depression and trait anxiety reported on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), on the relationship of schizotypy, measured by the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR), to cannabis use (n=220 schizotypy, 436 controls) and frequent use and cannabis-related problems among users (n=88 schizotypy, 83 controls) in college undergraduates. Among cannabis users, social anxiety moderated the relationships of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems in the total schizotypy group, and across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Depression and trait anxiety also moderated the relationship of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems, but results varied across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Results suggest therapeutically targeting negative affective states may be useful in psychosocial intervention for cannabis-related problems in schizotypy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Nidetch, Victoria; Chabrol, Henri
Few typological studies address schizotypy in young adults. Schizotypal traits were assessed on 466 college students using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). Other measures evaluated personality traits previously associated with schizotypy (borderline, obsessionnal, and autistic traits), psychopathological symptoms (suicidal ideations, depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and psychosocial functioning. A factor analysis was first performed on SPQ-B results, leading to four factors: negative schizotypy, positive schizotypy, social anxiety, and reference ideas. Based on these factors, a cluster analysis was conducted, which yielded four clearly distinct groups characterized by "Low" (non schizotypy), "High schizotypy" (mixed positive and negative), "Positive schizotypy", and "Social impairment". Regarding personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, the "High schizotypy" cluster scored higher than the "Positive" and the "Social impairment" groups, which scored higher than the "Low" cluster. The "Positive" group had higher levels of interpersonal relationships than in the "High" and the "Social impairment" clusters, suggesting that positive schizotypy was associated to benefits such as perceived social relationships. Nevertheless the "Positive" cluster was also linked to high levels of personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, and to low academic achievement, at levels similar those observed in the "Social impairment" cluster, confirming an unhealthy side to positive schizotypy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeffrey S Bedwell
Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests that theory of mind and empathy relate differentially to factors of schizotypy. The current study assessed 686 undergraduate students and used structural equation modeling to examine links between a four-factor model of schizotypy with performance on measures of theory of mind (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test [MIE] and empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index [IRI]. Schizotypy was assessed using three self-report measures which were simultaneously entered into the model. Results revealed that the Negative factor of schizotypy showed a negative relationship with the Empathy factor, which was primarily driven by the Empathic Concern subscale of the IRI and the No Close Friends and Constricted Affect subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. These findings are consistent with a growing body of literature suggesting a relatively specific relationship between negative schizotypy and empathy, and are consistent with several previous studies that found no relationship between MIE performance and schizotypy.
Full Text Available Despite major progress in diagnostic accuracy and symptomatic treatment of mental disorders, there is an ongoing debate about their classification aiming to follow current advances in neurobiology. The main goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the put forward schizotypy concept that follows the needs for objective assessment of schizophrenia-like personality traits in the general population. We focus on major achievements in the field from the perspective of magnetic resonance imaging-based computational anatomy of the brain. Particular interest is devoted to overlapping brain structure findings in schizotypy and schizophrenia to promote a dimensional view on schizophrenia as extension of phenotype traits in the non-clinical general population.
Nelson, B.; Rawlings, D.
Introduction: Although a considerable amount of research has addressed psychopathological and personality correlates of creativity, the relationship between these characteristics and the phenomenology of creativity has been neglected. Relating these characteristics to the phenomenology of creativity may assist in clarifying the precise nature of the relationship between psychopathology and creativity. The current article reports on an empirical study of the relationship between the phenomenology of the creative process and psychopathological and personality characteristics in a sample of artists. Method: A total of 100 artists (43 males, 57 females, mean age = 34.69 years) from a range of disciplines completed the Experience of Creativity Questionnaire and measures of “positive” schizotypy, affective disturbance, mental boundaries, and normal personality. Results: The sample of artists was found to be elevated on “positive” schizotypy, unipolar affective disturbance, thin boundaries, and the personality dimensions of Openness to Experience and Neuroticism, compared with norm data. Schizotypy was found to be the strongest predictor of a range of creative experience scales (Distinct Experience, Anxiety, Absorption, Power/Pleasure), suggesting a strong overlap of schizotypal and creative experience. Discussion: These findings indicate that “positive” schizotypy is associated with central features of “flow”-type experience, including distinct shift in phenomenological experience, deep absorption, focus on present experience, and sense of pleasure. The neurologically based construct of latent inhibition may be a mechanism that facilitates entry into flow-type states for schizotypal individuals. This may occur by reduced latent inhibition providing a “fresh” awareness and therefore a greater absorption in present experience, thus leading to flow-type states. PMID:18682376
Debbané, Martin; Vrtička, Pascal; Lazouret, Marine; Badoud, Deborah; Sander, David; Eliez, Stephan
Clinical and phenomenological accounts of schizophrenia suggest that impairments in self-reflective processes significantly contribute to psychopathological expression. Recent imaging studies observe atypical cerebral activation patterns during self-reflection, especially around the cortical midline structures, both in psychosis-prone adults and individuals with schizophrenia. Given that self-reflection processes consolidate during adolescence, and that early transient expression of psychosis (positive schizotypy) also arises during this period, the present study sought to examine whether atypical cerebral activation during self-reflection task could be associated with early schizotypic expression during adolescence. Forty-two neurotypical adolescent participants (19 females) aged from 12 to 19 (15.92±1.9) underwent a self-reflection task using functional neuroimaging (fMRI), where they had to evaluate trait adjectives (1 to 4 ratings) about themselves or their same sex best friend. The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) was employed to assess positive schizotypic expression. Results showed that positive schizotypy in adolescents significantly correlated with cortical midline activation patterns in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as the dorsolateral PFC and the lingual gyrus. The results are consistent with previous imaging literature on self-reflection and schizophrenia. They further highlight that the relationship between self-reflection processes and positive schizotypy operates at the trait level of expression and can be observed as early as adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yan, Chao; Wang, Yi; Su, Li; Xu, Ting; Yin, Da-Zhi; Fan, Ming-Xia; Deng, Ci-Ping; Wang, Zhao-Xin; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K
Schizotypy is associated with anhedonia. However, previous findings on the neural substrates of anhedonia in schizotypy are mixed. In the present study, we measured the neural substrates associated with reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy using functional MRI. The Monetary Incentive Delay task was administered to 33 individuals with schizotypy (18 positive schizotypy (PS),15 negative schizotypy (NS)) and 22 healthy controls. Comparison between schizotypy individuals and controls were performed using two-sample T tests for contrast images involving gain versus non-gain anticipation condition and gain versus non-gain consummation condition. Multiple comparisons were corrected using Monte Carlo Simulation correction of panticipation or consummation. However, during the consummatory phase, NS individuals rather than PS individuals showed diminished left amygdala and left putamen activity compared with controls. We observed significantly weaker activation at the left ventral striatum during gain anticipation in NS individuals compared with controls. PS individuals, however, exhibited enhanced right ventral lateral prefrontal activity. These findings suggest that different dimensions of schizotypy may be underlied by different neural dysfunctions in reward anticipation and consummation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linscott, Richard J.; Morton, Sarah E.; Alizadeh, Berhooz Z.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; van Beveren, Nico J.; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Delespaul, Philippe; Meijer, Carin J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kahn, Rene S.; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Simons, Claudia J. P.; van Haren, Neeltje E.; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud
If schizotypy is a taxonic liability for schizophrenia with a general population prevalence of ~10%, it should also be taxonic among biological siblings of probands with schizophrenia. Moreover, assuming this is so, siblings' schizotypy class membership should be predicted by probands' familial load
Mohr, Christine; Schofield, Kerry; Leonards, Ute; Wilson, Marc S; Grimshaw, Gina M
When testing risk for psychosis, we regularly rely on self-report questionnaires. Yet, the more that people know about this condition, the more they might respond defensively, in particular with regard to the more salient positive symptom dimension. In two studies, we investigated whether framing provided by questionnaire instructions might modulate responses on self-reported positive and negative schizotypy. The O-LIFE (UK study) or SPQ (New Zealand study) questionnaire was framed in either a "psychiatric", "creativity", or "personality" (NZ only) context. We tested psychology students (without taught knowledge about psychosis) and medical students (with taught knowledge about psychosis; UK only). We observed framing effects in psychology students in both studies: positive schizotypy scores were lower after the psychiatric compared to the creativity instruction. However, schizotypy scores did not differ between the creativity and personality framing conditions, suggesting that the low scores with psychiatric framing reflect defensive responding. The same framing effect was also observed in medical students, despite their lower positive schizotypy scores overall. Negative schizotypy scores were not affected by framing in either study. These results highlight the need to reduce response biases when studying schizotypy, because these might blur schizotypy-behaviour relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R
Schizotypy has been linked to suicide risk, but it is not known whether established suicide-related risk factors mediate this relation. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-esteem, and intimate disclosure in peer relationships in the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. This aim was tested in 590 young adults using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. After inclusion of the mediators, interpersonal schizotypy was no longer directly associated with either suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Depression and self-esteem mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation. No variables mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and lifetime suicide attempts, and there were no significant direct relations when mediators were included. Schizotypy appears to be a distal risk factor for suicidal behavior; assessing depressive symptoms and self-esteem may provide more proximal information about suicide risk, and may be targets for mitigating suicide risk in individuals with schizotypy. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Katie Ann Ragsdale
Full Text Available Existing research has suggested that comorbid psychopathy may explain one trajectory of violent behavior in a subset of individuals with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear which specific traits and symptoms are responsible for this relationship and whether it is limited to clinical and/or forensic categories, or if it reflects a dimensional relationship found in the general population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine differential relationships between specific factors of psychopathy and schizotypy in a nonpsychiatric and nonforensic sample. 212 undergraduate students (50% female completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R. Correlations revealed that the total SPQ score was positively related to the total PPI-R score and the Self-Centered Impulsivity factor, and negatively related to the Fearless Dominance factor. Self-Centered Impulsivity was positively related to all three SPQ factor scores, with the strongest relationship found with the Cognitive-Perceptual factor. In contrast, Fearless Dominance was negatively related to only the Interpersonal and Disorganized factors of the SPQ, with the strongest relationship found with the Interpersonal factor. Findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizotypy and the self-centered impulsivity aspect of psychopathy is not limited to extreme discrete populations, but exists in a more dimensional manner within a nonpsychiatric sample. In addition, it appears that schizotypy is negatively related to the fearless dominance aspect of psychopathy, which appears to be a novel finding. Results provide preliminary findings that may have implications for developing appropriate prediction, assessment, and treatment techniques for violent behavior in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males from the Buddhist tradition (meditators and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991, a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness. Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe, describing (Describe, acting with awareness (Awareness, non-judging of (Non-judgment and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.
Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Grant, Phillip; Kwapil, Thomas R
Schizotypy provides a useful construct for understanding the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. As research on the epidemiology of psychotic symptoms and clinical risk for psychosis has expanded, conceptual challenges have emerged to comprehend the nature and borders of the space comprised between personality variation and psychosis. Schizotypy is considered in light of these more recent constructs. It is suggested that rather than being superseded by them due to their higher specificity and predictive power for transition to psychosis, schizotypy integrates them as it constitutes a dynamic continuum ranging from personality to psychosis. The advantages of schizotypy for studying schizophrenia etiology are discussed (eg, it facilitates a developmental approach and the identification of causal, resilience, and compensating factors and offers a multidimensional structure that captures etiological heterogeneity). An overview of putative genetic, biological, and psychosocial risk factors is presented, focusing on communalities and differences between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The found notable overlap supports etiological continuity, and, simultaneously, differential findings appear that are critical to understanding resilience to schizophrenia. For example, discrepant findings in genetic studies might be interpreted as suggestive of sets of independent genetic factors playing a differential role in schizotypy and schizophrenia: some would influence variation specifically on schizotypy dimensions (ie, high vs low schizotypy, thereby increasing proneness to psychosis), some would confer unspecific liability to disease by impacting neural properties and susceptibility to environmental factors (ie, high vs low resilience to disorder) and some might contribute to disease-specific characteristics. Finally, schizotypy's promise for studying gene-environment interactions is considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University
Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Krohne, Laerke G; Cai, Xin-Lu
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is capable of estimating functional activation and connectivity in the human brain, and lately there has been increased interest in the use of these functional modalities combined with machine learning for identification of psychiatric traits. While...... the use of machine learning schizotypy research. To this end, we describe common data processing steps while commenting on best practices and procedures. First, we introduce the important role of schizotypy to motivate the importance of reliable classification, and summarize existing machine learning....... We provide more detailed descriptions and software as supplementary material. Finally, we present current challenges in machine learning for classification of schizotypy and comment on future trends and perspectives....
Marsh, John E; Vachon, François; Sörqvist, Patrik
Individuals with schizophrenia typically show increased levels of distractibility. This has been attributed to impaired working memory capacity (WMC), since lower WMC is typically associated with higher distractibility, and schizophrenia is typically associated with impoverished WMC. Here, participants performed verbal and spatial serial recall tasks that were accompanied by to-be-ignored speech tokens. For the few trials wherein one speech token was replaced with a different token, impairment was produced to task scores (a deviation effect). Participants subsequently completed a schizotypy questionnaire and a WMC measure. Higher schizotypy scores were associated with lower WMC (as measured with operation span, OSPAN), but WMC and schizotypy scores explained unique variance in relation to the mean magnitude of the deviation effect. These results suggest that schizotypy is associated with heightened domain-general distractibility, but that this is independent of its relationship with WMC.
Bell, Vaughan; Halligan, Peter
Although schizotypy has been found to be reliably associated with a reduced recognition of facial affect, the few studies that have tested the association between basic face recognition abilities and schizotypy have found mixed results. This study formally tested the association in a large non-clinical sample with established neurological measures of face recognition. Two hundred and twenty-seven participants completed the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences schizotypy scale and completed the Famous Faces Test and the Cardiff Repeated Recognition Test for Faces. No association between any schizotypal dimension and performance on either of the facial recognition and learning tests was found. The null results can be accepted with a high degree of confidence. Further additional evidence is provided for a lack of association between schizotypy and basic face recognition deficits. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew
This study assessed the extent to which within-individual variation in schizotypy and paranormal belief influenced performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks. A convenience sample of 725 non-clinical adults completed measures assessing schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences; O-Life brief), belief in the paranormal (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and probabilistic reasoning (perception of randomness, conjunction fallacy, paranormal perception of randomness...
Vu, Alexander; Wirtz, Andrea; Pham, Kiemanh; Singh, Sonal; Rubenstein, Leonard; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy
Refugees and internally displaced persons who are affected by armed-conflict are at increased vulnerability to some forms of sexual violence or other types of gender-based violence. A validated, brief and easy-to-administer screening tool will help service providers identify GBV survivors and refer them to appropriate GBV services. To date, no such GBV screening tool exists. We developed the 7-item ASIST-GBV screening tool from qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV refugee and IDP survivors. This study presents the psychometric properties of the ASIST-GBV with female refugees living in Ethiopia and IDPs in Colombia. Several strategies were used to validate ASIST-GBV, including a 3 month implementation to validate the brief screening tool with women/girls seeking health services, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia (N = 487) and female IDPs aged ≥ 18 years in Colombia (N = 511). High proportions of women screened positive for past-year GBV according to the ASIST-GBV: 50.6 % in Ethiopia and 63.4 % in Colombia. The factor analysis identified a single dimension, meaning that all items loaded on the single factor. Cronbach's α = 0.77. A 2-parameter logistic IRT model was used for estimating the precision and discriminating power of each item. Item difficulty varied across the continuum of GBV experiences in the following order (lowest to highest): threats of violence (0.690), physical violence (1.28), forced sex (2.49), coercive sex for survival (2.25), forced marriage (3.51), and forced pregnancy (6.33). Discrimination results showed that forced pregnancy was the item with the strongest ability to discriminate between different levels of GBV. Physical violence and forced sex also have higher levels of discrimination with threats of violence discriminating among women at the low end of the GBV continuum and coercive sex for survival among women at the mid-range of the continuum. The findings demonstrate that
Xie, Weizhen; Cappiello, Marcus; Park, Hyung-Bum; Deldin, Patricia; Chan, Raymond C K; Zhang, Weiwei
Working memory (WM) maintains a limited amount of information over a short period of time at the service of other ongoing mental activities. Deficits in this function are often observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present study examined whether self-report schizotypy was associated with the qualitative, quantitative, or both aspects of visual WM and whether these impairments could be accounted for by sensory memory deficits and/or depressed mood in a group of non-clinical, medication-naïve participants. Visual WM and sensory memory were assessed in 164 medication-naïve college students using delayed and immediate color estimation tasks, respectively. Self-report measures of schizotypy and depressed mood were also collected. Individuals with more schizotypal features retained less precise representations in visual WM, without a significant reduction in the number of retained WM representations (i.e., capacity). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between sensory memory precision and schizotypy, suggesting that schizotypy-related imprecision in visual WM was unlikely a result of imprecise sensory memory. Furthermore, opposite patterns of WM deficits were observed for depressed mood in that it was negatively associated with WM capacity, but not with WM precision. Together, the present findings demonstrated dissociable WM deficits in schizotypy and depressed mood, providing strong evidence for unstable mental representations in schizotypy and reduced cognitive resource in depressed mood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The identification of football talent is a critical issue both for clubs and the families of players. However, despite its importance in a sporting, economic and social sense, there appears to be a lack of instruments that can reliably measure talent performance. The aim of this study was to design and validate the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT, with the aim of optimising the processes for identifying said talent. The scale was first validated through expert judgment, and then statistically, by means of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal reliability and convergent validity. The results reveal the presence of three factors in the scale’s factor matrix, with these results being confirmed by the CFA. The scale revealed suitable internal reliability and homogeneity indices. Convergent validity showed that it is teammates who are best able to identify football talent, followed by coaches and parents. It can be concluded that the NSIFT is suitable for use in the football world. Future studies should seek to confirm these results in different contexts by means of further CFAs.
Leslie E Horton
Full Text Available Paranoia is a dimension of clinical and subclinical experiences in which others are believed to have harmful intentions. Mild paranoid concerns are relatively common in the general population, and more clinically severe paranoia shares features with social anxiety and is a key characteristic of schizotypy. Given that subclinical manifestations of schizotypy and paranoia may predict the occurrence of more severe symptoms, disentangling the associations of these related constructs may advance our understanding of their etiology; however no known studies to date have comprehensively evaluated how paranoia relates to social anxiety and schizotypy. The current research sought to examine the association of paranoia, assessed across a broad continuum of severity, with 1 the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions and 2 social anxiety. Specifically, the study tested a series of six competing, a priori models using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 862 young adults. As hypothesized, the data supported a four-factor model including positive schizotypy, negative schizotypy, social anxiety, and paranoia factors, suggesting that these are distinct constructs with differing patterns of interrelationships. Paranoia had a strong association with positive schizotypy, a moderate association with social anxiety, and a minimal association with negative schizotypy. The results are consistent with paranoia being part of a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia. Prior studies treating schizotypy and schizophrenia as homogenous constructs often produce equivocal or non-replicable results because these dimensions are associated with distinct etiologies, presentations, and treatment responses; thus, the present conceptualization of paranoia within a multidimensional schizotypy framework should advance our understanding of these constructs.
Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J
Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ji Woon Jeong
Full Text Available Schizotypy refers to the personality trait of experiencing “psychotic” symptoms and can be regarded as a predisposition of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology (Raine, 1991. Cumulative evidence has revealed that individuals with schizotypy, as well as schizophrenia patients, have emotional processing deficits. In the present study, we investigated multimodal emotion perception in schizotypy and implemented the machine learning technique to find out whether a schizotypy group (ST is distinguishable from a control group (NC, using electroencephalogram (EEG signals. Forty-five subjects (30 ST and 15 NC were divided into two groups based on their scores on a Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. All participants performed an audiovisual emotion perception test while EEG was recorded. After the preprocessing stage, the discriminatory features were extracted using a mean subsampling technique. For an accurate estimation of covariance matrices, the shrinkage linear discriminant algorithm was used. The classification attained over 98% accuracy and zero rate of false-positive results. This method may have important clinical implications in discriminating those among the general population who have a subtle risk for schizotypy, requiring intervention in advance.
Goodall, Karen; Rush, Robert; Grünwald, Lisa; Darling, Stephen; Tiliopoulos, Niko
Developmental theories highlight the salience of attachment theory in explaining vulnerability towards psychosis. At the same time there is increasing recognition that psychosis is associated with childhood trauma variables. This study explored the interaction between attachment and several trauma variables in relation to schizotypy levels in a non-clinical sample. 283 non-clinical participants completed online measures of schizotypy, attachment, childhood abuse and neglect. When five types of abuse/neglect were entered into a linear regression analysis emotional abuse was the sole independent predictor of schizotypy. Age, attachment anxiety and avoidance were independent predictors after the effects of emotional abuse were controlled for. The overall model was significant, explaining 34% of the variation in schizotypy. Moderation analysis indicated that the effect of emotional abuse was not conditional upon attachment. Parallel mediation analysis indicated small but significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on schizotypy through attachment avoidance (13%) and attachment anxiety (8%). We conclude that emotional abuse contributes to vulnerability towards psychosis both directly and indirectly through attachment insecurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harvey P. Jones
Full Text Available Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228 was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.
Morton, Sarah E; O'Hare, Kirstie J M; Maha, Jaimee L K; Nicolson, Max P; Machado, Liana; Topless, Ruth; Merriman, Tony R; Linscott, Richard J
Meehl regarded schizotypy as a categorial liability for schizophrenia that is the product of genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions. We sought to test whether schizophrenia-related genotypes and environmental risk factors predict membership in classes defined by taxometric analyses of positive (cognitive-perceptual), negative (interpersonal), and disorganized schizotypy. Participants (n = 500) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and provided information on the following risk factors: cannabis use, pregnancy and obstetric complications, social adjustment, and family history of psychosis. Saliva samples were obtained so that the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles associated with risk for developing schizophrenia could be determined. Genotyped SNPs were rs1625579 (MIR137), rs7004633 (MMP16), rs7914558 (CNNM2), and rs12966547 (CCDC68). Sets of SPQ items were subject to multiple coherent cut kinetic (CCK) analyses, including mean-above-minus-below-a-cut, maximum covariance, maximum eigenvalue, and latent modes analyses. CCK analyses indicated latent taxonicity of schizotypy across the 3 item sets. The cognitive-perceptual class had a base rate of 25%, and membership was predicted by the rs7004633 SNP (odds ratio = 2.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-4.72 in adjusted analyses). Poor social adjustment predicted memberships in the interpersonal (16%) and disorganized (21%) classes. Classes were found not to be mutually exclusive. Schizotypy is taxonic and schizotypy class membership is predicted by genetic and environmental factors that predict schizophrenia. The findings hold the promise that a more complete understanding of schizotypy as a schizophrenia liability state will come from investigation of other genes and environmental factors associated with schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For
Schofield, Kerry; Mohr, Christine
Schizotypy is a multidimensional personality construct representing the extension of psychosis-like traits into the general population. Schizotypy has been associated with attenuated expressions of many of the same neuropsychological abnormalities as schizophrenia, including atypical pattern of functional hemispheric asymmetry. Unfortunately the previous literature on links between schizotypy and hemispheric asymmetry is inconsistent, with some research indicating that elevated schizotypy is associated with relative right over left hemisphere shifts, left over right hemisphere shifts, bilateral impairments, or with no hemispheric differences at all. This inconsistency may result from different methodologies, scales, and/or sex proportions between studies. In a within-participant design we tested for the four possible links between laterality and schizotypy by comparing the relationship between two common self-report measures of multidimensional schizotypy (the O-LIFE questionnaire, and two Chapman scales, magical ideation and physical anhedonia) and performance in two computerised lateralised hemifield paradigms (lexical decision, chimeric face processing) in 80 men and 79 women. Results for the two scales and two tasks did not unequivocally support any of the four possible links. We discuss the possibilities that a link between schizotypy and laterality (1) exists but is subtle, probably fluctuating, unable to be assessed by traditional methodologies used here; (2) does not exist, or (3) is indirect, mediated by other factors (e.g., stress-responsiveness, handedness, drug use) whose influences need further exploration.
Saunders, Jo; Randell, Jordan; Reed, Phil
Previous research has indicated abnormal semantic activation in individuals scoring higher in schizotypy. In the current experiment, semantic activation was examined by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm of false memories. Participants were assessed for schizotypy using the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings (OLIFE). Participants studied lists of semantically related words in which a critical and highly associated word was absent. Participants then recalled the list. Participants high in Unusual Experiences and Cognitive Disorganization recalled more critical non-presented words, weakly related studied words, and fewer studied words than participants who scored low on these measures. Previous research using the cognitive-perceptual factor of the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire found reduced false memories, while the Unusual Experiences subscale of the OLIFE was associated with more false memories. Both scales cover similar unusual perceptual experiences and it is unclear why they led to divergent results. The findings suggest that subtypes of schizotypy are associated with abnormal semantic activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aldebot Sacks, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy Gina; Garcia, Cristina Phoenix
Schizotypy is a non-clinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to psychotic disorders (Claridge and Beech, 1995). Research on normative populations scoring high on schizotypy is valuable because it may help elucidate the predisposition to schizophrenia (Jahshan and Sergi, 2007) and because performance is not confounded by issues present in schizophrenia samples. In the current study, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted using several comprehensive measures of schizotypy. As expected and replicating prior research, a four-factor model of schizotypy emerged including a positive, a negative, a cognitive disorganization, and an impulsive nonconformity factor. We also evaluated how each factor related to distinct cognitive biases. In support of hypotheses, increased self-certainty, decreased theory of mind, and decreased source memory were associated with higher scores on the positive factor; decreased theory of mind was associated with higher scores on the negative factor; and increased self-certainty was associated with greater impulsive nonconformity. Unexpectedly, decreased self-certainty and increased theory of mind were associated with greater cognitive disorganization, and decreased source memory was associated with greater impulsive nonconformity. These findings offer new insights by highlighting cognitive biases that may be risk factors for psychosis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wang, Lixia; Xu, Xiaobo; Wang, Qing; Healey, Grace; Su, Liang; Pang, Weiguo
Schizophrenia and schizotypy have been often associated with above average creativity; however, empirical studies on the relationship between schizophrenia spectrum disorders and enhanced creativity generated inconsistent results. This research investigates if the association between schizophrenia spectrum disorders and creative potential levels…
Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine
Parenting can be a stressful experience particularly for people with mental health problems or people who experienced abuse or attachment difficulties in their own childhoods. This study examined the relationships between earlier trauma, attachment, parenting and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample, with the specific hypothesis that parenting stress and competence would mediate any association between trauma, attachment and schizotypy. One hundred and thirty-four first time parents with a child under 12 months old completed the following questionnaires online: the Experiences of Close Relationships Scale - Short Form (ECR-S), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief, Revised (SPQ-BR) the Parenting Stress Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire. Parenting stress mediated the association between attachment and schizotypy, though parenting competence did not have a significant effect as a mediator in a parallel model. Childhood trauma was associated with attachment and schizotypy but did not correlate with the parenting variables. The study utilised a cross-sectional design and self-report measures which limits the ability to make causal inferences from the results. However, findings warrant replication in clinical samples with psychosis. The study adds to the understanding of what may exacerbate schizotypal symptoms in the first 12 months postpartum as parental attachment insecurity and parental stress together predicted elevated self-reported experiences of schizotypal symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Lam, Bess Yin Hung
While persuasive evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years documenting an association between schizophrenia and violence, there are 3 unresolved issues. First, does a downward extension of this relationship exist at the nonclinical level with respect to schizotypal personality and aggression in children? Second, is aggression more associated with impulsive reactive aggression or with more planned proactive aggression. Third and importantly, does peer victimization mediate the relationship between schizotypy and aggression? A further aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the utility of a new child self-report measure of schizotypal personality. These issues were examined in a sample of 3804 schoolchildren assessed on schizotypy using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child (SPQ-C), reactive-proactive aggression, and peer victimization. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 3-factor structure (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized) of the SPQ-C. Schizotypy was positively associated with total aggression and reactive aggression but not with proactive aggression. Peer victimization was found to significantly mediate the schizotypy-aggression relationship, accounting for 58.9% of the association. Results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that schizotypal features elicit victimization from other children, which in turn predisposes to reactive retaliatory aggression. Findings are to the authors’ knowledge the first to document any mediator of the schizotypy-aggression relationship and have potential treatment implications for violence reduction in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. This study also provides initial evidence for the factorial and discriminant validity of a brief and simple measure of schizotypal personality in children as young as 8 years. PMID:21795613
Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai
The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, older people from day-care centres. The factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" of the C-RNLI were significantly convergent with depressive mood (r s = -0
Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Giorgio, Annabella Di; Antonucci, Linda A; Fazio, Leonardo; Rampino, Antonio; Quarto, Tiziana; Gelao, Barbara; Porcelli, Annamaria; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Ursini, Gianluca; Caforio, Grazia; Masellis, Rita; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Rubini, Giuseppe; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro
"Schizotypy" is a latent organization of personality related to the genetic risk for schizophrenia. Some evidence suggests that schizophrenia and schizotypy share some biological features, including a link to dopaminergic D2 receptor signaling. A polymorphism in the D2 gene (DRD2 rs1076560, guanine > thymine (G > T)) has been associated with the D2 short/long isoform expression ratio, as well as striatal dopamine signaling and prefrontal cortical activity during different cognitive operations, which are measures that are altered in patients with schizophrenia. Our aim is to determine the association of schizotypy scores with the DRD2 rs1076560 genotype in healthy individuals and their interaction with prefrontal activity during attention and D2 striatal signaling. A total of 83 healthy subjects were genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 and completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Twenty-six participants underwent SPECT with [(123)I]IBZM D2 receptor radiotracer, while 68 performed an attentional control task during fMRI. We found that rs1076560 GT subjects had greater SPQ scores than GG individuals. Moreover, the interaction between schizotypy and the GT genotype predicted prefrontal activity and related attentional behavior, as well as striatal binding of IBZM. No interaction was found in GG individuals. These results suggest that rs1076560 GT healthy individuals are prone to higher levels of schizotypy, and that the interaction between rs1076560 and schizotypy scores modulates phenotypes related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, such as prefrontal activity and striatal dopamine signaling. These results provide systems-level qualitative evidence for mapping the construct of schizotypy in healthy individuals onto the schizophrenia continuum.
Full Text Available Recent research suggests that unconventional beliefs are locatable within a generic anomalous belief category. This notion derives from the observation that apparently dissimilar beliefs share fundamental, core characteristics (i.e., contradiction of orthodox scientific understanding of the universe and defiance of conventional understanding of reality. The present paper assessed the supposition that anomalous beliefs were conceptually similar and explicable via common psychological processes by comparing relationships between discrete beliefs [endorsement of urban legends (ULs and belief in the paranormal] and cognitive-perceptual personality measures [proneness to reality testing (RT and schizotypy]. A sample of 222 volunteers, recruited via convenience sampling, took part in the study. Participants completed a series of self-report measures (Urban Legends Questionnaire, Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization, Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief. Preliminary analysis revealed positive correlations between measures. Within schizotypy, the cognitive-perceptual factor was most strongly associated with anomalistic beliefs; disorganized and interpersonal produced only weak and negligible correlations respectively. Further investigation indicated complex relationships between RT, the cognitive-perceptual factor of schizotypy and anomalistic beliefs. Specifically, proneness to RT deficits explained a greater amount of variance in ULs, whilst schizotypy accounted for more variance in belief in the paranormal. Consideration of partial correlations supported these conclusions. The relationship between RT and ULs remained significant after controlling for the cognitive-perceptual factor. Contrastingly, the association between the cognitive-perceptual factor and ULs controlling for RT was non-significant. In the case of belief in the paranormal, controlling for proneness to RT
Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter J
Recent research suggests that unconventional beliefs are locatable within a generic anomalous belief category. This notion derives from the observation that apparently dissimilar beliefs share fundamental, core characteristics (i.e., contradiction of orthodox scientific understanding of the universe and defiance of conventional understanding of reality). The present paper assessed the supposition that anomalous beliefs were conceptually similar and explicable via common psychological processes by comparing relationships between discrete beliefs [endorsement of urban legends (ULs) and belief in the paranormal] and cognitive-perceptual personality measures [proneness to reality testing (RT) and schizotypy]. A sample of 222 volunteers, recruited via convenience sampling, took part in the study. Participants completed a series of self-report measures (Urban Legends Questionnaire, Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization, Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief). Preliminary analysis revealed positive correlations between measures. Within schizotypy, the cognitive-perceptual factor was most strongly associated with anomalistic beliefs; disorganized and interpersonal produced only weak and negligible correlations respectively. Further investigation indicated complex relationships between RT, the cognitive-perceptual factor of schizotypy and anomalistic beliefs. Specifically, proneness to RT deficits explained a greater amount of variance in ULs, whilst schizotypy accounted for more variance in belief in the paranormal. Consideration of partial correlations supported these conclusions. The relationship between RT and ULs remained significant after controlling for the cognitive-perceptual factor. Contrastingly, the association between the cognitive-perceptual factor and ULs controlling for RT was non-significant. In the case of belief in the paranormal, controlling for proneness to RT reduced
Kane, Michael J.; Meier, Matt E.; Smeekens, Bridget A.; Gross, Georgina M.; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Kwapil, Thomas R.
A large correlational study took a latent-variable approach to the generality of executive control by testing the individual-differences structure of executive-attention capabilities and assessing their prediction of schizotypy, a multidimensional construct (with negative, positive, disorganized, and paranoid factors) conveying risk for schizophrenia. Although schizophrenia is convincingly linked to executive deficits, the schizotypy literature is equivocal. Subjects completed tasks of working memory capacity (WMC), attention restraint (inhibiting prepotent responses), and attention constraint (focusing visual attention amid distractors), the latter two in an effort to fractionate the “inhibition” construct. We also assessed mind-wandering propensity (via in-task thought probes) and coefficient of variation in response times (RT CoV) from several tasks as more novel indices of executive attention. WMC, attention restraint, attention constraint, mind wandering, and RT CoV were correlated but separable constructs, indicating some distinctions among “attention control” abilities; WMC correlated more strongly with attentional restraint than constraint, and mind wandering correlated more strongly with attentional restraint, attentional constraint, and RT CoV than with WMC. Across structural models, no executive construct predicted negative schizotypy and only mind wandering and RT CoV consistently (but modestly) predicted positive, disorganized, and paranoid schizotypy; stalwart executive constructs in the schizophrenia literature — WMC and attention restraint — showed little to no predictive power, beyond restraint’s prediction of paranoia. Either executive deficits are consequences rather than risk factors for schizophrenia, or executive failures barely precede or precipitate diagnosable schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:27454042
Yi eWang; Wen-hua eLiu; Zhi eLi; Zhi eLi; Xin-hua eWei; Xin-qing eJiang; David eNeumann; David eShum; Eric FC Cheung; Raymond CK Chan
Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM) and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females) between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9) from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic...
Wang, Yi; Liu, Wen-hua; Li, Zhi; Wei, Xin-hua; Jiang, Xin-qing; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H. K.; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chan, Raymond C. K.
Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM) and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females) between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9) from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While association studies on schizophrenia show conflicting results regarding the importance of the regulator of the G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4 gene, recent work suggests that RGS4 may impact on the structural and functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex. We aimed to study associations of common RGS4 variants with prefrontal dependent cognitive performance and schizotypy endophenotypes at the population level. Methods Four RGS4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP1 [rs10917670], SNP4 [rs951436], SNP7 [rs951439], and SNP18 [rs2661319] and their haplotypes were selected. Their associations with self-rated schizotypy (SPQ, vigilance, verbal, spatial working memory and antisaccade eye performance were tested with regressions in a representative population of 2,243 young male military conscripts. Results SNP4 was associated with negative schizotypy (higher SPQ negative factor for common T allele, p = 0.009; p = 0.031 for differences across genotypes and a similar trend was seen also for common A allele of SNP18 (p = 0.039 for allele-load model; but p = 0.12 for genotype differences. Haplotype analyses showed a similar pattern with a dose-response for the most common haplotype (GGGG on the negative schizotypy score with or without adjustment for age, IQ and their interaction (p = 0.011 and p = 0.024, respectively. There was no clear evidence for any association of the RGS4 variants with cognitive endophenotypes, except for an isolated effect of SNP18 on antisaccade error rate (p = 0.028 for allele-load model. Conclusion Common RGS4 variants were associated with negative schizotypal personality traits amongst a large cohort of young healthy individuals. In accordance with recent findings, this may suggest that RGS4 variants impact on the functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex, thus increasing susceptibility for psychotic spectrum disorders.
Full Text Available Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9 from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic strips functional imaging task that specifically examined both empathy and ToM. In addition, they completed two self-report scales: the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scale and the Interpersonal Responsivity Index (IRI. Results showed that both empathy and ToM conditions of the task were associated with brain activity in the middle temporal gyrus, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, the precuneus, and the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, we found positive correlations between negative schizotypy and brain activity in regions involved in social cognition, namely, the middle temporal gyrus, the TPJ, as well as the medial prefrontal gyrus. These findings highlight that different dimensions of schizotypy may show different associations with brain regions involved in social cognitive abilities. More importantly, the positive correlation between brain activity and anhedonia suggests the presence of compensatory mechanisms in high-risk populations.
Wang, Yi; Liu, Wen-Hua; Li, Zhi; Wei, Xin-Hua; Jiang, Xin-Qing; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K
Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM) and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females) between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9) from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic strips functional imaging task that specifically examined both empathy and ToM. In addition, they completed two self-report scales: the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scale and the Interpersonal Responsivity Index (IRI). Results showed that both empathy and ToM conditions of the task were associated with brain activity in the middle temporal gyrus, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), the precuneus and the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, we found positive correlations between negative schizotypy and brain activity in regions involved in social cognition, namely, the middle temporal gyrus, the TPJ, as well as the medial prefrontal gyrus. These findings highlight that different dimensions of schizotypy may show different associations with brain regions involved in social cognitive abilities. More importantly, the positive correlation between brain activity and anhedonia suggests the presence of compensatory mechanisms in high-risk populations.
Rominger, Christian; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M
Creativity is an important trait necessary to achieve innovations in science, economy, arts and daily life. Therefore, the enhancement of creative performance is a significant field of investigation. A recent experiment showed enhanced verbal creativity after unilateral left-hand contractions, which was attributed to elevated activation of the right hemisphere. The present study aimed to extend these findings to the domain of figural creativity. Furthermore, as creativity and positive schizotypy may share some neurobiological underpinnings associated with the right hemisphere, we studied the potential moderating effect of positive schizotypy on the effects of the experimental modification of relative hemispheric activation on creativity. In a gender-balanced sample (20 men and 20 women), squeezing a hand gripper with the left hand enhanced figural creativity on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking compared to squeezing the gripper with the right hand. However, this was only true when positive schizotypy was low. The moderating effect of schizotypy may be produced by relatively greater activity of certain parts of the right hemisphere being a shared neuronal correlate of creativity and positive schizotypy.
Full Text Available Hallucinatory experiences are by far not limited to patients with clinical psychosis. A number of internal and external factors may bring about such experiences in healthy individuals, whereby the personality trait of (positive schizotypy is a major mediator of individual differences. Psychotic experiences are defined as associating abnormal meaning to real but objectively irrelevant perceptions. Especially the ambiguity of a stimulus correlates positively with the likelihood of abnormal interpretation, and intelligence is believed to have an important influence and act as protective against clinical psychosis in highly schizotypic individuals.In this study we presented 131 healthy participants with 216 15-letter strings containing either a word, a non-word or only random letters and asked them to report, whether or not they believed to have seen a word. The aim was to replicate findings that participants with high values in positive schizotypy on the trait-level make more false-positive errors and assess the role of stimulus-ambiguity and verbal intelligence. Additionally, we wanted to examine whether the same effect could be shown for indices of state schizotypy.Our results support findings that both state and trait positive schizotypy explain significant variance in seeing things that are not there and that the properties of individual stimuli have additional strong effects on the false-positive hit rates. Finally, we found that verbal intelligence and positive schizotypy interact with stimulus-ambiguity in the production of false-positive perceptions.
Grant, Phillip; Balser, Mona; Munk, Aisha Judith Leila; Linder, Jens; Hennig, Juergen
Hallucinatory experiences are by far not limited to patients with clinical psychosis. A number of internal and external factors may bring about such experiences in healthy individuals, whereby the personality trait of (positive) schizotypy is a major mediator of individual differences. Psychotic experiences are defined as associating abnormal meaning to real but objectively irrelevant perceptions. Especially, the ambiguity of a stimulus correlates positively with the likelihood of abnormal interpretation, and intelligence is believed to have an important influence and act as protective against clinical psychosis in highly schizotypic individuals. In this study, we presented 131 healthy participants with 216 15-letter strings containing either a word, a non-word, or only random letters and asked them to report, whether or not they believed to have seen a word. The aim was to replicate findings that participants with high values in positive schizotypy on the trait-level make more false-positive errors and assess the role of stimulus-ambiguity and verbal intelligence. Additionally, we wanted to examine whether the same effect could be shown for indices of state schizotypy. Our results support findings that both state and trait positive schizotypy explain significant variance in "seeing things that are not there" and that the properties of individual stimuli have additional strong effects on the false-positive hit rates. Finally, we found that verbal intelligence and positive schizotypy interact with stimulus-ambiguity in the production of false-positive perceptions.
Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control
Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk
Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.
Raballo, Andrea; Parnas, Josef
symptoms (NSs) and subpsychotic formal thought disorder [FTD]) on the chances of experiencing SDs. SDs distribution followed an incremental pattern from NMI to SPD. SDs were associated with a markedly increased risk of NMI-ST, OPDs, or SPD. The odds of SDs increased as a function of the diagnostic category...... assignment, independently of sociodemographics and concomitant subclinical psychopathology (NSs and FTD). The results support SDs as an expression of schizotaxic vulnerability and indicate a multidimensional model of schizotypy-characterized by SDs, NSs, FTD-as a promising heuristic construct to address...
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Badoud, Deborah; Antico, Lia; Caputo, Giovanni B; Eliez, Stephan; Schwartz, Sophie; Debbané, Martin
Patients with schizophrenia can sometimes report strange face illusions when staring at themselves in the mirror; such experiences have been conceptualized as anomalous self-experiences that can be experienced with a varying degree of depersonalization. During adolescence, anomalous self-experiences can also be indicative of increased risk to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. To date however, the Mirror-Gazing test (MGT), an experimentally validated experiment to evaluate the propensity of strange face illusions in nonclinical and clinical adults, has yet to be investigated in an adolescent sample. The first goal of the present study was to examine experimentally induced self-face illusions in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, using the MGT. The second goal was to investigate whether dimensions of adolescent trait schizotypy were differentially related to phenomena arising during the MGT. One hundred and ten community adolescents (59 male) aged from 12 to 19 years (mean age = 16.31, SD age = 1.77) completed the MGT and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. The results yielded 4 types of strange face illusions; 2 types of illusions (slight change of light/color [20%] and own face deformation [45.5%]) lacked depersonalization-like phenomena (no identity change), while 2 other types (vision of other identity [27.3%], and vision of non-human identity [7.3%]) contained clear depersonalization-like phenomena. Furthermore, the disorganization dimension of schizotypy associated negatively with time of first illusion (first press), and positively with frequency of illusions during the MGT. Statistically significant differences on positive and disorganized schizotypy were found when comparing groups on the basis of degree of depersonalization-like phenomena (from slight color changes to non-human visions). Similarly to experimentally induced self-face illusions in patients with schizophrenia, such illusions in a group of nonclinical adolescents present
Leeuw, Jan de
In psychometrics, and in the closely related fields of quantititative methods for the social and educational sciences, R is not yet used very often. Traditional mainframe packages such as SAS and SPSS are still dominant at the user-level, Stata has made inroads at the teaching level, and Matlab is quite prominent at the research level. In this paper we define the most visible techniques in the psychometrics area, we give an overview of what is available in R, and we discuss what is m...
Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.
Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional
Hori, Hiroaki; Ozeki, Yuji; Terada, Sumio; Kunugi, Hiroshi
Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and those with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) show reduced laterality, or relative right hemispheric dominance, during the performance of cognitive activation tasks; however, neuroimaging studies looking at non-clinical schizotypy have been few. We have recently reported that schizotypal traits at a non-clinical level are associated with right prefrontal dominance during a letter version of the verbal fluency task (VFT), but it is unknown whether such relationship between schizotypy and functional laterality would be observed across various cognitive tasks. Here we examined the relationships of schizotypal traits as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in healthy adults with hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal activation during letter and category VFTs, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirty-two participants were divided into high- (n=16) and low- (n=16) SPQ groups by the median split of the total SPQ score. The high-SPQ group, but not low-SPQ group, showed significantly right-greater-than-left asymmetry of prefrontal activation during letter VFT, whereas such pronounced hemispheric asymmetry in relation to schizotypy was not found during category VFT. These results indicate that non-clinical schizotypy is related to right prefrontal preference during the letter version of VFT in particular, suggesting that the association between schizotypal traits and functional laterality may vary depending on cognitive activation tasks.
Carrigan, Nicole; Barkus, Emma; Ong, Adriel; Wei, Maryann
Individuals high on schizotypy complain of increased cognitive failures in everyday life. However, the neuropsychological performance of this group does not consistently indicate underlying ability deficits. It is possible that current neuropsychological tests lack ecological validity. Given the increased affective reactivity of high schizotypes, they may be more sensitive to emotional content interfering with cognitive ability. This study sought to explore whether an affective n-back working memory task would elicit impaired performance in schizotypy, echoing complaints concerning real world cognition. 127 healthy participants completed self-report measures of schizotypy and cognitive failures and an affective n-back working memory task. This task was varied across three levels of load (1- to 3-back) and four types of stimulus emotion (neutral, fearful, happy, sad). Differences between high (n=39) and low (n=48) schizotypy groups on performance outcomes of hits and false alarms were examined, with emotion and load as within-groups variables. As expected, high schizotypes reported heightened vulnerability to cognitive failures. They also demonstrated a relative working memory impairment for emotional versus neutral stimuli, whereas low schizotypes did not. High schizotypes performed most poorly in response to fearful stimuli. For false alarms, there was an interaction between schizotypy, load, and emotion, such that high schizotypy was associated with deficits in response to fearful stimuli only at higher levels of task difficulty. Inclusion of self-reported cognitive failures did not account for this. These findings suggest that the "gap" between subjective and objective cognition in schizotypy may reflect the heightened emotional demands associated with cognitive functioning in the real world, although other factors also seem to play a role. There is a need to improve the ecological validity of objective assessments, whilst also recognizing that self
Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara
The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e.g. have mystical experiences and feelings of universal connectedness), but are similar to religious participants in their profile of cognitive biases. SBNR participants score higher on measures of schizotypy than the religious or non-religious. Reported conversions from one group (religious, SBNR, or non-religious) to another since childhood corresponds with predictable differences in cognitive biases, with dualism predicting conversion to religion and schizotypy predicting conversion to SBNR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There seems to be similarities between schizotypal personality and paranormal experiences, in fact, some of the symptoms of PTSD in DSM- match a number of anomalous/paranormal experiences. Positive schizotypy, including magical thinking, hallucinations and other unusual perceptual experiences, has also been associated with paranormal experiences and beliefs. However, paranormal experiences differ from psychotic experiences in nonclinical populations. In order to establish differences between positive and negative symptoms of schizotypy, we compared a group of believers in the paranormal (N= 121 and a sample of undergraduate students (N= 588. The hypothesis that believers would have higher scores in Schizotypy positive symptoms was confirmed. There was a significant difference in positive symptoms of schizotypy among the group of students with and no experiences, although not significant for negative symptoms
Fox, Gerardus J.A.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Irwing, P.; Booth, T.; Hughes, D.
In educational and psychological studies, psychometric methods are involved in the measurement of constructs, and in constructing and validating measurement instruments. Assessment results are typically used to measure student proficiency levels and test characteristics. Recently, Bayesian item
Atbasoglu, E Cem; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Guloksuz, Sinan; Saka, Meram Can; Ucok, Alp; Alptekin, Koksal; Gullu, Sevim; van Os, Jim
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequent in schizophrenia (Sz) than in the general population. This association is partly accounted for by shared susceptibility genetic variants. We tested the hypotheses that a genetic predisposition to Sz would be associated with higher likelihood of insulin resistance (IR), and that IR would be predicted by subthreshold psychosis phenotypes. Unaffected siblings of Sz patients (n = 101) were compared with a nonclinical sample (n = 305) in terms of IR, schizotypy (SzTy), and a behavioural experiment of "jumping to conclusions". The measures, respectively, were the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R), and the Beads Task (BT). The likelihood of IR was examined in multiple regression models that included sociodemographic, metabolic, and cognitive parameters alongside group status, SIS-R scores, and BT performance. Insulin resistance was less frequent in siblings (31.7%) compared to controls (43.3%) (p model that examined all relevant parameters included the tSzTy tertiles, TG and HDL-C levels, and BMI, as significant predictors of IR. Lack of IR was predicted by the highest as compared to the lowest SzTy tertile [OR (95%CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.85), p = 0.015]. Higher dopaminergic activity may contribute to both schizotypal features and a favourable metabolic profile in the same individual. This is compatible with dopamine's regulatory role in glucose metabolism via indirect central actions and a direct action on pancreatic insulin secretion. The relationship between dopaminergic activity and metabolic profile in Sz must be examined in longitudinal studies with younger unaffected siblings.
Lenzenweger, Mark F.
The concept of schizotypy represents a rich and complex psychopathology construct. Furthermore, the construct implies a theoretical model that has considerable utility as an organizing framework for the study of schizophrenia, schizophrenia-related psychopathology (eg, delusional disorder, psychosis-NOS (not otherwise specified), schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorder), and putative schizophrenia endophenotypes as suggested by Rado, Meehl, Gottesman, Lenzenweger, and others. The understanding (and misunderstanding) of the schizophrenia-related schizotypy model, particularly as regards clinical illness, as well as an alternative approach to the construct require vigilance in order to ensure the methodological approach continues to yield the fruit that it can in illuminating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia-related psychopathology. The articles in the Special Section in this issue of Schizophrenia Bulletin highlight methodological and theoretical issues that should be examined carefully. PMID:25810061
Agnieszka eJanik McErlean
Full Text Available Synaesthesia is a condition in which one property of a stimulus triggers a secondary experience not typically associated with the first (e.g. seeing achromatic graphemes can evoke the perception of colour. Recent work has explored a variety of cognitive and perceptual traits associated with synaesthesia. One example is in the domain of personality, where higher rates of positive schizotypy, agreeableness, and openness to experience have been reported in synaesthetes that experience colour as their evoked sensation relative to typical adult controls. Additionally, grapheme-colour synaesthetes have previously been reported to show elevated mental imagery compared to typical adults. Here, we aimed to further elucidate the relationship between personality, synaesthesia, and other cognitive traits. In Study 1, we examined self-reported schizotypy and self-reported visual imagery vividness in grapheme-colour synaesthetes and typical adults. Our results partially replicated previous findings by showing that synaesthesia was associated with greater positive schizotypy and enhanced self-reported imagery vividness. The results also extend previous reports by demonstrating that differences in positive schizotypy and mental imagery vividness are not related in grapheme-colour synaesthesia. In Study 2, we sought to build on prior work showing lower agreeableness and increased openness to experience in synaesthetes by examining whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with other conceptually related traits; namely lower self-monitoring and increased sensation seeking. We did not find any differences between synaesthetes and controls on either of these traits. These findings are discussed in relation to potential factors that may contribute to the observed personality profile in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.
Ferriero, Giorgio; Kristensen, Morten T; Invernizzi, Marco
INTRODUCTION: In the geriatric population, independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge following acute hospitalization. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a potentially valuable score that allows day-to-day measurements of basic mobility. The CAS was developed...... and validated in older patients with hip fracture as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome, but it is also used to assess geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Despite the fast- accumulating literature on the CAS, to date no systematic review synthesizing its psychometric properties....... Of 49 studies identified, 17 examined the psychometric properties of the CAS. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most papers dealt with patients after hip fracture surgery, and only 4 studies assessed the CAS psychometric characteristics also in geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Two versions of CAS...
Meyhöfer, Inga; Steffens, Maria; Faiola, Eliana; Kasparbauer, Anna-Maria; Kumari, Veena; Ettinger, Ulrich
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress. To do so, n = 19 controls and n = 17 high positive schizotypes were examined after both a normal sleep night and 24 h of sleep deprivation. Schizotypes displayed higher SPEM global position error, catch-up saccade amplitude, and increased psychotomimetic states. Sleep deprivation impaired SPEM, prosaccade, antisaccade, and predictive saccade performance and increased levels of psychotomimetic experiences. Additionally, sleep deprivation reduced SPEM gain in schizotypes but not controls. We conclude that oculomotor impairments are observed in relation to schizotypy and following sleep deprivation, supporting their utility as biomarkers in model systems of psychosis. The combination of these models with oculomotor biomarkers may be particularly fruitful in assisting the development of new antipsychotic or pro-cognitive drugs. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Children and Young People-Mental Health Safety Assessment Tool (CYP-MH SAT) study: Protocol for the development and psychometric evaluation of an assessment tool to identify immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10–19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings
Walker, Gemma M; Carter, Tim; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Witchell, Miranda; Coad, Jane
Introduction Currently, no standardised, evidence-based assessment tool for assessing immediate self-harm and suicide in acute paediatric inpatient settings exists. Aim The aim of this study is to develop and test the psychometric properties of an assessment tool that identifies immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10–19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings. Methods and analysis Development phase: This phase involved a scoping review of the literature to identify and extract items from previously published suicide and self-harm risk assessment scales. Using a modified electronic Delphi approach, these items will then be rated according to their relevance for assessment of immediate suicide or self-harm risk by expert professionals. Inclusion of items will be determined by 65%–70% consensus between raters. Subsequently, a panel of expert members will convene to determine the face validity, appropriate phrasing, item order and response format for the finalised items. Psychometric testing phase: The finalised items will be tested for validity and reliability through a multicentre, psychometric evaluation. Psychometric testing will be undertaken to determine the following: internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, convergent, divergent validity and concurrent validity. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was provided by the National Health Service East Midlands—Derby Research Ethics Committee (17/EM/0347) and full governance clearance received by the Health Research Authority and local participating sites. Findings from this study will be disseminated to professionals and the public via peer-reviewed journal publications, popular social media and conference presentations. PMID:29654046
Davis, Frederick B.
This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…
Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas
Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitoratou, Silia; Pickles, Andrew
Psychometrics provide the mathematical underpinnings for psychological assessment. From the late 19th century, a plethora of methodological research achievements equipped researchers and clinicians with efficient tools whose practical value becomes more evident in the era of the internet and big data. Nowadays, powerful probabilistic models exist for most types of data and research questions. As the usability of the psychometric scales is better comprehended, there is an increased interest in applied research outcomes. Paradoxically, while the interest in applications for psychometric scales increases, publishing research on the development and/or evaluation of those scales per se, is not welcomed by many relevant journals. This special issue in psychometrics is therefore a great opportunity to briefly review the main ideas and methods used in psychometrics, and to discuss the challenges in contemporary applied psychometrics.
I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…
Barragán Farfán, Janis Marcela
Las personas que experimentan síntomas seudopsicóticos (SSP) presentan un riesgo elevado de sufrir trastornos psicóticos. Sin embargo, asociaciones encontradas entre SSP y trastornos no psicóticos sugieren que la relevancia clínica de los SSP no se limita a la psicosis y por lo tanto, investigar el rol de síntomas adicionales tales como la depresión, puede mejorar la capacidad de predecir el riesgo de desarrollar trastornos psicóticos. Asimismo, estudiar las habilidades en teoría de la mente ...
Modinos, G; McLaughlin, A; Egerton, A; McMullen, K; Kumari, V; Barker, G J; Keysers, C; Williams, S C R
Animal models and human neuroimaging studies suggest that altered levels of glutamatergic metabolites within a corticolimbic circuit have a major role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Rodent models propose that prefrontal glutamate dysfunction could lead to amygdala hyper-response to environmental stress and underlie hippocampal overdrive in schizophrenia. Here we determine whether changes in brain glutamate are present in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the pre...
Dembińska-Krajewska, Daria; Rybakowski, Janusz
The aim of the study was to assess schizotypy by using the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), in the groups of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar (recurrent) depression (UD). An important element of the study was to compare - in terms of similarity - the results obtained in schizophrenia and BD, and - in terms of differences - the results obtained in BD and UD. The study involved 58 patients with schizophrenia (35 men, 23 women, mean age = 34.0, SD = 9.8), 52 patients with BD (22 men, 30 women, mean age = 40.3, SD = 13.6) and 57 UD patients (24 men, 33 women, mean age = 50.2, SD = 11.9), treated in the Department of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences. For the assessment of schizotypy, the full version of the O-LIFE questionnaire (104 questions) was used, including such dimensions as: unusual experiences, cognitive disorganization, introvertive anhedonia and impulsive nonconformity. The biggest differences between diagnostic groups were found in the dimensions of unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. Similarities between schizophrenia and BD were found for unusual experiences, cognitive disorganization and introvertive anhedonia. Differences between BD and UD were obtained for unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. The assessment of schizotypy in three diagnostic groups (it was the first study in patients with UD), allowed to address contemporary pathogenic and clinical concepts pertaining to similarities between schizophrenia and BD as well as to differences between two types of affective disorders.
of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable ... psychometric properties, so that it can be used as an efficient tool in identifying the impact of oral ... affects a person physically and psychologically thereby .... questions 3, 5, and 7 were negatively rephrased and choices.
Eigenmann, C. A.; Colagiuri, R.; Skinner, T. C.
Aims To critically appraise the suitability, validity, reliability, feasibility and sensitivity to change of available psychometric tools for measuring the education outcomes identified in the (Australian) National Consensus on Outcomes and Indicators for Diabetes Patient Education. Methods Poten...
Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.
Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…
Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter
The present paper examined relationships between schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience; O-LIFE scale brief), belief in the paranormal (assessed via the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and proneness to statistical bias (i.e., perception of randomness and susceptibility to conjunction fallacy). Participants were 254 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling. Probabilistic reasoning problems appeared framed within both standard and paranormal contexts. Analysis revealed positive correlations between the Unusual Experience (UnExp) subscale of O-LIFE and paranormal belief measures [RPBS full scale, traditional paranormal beliefs (TPB) and new age philosophy]. Performance on standard problems correlated negatively with UnExp and belief in the paranormal (particularly the TPB dimension of the RPBS). Consideration of specific problem types revealed that perception of randomness associated more strongly with belief in the paranormal than conjunction; both problem types related similarly to UnExp. Structural equation modeling specified that belief in the paranormal mediated the indirect relationship between UnExp and statistical bias. For problems presented in a paranormal context a framing effect occurred. Whilst UnExp correlated positively with conjunction proneness (controlling for perception of randomness), there was no association between UnExp and perception of randomness (controlling for conjunction).
Full Text Available The present paper examined relationships between schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience; O-LIFE scale brief, belief in the paranormal (assessed via the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS and proneness to statistical bias (i.e., perception of randomness and susceptibility to conjunction fallacy. Participants were 254 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling. Probabilistic reasoning problems appeared framed within both standard and paranormal contexts. Analysis revealed positive correlations between the Unusual Experience subscale of O-LIFE and paranormal belief measures (RPBS full scale, traditional paranormal beliefs and new age philosophy. Performance on standard problems correlated negatively with Unusual Experience and belief in the paranormal (particularly the traditional paranormal belief dimension of the RPBS. Consideration of specific problem types revealed that perception of randomness associated more strongly with belief in the paranormal than conjunction; both problem types related similarly to Unusual Experience. Structural equation modelling specified that belief in the paranormal mediated the indirect relationship between Unusual Experience and statistical bias. For problems presented in a paranormal context a framing effect occurred. Whilst Unusual Experience correlated positively with conjunction proneness (controlling for perception of randomness, there was no association between Unusual Experience and perception of randomness (controlling for conjunction.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN, with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD and 54 healthy control (HC subjects. Results: The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Conclusion: Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.
Hélio Anderson Tonelli
Full Text Available Introduction: Disorders of thought are psychopathological phenomena commonly present in schizophrenia and seem to result from deficits of semantic processing. Schizotypal personality traits consist of tendencies to think and behave that are qualitatively similar to schizophrenia, with greater vulnerability to such disorder. This study reviewed the literature about semantic processing deficits in samples of individuals with schizotypal traits and discussed the impact of current knowledge upon the comprehension of schizophrenic thought disorders. Studies about the cognitive performance of healthy individuals with schizotypal traits help understand the semantic deficits underlying psychotic thought disorders with the advantage of avoiding confounding factors usually found in samples of individuals with schizophrenia, such as the use of antipsychotics and hospitalizations. Methods: A search for articles published in Portuguese or English within the last 10 years on the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycInfo, LILACS and Biological Abstracts was conducted, using the keywords semantic processing, schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder. Results: The search retrieved 44 manuscripts, out of which 11 were firstly chosen. Seven manuscripts were additionally included after reading these papers. Conclusion: The great majority of the included studies showed that schizotypal subjects might exhibit semantic processing deficits. They help clarify about the interfaces between cognitive, neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms underlying not only thought disorders, but also healthy human mind's creativity.
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III. Due to the prominent concept of schizotypy (Kety, Rado, Meehl) three split up diagnostic categories of schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders resulted. Cluster A personality disorders are frequent in community-based epidemiological studies. Health-care seeking behaviour due to primary personality-related problems, however, seems to be less paramount compared to cluster B and C personality disorders. Many family- and twin-based genetic studies convincingly stress a close link between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. This link is less pronounced for paranoid personality disorder, and even vanishingly low for schizoid personality disorder. From a perspective of schizophrenia spectrum disorders a vast amount of data from molecular genetic, neurobiological, neuropsychological and psychosocial research has impressingly confirmed this link for schizotypal personality disorder. Major research deficits, however, have to be noticed for paranoid and schizoid personality disorder.
Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Eysenck and Eysenck identified the two-factor structure of personality, namely neuroticism and extraversion which has been widely used in clinical psychiatry, and generated much research on the psychometric properties of the scales. Using a classical psychometric approach the neuroticism...... and extraversion scales have shown robust psychometric properties. The present study used both classical psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses to evaluate the neuroticism and extraversion scales and improve scalability of the instrument neuroticism and extraversion. A first time depressed sample...... symptoms related to interpersonal sensitivity were identified. For the extraversion scale a shorter and psychometrically more robust version was identified together with a short introversion scale. Clinically discriminant validity was analysed using correlations. The correlation between depression (Ham...
Morean, Meghan E.; de Wit, Harriet; King, Andrea C.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Rueger, Sandra Y.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.
Rationale The Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) is widely used in studies of acute subjective response (SR) to a variety of substances, but the format of the DEQ varies widely across studies, and details of its psychometric properties are lacking. Thus, the field would benefit from demonstrating the reliability and validity of the DEQ for use across multiple substances. Objective The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of several variations of DEQ items, which assessed the extent to which participants (1) feel any substance effect(s), (2) feel high, (3) like the effects, (4) dislike the effects, and (5) want more of the substance using 100mm Visual Analog Scales. Methods DEQ data from three placebo-controlled studies were analyzed to examine SR to amphetamine, nicotine, and alcohol. We evaluated the internal structure of the DEQ for use with each substance as well as relationships between scale items, measures of similar constructs, and substance-related behaviors. Results Results provided preliminary psychometric support for items assessing each DEQ construct (FEEL, HIGH, DISLIKE, LIKE, and MORE). Conclusions Based on the study results, we identify several common limitations of extant variants of the DEQ and recommend an improved version of the measure. The simplicity and brevity of the DEQ combined with its promising psychometric properties support its use in future SR research across a variety of substances. PMID:23271193
Kirsten Rebecca Panton
Full Text Available Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli, in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e. perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls, and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -.523, p<.001. However, significant heterogeneity was also found amongst the schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = .012, p = .825. These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual
Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.
Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée
Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working
Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée
Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching
Epskamp, S.; Rhemtulla, M.; Borsboom, D.
We introduce the network model as a formal psychometric model, conceptualizing the covariance between psychometric indicators as resulting from pairwise interactions between observable variables in a network structure. This contrasts with standard psychometric models, in which the covariance between
Testing Psychometrics of Healthcare Empowerment Questionnaires (HCEQ) among Iranian ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... translation and backtranslation procedures, pilot testing, and getting views of expert panel.
Practitioners in health sciences education and assessment regularly use a range of psychometric techniques to analyse data, evaluate models, and make crucial progression decisions regarding student learning. However, a recent editorial entitled "Is Psychometrics Science?" highlighted some core epistemological and practical problems in psychometrics, and brought its legitimacy into question. This paper attempts to address these issues by applying some key ideas from history and philosophy of science (HPS) discourse. I present some of the conceptual developments in HPS that have bearing on the psychometrics debate. Next, by shifting the focus onto what constitutes the practice of science, I discuss psychometrics in action. Some incorrectly conceptualize science as an assemblage of truths, rather than an assemblage of tools and goals. Psychometrics, however, seems to be an assemblage of methods and techniques. Psychometrics in action represents a range of practices using specific tools in specific contexts. This does not render the practice of psychometrics meaningless or futile. Engaging in debates about whether or not we should regard psychometrics as 'scientific' is, however, a fruitless enterprise. The key question and focus should be whether, on what grounds, and in what contexts, the existing methods and techniques used by psychometricians can be justified or criticized.
Bech, P; Bille, J; Møller, S B
BACKGROUND: The psychometric validity of many subscales of the 90-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the "Hamilton-subscales" for depression (SCL-D16), anxiety (SCL-A14), their 6......-item core-measures (SCL-D6 and SCL-A6), the anxiety symptom scale (SCL-ASS8) and the interpersonal sensitivity scale (IPS5). METHODS: The psychometric properties of the SCL-D16, SCL-A14, SCL-D6, SCL-A6, SCL-ASS8, and the IPS5 were evaluated based on SCL-90 ratings from 850 day patients from a Danish...... SCL-90 subscales were identified. Using these scales it is possible to perform a psychometrically valid evaluation of psychiatric patients regarding the severity of depression (HAM-D6), specific anxiety (SCL-ASS8) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS5)....
Preti, Antonio; Corrias, Irene; Gabbrielli, Mersia; Lai, Veronica; Muratore, Tamara; Pintus, Elisa; Pintus, Mirra; Sanna, Sara; Scanu, Rosanna; Tronci, Debora; Vellante, Marcello; Siddi, Sara; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Carta, Mauro Giovanni
Sparse evidence of a co-aggregation of the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder provides support for a shared but nonspecific genetic etiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Temperaments are conceptualized as trait sub-syndromic conditions of major pathologies. This study set out to test the hypothesis of a continuum between schizotypy and affective temperaments versus the alternative hypothesis of their independence based on a cross-sectional, survey design involving 649 (males: 47%) college students. The short 39-item TEMPS-A and the SPQ were used as measures of the affective temperaments and of schizotypy, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses were applied to a unidimensional model, to a standard correlate traits model, to second-order representations of a common latent structure, and to a bifactor model. Confirmatory bifactor modeling provided evidence against a complete independence of the dimensions subsumed by the affective and the schizotypal traits. The best solution distinguished between two sub-domains grouping positive symptoms and negative symptoms as measured by the SPQ subscales, and a sub-domain related to the affective temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A. Limitations due to the use of subscales from two different tools should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kane, Michael T.
In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…
Tomba, Elena; Bech, Per
Clinimetrics was introduced three decades ago to specify the domain of clinical markers in clinical medicine (indexes or rating scales). In this perspective, clinical validity is the platform for selecting the various indexes or rating scales (macro-analysis). Psychometric validation of these indexes or rating scales is the measuring aspect (micro-analysis). Clinical judgment analysis by experienced psychiatrists is included in the macro-analysis and the item response theory models are especially preferred in the micro-analysis when using the total score as a sufficient statistic. Clinical assessment tools covering severity of illness scales, prognostic measures, issues of co-morbidity, longitudinal assessments, recovery, stressors, lifestyle, psychological well-being, and illness behavior have been identified. The constructive dialogue in clinimetrics between clinical judgment and psychometric validation procedures is outlined for generating developments of clinical practice in psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pâmella de Medeiros
Full Text Available It was our objective to identify the psychometric elements to an epistemological reflection through a systematic review of cross-cultural validation procedures of TGMD-2 batteries, MABC-2 and KTK. Searches were carried out by two evaluators independently without year and language restrictions in six databases: Web of Science, Science Direct, Lilacs, Scopus, Pubmed and The ScientificElectronic Library Online - SciELO. The key words used were: "MABC", "TGMD" and "KTK" all of them combined with the word "validity". There was a total of 734 articles, of which, after the exclusion criteria, remained only 11 studies. It was found that there are differences between the authors in relation to the psychometric factors taken into account in cross-cultural validation. So that there was a lack of unanimity of the validation criteria of all studies in this field.
The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.
Coombes, Lee; Roberts, Martin; Zahra, Daniel; Burr, Steven
It is incumbent on medical schools to show, both to regulatory bodies and to the public at large, that their graduating students are "fit for purpose" as tomorrow's doctors. Since students graduate by virtue of passing assessments, it is vital that schools quality assure their assessment procedures, standards, and outcomes. An important part of this quality assurance process is the appropriate use of psychometric analyses. This begins with development of an empowering, evidence-based culture in which assessment validity can be demonstrated. Preparation prior to an assessment requires the establishment of appropriate rules, test blueprinting and standard setting. When an assessment has been completed, the reporting of test results should consider reliability, assessor, demographic, and long-term analyses across multiple levels, in an integrated way to ensure the information conveyed to all stakeholders is meaningful.
Full Text Available An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981 moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc., as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia. The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychology, resident in the city of Antofagasta (a geographical zone with a highnumber of Latin-American inmigrants. Our findings show that the scale seems to be a reliable instrument to measurethe prejudice towards Bolivian immigrants in our social environment. Likewise, important differences among thesubjects are detected with high and low scores in the psychosocial variables used.
Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh
The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…
Joseph M. Barnby
Full Text Available Background The experience of ‘sensed presence’—a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence—is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date. Methods Based on phenomenological description in the literature, we created the 16-item Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ. We recruited participants from (i a general population sample, and; (ii a sample including specific selection for religious affiliation, to complete the SenPQ and additional measures of well-being, schizotypy, social anxiety, social imagery, and spiritual experience. We completed an analysis to test internal reliability, the ability of the SenPQ to distinguish between religious and non-religious participants, and whether the SenPQ was specifically related to positive schizotypical experiences and social imagery. A factor analysis was also conducted to examine underlying latent variables. Results The SenPQ was found to be reliable and valid, with religious participants significantly endorsing more items than non-religious participants, and the scale showing a selective relationship with construct relevant measures. Principal components analysis indicates two potential underlying factors interpreted as reflecting ‘benign’ and ‘malign’ sensed presence experiences. Discussion The SenPQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensed presence experience although further validation in neurological and psychiatric conditions is warranted.
Lacroix, Emilie; Alberga, Angela; Russell-Mathew, Shelly; McLaren, Lindsay; von Ranson, Kristin
People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias. We rated each questionnaire's psychometric properties based on initial validation reports and subsequent use, and examined item language. Our systematic review identified 40 original self-report questionnaires. Most questionnaires were brief, demonstrated adequate internal consistency, and tapped key cognitive and affective dimensions of weight bias such as stereotypes and blaming. Current psychometric evidence is incomplete for many questionnaires, particularly with regard to the properties of test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change as well as discriminant and structural validity. Most questionnaires were developed prior to debate surrounding terminology preferences, and do not employ people-first language in the items administered to participants. We provide information and recommendations for clinicians and researchers in selecting psychometrically sound measures of weight bias for various purposes and populations, and discuss future directions to improve measurement of this construct. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Ferrando, Pere J.; Masip-Cabrera, Antoni; Navarro-González, David; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano
The Psychometric Toolbox (PT) is a user-friendly, non-commercial package mainly intended to be used for instructional purposes in introductory courses of educational and psychological measurement, psychometrics and statistics. The PT package is organized in six separate modules or sub-programs: Data preprocessor (descriptive analyses and data…
Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-child Version (CTSPC used to identify child abuse Propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do instrumento Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-child Version (CTSPC utilizado para identificar violência contra a criança
Michael Eduardo Reichenheim
Full Text Available This article follows another, which presented the first phase of the cross-cultural adaptation process examining the psychometric properties of the Conflict Tactics Scales, Parent-child Version (CTSPC, Portuguese version. Fieldwork took place in three public maternity wards in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from March to September 2000. Interviews relate to siblings of randomly selected live births. Respondents were mothers. Information on partners was obtained by proxy. Almost all intra-observer reliability kappa estimates were above 0.75. Depending on the scale and type of perpetrator, internal consistency (a estimates ranged from 0.49 to 0.68. Using the same sample, the iterated principal factor analysis identified four dimensions. Although most items performed well, some failed to adequately load in their expected factors. Construct validity involved exploring the relationship between several other theoretical dimensions and a variable encompassing the cumulative pattern of violence severity. All the hypotheses tested were corroborated. The current evaluation indicates that the CTSPC can be recommended for use in Portuguese-speaking contexts. Still, it also identified some important points needing further investigation and discussion.Este artigo segue outro que apresentava a primeira fase do processo de adaptação transcultural, examinando as propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do instrumento Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-child Version (CTSPC. O trabalho de campo ocorreu de março a setembro de 2000 em três maternidades públicas de grande porte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Irmãos de recém-nascidos foram amostrados aleatoriamente. Entrevistas foram realizadas com mães. Informações sobre parceiros foram obtidas por proxi. A maioria das estimativas de confiabilidade intra-observador (kappa se mostrou acima de 0,75. Consistência interna (a variou de 0,49-0,68, dependendo da escala e tipo de perpetrador. Usando a mesma amostra
Eun-Hyun Lee, RN, PhD
Conclusion: Overall, the PSS is an easy-to-use questionnaire with established acceptable psychometric properties. However, future studies should evaluate these psychometric properties in greater depth, and validate the scale using diverse populations.
Tilden, V P; Hirsch, A M; Nelson, C A
For norm-referenced measures to be useful in social-behavioral research, investigators who develop measures face several psychometric challenges, including: (a) adequate domain specification; (b) adequate initial evidence of reliability and validity; and (c) ongoing evidence of psychometric quality. The Interpersonal Relationship Inventory (IPRI) was developed in response to gaps in measurement of social relationships, and contributed scales for reciprocity and conflict to a measure of social support. For the IPRI, the first two points were addressed during the period of instrument development. The measure now has been in use for 4 years. This article reports evidence addressing the third challenge: ongoing evidence of psychometric quality. Findings from 19 studies using the IPRI provide compelling evidence for internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scales.
The comprehensive assessment of middle school student bonding is important for basic research and to evaluate interventions. Of over 30 tools reviewed, this study examined the psychometric properties of three that together assessed the four constructs identified by Hirschi as key elements. With some...
Del Valle, Milenko; Matos, Lennia; Díaz, Alejandro; Pérez, María Victoria; Vergara, Jorge
This research work aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS)--autonomy, competence and relatedness--identified by the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000b), in a sample of 297 university students from different faculties and programs belonging to a Chilean…
Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Beech, Anthony R.
Cluster analysis of psychometric data measuring offense-specific and socioadequacy problems from a sample of 437 untreated child molesters was carried out. This analysis identified three clusters: Cluster 1 contained men who reported low levels of self-esteem and intimacy and an inability to deal with negative emotions, Cluster 2 contained men who…
Santiago, L.M.; Luz, L.L.; Mattos, I.M.; Gobbens, R.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.
This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the TFI, an instrument that identifies frailty in elderly individuals. We interviewed 219 individuals aged 60 or older, living in the community. Individuals were predominantly female (52.5%) and mean age was 70.5
Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W.; Spering, Cynthia C.; Geiger, Nathaniel; Byers, Danielle; Schotts, G. Christian; Thoen, Megan A.
The original Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) was unidimensional, despite theory identifying multiple components (e.g., cognition and behavior) of personal growth initiative (PGI). The present research developed a multidimensional measure of the complex process of PGI, while retaining the brief and psychometrically sound…
McMahon, James M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying
The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified that reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales are reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (a) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (b) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (c) areas for future research. PMID:25331613
Michels, Charlotte TJ; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele
Background: Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers’ outcomes is a common problem. Aim: To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures’ psychometric properties. Design: A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. Data sources: The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Results: Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. Conclusion: A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. PMID:26407683
McClelland, Mark; Bena, James; Albert, Nancy M; Pines, Jesse M
Ineffective or inefficient transitions threaten patient safety, hinder communication, and worsen patient outcomes. The Hospital Culture of Transitions (H-CulT) survey was designed to assess a hospital's organizational culture related to within-hospital transitions in care involving patient movement. In this article, psychometric properties of the H-CulT survey were examined to assess and refine the hospital culture of transitions. A cross-sectional, multicenter, multidisciplinary correlational design and survey methods were used to examine the psychometric properties of the H-CulT survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to quantify the accuracy of the previously identified structure. Specifically, the analysis involved the principal axis factor method with an oblique rotation, based on a polychoric correlation matrix. A sample of 492 respondents from 13 diverse hospitals participated. Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was 0.88, indicating strong internal consistency. Seven subscales emerged and were labeled: Hospital Leadership, Unit Leadership, My Unit's Culture, Other Units' Culture, Busy Workload, Priority of Patient Care, and Use of Data. Correlations between subscales ranged from 0.07 to 0.52, providing evidence that the subscales did not measure the same construct. Subscale correlations with the total score were near or above 0.50 (p <0.001). Use of a factor-loading cutoff of 0.40 resulted in the elimination of 12 items because of weak associations with the topic. The H-CulT is a psychometrically sound and practical survey for assessing hospital culture related to patient flow during transitions in care. Survey results may prompt quality improvement interventions that enhance in-hospital transitions and improve staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dunagan, Pamela B
To report the development of a tool to measure nurse's attitudes about quality improvement in their practice setting and to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Human factors such as nursing attitudes of complacency have been identified as root causes of sentinel events. Attitudes of nurses concerning use of Quality and Safety Education for nurse's competencies can be most challenging to teach and to change. No tool has been developed measuring attitudes of nurses concerning their role in quality improvement. A descriptive study design with preliminary psychometric evaluation was used to examine the preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Registered bedside clinical nurses comprised the sample for the study (n = 57). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha reliability. Total score and individual item statistics were evaluated. Two open-ended items were used to collect statements about nurses' feelings regarding their experience in quality improvement efforts. Strong support for the internal consistency reliability and face validity of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale was found. Total scale scores were high indicating nurse participants valued Quality and Safety Education for Nurse competencies in practice. However, item-level statistics indicated nurses felt powerless when other nurses deviate from care standards. Additionally, the sample indicated they did not consistently report patient safety issues and did not have a feeling of value in efforts to improve care. Findings suggested organisational culture fosters nurses' reporting safety issues and feeling valued in efforts to improve care. Participants' narrative comments and item analysis revealed the need to generate new items for the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale focused on nurses' perception of their importance in quality and
Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne
This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…
Introduction: The aim of study was to evaluate the psychometric indices Sternberg love scale on married men and women in Iranian society. Methods: The study type is correlation (factor analysis). In this research factor analysis was used that is an exploratory and confirmatory technique to study the structure of a set of data, ...
The present research focuses on the psychometric properties of the Birthday Party measure for ages 3-5. The Birthday Party was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and engaging measure of early mathematical content--Number and Operation, Shape, Space, and Pattern--that can be given in either a short or a long form to English and Spanish…
Cannito, Michael P.
This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…
Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick
What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…
Hammond Sean M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89, subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the
Hammond, Sean M
Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming\\'s indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future
Gold, Joshua I; Ding, Long
Psychometric functions are often interpreted in the context of Signal Detection Theory, which emphasizes a distinction between sensory processing and non-sensory decision rules in the brain. This framework has helped to relate perceptual sensitivity to the "neurometric" sensitivity of sensory-driven neural activity. However, perceptual sensitivity, as interpreted via Signal Detection Theory, is based on not just how the brain represents relevant sensory information, but also how that information is read out to form the decision variable to which the decision rule is applied. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of this readout process and describe its effects on the psychometric function. In particular, we show that particular aspects of the readout process can have specific, identifiable effects on the threshold, slope, upper asymptote, time dependence, and choice dependence of psychometric functions. To illustrate these points, we emphasize studies of perceptual learning that have identified changes in the readout process that can lead to changes in these aspects of the psychometric function. We also discuss methods that have been used to distinguish contributions of the sensory representation versus its readout to psychophysical performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lundman, Berit; Viglund, Kerstin; Aléx, Lena; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Norberg, Astrid; Fischer, Regina Santamäki; Strandberg, Gunilla; Nygren, Björn
Four dimensions of inner strength were previously identified in a meta-theoretical analysis: firmness, creativity, connectedness, and flexibility. The aim of this study was to develop an Inner Strength Scale (ISS) based on those four dimensions and to evaluate its psychometric properties. An initial version of ISS was distributed for validation purpose with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the resilience scale, and the sense of Coherence Scale. A convenience sample of 391 adults, aged 19-90 years participated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the process of exploring, evaluating, and reducing the 63-item ISS to the 20-item ISS. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest were used to measure reliability. CFA showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit for the 20-item ISS. The analysis supported a fourfactor solution explaining 51% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha on the 20-item ISS was 0.86, and the test-retest showed stability over time (r=0.79). The ISS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for capturing a multifaceted understanding of inner strength. Further tests of psychometric properties of the ISS will be performed in forthcoming studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milliken, Aimee; Ludlow, Larry; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Grace, Pamela
To develop and psychometrically assess the Ethical Awareness Scale using Rasch measurement principles and a Rasch item response theory model. Critical care nurses must be equipped to provide good (ethical) patient care. This requires ethical awareness, which involves recognizing the ethical implications of all nursing actions. Ethical awareness is imperative in successfully addressing patient needs. Evidence suggests that the ethical import of everyday issues may often go unnoticed by nurses in practice. Assessing nurses' ethical awareness is a necessary first step in preparing nurses to identify and manage ethical issues in the highly dynamic critical care environment. A cross-sectional design was used in two phases of instrument development. Using Rasch principles, an item bank representing nursing actions was developed (33 items). Content validity testing was performed. Eighteen items were selected for face validity testing. Two rounds of operational testing were performed with critical care nurses in Boston between February-April 2017. A Rasch analysis suggests sufficient item invariance across samples and sufficient construct validity. The analysis further demonstrates a progression of items uniformly along a hierarchical continuum; items that match respondent ability levels; response categories that are sufficiently used; and adequate internal consistency. Mean ethical awareness scores were in the low/moderate range. The results suggest the Ethical Awareness Scale is a psychometrically sound, reliable and valid measure of ethical awareness in critical care nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben
The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...
de León, Patricia Ponce; Gerretsen, Philip; Shah, Parita; Saracco-Alvarez, Ricardo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Fresán, Ana
Impaired insight into illness, a core feature of schizophrenia with negative clinical implications, is a multidimensional phenomenon existing on a continuum. However, the degree to which illness perception in distinct cultures influences the appraisal of insight into illness in schizophrenia remains unclear. As such, we aimed to determine if the psychometric properties of the VAGUS insight into psychosis scale (www.vagusonline.com), which was originally assessed in English speaking Canadians, were similar in a sample of Latino Mexican Spanish speaking patients with schizophrenia. To accomplish this, the VAGUS - Self-Report (SR) version was translated from English to Spanish and psychometrically evaluated in 95 participants. The Spanish version of the VAGUS-SR was internally consistent (ᾳ = 0.713), and demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with the subscales of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Factor analysis identified two components of insight, congruent with two of the components of the English version of the VAGUS-SR. In conclusion, the VAGUS-SR is a brief, novel, and valid measure of insight into illness in schizophrenia, which demonstrated similar psychometric properties in two culturally and linguistically distinct samples with schizophrenia. Future studies should assess whether the VAGUS demonstrates similar psychometric properties in non-Western cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The author identifies four conceptualizations of the relation between symptoms and disorders as utilized in diagnostic systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): A constructivist perspective, which holds
Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher
This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente
Many empirical studies measure psychometric functions (curves describing how observers' performance varies with stimulus magnitude) because these functions capture the effects of experimental conditions. To assess these effects, parametric curves are often fitted to the data and comparisons are carried out by testing for equality of mean parameter estimates across conditions. This approach is parametric and, thus, vulnerable to violations of the implied assumptions. Furthermore, testing for equality of means of parameters may be misleading: Psychometric functions may vary meaningfully across conditions on an observer-by-observer basis with no effect on the mean values of the estimated parameters. Alternative approaches to assess equality of psychometric functions per se are thus needed. This paper compares three nonparametric tests that are applicable in all situations of interest: The existing generalized Mantel-Haenszel test, a generalization of the Berry-Mielke test that was developed here, and a split variant of the generalized Mantel-Haenszel test also developed here. Their statistical properties (accuracy and power) are studied via simulation and the results show that all tests are indistinguishable as to accuracy but they differ non-uniformly as to power. Empirical use of the tests is illustrated via analyses of published data sets and practical recommendations are given. The computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these tests is available as Electronic Supplemental Material.
McGilton, Katherine S
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of 2 supportive leadership scales, the Charge Nurse Support Scale and the Unit Manager Support Scale, designed for long-term-care environments. These 6-item self-report scales were administered to 70 nursing staff and their internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, factor structure, and construct validity investigated. Content validity was established with the assistance of experts. Both scales were deemed reliable. As hypothesized, a significant relationship was found between the measure of how nursing staff related to residents and measures of charge nurses' supportive behaviours (r = .42, p = .05). Reliable and valid measures of supportive leadership could be developed for use in identifying the quality of support provided to staff in long-term-care environments.
King, Alan R; Russell, Tiffany D; Bailly, Matthew D
The Lifetime Assessment of Violent Acts (LAVA) inventory provides estimates of the frequency, triggers, and consequences (including injuries to others) of historic acts of aggression. The LAVA also identifies the situational contexts in which prior violence was triggered and allows classifications based on past reactive, intimate partner, alcoholrelated, and/or weapon-related violence. Normative and psychometric data were provided from a college (N = 1,133) and general population (N = 545) sample. Around 15% of the general population sample recalled inflicting 5 or more injuries on others at some time in the past. LAVA scores were significantly higher for women than men (d = .45), and respondents from the general population were more aggressive than those in the college sample (d = .41). The potential benefits, applications, and limitations of this retrospective self-report inventory are discussed.
Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify elements that show the influence of the age and sex variables in the metacognitive level of professionals. Survey participants were 851 professionals registered in Bahia's Regional Administration Council who own their own businesses. Two validated psychometric instruments were used: Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI and the Metacognitive Activities Inventory (MCA-I. The hypothesis held that the respondent's age and sex influence their Metacognitive Profile. From the Structural Equation Modeling, the results indicate that the sex variable showed no significant relationship to the Metacognitive Profile. The implications of this study provide empirical conclusions that can aid entrepreneurs, companies, higher education institutions to understand the metacognitive aspects that influence the entrepreneur’s behavior more systematically. Empirically, these results contribute so that the participating drivers of this study, as they develop metacognitive aspects, acquire a competitive advantage in their entrepreneurial performance.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Using valid and reliable instruments is an important way for collecting data in qualitative researches. This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the extent of psychometric properties of the scales in research papers published in Journal of Advanced Nursing.Methods: In this study, the Journal of Advanced Nursing was chosen for systematic review. All articles which were published during 2007-2009 in this journal were collected and articles related to instrument development were selected. Each article was completely reviewed to identify the methods of instrument validation and reliability.Results: From 980 articles published in Journal of Advanced Nursing during 2007-2009, 41 (4.18% articles were about research methodology. In these, 12 articles (29.27% were related to developing an instrument. In this study, review of 12 articles that published in Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2007-2009, showed that some of the articles did not measure psychometric properties properly, thus some of the developed scales need to measure other types of necessary validity. In addition, reliability testing needs to be performed on each instrument used in a study before other statistical analysis are performed. From 12 articles, all of the articles measured and reported Cronbach’s alpha, but four of them did not measure test-retest.Conclusions: Although researchers put a great emphasis on methodology and statistical analysis, they pay less attention to the psychometric properties of their new instruments. The authors of this article hope to draw the attention of researcher to the importance of measuring psychometric properties of new instruments.Keywords: PSYCHOMETRIC, SCALES, CRITICAL REVIEW
R. P. van der Merwe
Full Text Available This is a cumulative report on the findings of various exploratory research that were done with regard to the practice of psychometric testing in the Eastern Cape. Recent and ongoing developments in the South African labour legislation, and especially the implications of the Employment Equity Act, highlight once again the importance of the validation of all instruments to be used for human assessment and selection purposes. Information was gathered to establish which psychometric tests are used, and for what purposes, in industry today. Biographical information on each organisation is supplied, including the number of employees. The role of psychometric testing in the selection procedure is discussed. The different tests used, as well as the test users, are also indicated. The findings of other, related research, as well as comments, recommendations and shortcomings, are discussed. Opsomming Hierdie is ‘n kumulatiewe verslag wat die resultate verstrek van verskeie verkennende ondersoeke wat gedoen is na die aanwending van psigometriese toetsing in die Oos-Kaap. Onlangse en voortdurende ontwikkelinge in die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidswetgewing, en veral die implikasies van die Wet op Gelyke Indiensneming, beklemtoon weer eens die belangrikheid van die validering van enige instrumente wat gebruik word vir evaluerings- en keuringsdoeleindes van individue. Inligting is ingewin om te bepaal watter psigometriese toetse, sowel as vir watter doel, vandag in die bedryf gebruik word. Biografiese inligting oor die onderskeie organisasies, insluitende hul aantal werknemers, word verstrek. Die rol van psigometriese toetsing in die keuringsproses word bespreek. Die verskillende toetse wat deur die organisasies gebruik word, sowel as die toetsge-bruikers, word ook aangedui. Die bevindinge van ander, relevante navorsing, sowel as opmerkings, aanbevelings en tekortkominge word bespreek.
Othman Mohamad Hashim
Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and
Gooneratne, I K; Munasinghe, S R; Siriwardena, C; Olupeliyawa, A M; Karunathilake, I
An effective tool in analysing the learning environment, customised to the Sri Lankan setting, is vital for the assessment and delivery of quality healthcare training of preregistration house officers. Such a tool should be reliable and valid. We assessed psychometric properties such as internal reliability and construct validity of a modified version of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM). A modified PHEEM questionnaire customised to the Sri Lankan context was developed in accordance to the Sri Lanka Medical Council guidelines. The questionnaire was distributed to all interns at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo North Teaching Hospital and Wathupitiwala Base Hospital during a calendar year (n = 100, response rate = 86%). Internal reliability and construct validity of the inventory were assessed by using Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis respectively as statistical methods. PHEEM consists of 3 subscales: perceptions of autonomy, social support and teaching, which are factors perceived to be influencing the educational environment. This administration demonstrated high internal reliability as reflected by a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.84. Exploratory factor analysis identified 12 factors with eigenvalue >1. However, the first factor had an eigenvalue of 6.7 (accounting for 19.7% of variance), while the rest had eigenvalues internal reliability in assessing the educational environment of intern doctors in Sri Lanka. It is possible that the clinical educational environment is collectively represented as a single dimension. This may be due to the complex interplay between individual items in the questionnaire. Therefore the psychometric properties do not justify the interpretation of the educational environment through specified subscales.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a checklist for assessing domestic elder neglect. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the meaning of domestic elder neglect explored using the qualitative method of phenomenology. In the second phase, a checklist was created, based on the results obtained in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third and fourth phases, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and Inter- rater reliability were measured. 110 elderly people participated in the this study. Results: The initial 26 item checklist designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 11 items and 2 factors including the health and care needs neglect, and neglect in providing healthy environment in the process of determining the face and content validity. Acceptable convergent validity was identified in the elder neglect checklist and care neglect scale of the domestic elder abuse questionnaire (r=0.862. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this checklist could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the index of re-hospitalization. The internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.824. Inter- rater reliability of the checklist was 0.850. Conclusion: The elder neglect checklist with 11 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect neglect among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers and researchers.
Fay, Derek M.; Levy, Roy; Mehta, Vandhana
A common practice in educational assessment is to construct multiple forms of an assessment that consists of tasks with similar psychometric properties. This study utilizes a Bayesian multilevel item response model and descriptive graphical representations to evaluate the psychometric similarity of variations of the same task. These approaches for…
Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger
The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…
May, Keith A; Solomon, Joshua A
In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise) x β(Transducer), where β(Noise) is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer) depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise) and β(Transducer), from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx)(b), β ≈ β(Noise) x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is stimulus
Keith A May
Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is
Full Text Available Starting with the common origins of biometrics and psychometrics at the beginning of the twentieth century, the paper compares and contrasts subsequent developments, informed by the author's 35 years at Rothamsted Experimental Station followed by a period with the data theory group in Leiden and thereafter. Although the methods used by biometricians and psychometricians have much in common, there are important differences arising from the different fields of study. Similar differences arise wherever data are generated and may be regarded as a major driving force in the development of statistical ideas.
Mansutti, Irene; Saiani, Luisa; Grassetti, Luca; Palese, Alvisa
The clinical learning environment is fundamental to nursing education paths, capable of affecting learning processes and outcomes. Several instruments have been developed in nursing education, aimed at evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environments; however, no systematic review of the psychometric properties and methodological quality of these studies has been performed to date. The aims of the study were: 1) to identify validated instruments evaluating the clinical learning environments in nursing education; 2) to evaluate critically the methodological quality of the psychometric property estimation used; and 3) to compare psychometric properties across the instruments available. A systematic review of the literature (using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines) and an evaluation of the methodological quality of psychometric properties (using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments guidelines). The Medline and CINAHL databases were searched. Eligible studies were those that satisfied the following criteria: a) validation studies of instruments evaluating the quality of clinical learning environments; b) in nursing education; c) published in English or Italian; d) before April 2016. The included studies were evaluated for the methodological quality of the psychometric properties measured and then compared in terms of both the psychometric properties and the methodological quality of the processes used. The search strategy yielded a total of 26 studies and eight clinical learning environment evaluation instruments. A variety of psychometric properties have been estimated for each instrument, with differing qualities in the methodology used. Concept and construct validity were poorly assessed in terms of their significance and rarely judged by the target population (nursing students). Some properties were rarely considered (e.g., reliability, measurement error
Bolt, Daniel; Ark, L; Wang, Wen-Chung
The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) builds on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology. The chapters of this volume present cutting-edge work in the field. Topics include studies of item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Additional psychometric topics relate to structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis, among others. The papers in this volume will be especially useful for researchers in the social sciences who use quantitative methods. Prior knowledge of statistical methods is recommended. The 78th annual meeting took place in Arnhem, The Netherlands between July 22nd and 26th, 2013. The previous volume to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting is New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 201...
Boyer, L; Murcia, A; Belzeaux, R; Loundou, A; Azorin, J-M; Chabannes, J-M; Dassa, D; Naudin, J; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C
analysis with varimax rotation identified a 2-factor structure accounting for 82% of the total variance. The first dimension (ADL 1) comprised four items and represented personal care activities. The second dimension (ADL 2) comprised two items and represented social functioning. A floor effect was reported for ADL 1 and its unidimensionality was not satisfactory: two items showed an INFIT statistic outside the acceptable range. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the two dimensions: each item achieved the 0.40 standard for item-internal consistency. The correlation of each item with its contributory dimension was higher than with the other (item discriminant validity). Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged over 0.70 in the whole sample. Concerning external validity, positive correlations were not systematically found between ADL and ASSS dimensions. The score of ADL 1 had medium to high correlations with four dimensions scores of the ASSS, while the score of ADL 2 were not at all or weakly correlated with ASSS dimension scores. Globally, ADL did not cover sentimental life and social relationships. There were statistical associations between ADL and age or gender: women and subjects older than 60 had a higher level of dependency. We didn't find any association with marital status or diagnoses. The ADL scale presented a good reproducibility but was not sensitive to change. The psychometric properties of the ADL scale were not sufficient for several parameters such as validity or sensitivity to change, contrary to other available French scales. The use of a heteroquestionnaire rather than a self-administered questionnaire should be discussed by professionals and the French authorities. These results should be taken into account in the use of the ADL scale for the economic and administrative management of psychiatry. Further research should be conducted to confirm these results. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vickers, Andrew J; Chen, Ling Y
New technologies to collect patient - reported outcomes have substantially solved the challenge of integrating a questionnaire in a busy clinical practice. At Memorial Sloan Kettering, we have been collecting patient reported outcomes electronically for many years. Our experience confirms the predicted benefits of obtaining patient reported outcomes but has also raised serious concerns about whether instruments developed for the research setting are appropriate for routine clinical use. We summarize four principles for a clinically - relevant psychometrics. First, minimize patient burden: the use of a large number of items for a single domain may be of interest for research but additional items have little clinical utility. Secondly, use simplified language: patients who do not have good language skills are typically excluded from research studies but will nonetheless present in clinical practice. Third, avoid dumb questions: many questionnaire items are inappropriate when applied to a more general population. Fourth, what works for the group may not work for the individual: group level statistics used to validate survey instruments can obscure problems when applied to a subgroup of patients. There is a need for a clinically-oriented psychometrics to help design, test, and evaluate questionnaires that would be used in routine practice. Developing statistical methods to optimize questionnaires will be highly challenging but needed to bring the potential of patient reported outcomes into widespread clinical use.
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Brubaker, Michael D; Nedelec, Joseph L
Many published studies have employed the Mini-K to measure a single fast-slow life history dimension. However, the internal structure of the Mini-K has not been determined and it is not clear that a single higher order K-factor fits the data. It is also not clear that the Mini-K is measurement invariant across groups such as the sexes. To establish the construct validity of K as well as the broader usefulness of applying life history theory to humans, it is crucial that these psychometric issues are addressed as a part of measure validation efforts. Here we report on three studies that used latent variable modeling and data drawn from two college student samples ( ns = 361 and 300) to elucidate the psychometrics of the Mini-K. We found that (a) the Mini-K had a six dimensional first-order structure, (b) the K-factor provided a parsimonious explanation of the associations among the lower order factors at no significant cost to fit, (c) the Mini-K measured the same K-factor across the sexes, (d) K-factor means did not have the same meaning across the sexes and thus the first-order factors should be used in studies of mean sex differences, and finally, (e) the K-factor was only associated with environment and aspects of mating competition in females. Implications and future directions for life history research are discussed.
Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E
This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD.
Morrison, Melanie A; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Todd G
Prejudice and discrimination against LGBT individuals is widespread and has been shown to have negative consequences for sexual and gender minority persons' physical and psychological wellbeing. A recent and problematic trend in the literature is to compositely measure prejudice toward and discrimination against LGBT persons. As such, a review of the psychometric properties of scales assessing, in a combinatory fashion, negative attitudes and/or behaviors toward LGBT persons is warranted. In the current study, 32 scales were identified, and their psychometric properties were evaluated. Most of the scales reviewed did not provide sufficient information regarding item development and refinement, scale dimensionality, scale score reliability, or validity. Properties of the reviewed scales are summarized, and recommendations for better measurement practice are articulated.
Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G; Kruitwagen, Cas; Schuurmans, Marieke J
To assess the content validity and psychometric characteristics of the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz (KOP-Q), which measures nurses' knowledge regarding older hospitalized adults and their certainty regarding this knowledge. Cross-sectional. Content validity: general hospitals. Psychometric characteristics: nursing school and general hospitals in the Netherlands. Content validity: 12 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Psychometric characteristics: 107 first-year and 78 final-year bachelor of nursing students, 148 registered nurses, and 20 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Content validity: The nurse specialists rated each item of the initial KOP-Q (52 items) on relevance. Ratings were used to calculate Item-Content Validity Index and average Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI/ave) scores. Items with insufficient content validity were removed. Psychometric characteristics: Ratings of students, nurses, and nurse specialists were used to test for different item functioning (DIF) and unidimensionality before item characteristics (discrimination and difficulty) were examined using Item Response Theory. Finally, norm references were calculated and nomological validity was assessed. Content validity: Forty-three items remained after assessing content validity (S-CVI/ave = 0.90). Psychometric characteristics: Of the 43 items, two demonstrating ceiling effects and 11 distorting ability estimates (DIF) were subsequently excluded. Item characteristics were assessed for the remaining 30 items, all of which demonstrated good discrimination and difficulty parameters. Knowledge was positively correlated with certainty about this knowledge. The final 30-item KOP-Q is a valid, psychometrically sound, comprehensive instrument that can be used to assess the knowledge of nursing students, hospital nurses, and nurse specialists in geriatrics regarding older hospitalized adults. It can identify knowledge and certainty deficits for research purposes or serve as a tool in educational
Bech, P; Bech, P
OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....
Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.
Matthews, Gerald; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren E; Barber, Daniel J; Abich, Julian
A study was run to test the sensitivity of multiple workload indices to the differing cognitive demands of four military monitoring task scenarios and to investigate relationships between indices. Various psychophysiological indices of mental workload exhibit sensitivity to task factors. However, the psychometric properties of multiple indices, including the extent to which they intercorrelate, have not been adequately investigated. One hundred fifty participants performed in four task scenarios based on a simulation of unmanned ground vehicle operation. Scenarios required threat detection and/or change detection. Both single- and dual-task scenarios were used. Workload metrics for each scenario were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram, transcranial Doppler sonography, functional near infrared, and eye tracking. Subjective workload was also assessed. Several metrics showed sensitivity to the differing demands of the four scenarios. Eye fixation duration and the Task Load Index metric derived from EEG were diagnostic of single-versus dual-task performance. Several other metrics differentiated the two single tasks but were less effective in differentiating single- from dual-task performance. Psychometric analyses confirmed the reliability of individual metrics but failed to identify any general workload factor. An analysis of difference scores between low- and high-workload conditions suggested an effort factor defined by heart rate variability and frontal cortex oxygenation. General workload is not well defined psychometrically, although various individual metrics may satisfy conventional criteria for workload assessment. Practitioners should exercise caution in using multiple metrics that may not correspond well, especially at the level of the individual operator.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI among a mixed-gender sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72, in a school context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor first-order structure. Cross-gender measurement invariance and cross-sample measurement invariance using a forensic sample of institutionalized males were also confirmed. The Portuguese version of the YPI demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity of statistically significant associations with conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex. In terms of known-groups validity, males scored higher than females, and males from the school sample scored lower than institutionalized males. The use of the YPI among the Portuguese male and female youth population is psychometrically justified, and it can be a useful measure to identify adolescents with high levels of psychopathic traits.
María Cristina Enríquez-Reyna
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze and assess the psychometric properties of the subscales in the Spanish version of the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale in an elderly population in the Northeast of Mexico. Method: methodological study. The sample consisted of 329 elderly associated with one of the five public centers for senior citizens in the metropolitan area of Northeast Mexico. The psychometric properties included the assessment of the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the Kaiser Meyer Olkin coefficient, the inter-item correlation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: in the principal components analysis, two components were identified based on the 43 items in the scale. The item-total correlation coefficient of the exercise benefits subscale was good. Nevertheless, the coefficient for the exercise barriers subscale revealed inconsistencies. The reliability and validity were acceptable. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the elimination of items improved the goodness of fit of the baseline scale, without affecting its validity or reliability. Conclusion: the Exercise Benefits/Barriers subscale presented satisfactory psychometric properties for the Mexican context. A 15-item short version is presented with factorial structure, validity and reliability similar to the complete scale.
Lechuga, Julia; Galletly, Carol L; Broaddus, Michelle R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia B; Glasman, Laura R; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Vega, Miriam Y; LeGrand, Sarah; Mena, Carla A; Barlow, Morgan L; Valera, Erik; Montenegro, Judith I
To develop, pilot test, and conduct psychometric analyses of an innovative scale measuring the influence of perceived immigration laws on Latino migrants' HIV-testing behavior. The Immigration Law Concerns Scale (ILCS) was developed in three phases: Phase 1 involved a review of law and literature, generation of scale items, consultation with project advisors, and subsequent revision of the scale. Phase 2 involved systematic translation- back translation and consensus-based editorial processes conducted by members of a bilingual and multi-national study team. In Phase 3, 339 sexually active, HIV-negative Spanish-speaking, non-citizen Latino migrant adults (both documented and undocumented) completed the scale via audio computer-assisted self-interview. The psychometric properties of the scale were tested with exploratory factor analysis and estimates of reliability coefficients were generated. Bivariate correlations were conducted to test the discriminant and predictive validity of identified factors. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor, 17-item scale. subscale reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.79. There were significant associations between the ILCS and the HIV-testing behaviors of participants. Results of the pilot test and psychometric analysis of the ILCS are promising. The scale is reliable and significantly associated with the HIV-testing behaviors of participants. Subscales related to unwanted government attention and concerns about meeting moral character requirements should be refined.
Ge, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Lingling
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of subjective sedation scales using one psychometric scoring system to identify the appropriate scale that is most suitable for clinical care practice. A number of published sedation assessment scales for paediatric patients are currently used to attempt to achieve a moderate depth of sedation to avoid the undesirable effects caused by over- or undersedation. However, there has been no systematic review of these scales. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, etc., to obtain relevant articles. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist. Articles that had been published or were in press and discussed the psychometric properties of sedation scales were included. The population comprised critically ill infants and non-verbal children ranging in age from 0 to 18 years who underwent sedation in an intensive care unit. Data were independently extracted by two investigators using a standard data extraction checklist: 43 articles were included in this review, and 13 sedation scales were examined. The quality of the psychometric evidence for the Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale was 'very good', with the Comfort Scale having a higher quality (total weighted scores, Comfort Scale = 17·3 and Comfort Behaviour Scale = 15·5). We suggest that the scales be systematically and comprehensively tested in terms of development method, reliability, validation, feasibility and correlation with clinical outcome. The Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale are useful tools for measuring sedation in paediatric patients. Nursing staff should choose one subjective sedation scale that is suitable for assessing paediatric patients' depth of sedation. We recommend the Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale as optimal choices if the clinical
Mortensen, E L; Simonsen, E
A translation of the MCMI-I has been in use in Denmark for some years. An untested assumption in the interpretation of the pattern of test results is that the psychometric characteristics of the Danish and American versions are similar. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric...... properties of the questionnaire by using traditional psychometric analysis techniques on the results of a sample consisting of 423 patients and 179 normal controls. Coefficient alpha was calculated for the 20 clinical subscales of the test and the Danish results were strikingly similar to the original...... coefficients reported by Millon. Furthermore, factor analysis of the subscales showed a factor structure very similar to American findings, and it is concluded that the psychometric properties of the Danish MCMI are not significantly different from the original....
Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Chow, Sy-Miin
These research articles from the 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS) cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 79th annual meeting took place in Madison, WI between July 21nd and 25th, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013) and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (Springer, 2015).
.... The more specific intent is to encourage reevaluation from a structured psychometric viewpoint. The end goal is to facilitate a uniformly higher standard of measurement quality in unidimensional scaling having complex scale step descriptors...
Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.
This very brief report introduces a psychometric function, very suitable for psychophysical data that displays Weber-like behaviour, because it is antisymmetric on a logarithmic scale. © 2011 a Pion publication.
Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wiberg, Marie
The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 80th annual meeting took place in Beijing, China, between the 12th and 16th of July, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013), Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (Springer, 2015), and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Wisconsin, USA, 2014 (Springer, 2015).
Wiberg, Marie; Culpepper, Steven; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wang, Wen-Chung
This proceedings volume compiles and expands on selected and peer reviewed presentations given at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and held in Asheville, North Carolina, July 11th to 17th, 2016. IMPS is one of the largest international meetings focusing on quantitative measurement in psychology, education, and the social sciences, both in terms of participants and number of presentations. The meeting built on the Psychometric Society's mission to share quantitative methods relevant to psychology, addressing a diverse set of psychometric topics including item response theory, factor analysis, structural equation modeling, time series analysis, mediation analysis, cognitive diagnostic models, and multi-level models. Selected presenters were invited to revise and expand their contributions and to have them peer reviewed and published in this proceedings volume. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society�...
Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete
The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....
Pittman, Joyce; Bakas, Tamilyn; Ellett, Marsha; Sloan, Rebecca; Rawl, Susan M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new instrument to measure incidence and severity of ostomy complications early in the postoperative period. 71 participants were enrolled, most were men (52%), white (96%), and married or partnered (55%). The mean age of participants was 57 ± 15.09 years (mean ± SD). Fifty-two participants (84%) experienced at least 1 ostomy complication in the 60-day postoperative period. The research setting was 3 acute care settings within a large healthcare system in the Midwestern United States. We developed an evidence-based conceptual model to guide development and evaluation of a new instrument, the Pittman Ostomy Complication Severity Index (OCSI). The OCSI format includes Likert-like scale with 9 individual items scored 0 to 3 and a total score computed by summing the individual items. Higher scores indicate more severe ostomy complications. This study consisted of 2 phases: (1) an expert review, conducted to establish content validity; and (2) a prospective, longitudinal study design, to examine psychometric properties of the instrument. A convenience sample of 71 adult patients who underwent surgery to create a new fecal ostomy was recruited from 3 hospitals. Descriptive analyses, content validity indices, interrater reliability testing, and construct validity testing were employed. Common complications included leakage (60%), peristomal moisture-associated dermatitis (50%), stomal pain (42%), retraction (39%), and bleeding (32%). The OCSI demonstrated acceptable evidence of content validity index (CVI = 0.9) and interrater reliability for individual items (k = 0.71-1.0), as well as almost perfect agreement for total scores among raters (ICC = 0.991, P ≤ .001). Construct validity of the OCSI was supported by significant correlations among variables in the conceptual model (complications, risk factors, stoma care self-efficacy, and ostomy adjustment). OCSI demonstrated acceptable validity and
Lochhead, Lois E; MacMillan, Peter D
The Oswestry disability index (ODI) is the most widely used measure of perceived disability for low back conditions. It has been adopted without adaptation in functional capacity evaluation (FCE). Rigorous testing of the ODI with modern psychometric methods, in this setting, is warranted. To determine the psychometric properties of the ODI in FCE: unidimensionality; differential item functioning; item coverage and to identify poorly functioning items, allowing for improvement of these items and recalibration of the scale. Rasch analysis, specifically Masters' partial credit model, was conducted on data. 133 work-disabled individuals presenting for FCE in northern British Columbia, Canada. All items had one poorly functioning option. Items were rescaled from six categories to five, improving the psychometric properties of the ODI as a unidimensional (disability due to back pain) scale. Item difficulty range is sufficient for a population with mild to severe disability. Although two of the ten ODI items functioned marginally unsatisfactorily in the unrevised state, the 5-option revised ODI appears superior. Use in clinical settings across a broad spectrum of disability levels could help establish its psychometric properties. Health professionals should be aware that the ODI may perform differently depending on client population.
Simpson, Michelle R
To examine the factor structure, internal consistency reliability and concurrent-related validity of the Core Nurse Resource Scale. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to obtain a sample of 149 nurses and nursing staff [Registered Nurse (RNs), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPNs) and Certified Nursing Assistant (CNAs)] working in long-term care facilities. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and bivariate correlations were used to evaluate validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a scale with 18 items on three factors, accounting for 52% of the variance in scores. Internal consistency reliability for the composite and Core Nurse Resource Scale factors ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The Core Nurse Resource Scale composite scale and subscales correlated positively with a measure of work engagement (r=0.247-0.572). The initial psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale demonstrates it is a sound measure. Further validity and reliability assessment will need to be explored and assessed among nurses and other nursing staff working in other practice settings. The intent of the Core Nurse Resource Scale is to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological and social resources of the nursing work environment, to identify workplaces at risk for disengaged (low work engagement) nursing staff and to provide useful diagnostic information to healthcare administrators interested in interventions to improve the nursing work environment. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
spontaneously see the "aura" or energy field of a person, also tend to exhibit elevated levels of imaginative processing or fantasy proneness. There are some indications that those who have a high capacity for absorption usually also experience different parasomatic shapes, tactile hallucinations and sensations of subtle energies, as well as schizotypical ideation, perceptual error and increased synesthesia. The objective is to calculate the correlations of psychological absorption scores, dissociation, fantasy proneness, intensity of imagination and the schizotypical tendency of people who claim to see auras (N=83, in comparison to a group of people lacking these experiences (N=503. The results indicate a higher level of cognitive perceptual schizotypy than for those who do not have this experience. Possibly, these people have a much more intense imaginative life. This does not necessarily have any psychopathological implications for the individual; people who see auras might simply be sensitive to anomalous perceptual experiences.
Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity. Today, a quantifiable psychological subject position has been translated, via 'big data' sets and algorithmic analysis, into a model subject amenable to classification through digital media platforms. I term this position the 'scalable subject', arguing it has been shaped and made legible by algorithmic psychometrics - a broad set of affordances in digital platforms shaped by psychology and the behavioral sciences. In describing the contours of this 'scalable subject', this paper highlights the urgent need for renewed attention from STS scholars on the psy sciences, and on a computational politics attentive to psychology, emotional expression, and sociality via digital media.
Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold
Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.
Nisipeanu, Damar Sandbrand
The focus of the present study is to introduce into organizational researches a new psychometric scale that identifies the intention of an employee to leave the company he works for, based only on external and internal aspects to the organization (e.g. payroll, work and life balance); aspects that could stimulate a person to leave or remain in his/her current job. The Intention to Leave the Organization Scale (ILOS) was built with 31 items, using the Likert Scale model, ranging from 1 – Total...
Full Text Available Partimos de una muestra de 94 participantes, seleccionados de la muestra de referencia de 1206 personas que ya habían participado en un estudio que valoraba la estructura factorial del Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE. Estas 94 personas fueron asignadas en grupos diferenciados en términos de bajo, moderado o altos niveles de esquizotipia positiva. Todos completaron también la Escala de Experiencias Disociativas (DES y el Inventario de Sugestionabilidad (IOS. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el aumento de los niveles informados de las experiencias disociativas y mayor sugestionabilidad, ambos, de forma independiente, predicen puntuaciones más altas de la esquizotipia positiva, pero la sugestión parece ser un predictor más potente que la disociación.
Holly G Prigerson
Full Text Available Bereavement is a universal experience, and its association with excess morbidity and mortality is well established. Nevertheless, grief becomes a serious health concern for a relative few. For such individuals, intense grief persists, is distressing and disabling, and may meet criteria as a distinct mental disorder. At present, grief is not recognized as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV or ICD-10. The goal of this study was to determine the psychometric validity of criteria for prolonged grief disorder (PGD to enhance the detection and potential treatment of bereaved individuals at heightened risk of persistent distress and dysfunction.A total of 291 bereaved respondents were interviewed three times, grouped as 0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 mo post-loss. Item response theory (IRT analyses derived the most informative, unbiased PGD symptoms. Combinatoric analyses identified the most sensitive and specific PGD algorithm that was then tested to evaluate its psychometric validity. Criteria require reactions to a significant loss that involve the experience of yearning (e.g., physical or emotional suffering as a result of the desired, but unfulfilled, reunion with the deceased and at least five of the following nine symptoms experienced at least daily or to a disabling degree: feeling emotionally numb, stunned, or that life is meaningless; experiencing mistrust; bitterness over the loss; difficulty accepting the loss; identity confusion; avoidance of the reality of the loss; or difficulty moving on with life. Symptoms must be present at sufficiently high levels at least six mo from the death and be associated with functional impairment.The criteria set for PGD appear able to identify bereaved persons at heightened risk for enduring distress and dysfunction. The results support the psychometric validity of the criteria for PGD that we propose for inclusion in DSM-V and ICD-11. Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary.
Harris, Richard W; McPherson, David L; Hanson, Claire M; Eggett, Dennis L
This study identified, digitally recorded, edited and evaluated 89 bisyllabic Vietnamese words with the goal of identifying homogeneous words that could be used to measure the speech recognition threshold (SRT) in native talkers of Vietnamese. Native male and female talker productions of 89 Vietnamese bisyllabic words were recorded, edited and then presented at intensities ranging from -10 to 20 dBHL. Logistic regression was used to identify the best words for measuring the SRT. Forty-eight words were selected and digitally edited to have 50% intelligibility at a level equal to the mean pure-tone average (PTA) for normally hearing participants (5.2 dBHL). Twenty normally hearing native Vietnamese participants listened to and repeated bisyllabic Vietnamese words at intensities ranging from -10 to 20 dBHL. A total of 48 male and female talker recordings of bisyllabic words with steep psychometric functions (>9.0%/dB) were chosen for the final bisyllabic SRT list. Only words homogeneous with respect to threshold audibility with steep psychometric function slopes were chosen for the final list. Digital recordings of bisyllabic Vietnamese words are now available for use in measuring the SRT for patients whose native language is Vietnamese.
Saltychev, Mikhail; Mattie, Ryan; McCormick, Zachary; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of individuals with chronic low back pain by defining its internal consistency, construct structure and validity, and its ability to differentiate between different degrees of functional limitation. A total of 837 consecutive outpatient patients with low back pain were studied. The internal consistency of ODI was assessed by Cronbach's α, construct structure by exploratory factor analysis, construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and discrimination was determined by item response theory analysis. The ODI showed good internal consistency (α=0.85). Explanatory factor analysis showed that ODI is a unidimensional test measuring functional level and nothing else. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the standardized regression weights of all ODI items were relatively high, varying from 0.5 to 0.7. The item response theory analysis suggested that eight out of 10 ODI items have a close to perfect ability to measure functional limitations in accordance with the actual severity of disability experienced by the respondents. Discrimination of all the items was high to perfect (1.08-2.01). The test characteristic and test information curves showed that the discriminative ability of the ODI is superior at higher levels of disability. The present data showed that the ODI is an internally consistent, unidimensional scale with overall excellent construct validity and ability to discriminate the severity of functional disability. The analysis suggests that the ODI may better distinguish between the relative degrees of function at above-average disability levels.
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using a psychometric approach for assessing supervisory competencies relevant to the mining and refining environment. The competency questionnaire was developed using supervisory roles and registered supervisory unit standards from the United Kingdom (UK, as no registered unit standards exist in South Africa. Twenty-four supervisors from three departments (Production, Engineering and Laboratory were evaluated by 125 raters; besides by themselves, also by their managers, peers, customers and their sub-ordinates. Based on difference scores derived from the Importance and Performance scales, a single factor was extracted with an internal reliability of 0,965. No statistical significant differences were obtained (ANOVA’s, t-test and F-statistics between groups based on biographical variables or between rater groups. The findings and their implications are further discussed. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die studie was om die moontlikheid vir die gebruik van ’n psigometriese benadering tot toesighouerbevoegdheidsbeoordeling, te evalueer. Die bevoegdheidsvraelys is ontwikkel deur gebruik te maak van toesighouersrolle en geregistreerde toesighouerseenheidstandaarde van die Verenigde Koningkryk, as gevolg van ‘n gebrek aan bestaande eenheidstandaarde in Suid-Afrika. Vier-en-twintig toesighouers van drie departemente (Produksie, Ingenieurswese en Laboratorium is deur 125 beoordelaars geëvalueer; buiten deur hulself, ook deur hul bestuurders, kollegas, kliënte en hul ondergeskiktes. ’n Enkele faktor, met ’n betroubaarheid van 0,965, gebaseer op die verskiltellings van die Prestasie- en Belangrikheidskaal, is onttrek. Geen beduidende verskille (ANOVA’s, t-toetse en F-statistiek kon tussen groepe gebaseer op biografiese veranderlikes en die onderskeie beoordelaarsgroepe gevind word nie. Hierdie bevindinge en die implikasies daarvan word verder bespreek.
Waal-Manning, H J; de Hamel, F A
During the Milton health survey subjects completed a psychometric inventory consisting of the 48 questions of the Middlesex Hospital questionnaire (MHQ) and 26 from the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire (HDHQ) designed to examine nine psychological dimensions. The 1209 subjects were classified into smoking categories and the scores for each psychometric trait were calculated. Women scored higher than men and heavy smokers scored higher than "never smokers". The psychometric traits and the scores of the four smoking categories after correcting for age and Quetelet's index showed statistically significant differences by analysis of variance in respect of somatic anxiety and depression for both men and women; and free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, hysteria, acting out hostility, self criticism and guilt in women. For somatic anxiety the increase in score almost exactly paralleled the increasing quantity of tobacco consumed.
Full Text Available ObjectivePatient education is a key element in the treatment of diabetes. Assessment of diabetes knowledge is important for optimum treatment. For the assessment of diabetes knowledge, validated tool is essential. None of such validated tool is available in Urdu language. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the 24-item Urdu version of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ among type 2 diabetes patients.MethodsStandard “forward–backward” process was used to translate DKQ into Urdu language. Later, it was validated on a convenience sample of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, between July and September 2016. Internal consistency was assessed by reliability analysis, one-way analysis of variance was applied for known group validity and multivariate linear logistic regression was applied for identifying significant predictors for patients’ DKQ score.ResultsGood internal consistency was observed for DKQ (Cronbach’s α = 0.702. The mean HbA1c of the patients was 8.55% (±1.91. DKQ scores of patients’ with “good glycemic control” (14.22 ± 2.4 were observed significantly higher (P < 0.05 than patients with “poor glycemic control” (12.56 ± 2.75. Multiple linear regression revealed that patients’ HbA1c (OR −0.17, CI −1.111, −0.023 and patients’ education (OR 0.17, CI −0.032, 0.758 were significant predictors for DKQ sum score.ConclusionUrdu version of the DKQ is a valid and reliable instrument for adequate estimation of disease knowledge and its association with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients in Pakistan.
Rosneck, James S; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John; Josephson, Richard; Noe, Donald A; Waechter, Donna
This article describes the systematic construction and psychometric analysis of a knowledge assessment instrument for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients measuring risk modification disease management knowledge and behavioral outcomes derived from national standards relevant to secondary prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. First, using adult curriculum based on disease-specific learning outcomes and competencies, a systematic test item development process was completed by clinical staff. Second, a panel of educational and clinical experts used an iterative process to identify test content domain and arrive at consensus in selecting items meeting criteria. Third, the resulting 31-question instrument, the Cardiac Knowledge Assessment Tool (CKAT), was piloted in CR patients to ensure use of application. Validity and reliability analyses were performed on 3638 adults before test administrations with additional focused analyses on 1999 individuals completing both pretreatment and posttreatment administrations within 6 months. Evidence of CKAT content validity was substantiated, with 85% agreement among content experts. Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated via factor analysis identifying key underlying factors. Estimates of internal consistency, for example, Cronbach's α = .852 and Spearman-Brown split-half reliability = 0.817 on pretesting, support test reliability. Item analysis, using point biserial correlation, measured relationships between performance on single items and total score (P knowledge instrument specifically designed for an adult CR population was systematically developed and tested in a large representative patient population, satisfying psychometric parameters, including validity and reliability.
Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan
Despite recent emphasis on the measurement and treatment of negative symptoms, studies of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) identify different symptom clusters, offer mixed support for its psychometric properties and suggest that it is shortened. The current study objective is to examine the psychometric properties of the SANS and the feasibility of a short research version of the SANS. Data were re-analyzed from three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60 days. Participants had chronic schizophrenia and predominantly negative symptoms (n=487). Baseline data were examined with exploratory factor analysis and Item Response Theory (IRT) to identify a short SANS. The short and original SANS were compared: with confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; and on symptom response with mixed modeling to compare. Results showed that at baseline the SANS consisted of three factors labeled Affective-flattening, Asociality and Alogia-inattentiveness. IRT suggested a short SANS with 11 items and 3 response options. Comparisons of the original and short SANS showed: the short version was a better fit to the data based on confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; similar significant (pnegative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia in research settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Yu, Doris S F
This paper is a report of a study to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Despite the high prevalence of insomnia in older people and its detrimental impact on well-being and healthcare costs, this problem is almost always undetected and consequently under-treated. The Insomnia Severity Index is psychometrically sound in measuring perceived insomnia severity. However, it has had very limited application in non-White populations. An instrument validation study was carried out between October 2008 and April 2009. The Insomnia Severity Index was translated into Chinese using Brislin's model and administered to a convenience sample of 585 older Chinese people recruited from three community centres for elders. Other instruments were also administered, including the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Cronbach's alpha of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index was 0.81, with item-to-total correlations in the range of 0.34-0.67. Construct validity was supported by its moderate relationship with the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep efficiency. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index also indicated more severe level of insomnia in older people who reported depressed mood on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Discriminant validity was supported as the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index could discriminate poorer sleepers from normal sleepers. Exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor structure for the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index in measuring the severity and impacts of insomnia on the Chinese older people. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a culturally-relevant and psychometrically-sound instrument for assessing severity and impact of insomnia in Chinese community-dwelling older people. Nurses can use this tool to assess older people's perceptions of insomnia. © 2010 The
Timmerman, A A; Meesters, C M G; Speyer, R; Anteunis, L J C
The assessment of impact and evaluation of treatment effects in chronic otitis media (OM) calls for a much broader approach than just examining the presence of middle ear effusion or hearing loss. It is increasingly recognised that this condition may result in a comprised quality of life. Several studies have used proxy completed questionnaires to objectify the illness experience associated with chronic OM. To review questionnaires which have been developed to describe the effects of chronic OM on the daily functioning of children. Psychometric properties have been evaluated, in addition to discriminative and evaluative qualities. A systematic review of publications pertaining to developed questionnaires related with chronic OM. Systematic literature searches of PubMed (1966-January 2007) and EMBASE (1989-January 2007) were conducted, supplemented by using free text words to identify publications after January 2005. The included 15 questionnaires were developed for children with recurrent or persistent OM, describing functional health status (FHS), while two questionnaires also evaluate the effect of tympanostomy tubes insertion. The questionnaires generally cover six impact areas (physical symptoms, child development, educational performance, emotional/practical burden and general health status) with physical symptoms being the most prominant. The OM8-30, OMO-22 and OM-6 adequately reflect the multidimensional aspects of FHS in chronic OM. The OMO-22 and OM8-30 show the best psychometric properties for the discrimination of impact severity between children, while the OM-6 was found to have the best qualities for the evaluation of clinical change. Clinical applicability is crucial for the assessment of FHS in chronic OM, but requires a trade-off with necessary psychometric properties.
de Brouwer, B J M; Kaljouw, M J; Kramer, M; Schmalenberg, C; van Achterberg, T
Translate the Essentials of Magnetism II© (EOMII; Dutch Nurses' Association, Utrecht, The Netherlands) and assess its psychometric properties in a culture different from its origin. The EOMII, developed in the USA, measures the extent to which organizations/units provide healthy, productive and satisfying work environments. As many healthcare organizations are facing difficulties in attracting and retaining staff nurses, the EOMII provides the opportunity to assess the health and effectiveness of work environments. A three-phased (respectively N = 13, N = 74 and N = 2542) combined descriptive and correlational design was undertaken for translation and evaluation validity and psychometric qualities of the EOMII for Dutch hospitals (December 2009-January 2010). We performed forward-backward translation, face and content validation via cross-sectional survey research, and semi-structured interviews on relevance, clarity, and recognizability of instruments' items. Psychometric testing included principal component analysis using varimax rotation, item-total statistics, and reliability in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's α) for the total scale and its subscales. Face validity was confirmed. Items were recognizable, relevant and clear. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that five of eight subscales formed clear factors. Three original subscales contained two factors. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.43 to 0.83. One item correlated weakly (0.24) with its subscale. Cronbach's α for the entire scale was 0.92 and ranged from 0.58 to 0.92 for eight subscales. Dutch-translated EOMII (D-EOMII) demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity for assessing hospital staff nurses' work environment. The D-EOMII can be useful and effective in identifying areas in which change is needed for a hospital to pursue an excellent work environment that attracts and retains well-qualified nurses. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.
de Brouwer, Brigitte Johanna Maria; Kaljouw, Marian J; Schoonhoven, Lisette; van Achterberg, Theo
To develop and psychometrically test the Essentials of Magnetism II in nursing homes. Increasing numbers and complex needs of older people in nursing homes strain the nursing workforce. Fewer adequately trained staff and increased care complexity raise concerns about declining quality. Nurses' practice environment has been reported to affect quality of care and productivity. The Essentials of Magnetism II © measures processes and relationships of practice environments that contribute to productivity and quality of care and can therefore be useful in identifying processes requiring change to pursue excellent practice environments. However, this instrument was not explicitly evaluated for its use in nursing home settings so far. In a preparatory phase, a cross-sectional survey study focused on face validity of the essentials of magnetism in nursing homes. A second cross-sectional survey design was then used to further test the instrument's validity and reliability. Psychometric testing included evaluation of content and construct validity, and reliability. Nurses (N = 456) working at 44 units of three nursing homes were included. Respondent acceptance, relevance and clarity were adequate. Five of the eight subscales and 54 of the 58 items did meet preset psychometric criteria. All essentials of magnetism are considered relevant for nursing homes. The subscales Adequacy of Staffing, Clinically Competent Peers, Patient Centered Culture, Autonomy and Nurse Manager Support can be used in nursing homes without problems. The other subscales cannot be directly applied to this setting. The valid subscales of the Essentials of Magnetism II instrument can be used to design excellent nursing practice environments that support nurses' delivery of care. Before using the entire instrument, however, the other subscales have to be improved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alleva, Jessica M; Tylka, Tracy L; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M
Body functionality has been identified as an important dimension of body image that has the potential to be useful in the prevention and treatment of negative body image and in the enhancement of positive body image. Specifically, cultivating appreciation of body functionality may offset appearance concerns. However, a scale assessing this construct has yet to be developed. Therefore, we developed the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS) and examined its psychometric properties among three online community samples totalling 1042 women and men (ns=490 and 552, respectively). Exploratory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with seven items. Confirmatory factor analysis upheld its unidimensionality and invariance across gender. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion-related, and construct (convergent, discriminant, incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. The FAS is a psychometrically sound measure that is unique from existing positive body image measures. Scholars will find the FAS applicable within research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aim: To construct normal values for the tests of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and evaluate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) among Turkish patients with liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-five healthy subjects and sixty patients with liver ...
Bailet, Laura L.; Zettler-Greeley, Cynthia; Lewis, Kandia
Home literacy activities influence children's emergent literacy progress and readiness for reading instruction. To help parents fulfill this opportunity, we developed a new Emergent Literacy Screener (ELS) and conducted 2 studies of its psychometric properties with independent prekindergarten samples. For Study 1 (n = 812, M[subscript age] = 54.4…
Polyak, Stephen T.; von Davier, Alina A.; Peterschmidt, Kurt
This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses. PMID:29238314
Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William
Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…
Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min
This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…
Background: Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil ...
Stephen T. Polyak
Full Text Available This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.
Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea
The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…
The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…
Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J
This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.
Conclusion According to the results, the detection protocol of malingering stuttering is of good internal consistency and concurrent validity. However, considering that the sample population was not large in the present study, it can be said that this study is a preliminary evaluation to find the psychometric features of the instruments, with the aim of laying the groundwork for further studies.
Schwabe, I.; Jonker, Wilfried; Van Den Berg, Stéphanie M.
The Wilson-Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal
A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…
Bergman, R. Lindsey; Keller, Melody L.; Piacentini, John; Bergman, Andrea J.
Research on selective mutism (SM) has been limited by the absence of standardized, psychometrically sound assessment measures. The purpose of our investigation was to present two studies that examined the factor structure and initial reliability and validity of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a 17-item parent report measure of failure to…
This study aims to examine the psychometric characteristics of Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL) items using the Rasch measurement model framework in the context of polytechnics. The MPCL with eleven dimensions was administered to 252 respondents who were selected from seven polytechnic institutions in Malaysia ...
Aim: To determine the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) in Nairobi public secondary school children, Kenya. Method: Concurrent self-administration of the MASC and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) to students in Nairobi public secondary schools. Results: The MASC ...
Slaney, Kathleen L.; Tkatchouk, Masha; Gabriel, Stephanie M.; Maraun, Michael D.
The aim of the current study is twofold: (a) to investigate the rates at which researchers assess and report on the psychometric properties of the measures they use in their research and (b) to examine whether or not researchers appear to be generally employing sound/unsound rationales when it comes to how they conduct test evaluations. Based on a…
Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Gabriel, David A.
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) developed by Gammage, Hall, and Martin Ginis (2004). University students (196 men and 269 women) completed the SPES and measures of social physique anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and physical activity. Participants also completed the SPES a…
Lowman, Rodney L.; Schurman, Susan J.
The psychometric properties of a revised version of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory were assessed using federal government employees. Factor analyses, interscale correlations, measures of internal consistency, and criterion group profiles are presented. Evidence was supportive of the validity of the revised form. (Author/BW)
van Kampen, D.
This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic symptoms
George B. Richardson
Full Text Available This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS, provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested—there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.
Alibhai, Salman; Buehren, Niklas; Coleman, Rachel; Goldstein, Markus; Strobbe, Francesco
This case study tells the story of the evolution of psychometric credit scoring as an innovative solution in a World Bank operation, from its humble beginnings as a small pilot in Ethiopia, to the current movement to replicate its use for similar challenges in countries across the continent in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and beyond. Fintech is commonly defined as an industry composed ...
Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.
This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…
Schwabe, Inga; Jonker, Willem; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine
The Wilson−Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal
Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version Perceived Stress Scale in Two Occupational Settings In Malaysia. ... Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version ...
Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…
Robinson, Carrie H.; Betz, Nancy E.
This study describes the psychometric evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (SWVI-R), an instrument comprised of 12 scales measuring the relative importance placed on the following work-related value dimensions: Achievement, Coworkers, Creativity, Income, Independence, Lifestyle, Mental Challenge, Prestige, Security, Supervision,…
Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James
This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…
Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Marks, David J.; Policaro, Katia L.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
The psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Preschool Revision (APQ-PR) were explored in a sample of hyperactive-inattentive preschool children (N = 47) and nonimpaired controls (N = 113). A subset of parents completed the questionnaire on 2 occasions, approximately 1 year apart. Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution,…
Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret
Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…
Background: Due to the socio-cultural characteristics of Iranian adult men and lack of standardized questionnaires to assess their reproductive health associated with sexually transmitted diseases and HIV / AIDS, this study is done with the goal of development and psychometrics of a valid relevant instrument. Method: A ...
Tolar, Tammy D.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon
Maze tasks have appealing properties as progress-monitoring tools, but there is a need for a thorough examination of the psychometric properties of Maze tasks among middle school students. We evaluated form effects, reliability, validity, and practice effects of Maze among students in Grades 6 through 8. We administered the same (familiar) and…
Polyak, Stephen T; von Davier, Alina A; Peterschmidt, Kurt
This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.
Cadorin, Lucia; Bressan, Valentina; Palese, Alvisa
Modern healthcare institutions are continuously changing, and Self-Directed Learning (SDL) abilities are considered a prerequisite for both nursing students and nurses in order to be proactive about these demanding challenges. To date, no systematic reviews of existing instruments aimed at detecting and critically evaluating SDL abilities have been published. Therefore, the aims of this review are: 1) identify the instruments for assessment of SDL abilities among nursing students and nurses; 2) critically evaluate the methodological studies quality; and 3) compare the psychometric properties of the available instruments. A psychometric-systematic-review was performed. CDSR, CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, PROSPERO, SCOPUS databases were searched without restrictions in time and setting. All primary studies involving nursing students or nurses, written in English and aimed at validating SDL assessment tools, were included. Studies retrieved were evaluated according to the COnsensus-based-Standards for the selection of health Measurement-INstruments (COSMIN) panel. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by researchers independently. Eleven studies were included and four tools based on Knowles's theory have emerged: 1) the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale; 2) the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education; 3) the Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning, and 4) the Self-Directed Learning Instrument. A few psychometric properties have been considered in each study, from two to four out of the ten required. The quality of the methodologies used was in general, from fair to poor with the exception of one instrument (the Self-Directed-Learning-Instrument). The psychometric proprieties that emerged across the tools were good in general: the Cronbach α was from 0.73 to 0.91; structural validities have also reported good indexes both in the explorative and in the confirmative factor analyses. On the basis of the findings
Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern healthcare institutions are continuously changing, and Self-Directed Learning (SDL abilities are considered a prerequisite for both nursing students and nurses in order to be proactive about these demanding challenges. To date, no systematic reviews of existing instruments aimed at detecting and critically evaluating SDL abilities have been published. Therefore, the aims of this review are: 1 identify the instruments for assessment of SDL abilities among nursing students and nurses; 2 critically evaluate the methodological studies quality; and 3 compare the psychometric properties of the available instruments. Methods A psychometric-systematic-review was performed. CDSR, CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, PROSPERO, SCOPUS databases were searched without restrictions in time and setting. All primary studies involving nursing students or nurses, written in English and aimed at validating SDL assessment tools, were included. Studies retrieved were evaluated according to the COnsensus-based-Standards for the selection of health Measurement-INstruments (COSMIN panel. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by researchers independently. Results Eleven studies were included and four tools based on Knowles’s theory have emerged: 1 the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale; 2 the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education; 3 the Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning, and 4 the Self-Directed Learning Instrument. A few psychometric properties have been considered in each study, from two to four out of the ten required. The quality of the methodologies used was in general, from fair to poor with the exception of one instrument (the Self-Directed-Learning-Instrument. The psychometric proprieties that emerged across the tools were good in general: the Cronbach α was from 0.73 to 0.91; structural validities have also reported good indexes both in the explorative and in the confirmative
Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Brand, Ralf; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Lazuras, Lambros; Lucidi, Fabio
One of the fundamental challenges in anti-doping is identifying athletes who use, or are at risk of using, prohibited performance enhancing substances. The growing trend to employ a forensic approach to doping control aims to integrate information from social sciences (e.g., psychology of doping) into organised intelligence to protect clean sport. Beyond the foreseeable consequences of a positive identification as a doping user, this task is further complicated by the discrepancy between what constitutes a doping offence in the World Anti-Doping Code and operationalized in doping research. Whilst psychology plays an important role in developing our understanding of doping behaviour in order to inform intervention and prevention, its contribution to the array of doping diagnostic tools is still in its infancy. In both research and forensic settings, we must acknowledge that (1) socially desirable responding confounds self-reported psychometric test results and (2) that the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that, to date, both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better understanding of doping behaviour, not to establish evidence for doping. A false 'positive' psychological profile for doping affects not only the individual
Milenko Del Valle
Full Text Available This research work aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS -autonomy, competence and relatedness- identified by the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000b, in a sample of 297 university students from different faculties and programs belonging to a Chilean university. To achieve the objective, through a psychometric study by confirmatory procedures, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed, analyzing the six-factor proposal developed by Chen et al. (2015, and the internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using the ordinal Alpha. The outcomes obtained from the sample of university students indicate a good internal consistency, Alpha = 0.90 and 0.86 for psychological needs satisfaction and frustration. Besides, the outcomes of the confirmatory factor analysis showed an adequate fit of the model (χ²/gl = 1.75; CFI = 0.92; IFI = 0.92; TLI = 0.90; RMSEA = .05 and SRMR =.05 to the data, showing evidences of the validity of the six-factor structure proposed. According to the foregoing, it is considered that the scale to measure satisfaction and frustration of the three basic psychological needs can be used initially in university students in the higher education of Chile, thus, allowing the relationship with other variables of interest to generate explanatory models that allow going in depth the understanding of aspects that are of institutional interest.
Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; Riezebos, Truus G M; van der Staak, Cees P F; De Jong, Cor A J
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four addiction treatment centers during rapid detoxification with or without general anesthesia. Examination of the psychometric properties of the SOWS included exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the SOWS revealed a general pattern of four factors with three items not always clustered in the same factors at different points of measurement. After excluding these items from factor analysis four factors were identified during detoxification (temperature dysregulation, tractus locomotorius, tractus gastro-intestinalis and facial disinhibition). The 13-item SOWS shows high internal consistency and test-retest reliability and good validity at different stages of withdrawal. The 13-item SOWS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess opioid withdrawal during rapid detoxification. Three items were deleted because their content does not correspond directly with opioid withdrawal symptoms. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Background Hip arthroscopies are often used in the treatment of intra-articular hip injuries. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are an important parameter in evaluating treatment. It is unclear which PRO questionnaires are specifically available for hip arthroscopy patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which PRO questionnaires are valid and reliable in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Methods A search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1931 to October 2010. Studies assessing the quality of PRO questionnaires in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included. The quality of the questionnaires was evaluated by the psychometric properties of the outcome measures. The quality of the articles investigating the questionnaires was assessed by the COSMIN list. Results Five articles identified three questionnaires; the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The NAHS scored best on the content validity, whereas the HOS scored best on agreement, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The quality of the articles describing the HOS scored highest. The NAHS is the best quality questionnaire. The articles describing the HOS are the best quality articles. Conclusions This systematic review shows that there is no conclusive evidence for the use of a single patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Based on available psychometric evidence we recommend using a combination of the NAHS and the HOS for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:21619610
Farahani, Azam Shirinabadi; Rassouli, Maryam; Yaghmaie, Farideh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Sajjadi, Moosa
Given the greater tendency during adolescence toward risk-taking, identifying and measuring the factors affecting the adolescents' health is highly important to ensure the efficacy of health promoting interventions. One of these factors is self-transcendence. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric features of the Self-Transcendence Scale (adolescents' version) in students in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. This research was conducted in 2015. For this purpose, 1210 high school students were selected through the multistage cluster sampling method. After the backward-forward translation, the psychometric properties of the scale were examined through the assessment of the (face and construct) validity and reliability (internal consistency and stability) of the scale. The construct validity was assessed using two methods, factor analysis, and convergence of the scale with the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. The result of face validity was minor modifications in some words. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in the extraction of two dimensions, with explaining 52.79% of the variance collectively. In determining the convergent validity, the correlation between hopefulness score and self-transcendence score was r=0.47 (PSelf-Transcendence Scale showed an acceptable validity and reliability and can be used in the assessment of self-transcendence in Iranian adolescents.
Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Rehn, Mattias; Nilsson, Kent W
The objective of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) and its parent version (GAIT-P), in a representative community sample of adolescents and parents in Västmanland, Sweden. Self-rated and parent-rated gaming addictive symptoms identified by GAIT and GAIT-P were analyzed for frequency of endorsement, internal consistency, concordance, factor structure, prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), concurrence with the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents, 7-item version (GAS) and the parent version of GAS (GAS-P), and for sex differences. The 12-month prevalence of IGD was found to be 1.3% with GAIT and 2.4% with GAIT-P. Results also indicate promising psychometric results within this population, with high internal consistency, and high concurrent validity with GAS and GAS-P. Concordance between adolescents and parents ratings was high, although moderate in girls. Although exploratory factor analysis indicated poor model fit, it also indicated unidimensionality and high factor loadings in all analyses. GAIT and GAIT-P are suitable for continued use in measuring gaming addiction in adolescents, and, with the additional two items, they now cover all nine IGD criteria. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Meyerson, Paul; Tryon, Warren W
This study evaluated the psychometric equivalency of Web-based research. The Sexual Boredom Scale was presented via the World-Wide Web along with five additional scales used to validate it. A subset of 533 participants that matched a previously published sample (Watt & Ewing, 1996) on age, gender, and race was identified. An 8 x 8 correlation matrix from the matched Internet sample was compared via structural equation modeling with a similar 8 x 8 correlation matrix from the previously published study. The Internet and previously published samples were psychometrically equivalent. Coefficient alpha values calculated on the matched Internet sample yielded reliability coefficients almost identical to those for the previously published sample. Factors such as computer administration and uncontrollable administration settings did not appear to affect the results. Demographic data indicated an overrepresentation of males by about 6% and Caucasians by about 13% relative to the U.S. Census (2000). A total of 2,230 participants were obtained in about 8 months without remuneration. These results suggest that data collection on the Web is (1) reliable, (2) valid, (3) reasonably representative, (4) cost effective, and (5) efficient.
Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G
This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie; Cordier, Reinie
In this article, we evaluate psychometric properties of the Child's Challenging Behaviour Scale, Version 2 (CCBS-2) with mothers of young, typically developing children. A cross-sectional mail survey with Australian mothers (N = 337) included the CCBS-2, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status scale. Internal consistency was good, and no gender differences in CCBS-2 scores were significant. Significant results included differences between CCBS-2 scores: among children grouped according to age, among children grouped according to pre- and post-school entry, among mothers grouped according to extent of any symptom type, and between this sample and a previously collected age-matched sample of children with disabilities. Of the properties tested, results support sound psychometrics. The CCBS-2 can be used to differentiate children according to age, school entry, and disability as well as to identify families for potential services in behavior management and mental health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Eggleton, Kyle; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Henning, Marcus; Jones, Rhys; Shulruf, Boaz
The aim of this study was to develop an instrument (University of Auckland General Practice Report of Educational Environment: UAGREE) with robust psychometric properties that measured the educational environment of undergraduate primary care. The questions were designed to incorporate measurements of the teaching of cultural competence. Following a structured consensus process and an initial pilot, a list of 55 questions was developed. All Year 5 and 6 students completing a primary care attachment at Auckland University were invited to complete the questionnaire. The results were analysed using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis resulting in a 16-item instrument. Three factors were identified explaining 53% of the variance. The items' reliability within the factors were high (Learning: 0.894; Teaching: 0.871; Cultural competence: 0.857). Multiple groups analysis by gender; and separately across ethnic groups did not find significant differences between groups. UAGREE is a specific instrument measuring the undergraduate primary care educational environment. Its questions fit within established theoretical educational environment frameworks and the incorporation of cultural competence questions reflects the importance of teaching cultural competence within medicine. The psychometric properties of UAGREE suggest that it is a reliable and valid measure of the primary care education environment.
Lopes, Sónia; Graça, Patrícia; Teixeira, Salete; Serrano, Ana Maria; Squires, Jane
The essential underlying foundations of Early Intervention (EI), in which parents/family play a critical role in their child's development, leads us to conclude that their contribution assessing early detection of problems is fundamental. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) is a standardized screening instrument that has been successfully studied in different countries and cultures. Translate and study the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese version of the 9, 18 and 30month questionnaires of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3). Cross-sectional study. Validity and reliability were studied in a sample of 234 parents of children within 9, 18 and 30months. The results indicated that the questionnaires had good internal consistency, strong agreement between observers and between observations with two weeks interval, and strong Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between the overall and the total for each domain. The cutoff points (i.e. 2 standard deviations below the mean domain score), that identifies children who should receive further referral for more comprehensive assessment, were close to those determined in the original ASQ-3 psychometric studies. Cronbach's alpha ranging from .42 to .70 and Pearson's r values varies from .22 to .60. Although some weaknesses were noted in psychometric qualities analysis, it can be concluded that the ASQ-PT of 9, 18 and 30months of age fulfills the requirements of a screening tool validated for the Portuguese population. To allow the early identification of children with developmental problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brandão, Tânia; Schulz, Marc S; Gross, James J; Matos, Paula Mena
Emotion regulation is thought to play an important role in adaptation to cancer. However, the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ), a widely used instrument to assess emotion regulation, has not yet been validated in this context. This study addresses this gap by examining the psychometric properties of the ERQ in a sample of Portuguese women with cancer. The ERQ was administered to 204 women with cancer (mean age = 48.89 years, SD = 7.55). Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory analysis were used to examine psychometric properties of the ERQ. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 2-factor solution proposed by the original authors (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal). This solution was invariant across age and type of cancer. Item response theory analyses showed that all items were moderately to highly discriminant and that items are better suited for identifying moderate levels of expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal. Support was found for the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the ERQ. The pattern of relationships with emotional control, alexithymia, emotional self-efficacy, attachment, and quality of life provided evidence of the convergent and concurrent validity for both dimensions of the ERQ. Overall, the ERQ is a psychometrically sound approach for assessing emotion regulation strategies in the oncological context. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Strazzera, Elisabetta; Mura, Marina; Contu, Davide
A choice experiment exercise is combined with psychometric scales in order: (1) to identify factors that explain support/opposition toward a wind energy development project; and (2) to assess (monetary) trade-offs between attributes of the project. A Latent Class estimator is fitted to the data, and different utility parameters are estimated, conditional on class allocation. It is found that the probability of class membership depends on specific psychometric variables. Visual impacts on valued sites are an important factor of opposition toward a project, and this effect is magnified when identity values are attached to the specific site, so much that no trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals characterized by strong place attachment. Conversely, other classes of individuals are willing to accept compensations, in form of private and/or public benefits. The distribution of benefits in the territory, and preservation of the option value related to the possible development of an archeological site, are important for a class of individuals concerned with the sustainability of the local economy. - Highlights: ► A Choice Experiment approach is used to assess acceptability of a wind farm project. ► Psychometric variables are used to model heterogeneity in a Latent Class model. ► No trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals. ► Another class of individuals is interested in private benefits. ► Other classes are interested in public benefits and sustainability of the development.
Piredda, Michela; Ghezzi, Valerio; Fenizia, Elisa; Marchetti, Anna; Petitti, Tommasangelo; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Sili, Alessandro
To develop and psychometrically test the Italian-language Nurse Caring Behaviours Scale, a short measure of nurse caring behaviour as perceived by inpatients. Patient perceptions of nurses' caring behaviours are a predictor of care quality. Caring behaviours are culture-specific, but no measure of patient perceptions has previously been developed in Italy. Moreover, existing tools show unclear psychometric properties, are burdensome for respondents, or are not widely applicable. Instrument development and psychometric testing. Item generation included identifying and adapting items from existing measures of caring behaviours as perceived by patients. A pool of 28 items was evaluated for face validity. Content validity indexes were calculated for the resulting 15-item scale; acceptability and clarity were pilot tested with 50 patients. To assess construct validity, a sample of 2,001 consecutive adult patients admitted to a hospital in 2014 completed the scale and was split into two groups. Reliability was evaluated using nonlinear structural equation modelling coefficients. Measurement invariance was tested across subsamples. Item 15 loaded poorly in the exploratory factor analysis (n = 983) and was excluded from the final solution, positing a single latent variable with 14 indicators. This model fitted the data moderately. The confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1018) returned similar results. Internal consistency was excellent in both subsamples. Full scalar invariance was reached, and no significant latent mean differences were detected across subsamples. The new instrument shows reasonable psychometric properties and is a promising short and widely applicable measure of inpatient perceptions of nurse caring behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.
Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.
Van Ngo, Khai; Storvik, Jehans J.; Dokkeberg, Christopher A.; Farup, Ivar; Pedersen, Marius
QuickEval is a web application for carrying out psychometric scaling experiments. It offers the possibility of running controlled experiments in a laboratory, or large scale experiment over the web for people all over the world. It is a unique one of a kind web application, and it is a software needed in the image quality field. It is also, to the best of knowledge, the first software that supports the three most common scaling methods; paired comparison, rank order, and category judgement. It is also the first software to support rank order. Hopefully, a side effect of this newly created software is that it will lower the threshold to perform psychometric experiments, improve the quality of the experiments being carried out, make it easier to reproduce experiments, and increase research on image quality both in academia and industry. The web application is available at www.colourlab.no/quickeval.
Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S
. Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.......We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...
Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.
Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Bo
This study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a pictorial scale of correct condom use (PSCCU) using data from female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The psychometric properties assessed in this study include construct validity by correlations and known-group validation. The study sample included 396 FSWs in Guangxi, China. The results demonstrate adequate validity of the PSCCU among the study population. FSWs with a higher level of education scored significantly higher on the PSCCU than those with a lower level of education. FSWs who self-reported appropriate condom use with stable partners scored significantly higher on PSCCU than their counterparts. The PSCCU should provide HIV/STI prevention researchers and practitioners with a valid alternative assessment tool among high-risk populations, especially in resource-limited settings.
Nitsch, Kristian P; Pedersen, Jessica; Miliotto, Alexandra; Petersen, Brett; Robbins, Samantha; Garcia, Ana; Hoisington, Molly Ansel; The, Kimberly J; Smiley, Jill; Janikowski, Timothy
This case report provides an overview of the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the My Vocational Situation (MVS) instrument. The accompanying hypothetical case description illustrates how clinicians could use the MVS to evaluate vocational preferences and outcomes and how the MVS can be used to inform treatment planning and rehabilitation decision making. The information contained in this report is intended to familiarize clinicians with the administration and scoring of the MVS, the psychometric information necessary to interpret results obtained from the MVS, and how the results could be used to provide comprehensive, patient-centered care. It is important to note that the information provided represents only a sample of the available research literature on the MVS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Roncero, María; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Perpiñá, Conxa
Orthorexia nervosa has recently been defined as excessive preoccupation with healthy eating, causing significant nutritional deficiencies and social and personal impairments. The ORTO-15 is the most widely used instrument to evaluate orthorexia nervosa, although previous studies obtained inconsistent results about its psychometric properties, and there are no data on the Spanish version. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the ORTO-15. In order to cross-validate the results, two independent samples were used (Sample 1: n = 807, 74.1% women; Sample 2: n = 242, 63.2% women). The results did not support the original recoding and reversal of the items; thus, the original scores were maintained. The analysis of the internal structure showed that the best interpretable solution was unidimensional, and due to low loadings, four items were removed. The internal consistency (α = .74) and temporal stability (r = .92; p orthorexia nervosa.
Reilly, Alison R; Carleton, R Nicholas; Weeks, Justin W
The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of a novel measure of social anxiety symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS), as a stand-alone item set, using an undergraduate sample (N=512). The 14-item SIPS has three subscales assessing Social Interaction Anxiety, Fear of Overt Evaluation, and Fear of Attracting Attention. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the three-factor structure for the SIPS originally reported by Carleton et al. All SIPS scores demonstrated good internal consistency. The convergent validity of the SIPS was supported by strong and positive correlations between all SIPS scores and measures of social anxiety and fear of evaluation; the finding that the relationships between all SIPS scores and a social anxiety measure were stronger than relationships between all SIPS scores and measures of other constructs supported the discriminant validity of the SIPS. Results suggest that the SIPS possesses excellent psychometric properties.
Paula Inez Cunha Gomide
Full Text Available Abstract The development of forensic evaluation scales is fundamental. This study's purpose was to explore the psychometric properties of a parental alienation scale. Forensic technicians completed 193 scales concerning parents involved in a lawsuit: 48 families with at least one parent indicated as the alienator (group A and 48 families with no parental alienation claim (group B. The scale consisted of five categories and 69 items: denying access to the child; derogatory comparisons; emotional manipulation; behavior of parent and child during assessment. The results show Cronbach's alpha = .965 and split-half = .745; KMO = .884 and Bartlett's sphericity test ( p < .001. Concurrent criterion validity applied to data showed that the scale is able to distinguish between the alienator and target parent. The results showed significant and consistent standards in the instrument's psychometric characteristics.
Wilks, Scott E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the shortened Resilience Scale (15-item version RS15) among a sample of Alzheimer's caregivers. Self-reported data were collected from 229 participants at 2 Alzheimer's caregiver conferences. RS15 principal axis factoring indicated a single-dimensional solution with all items loaded. Reliability was strong. Convergent validity for the RS15 was suggested through its correlations with stress, family support, and friend support. Odds ratios showed significant likelihoods of high resilience given low stress and high social support. The results confirmed the RS15 to be a psychometrically sound measure that can be used to appraise the efficacy of adaptability among Alzheimer's caregivers.
Caselli, G; Fernie, B; Canfora, F; Mascolo, C; Ferrari, A; Antonioni, M; Giustina, L; Donato, G; Marcotriggiani, A; Bertani, A; Altieri, A; Pellegrini, E; Spada, MM
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about gambling. We conducted three studies with one community (n = 165) and two clinical (n = 110; n = 87) samples to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire and examined its capacity to prospectively predict severity of gambling. Findings sup...
Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V
A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.
The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Slovene version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985). Results on a sample of 480 students showed that the Slovene version of the questionnaire had construct validity and reliability comparable of those found in the original version. Although the scale represents a useful instrument to ascertain self-concept in school settings, it requires further examination and some improvements of its metri...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Slovene version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985. Results on a sample of 480 students showed that the Slovene version of the questionnaire had construct validity and reliability comparable of those found in the original version. Although the scale represents a useful instrument to ascertain self-concept in school settings, it requires further examination and some improvements of its metric characteristics.
Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...to render an immersive three-dimensional constructive environment. The purpose of this effort was to quantify the impact of aircrew vision on an...simulated tasks requiring precise depth discrimination. This work will provide an example validation method for future stereoscopic virtual immersive
Outcome measures with good reliability, validity, responsiveness, and low burden of administration are clinically useful. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most commonly used outcome measures for individuals with low back pain. Psychometric properties of the ODI will determine the questionnaire's suitability as a useful clinical tool. A literature search of relevant databases on psychometric evaluation of the ODI was performed. The search was done using the key words disability evaluation, and low back pain, and questionnaires, and reproducibility of results, and the term Oswestry. Inclusion criterion was direct reference regarding psychometric property, interpretability, and burden being included in the abstract. Eight articles met the inclusion criterion. The ODI shows good construct validity; internal consistency is rated as acceptable; test-retest reliability and responsiveness have been shown to be high; and burden of administration is low. The ODI is a valid, reliable, and responsive condition-specific assessment tool that is suited for use in clinical practice. It is easy to administer and score, objectifies clients' complaints, and monitors effects of therapy.
Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice
Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted.
Karimy, Mahmood; Fakhri, Ahmad; Vali, Esmaeel; Vali, Farzaneh; Veiga, Feliciano H; Stein, L A R; Araban, Marzieh
Growing evidence indicates that if disruptive behavior is left unidentified and untreated, a significant proportion of these problems will persist and may develop into problems linked with delinquency, substance abuse, and violence. Research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of disruptive behavior to assist recognition and impact of treatments on disruptive behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale for disruptive behavior in adolescents. Six hundred high school students (50% girls), ages ranged 15-18 years old, selected through multi stage random sampling. Psychometrics of the disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA) (Persian version) was assessed through content validity, explanatory factor analysis (EFA) using Varimax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The reliability of this scale was assessed via internal consistency and test-retest reliability. EFA revealed four factors accounting for 59% of observed variance. The final 29-item scale contained four factors: (1) aggressive school behavior, (2) classroom defiant behavior, (3) unimportance of school, and (4) defiance to school authorities. Furthermore, CFA produced a sufficient Goodness of Fit Index > 0.90. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were acceptable at 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the Iranian version of DISBA questionnaire has content validity. Further studies are needed to evaluate stronger psychometric properties for DISBA.
Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S
Synopsis Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing since it cannot by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric (paper-pencil or computerized or a combination) and neuro-physiological techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries like the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) have been validated in several countries but do not have US normative values. Computerized tests such as the inhibitory control test (ICT), cognitive drug research system and Scan test have proven useful to diagnose MHE and predict outcomes. The specificity and sensitivity of these tests are similar to the recommended gold standards. Neuro-physiological tests such as the EEG and its interpretations, evoked potentials and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike and the testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort and local expertise. PMID:22321464
Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L
Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Squires, Janet E.; Hayduk, Leslie; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Cranley, Lisa A.; Gierl, Mark; Cummings, Greta G.; Norton, Peter G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.
Background and Purpose. In this paper, we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessments of surveys based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. We use the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey to which this protocol can be applied. Methods. Data mapping, acceptability, reliability, and validity are addressed. Acceptability is assessed with missing data frequencies and the time required to complete the survey. Reliability is assessed with internal consistency coefficients and information functions. A unitary approach to validity consisting of accumulating evidence based on instrument content, response processes, internal structure, and relations to other variables is taken. We also address assessing performance of survey data when aggregated to higher levels (e.g., nursing unit). Discussion. In this paper we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessment of survey data using the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey; application of the protocol to the ACT survey is underway. Psychometric assessment of any survey is essential to obtaining reliable and valid research findings. This protocol can be adapted for use with any nursing survey. PMID:23401759
Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le
Aims: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. Methods: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed. Key words: validity, reliability, health, Activity...
Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le
AIMS: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. METHODS: The participants were...... and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed....
Hélio Anderson Tonelli
possible alterations of ToM processing in individuals with schizotypy or subsyndromal psychotic symptoms. METHODS: We performed a search on MedLine database for articles published in English or Portuguese between 1990 and 2008, using the phrase "Schizotypal Personality Disorder [MeSH] AND "Theory of Mind" OR "Mentalising". RESULTS: Fifteen manuscripts have been selected, which used diverse experimental designs and instruments to evaluate schizotypal traits, vulnerability to psychosis and ToM abilities. DISCUSSION: The reviewed articles aimed to establish relationships between vulnerability to psychosis and alterations in ToM processing. Some articles also approached the trait or state dependence character of ToM impairments. The great majority of the selected manuscripts suggested that individuals who scored high in schizotypy scales, as well as schizophrenic relatives, do show problems in ToM processing (which suggests a trait dependence character. However, these results should be interpreted carefully due to methodological problems seen in the majority of the studies.
Choi, Byung-Sun; Chung, Ik Jae
A survey of technological risk perception in Korea was administered in 2001 with a special emphasis on nuclear risks. This paper summarizes the characteristics of risk perception through the analytic lens of psychometric paradigm. A group of experts identified 8 dimensions of risk; voluntariness, severity, effect manifestation, exposure pattern, controllability, familiarity, benefit and necessity. The survey with sample size of 1870 evaluates the perceived level of 25 technological risks including transportation, chemicals, environmental, industrial, as well as nuclear areas. Research findings confirm that the risk characteristics or dimensions are significant predictors of risk perception. Nuclear risks are perceived as involuntary, catastrophic, delayed, occasional, controllable, beneficiary, unfamiliar, and necessary. The paper underlines the need and the importance of nuclear power generation as an environmentally-friendly energy resource in Korea. Effective risk communication can improve the awareness and the understanding of nuclear risks as well as other technological risk, and ultimately foster the public acceptance of nuclear facilities
Gençöz, Tülin; Gençöz, Faruk
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Reassurance-Seeking Scale in a sample of 102 Turkish undergraduate students. High internal consistency reliability was found for the Reassurance-Seeking Scale (alpha=.86). Factor analysis of the scale identified a single component that accounted for 71% of the total variance. The scale was significantly positively correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory and had a significantly negative correlation with the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Partial correlations of Reassurance-seeking with Depression scores as controlled by Anxiety scores and with Anxiety scores as controlled by Depression scores indicated that Reassurance-seeking scores maintained association with Depression but not with Anxiety. All these findings were in line with expectations.
Full Text Available Alexithymia can be defined as inability to identify and describe emotions in the self. Has shown to be related to several psychological and pathological processes that can result in unsatisfactory interpersonal relationships and decreased social adjustment. Advances in research of alexithymia require the development and validation of assessment instruments, and its application to different population. With this aim, we studied the psychometric properties of the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 in Chilean population using various modeling procedures (e.g., CFA, ESEM in different structures (i.e., Correlated, Unidimensional, Hierarchical or Wording factors. Among the 10 models tested, the four-dimensional structure offered the best fit but with item-loading problems in the last factor (Pragmatic Thinking. We suggest that the studied version of the scale needs improvement (theoretical and empirical to ensure optimal indices of validation for Chilean population.
Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
that can identify underlying pain mechanisms are needed. The painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ) was originally designed to differentiate between pain phenotypes. The objectives were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PDQ in patients with inflammatory arthritis by applying Rasch analysis...... and to explore the reliability of pain classification by test-retest. METHODS: For the Rasch analysis 900 questionnaires from patients with RA, PsA and SpA (300 per diagnosis) were extracted from 'the DANBIO painDETECT study'. The analysis was directed at the seven items assessing somatosensory symptoms...... and included: 1) the performance of the six-category Likert scale; 2) whether a unidimensional construct was defined; 3) the reliability and precision of estimates. Another group of 30 patients diagnosed with RA, PsA or SpA participated in a test-retest study. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC...
Full Text Available This article aims to present the adaptation and the search for psychometrics evidence of an academic self-efficacy scale. High school students (N = 453 participated of the research (mean age 15.93; SD 1.2. The Academic Self-efficacy Scale for High School is an adapted scale composed of 16 items and organized into three factors: self-efficacy for learning, self-efficacy to act in school life, and self-efficacy for the career decision. Through exploratory factor analysis, a KMO = 0.90 was verified, and 56.57% of the variance was explained. The internal consistency was 0.88. The scale demonstrated good conditions to identify academic self-efficacy of high school students.
Chien, Wai Tong; Chan, Zenobia Chung-Yee; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi
This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76-0.95 and ICC = 0.81-0.92), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89-0.95, P Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement), accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (χ (2)/df = 1.93, P = 0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78) to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = -0.54) and family burden (r = 0.49) and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90). The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families' expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries.
Full Text Available Mental health literacy (MHL is considered a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders, and for this reason, it has become a focus of research over the past few decades. Assessing this construct is relevant for identifying knowledge gaps and erroneous beliefs concerning mental health issues, to inform the development of interventions aimed at promoting mental health literacy as well as the evaluation of these interventions. Recently, we developed a new self-reporting measure (MHLq for assessing mental health literacy in young people (12–14 years-old, meeting the need to assess MHL from a comprehensive perspective of the construct instead of focusing on a restricted number of mental disorders or specific dimensions (e.g., knowledge concerning specific disorders; stigma. The present study aimed to adapt the MHLq for the young adult population and to examine its psychometric properties, according to the following steps: (1 item adaptation, using a think aloud procedure (n = 5; (2 data collection (n = 356, aged between 18 and 25 years old; and (3 psychometric analyses (exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. The final version of the questionnaire included 29 items (total scale α = 0.84, organized by four dimensions: (1 knowledge of mental health problems (α = 0.74; (2 erroneous beliefs/stereotypes (α = 0.72; (3 help-seeking and first aid skills (α = 0.71; and (4 self-help strategies (α = 0.60. The results suggest that the MHLq-adult form is a practical, valid, and reliable screening tool for identifying gaps in knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intentions related to mental health and mental disorders, planning promotion programs, and evaluating intervention effectiveness.
Wai Tong Chien
Full Text Available This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76–0.95 and ICC = 0.81–0.92, test-retest reliability (r = 0.89–0.95, P<0.01, and internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.86–0.92. Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement, accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (χ2/df = 1.93, P=0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78 to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = −0.54 and family burden (r = 0.49 and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90. The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P<0.01. The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families’ expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries.
Wakefield, Bonnie J; Turvey, Carolyn L; Nazi, Kim M; Holman, John E; Hogan, Timothy P; Shimada, Stephanie L; Kennedy, Diana R
Significant resources are being invested into eHealth technology to improve health care. Few resources have focused on evaluating the impact of use on patient outcomes A standardized set of metrics used across health systems and research will enable aggregation of data to inform improved implementation, clinical practice, and ultimately health outcomes associated with use of patient-facing eHealth technologies. The objective of this project was to conduct a systematic review to (1) identify existing instruments for eHealth research and implementation evaluation from the patient's point of view, (2) characterize measurement components, and (3) assess psychometrics. Concepts from existing models and published studies of technology use and adoption were identified and used to inform a search strategy. Search terms were broadly categorized as platforms (eg, email), measurement (eg, survey), function/information use (eg, self-management), health care occupations (eg, nurse), and eHealth/telemedicine (eg, mHealth). A computerized database search was conducted through June 2014. Included articles (1) described development of an instrument, or (2) used an instrument that could be traced back to its original publication, or (3) modified an instrument, and (4) with full text in English language, and (5) focused on the patient perspective on technology, including patient preferences and satisfaction, engagement with technology, usability, competency and fluency with technology, computer literacy, and trust in and acceptance of technology. The review was limited to instruments that reported at least one psychometric property. Excluded were investigator-developed measures, disease-specific assessments delivered via technology or telephone (eg, a cancer-coping measure delivered via computer survey), and measures focused primarily on clinician use (eg, the electronic health record). The search strategy yielded 47,320 articles. Following elimination of duplicates and non
Barclay, James R.
The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory was employed to identify the psychometric characteristics of reticent and disruptive children. The BCCI utilizes self-competency judgments, peer nominations, vocational interests and teacher adjectival ratings in an effort to measure the various expectations which interact in the elementary classroom. A…
Cleanthous, Sophie; Strzok, Sara; Pompilus, Farrah; Cano, Stefan; Marquis, Patrick; Cohan, Stanley; Goldman, Myla D; Kresa-Reahl, Kiren; Petrillo, Jennifer; Castrillo-Viguera, Carmen; Cadavid, Diego; Chen, Shih-Yin
ABILHAND, a manual ability patient-reported outcome instrument originally developed for stroke patients, has been used in multiple sclerosis clinical trials; however, psychometric analyses indicated the measure's limited measurement range and precision in higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate items to expand the measurement range of the ABILHAND-56, thus improving its ability to detect differences in manual ability in higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients. A step-wise mixed methods design strategy was used, comprising two waves of patient interviews, a combination of qualitative (concept elicitation and cognitive debriefing) and quantitative (Rasch measurement theory) analytic techniques, and consultation interviews with three clinical neurologists specializing in multiple sclerosis. Original ABILHAND was well understood in this context of use. Eighty-two new manual ability concepts were identified. Draft supplementary items were generated and refined with patient and neurologist input. Rasch measurement theory psychometric analysis indicated supplementary items improved targeting to higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients and measurement precision. The final pool of Early Multiple Sclerosis Manual Ability items comprises 20 items. The synthesis of qualitative and quantitative methods used in this study improves the ABILHAND content validity to more effectively identify manual ability changes in early multiple sclerosis and potentially help determine treatment effect in higher-functioning patients in clinical trials.
Davidson, Charlie A; Lesser, Rebecca; Parente, Lori T; Fiszdon, Joanna M
Social cognition represents an important treatment target, closely linked to everyday social function. While a number of social cognitive interventions have recently been developed, measures used to evaluate these treatments are only beginning to receive psychometric scrutiny. Study goals were to replicate recently-published psychometrics for several social cognitive measures, and to provide information for additional social cognitive measures not included in recent reports. Forty-eight outpatients with psychotic-spectrum disorders completed measures of emotion perception, theory of mind, and attributional bias on two occasions, one month apart. Measures were tested for distributional characteristics, test-retest reliability, utility as a repeated measure, and relationship to symptoms and functioning. For a subgroup of participants, information about sensitivity to social cognitive treatment was also available. We replicated aspects of prior work, including largely favorable psychometric characteristics for the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and promising but weaker characteristics for The Awareness of Social Inferences Test subscales and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. The Hinting Task had adequate test-retest statistics but a more pronounced ceiling effect. Ambiguous Intentions and Hostility Questionnaire data showed evidence of validity but were limited by inconsistency over time. Our results strongly support the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale for future evaluation as a social cognitive treatment outcome measure. Its scores were adequately distributed, consistent over time, related to symptoms and functioning, and sensitive to treatment effects. Other relatively novel assessments of attributional bias and theory of mind showed some promise, although more work is needed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kim, L. H.; McLeod, R. S.; Kiss, Z. H. T.
Objective. There have been remarkable advances over the past decade in neural prostheses to restore lost motor function. However, restoration of somatosensory feedback, which is essential for fine motor control and user acceptance, has lagged behind. With an increasing interest in using electrical stimulation to restore somatosensory sensations within the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous systems (CNS), it is critical to characterize the percepts evoked by electrical stimulation in a standardized manner with a validated psychometric questionnaire. This will allow comparison of results from applications at various nervous system levels in multiple settings. Approach. We compiled a summary of published reports of somatosensory percepts that were elicited by electrical stimulation in humans and used these to develop a new psychometric questionnaire. Results. This new questionnaire was able to characterize subjective evoked sensations with good test-retest reliability (Spearman’s correlation coefficients ranging 0.716 ⩽ ρ ⩽ 1.000, p ⩽ 0.005) in 13 subjects receiving stimulation through neural implants in both the CNS and PNS. Furthermore, the new questionnaire captured more descriptors (M = 2.65, SD = 0.91) that would have been missed by being categorized as ‘other sensations’, using a previous questionnaire (M = 1.40, SD = 0.77, t(12) = -10.24, p psychometric questionnaire will aid in establishing consistency and standardization of reporting in future studies of somatosensory neural prostheses.
Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Feng; Lo, Chung-Ping; Wang, Tzu-Lan; Tu, Min-Chien
Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity of the central nervous system. However, performances in different cognitive domains relevant to vitamin B12 deficiency remain to be detailed. To date, there have been limited studies that examined the relationships between cognitions and structural neuroimaging in a single cohort of low-vitamin B12 status. The present study aimed to depict psychometrics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometrics among patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and to examine their inter-relations. We compared 34 consecutive patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level ≤ 250 pg/ml) to 34 demographically matched controls by their cognitive performances and morphometric indices of brain MRI. The correlations between psychometrics and morphometrics were analyzed. The vitamin B12 deficiency group had lower scores than the controls on total scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (both P psychometric and morphometric indices, pronounced correlations between bicaudate ratio and long-term memory, mental manipulation, orientation, language, and verbal fluency were noted (all P < 0.01). Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a global cognition decline with language, orientation, and mental manipulation selectively impaired. Preferential atrophy in frontal regions is the main neuroimaging feature. Although the frontal ratio highlights the relevant atrophy among patients, the bicaudate ratio might be the best index on the basis of its strong association with global cognition and related cognitive domains, implying dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits as the fundamental pathogenesis related to vitamin B12 deficiency.
Saide Umut ZEYBEK
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of Coping Attitudes Scale: Measure of Positive Attitudes in Depression (CAS among Turkish young adult community sample and determine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability of this scale. This study was conducted with 419 students attending different departments in Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Education in the spring semester of academic year of 2015-2016. Positive Functional Attitudes Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Positivity Scale and Developed Automatic Thoughts Scale.were used as data collection tools. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used for investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFAS. Also, criterion-related validity, test-retest validity, and internal consistency were used calculated. The CFA results showed that standardized item estimates of the CAS ranged between 0.45 and 0.47. Also the CFA results showed that the original factor structure of the PFAS confirmed on the Turkish sample. internal consistency was calculated using the total community samples PFAS score. Cronbachs alpha coefficient ort he total scale (.93 was high. Test-retest results of the subscales were 0.76. The findings showed that factor structures of the PFAS life perspective, personal accomplishment, positive future, self-worth, coping with problems had psychometric quality in Turkish version. As a result of the study, the Turkish version of PFAS has good validity and reliability for young adult community sample. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 59-66
Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana
To examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context and to determine the relationships between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, alexithymia and death anxiety. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is one of the most widely used self-report measures for assessing perceived emotional intelligence. However, in the nursing context, no extensive analysis has been conducted to examine its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1417 subjects participated in the study (1208 nursing students and 209 hospital nurses). The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Death Anxiety Inventory were all applied to half of the sample (n = 707). A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and statistical analyses examined the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, as well as its relationship with relevant variables. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three dimensions of the original scale (Attention, Clarity and Repair). The instrument showed adequate internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational results indicated that nurses with high scores on emotional Attention experience more death anxiety, report greater difficulties identifying feelings and have less self-esteem. By contrast, nurses with high levels of emotional Clarity and Repair showed less death anxiety and higher levels of self-esteem. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is an effective, valid and reliable tool for measuring perceived emotional intelligence in the nursing context. Training programmes should seek to promote emotional abilities among nurses. Use of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context would provide information about nurses' perceived abilities to interpret and manage emotions when interacting with patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eskandari, Narges; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vadadhir, AbouAli; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza
The present study aimed to design and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire (PAQ). The study was a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) sequential exploratory study. In the qualitative phase, a preliminary questionnaire with 210 items emerged from in-depth interviews with 17 fathers and 15 key informants. In the quantitative phase, psychometric properties of the PAQ were assessed. Considering cutoff points as 1.5 for item impact, 0.49 for content validity ratio (CVR), and 0.7 for content validity index (CVI), items of the questionnaire were reduced from 210 to 132. Assessment of the content validity of the questionnaire demonstrated S-CVR = 0.68 and S-CVI = 0.92. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in the development of a PAQ with 38 items classified under five factors (ability in performing the roles and responsibilities; perceiving the parental development; stabilization in paternal position; spiritual stability and internal satisfaction; and challenges and concerns), which explained 52.19% of cumulative variance. Measurement of internal consistency reported a Cronbach's α of .89 for PAQ (.61-.86 for subscales), and stability assessment of the PAQ through the test-retest demonstrated Spearman's correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficient of .96 (.81-.97 for subscales). It was identified that the PAQ is a valid and reliable instrument that could be used to assess fatherhood adaptation with the paternal roles and fathers' needs, as well as to design appropriate interventions and to evaluate their effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2016.
Wortmann, Jennifer H; Jordan, Alexander H; Weathers, Frank W; Resick, Patricia A; Dondanville, Katherine A; Hall-Clark, Brittany; Foa, Edna B; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Mintz, Jim; Peterson, Alan L; Litz, Brett T
The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2013) was recently revised to reflect the changed diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). We investigated the psychometric properties of PCL-5 scores in a large cohort (N = 912) of military service members seeking PTSD treatment while stationed in garrison. We examined the internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and DSM-5 factor structure of PCL-5 scores, their sensitivity to clinical change relative to PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993) scores, and their diagnostic utility for predicting a PTSD diagnosis based on various measures and scoring rules. PCL-5 scores exhibited high internal consistency. There was strong agreement between the order of hypothesized and observed correlations among PCL-5 and criterion measure scores. The best-fitting structural model was a 7-factor hybrid model (Armour et al., 2015), which demonstrated closer fit than all other models evaluated, including the DSM-5 model. The PCL-5's sensitivity to clinical change, pre- to posttreatment, was comparable with that of the PSS-I. Optimally efficient cut scores for predicting PTSD diagnosis were consistent with prior research with service members (Hoge, Riviere, Wilk, Herrell, & Weathers, 2014). The results indicate that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound measure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms that is useful for identifying provisional PTSD diagnostic status, quantifying PTSD symptom severity, and detecting clinical change over time in PTSD symptoms among service members seeking treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bernhofer, Esther I; St Marie, Barbara; Bena, James F
All nurses care for patients with pain, and pain management knowledge and attitude surveys for nurses have been around since 1987. However, no validated knowledge test exists to measure postlicensure clinicians' knowledge of the core competencies of pain management in current complex patient populations. To develop and test the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure pain management knowledge of postlicensure nurses. Psychometric instrument validation. Four large Midwestern U.S. hospitals. Registered nurses employed full time and part time August 2015 to April 2016, aged M = 43.25 years; time as RN, M = 16.13 years. Prospective survey design using e-mail to invite nurses to take an electronic multiple choice pain knowledge test. Content validity of initial 36-item test "very good" (95.1% agreement). Completed tests that met analysis criteria, N = 747. Mean initial test score, 69.4% correct (range 27.8-97.2). After revision/removal of 13 unacceptable questions, mean test score was 50.4% correct (range 8.7-82.6). Initial test item percent difficulty range was 15.2%-98.1%; discrimination values range, 0.03-0.50; final test item percent difficulty range, 17.6%-91.1%, discrimination values range, -0.04 to 1.04. Split-half reliability final test was 0.66. A high decision consistency reliability was identified, with test cut-score of 75%. The final 23-item Clinical Pain Knowledge Test has acceptable discrimination, difficulty, decision consistency, reliability, and validity in the general clinical inpatient nurse population. This instrument will be useful in assessing pain management knowledge of clinical nurses to determine gaps in education, evaluate knowledge after pain management education, and measure research outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duddle, Maree; Boughton, Maureen
The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Workplace Relational Environment Scale (NWRES). A positive relational environment in the workplace is characterised by a sense of connectedness and belonging, support and cooperation among colleagues, open communication and effectively managed conflict. A poor relational environment in the workplace may contribute to job dissatisfaction and early turnover of staff. Quantitative survey. A three-stage process was used to design and test the NWRES. In Stage 1, an extensive literature review was conducted on professional working relationships and the nursing work environment. Three key concepts; collegiality, workplace conflict and job satisfaction were identified and defined. In Stage 2, a pool of items was developed from the dimensions of each concept and formulated into a 35-item scale which was piloted on a convenience sample of 31 nurses. In Stage 3, the newly refined 28-item scale was administered randomly to a convenience sample of 150 nurses. Psychometric testing was conducted to establish the construct validity and reliability of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 22-item scale. The factor analysis indicated a four-factor structure: collegial behaviours, relational atmosphere, outcomes of conflict and job satisfaction which explained 68.12% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the NWRES was 0.872 and the subscales ranged from 0.781-0.927. The results of the study confirm the reliability and validity of the NWRES. Replication of this study with a larger sample is indicated to determine relationships among the subscales. The results of this study have implications for health managers in terms of understanding the impact of the relational environment of the workplace on job satisfaction and retention.
Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Chiang, Yi-Chien; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Han, Chin-Yen
To further examine the psychometric properties of the spiritual health scale short form, including its reliability and validity. Spirituality is one of the main factors associated with good health outcomes. A reliable and valid instrument to measure spirituality is essential to identify the spiritual needs of an individual and to evaluate the effect of spiritual care. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study was conducted in six nursing schools in northern, central and southern Taiwan. The inclusion criterion for participants was nursing students with clinical practice experience. Initially, 1141 participants were recruited for the study, but 67 were absent and 48 did not complete the questionnaires. A total of 1026 participants were finally recruited, indicating a response rate of 89·9%. The psychometric testing of the spiritual health scale short form included construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis, known-group validity and internal consistency reliability. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the five-factor model as an acceptable model fit. In the known-group validity, the results indicated that people who are in the category of primary religious affiliation have better spiritual health than people in the category of secondary religious affiliation and atheism. The result also indicated that the 24-item spiritual health scale short form achieved an acceptable internal consistency coefficient. The findings suggest that the spiritual health scale short form is a valid and reliable instrument for the appraisal of individual spiritual health. The spiritual health scale short form could provide useful information to guide clinical practice in assessing and managing people's spiritual health in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective To systematically review the scientific literature on the psychometric properties of international instruments for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD in the Brazilian population. Methods A search of bibliographic references was conducted in six electronic databases: PsycINFO, PubMed, IndexPsi, Lilacs, Capes (theses and dissertations and SciELO. The studies were selected by two independent researchers. Results The procedure identified 11 studies of the Brazilian population that encompassed six ASD assessment tools. Given the information provided, the adaptation of the M-CHAT, a screening instrument, was the best conducted. All steps of the adaptation process were described and the changes made to the final version of the instrument were presented, which was not addressed in other studies. In terms of reliability, all of the instruments that assessed internal consistency showed adequate values. In addition, the ADI-R and the CARS adaptations also satisfactorily contemplated inter-rater reliability and test-retest indices, respectively. Finally, all studies aiming to validate instruments showed evidence of validity and sensitivity, and specificity values above 0.90 were observed in the ASQ, ADI-R and ABC. Conclusion Considering both the psychometric aspects and the copyright information, the screening instrument that currently appears to be best indicated for clinical and research use is the M-CHAT. It was also noticed that there are still no specific ASD diagnostic tools available for use in Brazil. This lack of diagnostic instruments consists in a critical situation for the improvement of clinical practice and the development of research in this area.
In this paper, I will review some aspects of psychometric projects that I have been involved in, emphasizing the nature of the work of the psychometricians involved, especially the balance between the statistical and scientific elements of that work. The intent is to seek to understand where psychometrics, as a discipline, has been and where it…
Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Novak, Scott P.; Sam, Ann M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Guillen, Chelsea
Few psychometrically valid scales exist to assess family outcomes and the helpfulness of early intervention. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised. The revision was prompted by the need to (a) create a new format that would be easier for parents to understand, (b) revise and expand…
Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J.
Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be…
Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura
Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…
Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan
This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…
Barchard, Kimberly A.; Pace, Larry A.
Undergraduate psychometrics classes often use computer-intensive active learning projects. However, little research has examined active learning or computer-intensive projects in psychometrics courses. We describe two computer-intensive collaborative learning projects used to teach the design and evaluation of psychological tests. Course…
Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias
, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially...
Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.
Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.
The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…
Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.
Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…
Erik Franck; Rudi De Raedt; Catherine Barbez; Yves Rosseel
Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as...
Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil
The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population.
Theodore, John L; Shidlo, Ariel; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Dorfman, David; Dahlman, Karen L; Hamid, Sahira
The Multi-Axial Gay Men's Inventory-Men's Short Version (MAGI-MSV) assesses internalized homophobia via 20 items and 3 dimensions. This study extended the psychometric examination of the MAGI-MSV. The instrument was administered to 228 ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay men seeking counseling in New York City (mean age = 35, age range = 16-70). Following principal axis factoring and parallel analyses, 4 factors emerged and 14 items were retained. The descriptive labels for factors included gay self-assurance and worth, public appearance of homosexuality, and impact of HIV/AIDS on homosexuality. The new, fourth factor was named maladaptive measures to eliminate homosexuality.
Nascimento, C.S. do; Andrade, D.A.; Mesquita, R.N. de
Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha
Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, D.A., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha
Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.
Conrad, Ines; Matschinger, Herbert; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; von Gottberg, Carolin; Kilian, Reinhold
The WHOQOL-OLD is an instrument for the assessment of subjective quality of life in elderly people. It is based on the WHO definition of quality of life and is available in more than 20 languages. However, in most countries, the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD have been assessed only on the basis of small local samples and not in representative studies. In this study, the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD are evaluated based on a representative sample of Germany's elderly population. Face-to-face interviews with 1133 respondents from the German population aged 60 years and older were conducted. Quality of life was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF, the WHOQOL-OLD and the SF12. Moreover, the GDS, the DemTect and the IADL were applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms, cognitive capacities and capacity for carrying out daily activities. Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD were evaluated by means of classical and probabilistic test theory, confirmatory factor analysis and multivariate regression model. Cronbach's alpha was found to be above 0.85 for four and above .75 for two of the six facets of the WHOQOL-OLD. IRT analyses indicated that all items of the WHOQOL-OLD contribute considerably to the measurement of the associated facets. While the six-facet structure of the WHOQOL-OLD was well supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis, a common latent factor for the WHOQOL-OLD total scale could not be identified. Correlations with other quality of life measures and multivariate regression models with GDS, IADL and the DemTect indicate a good criterion validity of all six WHOQOL-OLD facets. Study results confirm that the good psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD that have been found in international studies could be replicated in a representative study of the German population. These results suggest that the WHOQOL-OLD is an instrument that is well suited to identify the needs and the wishes of an aging population.
Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce; Canfora, Flaviano; Mascolo, Cristina; Ferrari, Andrea; Antonioni, Maria; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Bertani, Andrea; Altieri, Antonella; Pellegrini, Eliana; Spada, Marcantonio M
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about gambling. We conducted three studies with one community (n = 165) and two clinical (n = 110; n = 87) samples to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire and examined its capacity to prospectively predict severity of gambling. Findings supported a two factor solution consisting of positive and negative metacognitions about gambling. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire correlated positively with gambling severity. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about gambling were significantly associated to gambling severity over and above negative affect and gambling-specific cognitive distortions. Finally only gambling severity and negative metacognitions about gambling were significant prospective predictors of gambling severity as measured three months later. The Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In a real e-commerce website, usually only a small number of users will give ratings to the items they purchased, and this can lead to the very sparse user-item rating data. The data sparsity issue will greatly limit the recommendation performance of most recommendation algorithms. However, a user may register accounts in many e-commerce websites. If such users’ historical purchasing data on these websites can be integrated, the recommendation performance could be improved. But it is difficult to align the users and items between these websites, and thus how to effectively borrow the users’ rating data of one website (source domain to help improve the recommendation performance of another website (target domain is very challenging. To this end, this paper extended the traditional one-dimensional psychometrics model to multidimension. The extended model can effectively capture users’ multiple interests. Based on this multidimensional psychometrics model, we further propose a novel transfer learning algorithm. It can effectively transfer users’ rating preferences from the source domain to the target domain. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the recommendation performance.
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Authors report a study on psychometric properties of Plutchik's test, called Emotions Profile Index (EPI. A new Slovene translation and adaptation of English version of the test, consisting of combinations (pairs of 12 words reflecting eight different emotional conditions, was prepared and compared to the old one. Both versions as well as the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ were administered on the sample of 239 participants. Different statistical analyses were performed examining psychometric features of both versions of EPI. Discriminative power was tested by cluster analysis and analysis of frequency distributions, reliability was studied via internal consistency index and correlation between the two versions, and validity was examined by correlating PIE dimensions with BFQ dimensions and subdimensions, by comparing profiles of groups on both versions of EPI and BFQ and by fitting the theoretical model proposed by Plutchik to the data. Discriminative power of EPI seems to be affected by avoiding (not choosing the socially desirable expressions in the test, parallel reliability seems to be susceptible to the use of different words (expressions in the new version of EPI having the same meaning as words in the old version. Dimensions expected to reflect similar constructs in BFQ and EPI do not correlate satisfactory. Data gathered with EPI cannot be fully explained with the model proposed by Plutchik's theory.
Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Muñiz, José; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo
Organizational climate is the set of perceptions shared by workers who occupy the same workplace. The main goal of this study is to develop a new organizational climate scale and to determine its psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 3,163 Health Service workers. A total of 88.7% of participants worked in hospitals, and 11.3% in primary care; 80% were women and 20% men, with a mean age of 51.9 years (SD= 6.28). The proposed scale consists of 50 Likert-type items, with an alpha coefficient of 0.97, and an essentially one-dimensional structure. The discrimination indexes of the items are greater than 0.40, and the items show no differential item functioning in relation to participants' sex. A short version of the scale was developed, made up of 15 items, with discrimination indexes higher than 0.40, an alpha coefficient of 0.94, and its structure was clearly one-dimensional. These results indicate that the new scale has adequate psychometric properties, allowing a reliable and valid assessment of organizational climate.
Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate psychometrically an instrument named the Breast Size Satisfaction Scale (BSSS) to assess breast size satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach The present scale was developed using a set of 16 computer-generated 3D images of breasts to overcome some of the limitations of existing instruments. The images were presented to participants and they were asked to select the figure that most accurately depicted their actual breast size and the figure that most closely represented their ideal breast size. Breast size satisfaction was computed by subtracting the absolute value of the difference between ideal and actual perceived size from 16, such that higher values indicate greater breast size satisfaction. Findings Study 1 ( n=65 female undergraduate students) showed good test-retest reliability and study 2 ( n=1,000 Iranian women, aged 18 years and above) provided support for convergent validity using a nomological network approach. Originality/value The BSSS demonstrated good psychometric properties and thus can be used in future studies to assess breast size satisfaction among women.
Lundgren, Tobias; Parling, Thomas
Psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance are equivalent (with somewhat different connotations) concepts and refer to an unwillingness to remain in contact with particular private events. This concept is most often measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and is strongly related to psychopathology and behavioral effectiveness. In this study, the preliminary psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the AAQ-II (Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-SAAQ) are presented. The study is done in two steps. In the first step, the 10-item version of the AAQ-II is investigated through principal component analysis (n = 147). Secondly, due to problems with the component structure, the instrument is reduced to a six-item version and its validity and internal consistency are investigated (n = 154). The six-item version shows good concurrent and convergent validity as well as satisfying internal consistency (α = .85). Furthermore, the Swedish six-item version of the AAQ-II showed one strong component. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = .80; n = 228). In future research, predictive and external validity would be important to investigate in order to further ensure that the SAAQ is a useful measure for clinical research. In conclusion, the SAAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties, but more data need to be gathered to further explore the possibilities for the instruments in Swedish contexts.
Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B
The psychometric properties of the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning (LEAF) scale were investigated in an outpatient clinical pediatric sample. As a part of clinical testing, the LEAF scale, which broadly measures neuropsychological abilities related to executive functioning and learning, was administered to parents of 118 children and adolescents referred for psychological testing at a pediatric psychology clinic; 85 teachers also completed LEAF scales to assess reliability across different raters and settings. Scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and academic achievement were abstracted from charts. Psychometric analyses of the LEAF scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, parent-teacher inter-rater reliability in the small to large effect size range, and test-retest reliability in the large effect size range, similar to values for other executive functioning checklists. Correlations between corresponding subscales on the LEAF and other behavior checklists were large, while most correlations with neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and achievement were significant but in the small to medium range. Results support the utility of the LEAF as a reliable and valid questionnaire-based assessment of delays and disturbances in executive functioning and learning. Applications and advantages of the LEAF and other questionnaire measures of executive functioning in clinical neuropsychology settings are discussed.
Blount, Claire; Evans, Chris; Birch, Sarah; Warren, Fiona; Norton, Kingsley
Self-report measures pertinent for personality disorder are widely used and many are available. Their relative merits are usually assessed on nomothetic psychometrics and acceptability to users is neglected. We report reactions of lay, patient and professional groups to the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-IV); Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III); the Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). These were sent to 148 professionals, ex-patients and lay people for comment. Thirty-six per cent were returned. Pattern-coding by three raters revealed problematic themes across all measures, including inappropriate length, vague items and language, cultural assumptions and slang, state-bias and response-set. Measures can be depressing and upsetting for some participants (both patients and non-patients), hence administration of measures should be sensitive. Treatment may make people more self-aware, which may compromise validity for outcome research. This evaluation raises issues and concerns, which are missed in traditional psychometric evaluation.
Stamatakis, Katherine A; Ferreira Hino, Adriano Akira; Allen, Peg; McQueen, Amy; Jacob, Rebekah R; Baker, Elizabeth A; Brownson, Ross C
In order to better understand how to improve evidence-based decision making (EBDM) in state health departments, measurement tools are needed to evaluate changes in EBDM. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a new measurement tool to assess EBDM in public health practice settings. A questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested and refined in an iterative process with the input of public health practitioners with the aim of identifying a set of specific measures representing different components of EBDM. Data were collected in a national survey of state health department chronic disease practitioners. The final dataset (n=879) for psychometric testing was comprised of 19 EBDM items that were first examined using exploratory factor analysis, and then confirmatory factor analysis. The final model from confirmatory factor analysis includes five latent factors representing components of EBDM: capacity for evaluation, expectations and incentives for EBDM, access to evidence and resources for EBDM, participatory decision making, and leadership support and commitment. This study addresses the need for empirically tested and theory-aligned measures that may be used to assess the extent to which EBDM is currently implemented, and further, to gauge the success of strategies to improve EBDM, in public health settings. This EBDM measurement tool may help identify needed supports for enhanced capacity and implementation of effective strategies. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Speight, J; Barendse, S M; Singh, H; Little, S A; Inkster, B; Frier, B M; Heller, S R; Rutter, M K; Shaw, J A M
To design and conduct preliminary validation of a measure of hypoglycaemia awareness and problematic hypoglycaemia, the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire. Exploratory and cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with 17 adults (nine of whom were women) with Type 1 diabetes (mean ± sd age 48 ± 10 years). Questionnaire items were modified in consultation with diabetologists/psychologists. Psychometric validation was undertaken using data from 120 adults (53 women) with Type 1 diabetes (mean ± sd age 44 ± 16 years; 50% with clinically diagnosed impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia), who completed the following questionnaires: the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire, the Gold score, the Clarke questionnaire and the Problem Areas in Diabetes questionnaire. Iterative design resulted in 33 items eliciting responses about awareness of hypoglycaemia when awake/asleep and hypoglycaemia frequency, severity and impact (healthcare utilization). Psychometric analysis identified three subscales reflecting 'impaired awareness', 'symptom level' and 'symptom frequency'. Convergent validity was indicated by strong correlations between the 'impaired awareness' subscale and existing measures of awareness: (Gold: rs =0.75, P Questionnaire has robust face and content validity; satisfactory structure; internal reliability; convergent, divergent and known groups validity. The impaired awareness subscale and other items contribute significantly to models explaining recall of severe and nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Prospective validation, including determination of a threshold to identify impaired awareness, is now warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Full Text Available Marija Spasenoska,1 Shane Costello,1 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Objective: The purpose of this present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy – student version (JSPE-S. Subjects and methods: This study recruited 193 Malaysian medical students enrolled in year one and year two studies. A principal-component analysis with Varimax rotation was conducted. Procrustes rotation was used to confirm the item to model fit, which allows for a comparison of actual structure against an ideal hypothesized structure. Items were systematically removed based on low communalities of < 0.3 and poor loading of items onto components. Results: A two-component solution was found, comprised of “perspective taking” and “compassionate care”. Following item removal, eleven items remained. A Procrustes analysis revealed that this eleven-item measure demonstrated an excellent model fit. A possible third component was identified, though is not recommended for use, due to construct underrepresentation. Conclusion: This study found the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy fitted best to a two-component model using eleven items. Item, component, and overall congruence were very high, and scale reliabilities were adequate. The results of this study suggest that the eleven-item, two-component solution demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and structural validity in a Malaysian medical student population. Future research could consider using the short eleven-item measure in both student and health care profession samples to investigate the role of empathy in health care. Keywords: empathy, medical students, psychometrics
Giménez-Espert, María Del Carmen; Prado-Gascó, Vicente Javier
Patient communication is a key skill for nurses involved in clinical care. Its measurement is a complex phenomenon that can be addressed through attitude evaluation. To develop and psychometrically test a measure of nurses' attitudes towards communication with patients (ACO), to study the relationship between these dimensions, and to analyse nursing attitudes. To develop and psychometrically test the ACO questionnaire. All hospitals in the province of Valencia were invited by e-mail to distribute the ACO instrument. Ten hospitals took part in the study. The study population was composed of a convenience sample of 400 hospital nurses on general or special services. The inclusion criteria were nurses at the selected centres who had previously provided an informed consent to participate. A literature review and expert consultation (N = 10) was used to develop the content of the questionnaire. The 62-item version of the instrument was applied to a convenience sample of 400 nurses between May 2015 and March 2016. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA), and reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability (CR), and average variance extracted (AVE). The final instrument (ACO), composed of 25 items grouped into three attitude dimensions (cognitive, affective and behavioural), had good psychometric properties. In the study sample, nurses had a favourable attitude towards communication. The cognitive and affective dimensions of the ACO should be able to predict the behaviour dimension. The ACO is useful for evaluating current clinical practices, identifying educational needs and assessing the effectiveness of communication training or other interventions intended to improve communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elasy Tom A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.
Landfeldt, Erik; Mayhew, Anna; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Katharine; Lochmüller, Hanns; Lindgren, Peter
To explore the psychometric properties of the full 22-item English (UK and US) version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview administered to caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy from the United Kingdom and the United States, recruited through the TREAT-NMD network, completed the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview online. The psychometric properties of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview were examined using Rasch analysis. A total of 475 caregivers completed the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview. Model misfit was identified for 9 of 22 items (mean item fit residual 0.061, SD: 2.736) and 13 of 22 items displayed disordered thresholds. The overall item-trait interaction chi-square value was 499 (198 degrees of freedom, p Interview fails to fully operationalize a quantitative conceptualization of caregiver burden among caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy from the United Kingdom and the United States. Further research is needed to understand the psychometric properties of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview in other populations and settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a terminal disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration resulting in substantial disability and a significant burden on family caregivers. The Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview is one of the most widely applied measures of caregiver burden. Our Rasch analysis suggests that the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview is not fit for purpose to measure burden in UK and US caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Clinicians and decision-makers should interpret Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview data from these populations with caution.
Samolsky Dekel, Boaz Gedaliahu; Remondini, Francesca; Gori, Alberto; Vasarri, Alessio; Di Nino, GianFranco; Melotti, Rita Maria
Breakthrough pain (BTP) shows variable prevalence in different clinical contexts of cancer and non-cancer patients. BTP diagnostic tools with demonstrated reliability, validation and prognostic capability are lacking. We report the development, psychometric and validation properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool, the IQ-BTP, for BTP recognition, its likelihood and clinical features among chronic-pain (CP) patients. n=120 consecutive mixed cancer/non-cancer CP in/outpatients. Development, psychometric analyses and formal validation included: Face/Content validity (by 'experts' opinion and assessing the relationship between the IQ-BTP classes and criteria derived from BTP operational-case-definition); Construct validity, by Principle Component Analysis (PCA); and the strength of Spearman correlation between IQ-BTP classes and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) items; Reliability, by Cronbach's alpha statistics. Associations with clinical/demographic moderators were assessed applying χ(2) analysis. Potential-BTP was found in 36.7% of patients (38.4% of non-cancer and 32.4% of cancer patients). Among these the likelihood for BTP diagnosis was 'high' in 25%, 'intermediate' in 41% and, 'low' 34% of patients. Analyses showed significant differences between IQ-BTP classes and between the latter BPI pain-item scores. Correlation between IQ-BTP classes and BPI items was moderate. PCA and scree test identified 3 components accounting for 62.3% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.71. The IQ-BTP showed satisfactory psychometric and validation properties. With adequate feasibility it enabled the allocating of cancer/non-cancer CP patients in three prognostic classes. Results are sufficient to warrant a subsequent impact study of the IQ-BTP as prognostic model and screening tool for BTP in both CP populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali
Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.
Vogeli, Jo M; Hooker, Stephanie A; Everhart, Kevin D; Kaplan, Peter S
Accurate postpartum depression screening measures are needed to identify mothers with depressive symptoms both in the postpartum period and beyond. Because it had not been tested beyond the immediate postpartum period, the reliability and validity of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed in a diverse community sample of 238 mothers of 4- to 15-month-old infants. Mothers (N = 238; M age = 30.2, SD = 5.3) attended a lab session and completed the PDSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a structured clinical interview (SCID) to diagnose MDD. The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value of the PDSS to identify maternal depression were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of five but not seven content subscales. The PDSS total and subscale scores demonstrated acceptable to high reliability (α = 0.68-0.95). Discriminant function analysis showed the scale correctly provided diagnostic classification at a rate higher than chance alone. Sensitivity and specificity for major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis were good and comparable to those of the BDI-II. Even in mothers who were somewhat more diverse and had older infants than those in the original normative study, the PDSS appears to be a psychometrically sound screener for identifying depressed mothers in the 15 months after childbirth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Janssens, Astrid; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson Coon, Jo; Allen, Karen; Green, Colin; Jenkinson, Crispin; Tennant, Alan; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher
The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to identify studies that assess the psychometric performance of the English-language version of 35 generic multidimensional patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for children and young people in general populations and evaluate their quality and 2) to summarize the psychometric properties of each PROM. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. For each PROM, extracted evidence of content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, proxy reliability, responsiveness, and precision was judged against standardized reference criteria. We found no evidence for 14 PROMs. For the remaining 21 PROMs, 90 studies were identified. The methodological quality of most studies was fair. Quality was generally rated higher in more recent studies. Not reporting how missing data were handled was the most common reason for downgrading the quality. None of the 21 PROMs has had all psychometric properties evaluated; data on construct validity and internal consistency were most frequently reported. Overall, consistent positive findings for at least five psychometric properties were found for Child Health and Illness Profile, Healthy Pathways, KIDSCREEN, and Multi-dimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. None of the PROMs had been evaluated for responsiveness to detect change in general populations. Further well-designed studies with transparent reporting of methods and results are required. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cordier, Reinie; Speyer, Renée; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony
Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.
Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony
Introduction Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. Methods A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments. PMID:26151362
Full Text Available Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning.To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults.A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria.Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity.The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.
Schwartz Carolyn E
Full Text Available Abstract The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed.
Schwartz, Carolyn E; Rapkin, Bruce D
The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL) assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:15038830
Maelekanyo Christopher Tshilongamulenzhe
Full Text Available A thorough examination of psychometric properties of measurement scales is necessary to ensure that these scales comply with the existing scientific conventions. This article assesses the psychometric properties of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale. A quantitative, non-experimental cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from a sample of 652 respondents comprising skills development practitioners and learners/apprentices. Data were analyzed using Winsteps, SPSS and AMOS computer software. The findings show that the LPME scale meets the psychometric expectations and complies with the established scientific conventions in terms of validity, reliability, fit and unidimensionality.
Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe
Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process.
Schwabe, Inga; Jonker, Wilfried; van den Berg, Stéphanie M
The Wilson-Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal catch-phrases and on the other hand people vary in their use of the "?" response category of the scale. A 9-item subscale was constructed, consisting of items that seemed to measure liberalism, and this subscale was subsequently used in a biometric analysis including genotype-environment interaction, correcting for non-homogeneous measurement error. Biometric results showed significant genetic and shared environmental influences, and significant genotype-environment interaction effects, suggesting that individuals with a genetic predisposition for conservatism show more non-shared variance but less shared variance than individuals with a genetic predisposition for liberalism.
Full Text Available This paper investigates normalization and psychometric properties of career skills confidence inventory. For this purpose, we use Betz’s questionnaire [Betz, N. E., Harmon, L., & Borgen, F. (1996. The relationships of self- efficacy for the Holland themes to gender, occupational group membership, and vocational interests. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 90-98.], which consists of 60 questions in three groups of self-awareness, exploration and planning. The study distributes the questionnaire among 600 randomly selected students and analyzes the feedback using Pearson correlation ratios. The results indicate that there are some positive and meaningful correlations between three component and career counseling. There are also positive and meaningful relationships among three components of self-awareness, exploration and planning.
Cox, Kathleen B
The importance of healthy work environments has received attention. Health care organizations are plagued with conflict which is detrimental to work environments. Thus, conflict must be studied. The purpose of this article is to describe the testing of a measure of conflict. A survey was used to evaluate the psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 430 nurses at an academic medical center. Using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, a six-factor solution (30 items) that explained 74.3% of variance emerged. Coefficient alpha ranged from .95 to .81. Correlations with existing scales supported construct validity (r = -.32(-)-.58). The results are encouraging. Use of the scale may provide insight into the impact of conflict on patient, staff, and organizational outcomes.
Fančovičová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.
Full Text Available The psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Eating Disorder Inventory–3 (EDI-3 were tested in eating disordered patients (N = 514 using confirmatory factor analyses, variance decomposition, reliabilities, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses. Factorial validity results supported the 12 subscales, but model fit was impaired by correlated item errors, misallocated items, and redundant subscales. At the composite level, the Bulimia subscale was identified as a largely specific source of information that did not contribute much to its overarching composite. Reliabilities for subscales and composites ranged from .6 to .9. ROC curve analysis indicated good to excellent discriminative ability of the EDI-3 identifying clinical subjects against a reference group. In conclusion, further revisions of the EDI-3 might target the item allocation and (over-differentiation of subscales and composites to further clarify its structure. For the clinical practice, we advise the careful use of the EDI-3, although it might serve as a good screening tool.
Ali Akbar Akbaritabar
Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction is one of the important variables in the evaluation of work health. Job satisfaction survey developed by Paul Spector to measure this variable in job settings. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of Spector’s Job Satisfaction (JSS Survey in Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study, Spector’s questionnaire was translated in Persian languge. A sample of 415 employees in Kerman (Iran hospitals participated in this study and filled out the questionnaires. Results: Cronbach’s alpha reliability analysis showed appropriate item-total correlations for subscales and a good total scale internal consistency. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA identified 6 factors in participants’ reponses which could explain 65.44 percent of the total variance altogether.Conclusion: EFA identified dimensions of pay, promotion, supervision, coworkers, nature of work, and communication. These findings showed that JSS has a good construct validity and internal consistency. Persian translation of JSS is a reliable and valid measure to assess job satisfaction in Iran
Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C
Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population.
Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A.; Heaton, Shelley C.
Primary Objective Social problem solving deficits characterize individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Research Design Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S. Methods and Procedures An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. Main Outcomes and Results The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem solving orientation and skills; and negative problem solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. Conclusions The total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population. PMID:26052731
Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Grace, Sherry L; Thomas, Scott; Evans, Michael F; Oh, Paul
To develop and psychometrically validate a tool to assess information needs in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients. After a literature search, 60 information items divided into 11 areas of needs were identified. To establish content validity, they were reviewed by an expert panel (N=10). Refined items were pilot-tested in 34 patients on a 5-point Likert-scale from 1 "really not helpful" to 5 "very important". A final version was generated and psychometrically tested in 203 CR patients. Test-retest reliability was assessed via the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and criterion validity was assessed with regard to patient's education and duration in CR. Five items were excluded after ICC analysis as well as one area of needs. All 10 areas were considered internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha>0.7). Criterion validity was supported by significant differences in mean scores by educational level (pinformation need. The INCR Tool was demonstrated to have good reliability and validity. This is an appropriate tool for application in clinical and research settings, assessing patients' needs during CR and as part of education programming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atilola, Olayinka; Stevanović, Dejan
Quality of life (QOL) is a universally accepted concept for measuring the impact of different aspects of life on general well-being. Adaptation of existing QOL instruments to local cultures has been identified as a better strategy than development of new ones. To translate and adapt the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) to the Yoruba language and culture and to test the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument among adolescents. Psychometric properties including internal consistency reliability, construct and factorial validity of the Yoruba version of PedsQL™ were evaluated using standard procedures. The self report and proxy scales of the Yoruba PedsQL™ were developed with good cultural relevance and semantic/conceptual equivalence. Results from 527 adolescents revealed a Cronbach's coefficient which exceeded 0.7 for internal consistency reliability for all scores. The healthy subjects reported higher PedsQL™ scores than those with mental health and physical problems, which confirmed construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good model fit for the Psychosocial Health score, but not for the other measures. The Yoruba PedsQL™ is culturally appropriate and with good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. More work is needed regarding its factorial validity.
Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Espie, Colin A; Luik, Annemarie I; Kyle, Simon D; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying
The Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) are commonly used instruments to assess insomnia. We evaluated their psychometric properties, particularly their discriminant validity against structured clinical interview (according to DSM-5 and ICSD-3), and their concurrent validity with measures of sleep and daytime functioning. A total of 158 young adults, 16% of whom were diagnosed with DSM-5 insomnia disorder and 13% with ICSD-3 Chronic Insomnia by structured interview, completed the ISI and SCI twice in 7-14 days, in addition to measures of sleep and daytime function. The Chinese version of the SCI was validated with good psychometric properties (ICC = 0.882). A cutoff of ≥8 on the ISI, ≤5 on the SCI short form, and ≤21 on the SCI achieved high discriminant validity (AUC > 0.85) in identifying individuals with insomnia based on both DSM-5 and ICSD-3 criteria. The SCI and ISI had comparable associations with subjective (0.18 sleep (0.31 disorder. Moreover, they showed good concordance with measures of daytime dysfunction, as well as subjective and objective sleep. The SCI and ISI are recommended for use in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sharif Nia, Hamid; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Lehto, Rebecca H; Allen, Kelly A; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali
Objective: Limited research has examined the psychometric properties of death depression scales in Persian populations with cardiac disease despite the need for valid assessment tools for evaluating depressive symptoms in patients with life-limiting chronic conditions. The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of the Persian Version of Death Depression Scale - Revised (DDS-R) in Iranian patients who had recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method: This psychometric study was conducted with a convenience sample of 407 patients with AMI diagnosis who completed the Persian version of the DDS-R. The face, content, and construct validity of the scale were ascertained. Internal consistency, test-retest, and construct reliability (CR) were used to assess reliability of the Persian Version of DDS-R. Results: Based on maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and consideration of conceptual meaning, a 4-factor solution was identified, explaining 75.89% of the total variance. Goodness-of-fit indices (GFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Incremental Fit Index (IFI), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) in the final DDS-R structure demonstrated the adequacy of the 4-domain structure. The internal consistency, construct reliability, and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were greater than .70. Conclusion: The DDS-R was found to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for evaluating death depression symptoms in Iranian patients with AMI.
Bourdier, Léna; Duclos, Jeanne; Ringuenet, Damien; Berthoz, Sylvie
Objective: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-assessment questionnaire, has been developed to measure perceived emotional intelligence (EI) level in 3 dimensions: Attention, Clarity and Repair. This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the French version of this instrument. Method: The instrument factor structure, normality, internal consistency, stability and concurrent validity were assessed in a sample of 824 young adults (456 female). Besides TMMS, participants completed self-assessment questionnaires for affectivity (Shortened Beck Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Positive and Negative emotion scale), alexithymia (Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire-B) and interpersonal functioning (Empathy Quotient). Discriminant validity was tested in 64 female patients with anorexia nervosa, identified in literature as having difficulties with introspection, expression and emotional regulation. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results replicate the 3-factor structure. Internal consistency and reliability indices are adequate. Direction and degree of correlation coefficients between TMMS dimensions and other questionnaires support the instrument concurrent validity. TMMS allows to highlight differences in perceived EI levels between men and women (Attention: p < 0.001 ; Clarity: p < 0.05) as well as between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects (p < 0.001 for all 3 dimensions). Conclusion: This first validation study shows satisfying psychometric properties for TMMS French version. PMID:27310229
Marta Beatriz Aller
Full Text Available Background: The CCAENA questionnaire was developed to assess care continuity across levels from the patients’ perspective. The aim is to provide additional evidence on the psychometric properties of the scales of this questionnaire. Methods: Cross-sectional study by means of a survey of a random sample of 1500 patients attended in primary and secondary care in three healthcare areas of the Catalan healthcare system. Data were collected in 2010 using the CCAENA questionnaire. To assess psychometric properties, an exploratory factor analysis was performed (construct validity and the item-rest correlations and Cronbach’s alpha were calculated (internal consistency. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated (multidimensionality and the ability to discriminate between groups was tested. Results: The factor analysis resulted in 21 items grouped into three factors: patient-primary care provider relationship, patient-secondary care provider relationship and continuity across care levels. Cronbach’s alpha indicated good internal consistency (0.97, 0.93, 0.80 and the correlation coefficients indicated that dimensions can be interpreted as separated scales. Scales discriminated patients according to healthcare area, age and educational level. Conclusion: The CCAENA questionnaire has proved to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring patients’ perceptions of continuity. Providers and researchers could apply the questionnaire to identify areas for healthcare improvement.
Lorber, Michael F; Xu, Shu; Slep, Amy M Smith; Bulling, Lisanne; O'Leary, Susan G
The psychometrics of the Parenting Scale's Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were evaluated using item response theory (IRT) techniques. The IRT analyses were based on 2 community samples of cohabiting parents of 3- to 8-year-old children, combined to yield a total sample size of 852 families. The results supported the utility of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales, particularly in discriminating among parents in the mid to upper reaches of each construct. The original versions of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were more reliable than alternative, shorter versions identified in replicated factor analyses from previously published research and in IRT analyses in the present research. Moreover, in several cases, the original versions of these subscales, in comparison with the shortened versions, exhibited greater 6-month stabilities and correlations with child externalizing behavior and couple relationship satisfaction. Reliability was greater for the Laxness than for the Overreactivity subscale. Item performance on each subscale was highly variable. Together, the present findings are generally supportive of the psychometrics of the Parenting Scale, particularly for clinical research and practice. They also suggest areas for further development.
Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn
The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form (SPSI-R:SF) has been used in several countries to identify problem-solving deficits among clinical and general populations in order to guide cognitive-behavioural interventions. Yet, very few studies have evaluated its psychometric properties. Three language versions of the questionnaire were administered to a general population sample comprising 1000 participants (771 English-, 178 Afrikaans- and 101 Xhosa-speakers). Of these participants, 210 were randomly selected to establish test-retest reliability (70 in each language). Principal component analysis was performed to examine the applicability of the factor structure of the original questionnaire to the South African data. Supplementary psychometric analyses were performed, including internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Collectively, results provide initial evidence of the reliability and validity of the SPSI-R:SF for the assessment of problem solving deficits in South Africa. Further studies that explore how the Afrikaans language version of the SPSI-R:SF can be improved and that establish the predictive validity of scores on the SPSI-R:SF are needed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Marc, Linda G.; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A.
The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms. PMID:22409246
Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Serrani Azcurra, Daniel Jorge Luis
Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs.
Full Text Available Georgios N Lyrakos,1,2 Demetra Vini,2 Helen Aslani,2 Marouso Drosou-Servou212nd Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Pain Clinic, Attikon University Hospital, 2Thalassemia Unit, General Hospital of Nikaia Ag. Panteleimon, Athens, GreeceBackground: No specific questionnaire has been developed to assess the health-related quality of life of thalassemia patients. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop, according to psychometric standards, a self-administered Specific Thalassemia Quality of Life Instrument (STQOLI for adult patients.Methods: First, a qualitative phase was conducted to generate items and identify domains using the critical analysis incident technique and a literature review. A list of easily comprehensible, non-redundant items was defined using the Delphi technique and a pilot study on ten thalassemia patients. This phase involved both patients and experts. The second step was a quantitative validation phase comprising a study of 128 thalassemia patients in a single hospital. It was designed to select items, identify dimensions, and measure reliability and internal and concurrent validity. The psychometric and scaling properties of the proposed 41-item Specific Thalassemia Quality of Life Instrument were then assessed among patients recruited from the Thalassemia Unit at the General Hospital of Nikaia, Greece.Results: The final questionnaire had 41 items comprising four main domains and one global item about general health. The factorial structure was satisfactory (loading > 0.40 on each factor of the four domains for all items. Interscale correlations ranged from 0.06 to 0.78, Cronbach's α-coefficients were 0.78 for the psychosocial domain, 0.77 for the chelation domain, 0.72 for the transfusion domain, 0.81 for the disease and symptoms domain, and 0.840 for the total score of the questionnaire.Conclusion: The 41-item Specific Thalassemia Quality of Life Instrument seems to be a
Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Felvinczi, Katalin; Oláh, Attila; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Demetrovics, Zsolt
The rise and growing popularity of online games has led to the appearance of excessive gaming that in some cases can lead to physical and psychological problems. Several measures have been developed to explore the nature and the scale of the phenomenon. However, few measures have been validated psychometrically. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the 12-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire Short-Form (POGQ-SF) and to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming. Data collection was carried out to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national representative adolescent sample by using an offline (pen and pencil) method. A total of 5,045 secondary school students were assessed (51% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years) of which 2,804 were gamers (65.4% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the measurement model of problematic online gaming, and latent profile analysis was used to identify the proportion of gamers whose online game use can be considered problematic. Results showed that the original six-factor model yielded appropriate fit to the data, and thus the POGQ-SF has appropriate psychometric properties. Latent profile analysis revealed that 4.6% of the adolescents belong to a high risk group and an additional 13.3% to a low risk group. Due to its satisfactory psychometric characteristics, the 12-item POGQ-SF appears to be an adequate tool for the assessment of problematic online gaming.
Coombes, Lucy H; Wiseman, Theresa; Lucas, Grace; Sangha, Amrit; Murtagh, Fliss EM
Background: The number of children worldwide requiring palliative care services is increasing due to advances in medical care and technology. The use of outcome measures is important to improve the quality and effectiveness of care. Aim: To systematically identify health-related quality-of-life outcome measures that could be used in paediatric palliative care and examine their feasibility of use and psychometric properties. Design: A systematic literature review and analysis of psychometric properties. Data sources: PsychInfo, Medline and EMBASE were searched from 1 January 1990 to 10 December 2014. Hand searches of the reference list of included studies and relevant reviews were also performed. Results: From 3460 articles, 125 papers were selected for full-text assessment. A total of 41 articles met the eligibility criteria and examined the psychometric properties of 22 health-related quality-of-life measures. Evidence was limited as at least half of the information on psychometric properties per instrument was missing. Measurement error was not analysed in any of the included articles and responsiveness was only analysed in one study. The methodological quality of included studies varied greatly. Conclusion: There is currently no ‘ideal’ outcome assessment measure for use in paediatric palliative care. The domains of generic health-related quality-of-life measures are not relevant to all children receiving palliative care and some domains within disease-specific measures are only relevant for that specific population. Potential solutions include adapting an existing measure or developing more individualized patient-centred outcome and experience measures. Either way, it is important to continue work on outcome measurement in this field. PMID:27247087
Kötter, T; Obst, K U; Brüheim, L; Eisemann, N; Voltmer, E; Katalinic, A
Background The final exam grade is the main selection criterion for medical school application in Germany. For academic success, it seems to be a reliable predictor. Its use as the only selection criterion is, however, criticised. At some universities, personal interviews are part of the selection process. However, these are very time consuming and are of doubtful validity. The (additional) use of appropriate psychometric instruments could reduce the cost and increase the validity. This study investigates the extent to which psychometric instruments can predict the outcome of a personal selection interview. Methods This is a cross-sectional study on the correlation of the results of psychometric instruments with those of the personal selection interview as part of the application process. As the outcome, the score of the selection interview was used. The NEO - Five Factor Inventory, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the questionnaire to identify work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM) were used as psychometric interviews. Results There was a statistically significant correlation with the results of the personal selection interview for the sum score of the depression scale from the HADS and the sum score for the dimension of life satisfaction of the AVEM. In addition, those participants who did not previously complete an application training achieved a better result in the selection interview. Conclusion The instruments used measure different aspects than the interviews and cannot replace them. It remains to be seen whether the selected parameters are able to predict academic success. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Arcos-Romero, Ana Isabel; Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos
The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS) is one of the few self-reported measures that evaluates the multidimensional subjective experience of orgasm. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ORS in context of sex-with-partner in a Spanish sample. We examined a sample of 842 adults from the general Spanish population (310 men, 532 women; mean age = 27.12 years, SD = 9.8). The sample was randomly divided into two, with a balanced proportion of men and women between each sub-sample. Sub-sample 1 consisted of 100 men and 200 women (33.3% and 66.6%) with a mean age of 27.77 years (SD = 10.05). Sub-sample 2 consisted of 210 men and 332 women (38.7% and 61.3%) with a mean age of 26.77 years (SD = 9.65). The ORS, together with the Sexual Opinion Survey-6 and the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, was administered online. The survey included a consent form, in which confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed. Based on exploratory factor analysis, we obtained a reduced 25-item version of the ORS, distributed along 4 dimensions (affective, sensory, intimacy, and rewards). We performed both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The Spanish version of the ORS had adequate values of reliability that ranged from .78-.93. The 4 factors explained 59.78% of the variance. The factor structure was invariant across gender at a configural level. Scores from the ORS positively correlated with erotophilia and sexual satisfaction. The scale was useful to differentiate between individuals with orgasmic difficulties and individuals with no difficulties. We found that individuals with orgasmic difficulties showed a lower intensity in the affective, intimacy, and sensorial manifestations of orgasm. This version of the ORS could provide an optimum measure for the clinical assessment to identify individuals with difficulties in their orgasmic capacity, thus, it could be used as screening device for orgasmic
Lehmann, V.; Ouwens, M.A.; Braeken, J.; Danner, U.N.; van Elburg, A.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Breurkens, A.; van Strien, T.
The psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Eating Disorder Inventory–3 (EDI-3) were tested in eating disordered patients (N = 514) using confirmatory factor analyses, variance decomposition, reliabilities, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Factorial validity
Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Expectations concerning barriers to children's psychosocial care seem to be major drivers when seeking help, but validated questionnaires measuring expectations are not available. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties of the parent and adolescent versions of the Barriers to
Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild
PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort....... The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. CONCLUSION: The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients....
Beauchamp, Marla K; Schmidt, Catherine T; Pedersen, Mette M
The choice of measure for use as a primary outcome in geriatric research is contingent upon the construct of interest and evidence for its psychometric properties. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) has been widely used to assess functional limitations and disability...... in studies with older adults. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current available evidence for the psychometric properties of the LLFDI....
Aleksandra Lewandowska-Walter; Magdalena Błażek; Maria Kaźmierczak
Background The article describes the Symbiotic Bond Questionnaire (SBQ) – the theoretical background as well as its psychometric characteristics and psychological correlates. The items were created on the basis of the definition of symbiotic personality (Johnson, 1994a). Participants and procedure For these initial survey development and cross-validation studies, the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SBQ were examined. To assess the SBQ’s reliability, the...
Sequeira, Carlos Alberto da Cruz; Barbosa, Elsa Natalina Mendes; Nogueira, Maria José Carvalho; Sampaio, Francisco Miguel Correia
Translate, adapt the language, and assess the psychometric properties of the Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire (MVQ) in a Portuguese population sample of young adults. A psychometric validation study was performed. The sample comprised 166 undergraduate students. Factor analysis was applied to extract three indicators. The MVQ showed divergent validity with the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (p Mental Health Inventory including five items (p mental vulnerability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kemp, Joanne L; Collins, Natalie J; Roos, Ewa M.
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown.......Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown....
van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Johannes H
Online questionnaires for measuring common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are increasingly used. The psychometrics of several pen-and-paper questionnaires have been re-examined for online use and new online instruments have been developed and tested for validity as well. This study aims to review and synthesise the literature on this subject and provide a framework for future research. We searched Medline and PsycINFO for psychometric studies on online instruments for common mental health disorders and extracted the psychometric data. Studies were coded and assessed for quality by independent raters. We included 56 studies on 62 online instruments. For common instruments such as the CES-D, MADRS-S and HADS there is mounting evidence for adequate psychometric properties. Further results are scattered over different instruments and different psychometric characteristics. Few studies included patient populations. We found at least one online measure for each of the included mental health disorders and symptoms. A small number of online questionnaires have been studied thoroughly. This study provides an overview of online instruments to refer to when choosing an instrument for assessing common mental health disorders online, and can structure future psychometric research.
Scarcella, Akimi; Page, Ruairi; Furtado, Vivek
Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics. Information extracted was consolidated into two different tables and a 26-item checklist, reporting respectively background information, the psychometric properties of each tool, and the methodological quality markers of these tools. 37 articles met our criteria, which included a total of 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, 17 tools developed as research measures, and 9 inventories that have not been generated from a study. Just over half of the methodological quality markers required for a transparent methodological description of the instruments were reported. The amount of reported psychological properties was even fewer, with only a third of them available across the different studies. The category presenting the least satisfactory results was that containing the 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, which can be explained by the fact that half of them refrained from publishing the major part of their findings and relevant guidelines. A great number of flaws have been identified through this systematic review. The authors encourage future researchers to be more thorough, comprehensive and transparent in their methodology. They also recommend the creation of a multi-disciplinary joint working group in order to
Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Min; Liu, Yu
To culturally adapt and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool among older inpatients in the mainland of China. Patient falls are an important safety consideration within hospitals among older inpatients. Nurses need specific risk assessment tools for older inpatients to reliably identify at-risk populations and guide interventions that highlight fixable risk factors for falls and consequent injuries. In China, a few tools have been developed to measure fall risk. However, they lack the solid psychometric development necessary to establish their validity and reliability, and they are not widely used for elderly inpatients. A cross-sectional study. A convenient sampling was used to recruit 201 older inpatients from two tertiary-level hospitals in Beijing and Xiamen, China. The Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was translated using forward and backward translation procedures and was administered to these 201 older inpatients. Reliability of the tool was calculated by inter-rater reliability and Cronbach's alpha. Validity was analysed through content validity index and construct validity. The Inter-rater reliability of Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was 97·14% agreement with Cohen's Kappa of 0·903. Cronbach's α was 0·703. Content of Validity Index was 0·833. Two factors represented intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors were explored that together explained 58·89% of the variance. This study provided evidence that Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool is an acceptable, valid and reliable tool to identify older inpatients at risk of falls and falls with injury. Further psychometric testing on criterion validity and evaluation of its advanced utility in geriatric clinical settings are warranted. The Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool may be useful for health care personnel to identify older Chinese inpatients at risk of falls and falls
Henry, Beverly W; Smith, Thomas J; Ahmad, Saadia
To assess parents' perspectives of their home environments to establish the validity of scores from the Behavior and Attitudes Questionnaire for Healthy Habits (BAQ-HH). In the present descriptive study, we surveyed a cross-sectional sample of parents of pre-school children. Questionnaire items developed in an iterative process with community-based programming addressed parents' knowledge/awareness, attitudes/concerns and behaviours about healthy foods and physical activity habits with 6-point rating scales. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to psychometrically evaluate scores from the scales. English and Spanish versions of the BAQ-HH were administered at parent-teacher conferences for pre-school children at ten Head Start centres across a five-county agency in autumn 2010. From 672 families with pre-school children, 532 parents provided responses to the BAQ-HH (79 % response rate). The majority was female (83 %), Hispanic (66 %) or white (16 %), and ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (85 %). Exploratory and confirmatory analyses revealed a knowledge scale (seven items), an attitude scale (four items) and three behaviour subscales (three items each). Correlations were identified between parents' perceptions of home activities and reports of children's habits. Differences were identified by gender and ethnicity groupings. As a first step in psychometric testing, the dimensionality of each of the three scales (Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours) was identified and scale scores were related to other indicators of child behaviours and parents' demographic characteristics. This questionnaire offers a method to measure parents' views to inform planning and monitoring of obesity-prevention education programmes.
Raquel Batista Dantas
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. METHODS The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20. RESULTS The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94–73.17, with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82–83.03. When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3 or absence (score < 3 of vulnerability to abuse, with clinical and health conditions, we found statistically significant differences for self-perception of health (p = 0.002, depressive symptoms (p = 0.000, and presence of rheumatism (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes. The Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale acceptably evaluated validity in the transcultural adaptation process, demonstrating dimensionality coherent with the original proposal (four factors. In the internal consistency analysis, the instrument presented good results (KR-20 = 0.69 and the reliability via reproducibility was considered excellent for the global scale (Kp = 0
Brodke, Darrel S; Goz, Vadim; Lawrence, Brandon D; Spiker, W Ryan; Neese, Ashley; Hung, Man
One-fourth of the adult US population has or will experience back pain and has undergone one of a myriad of treatments. Understanding the outcomes of these many treatments from pharmacologic to surgical, from manipulation to modality, allows for a better understanding and value-driven decision making. Patient-reported outcome measures are the current standard and include general and disease-specific measures. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used disease-specific patient-reported outcome tool to measure functional disability related to back pain. Few studies have evaluated its psychometric properties in a large patient sample using a modern tool such as the Rasch analysis model. This study aims to identify the benefits and deficiencies of the ODI as an outcome tool for assessing patients with back pain. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties, performance, and applicability of the ODI in patients with back pain who visited a university-based outpatient clinic. This study used a secondary analysis-assessment of diagnostic tool on consecutive patients. The sample comprised 1,610 patients visiting an academic spine center. The ODI was the outcome measure. Detailed Rasch analysis of the ODI was performed. Standard descriptive statistics were also assessed. The ODI performed well overall. It demonstrated suboptimal unidimensionality (ie, unexplained variance after accounting for the first dimension) of 8.3%. Person reliability was good, at 0.85, and item reliability was excellent, at 1.00. The overall item fit for the ODI was good with an outfit mean square of 1.02. The ODI had a floor effect of 29.9% and ceiling effect of 3.9%. The raw score to measure correlation of the ODI was excellent, at 0.944. The ODI performed relatively well overall, with some problematic findings. It had good person and item reliability, although it did not demonstrate strong evidence of unidimensionality. The ODI has moderately poor coverage, with a
Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Lester, David; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M
The Wish to be Dead Scale (WDS) is a new scale to measure precursors to suicidal ideation, and the aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of a Farsi version of the WDS. The sample was a convenience sample of 145 Iranian female undergraduates and postgraduates selected from different faculties at Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Using a principal component analysis and a varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization, three factors were identified and labeled: (a) lack of purpose and usefulness in life, (b) lack of interest in living, and (c) fantasizing about being dead. The WDS had good inter-item and test-retest reliability and significant positive correlations with scores on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and negative correlations with scores on the Adult Hope Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Love of Life Scale, the Life Orientation Test, and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. We conclude that the WDS may prove to be useful in clinical practice and research into suicide.
The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of items on the original Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) and psychometrically assess the revised BSES-Short Form (BSES-SF). As part of a longitudinal study, participants completed mailed questionnaires at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Health region in British Columbia. A population-based sample of 491 breastfeeding mothers. BSES, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Internal consistency statistics with the original BSES suggested item redundancy. As such, 18 items were deleted, using explicit reduction criteria. Based on the encouraging reliability analysis of the new 14-item BSES-SF, construct validity was assessed using principal components factor analysis, comparison of contrasted groups, and correlations with measures of similar constructs. Support for predictive validity was demonstrated through significant mean differences between breastfeeding and bottle feeding mothers at 4 (p self-efficacy and considered ready for clinical use to (a) identify breastfeeding mothers at high risk, (b) assess breastfeeding behaviors and cognitions to individualize confidence-building strategies, and (c) evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions and guide program development.
Full Text Available The present study verifies the psychometric properties of the Slovak version of the Self-Compassion Scale through item response theory, factor-analysis, validity analyses and norm development. The surveyed sample consisted of 1,181 participants (34% men and 66% women with a mean age of 30.30 years (SD = 12.40. Two general factors (Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding were identified, whereas there was no support for a single general factor of the scale and six subscales. The results of the factor analysis were supported by an independent sample of 676 participants. Therefore, the use of total score for the whole scale would be inappropriate. In Slovak language the Self-Compassion Scale should be used in the form of two general subscales (Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding. In line with our theoretical assumptions, we obtained relatively high Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the Self-Compassion Scale and related external variables, demonstrating construct validity for the scale. To sum up, the Slovak translation of The Self-Compassion Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that measures Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding.
Agustín Freiberg Hoffmann
Full Text Available Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire’s psychometric properties were analyzed. In order to do this, two different studies were developed: content and facies validity in one hand, and construct validity procedures in the other. The very first examined items and scale by expert judgment. The second one used principal components analysis (PCA and internal consistency in a preliminary stage, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA in the following. Two independent Argentinian college student samples were analyzed. Content validity results indicate the needing of modifying 8 items. Dichotomous answer scale was preserved. According to the results of construct validity, CPA showed four dimensions with better fit and good internal consistency. Only one of them -pragmatic component- responded to the original model. The remaining factors –assimilatory, convergent, adaptive- were identified as belonging to Kolb´s (1984 theoretical model. Confirmatory factor analysis compared PCA model with Alonso, Gallego and Honey´s model (1994, obtaining a better fit for the first. Results support PCA´s structural dimensions for the questionnaire.
Massof, Robert W; Schmidt, Karen M; Laby, Daniel M; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David
Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model
Kass, Andrea E; Theim Hurst, Kelly; Kolko, Rachel P; Ruzicka, Elizabeth B; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Welch, R Robinson; Perri, Michael G; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Youth Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (YEDE-Q) and its utility for detecting loss of control (LOC) eating (i.e., eating episodes, regardless of size, involving a perceived inability to control what or how much one is eating) among school-age children with overweight or obesity. Identifying eating pathology, particularly LOC eating, in this population may facilitate treatment that improves weight outcomes and reduces eating disorder risk. Children with overweight or obesity (N = 241; 7-11 years) completed the YEDE-Q and abbreviated Child EDE (ChEDE) to assess LOC eating, prior to entering a weight management treatment trial. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted on children's YEDE-Q responses and compared to the standard adult EDE-Q factor structure and newer, alternate factor structures. CFA supported a three-factor structure, which distinguished youth with versus without LOC. The YEDE-Q showed low accuracy for detecting LOC eating as measured by the ChEDE, which served as the gold-standard benchmark (AUC = 0.69). Among children who endorsed LOC eating, more episodes per month were reported on the YEDE-Q than ChEDE (p children with overweight or obesity. Further evaluation of the YEDE-Q and the alternate three-factor structure is warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Suarez-Acuña, C E; Carvajal-Carrascal, G; Serrano-Gómez, M E
To analyze the psychometric properties of the Parents' Perception of Uncertainty in Illness Scale, parents/children, adapted to Spanish. A descriptive methodological study involving the translation into Spanish of the Parents' Perception of Uncertainty in Illness Scale, parents/children, and analysis of their face validity, content validity, construct validity and internal consistency. The original version of the scale in English was translated into Spanish, and approved by its author. Six face validity items with comprehension difficulty were reported; which were reviewed and adapted, keeping its structure. The global content validity index with expert appraisal was 0.94. In the exploratory analysis of factors, 3 dimensions were identified: ambiguity and lack of information, unpredictability and lack of clarity, with a KMO=0.846, which accumulated 91.5% of the explained variance. The internal consistency of the scale yielded a Cronbach alpha of 0.86 demonstrating a good level of correlation between items. The Spanish version of "Parent's Perception of Uncertainty in Illness Scale" is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to determine the level of uncertainty of parents facing the illness of their children. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wocial, Lucia D; Weaver, Michael T
To report the development and psychometric testing of the Moral Distress Thermometer. The Moral Distress Thermometer is a new screening tool to measure moral distress in nurses who practise in the hospital setting. Moral distress occurs when one knows the ethically correct thing to do, but is prevented from acting on that perceived obligation. It is a well documented phenomenon with negative consequences that may be experienced by nurses. Creating an instrument to effectively and efficiently measure moral distress in a timely way has been identified as a priority for nursing. This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data collection for this research occurred in 2009. Participants simultaneously completed either the adult or pediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale version 2009 and the Moral Distress Thermometer. A total of 529 participants from various clinical areas completed both tools. Coefficients alpha were adequate for both Adult (0·90) and Pediatric (0·92) Moral Distress Scale 2009 scales. Statistically significant Pearson correlations were found for the Moral Distress Thermometer with Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 and higher Moral Distress Thermometer, Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 means for participants who had left or who considered leaving a position because of moral distress. These findings provide support for the validity of the Moral Distress Thermometer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hutchinson, Marie; Doran, Frances
Background Domestic violence (DV) is an international public health issue associated with adverse health outcomes for adults and children. There have been widespread calls to increase nurses' capacity to respond to DV and improve undergraduate nursing education in this area. However, there are few valid, reliable and contemporary measures of nursing attitudes towards and beliefs concerning DV that are suited for use in evaluating education programmes. Aim To establish the psychometric properties of a newly developed inventory designed to measure nursing students' beliefs about and attitudes towards DV. Discussion Exploratory factor analysis identified five factors, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.646. The few factors loading>.80 suggest that the instrument has good discriminate validity. The absence of cross-loadings indicate good convergent validity. Conclusion The inventory provides one of the first validated and reliable measures for examining undergraduate nursing students' attitudes towards and beliefs about DV. Implications for practice The instrument is suited for use by nurse educators in assessing the influence of curriculum design and teaching strategies on student beliefs and attitudes. It would also be useful in studies investigating nurses' clinical practice on domestic violence.
Schreiber, Judy A
To examine the psychometric properties of the Image of God Scale (IGS) in a clinical population. Descriptive, cross-sectional. University and community oncology practices in the southeastern United States. 123 breast cancer survivors no more than two years from completion of treatment. Scale reliability was determined with the coefficient alpha. Instrument dimensionality was examined using principal component analysis. Construct validity was evaluated by examining correlations with other instruments used in the study. An individual's image of God. Internal consistency was strong (anger subscale = 0.8; engagement subscale = 0.89). The principle component analysis resulted in a two-factor solution with items loading uniquely on Factor 1-Engagement (8) and Factor 2-Anger (6). Significant correlations between the IGS and religious coping support convergence on a God concept. Correlations with psychological well-being, psychological distress, and concern about recurrence were nonsignificant (engagement) or inverse (anger), supporting discrimination between concepts of God and psychological adjustment. The IGS is a unique measure of how God is viewed by the depth and character of His involvement with the individual and the world. The IGS may be a measure that can transcend sects, denominations, and religions by identifying the image of God that underlies and defines an individuals' worldview, which influences their attitudes and behaviors.
Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Rusu, Adina C; Hasenbring, Monika I
To analyze the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the AEQ, and to validate it by reporting relevant pain-related variables, which were not investigated in the original study. One hundred and fifty Spanish patients diagnosed with chronic back and neck pain were referred by physicians from different pain clinics in Spain; all the patients filled out the questionnaires at their clinic. A series of principal components analyses (PCA) was performed to develop the Spanish version of the AEQ. Reliability and validity were also calculated. The PCAs revealed five fear-avoidance scales (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measures were between .60 and .88, and Bartlett's tests were significant, p .73) and suitable validity (p < .05). New results associated with pain-related cognitive/affective and behavioural responses are discussed. This instrument will probably help clinicians to identify Spanish patients at a high risk of chronicity and to develop treatments tailored to the different profiles in order to improve secondary and tertiary prevention in back and neck pain.
Marquis, P; Fayol, C; Joire, J E; Leplège, A
This paper describes the psychometric properties of the French version of the APQLQ (Angina Pectoris Quality of Life Questionnaire), that is to say, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity. This disease-specific Swedish questionnaire provides a global score as well as four subscores measuring physical activities, somatic symptoms, emotional distress, and life satisfaction. The French version was produced according to the forward-backward translation methodology. In a cross-sectional study, 183 coronary patients filled out the APQLQ and the MOS (Medical Outcomes Study) SF-36; 170 sent it back; the rate of missing data was low (1.3%). The factorial structure and the high level of inter-scale correlations (> 0.60) suggested that the APQLQ measured one global concept rather than separate domains. The multitrait analysis identified one problematic item correlated strongly with all domains. The internal consistency was good (alpha Cronbach > 0.70). The correlations with the SF-36 scales were consistent with what was expected. The distribution of the scores of the APQLQ according to the clinical severity of Angina Pectoris (AP) was as hypothesized: the more severe the AP, the more impaired the Quality of Life. The score significantly discriminated between symptomatic (n = 110) and asymptomatic patients (n = 60) except for the emotional distress scale (p = 0.14). We recommend to analyze the French APQLQ as an index rather than as a profile. Its reliability, concurrent and clinical validity allowed its use in clinical trials.
Grant, Marcia; Ferrell, Betty; Dean, Grace; Uman, Gwen; Chu, David; Krouse, Robert
Ostomies may be performed for bowel or urinary diversion, and occur in both cancer and non-cancer patients. Impact on physical, psychological, social and spiritual well-being is not unexpected, but has been minimally described in the literature. The City of Hope Quality of Life (COH-QOL)-Ostomy Questionnaire is an adult patient self-report instrument designed to assess quality of life. This report focuses on the revision and psychometric testing of this questionnaire. The revised COH-QOL-Ostomy Questionnaire involved in-depth patient interviews and expert panel review. The format consisted of a 13-item disease and demographic section, a 34-item forced-choice section, and a 41-item linear analogue scaled section. A mailed survey to California members of the United Ostomy Association resulted in a 62% response rate (n = 1513). Factor analysis was conducted to refine the instrument. Construct validity involved testing a number of hypotheses identifying contrasting groups. Factor analysis confirmed the conceptual framework. Reliability of subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.90. The questionnaire discriminated between subpopulations with specific concerns. Overall, the analyses provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the COH-QOL-Ostomy Questionnaire as a comprehensive, multidimensional self-report questionnaire for measuring quality of life in patients with intestinal ostomies.
Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C
Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate
Heaton Lisa J
Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish
Aim: The aim of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of entrepreneurial climate. Entrepreneurial climate was measured using a shortened version of the Hornsby, Kuratko and Zahra (2002 instrument, called the Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI. Making information on the psychometric properties of the instrument available directly relates to its utility. Setting: The setting was medium to large South African companies. A random sample of employees was drawn from 53 selected companies across South Africa, with 60 respondents per company (N = 3 180. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Several instruments were administered, including the shortened version of the CEAI. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test for reliability and several methods were used to test for validity. Correlation analysis was used to test for concurrent validity, convergent validity and divergent validity. Principle component factor analysis was used to test for factorial validity and a t-test to test for known-group validity. Results: The results showed that the reliability for the total score of the shortened version of the CEAI was acceptable at 0.758. The results also showed some evidence of concurrent validity, as well as homogeneity among the items. With regard to factorial validity, all items loaded in accordance with the subscales of the instrument. The measure was able to distinguish, as expected, between government organisations and private business entities, suggesting known-group validity. Convergent validity and divergent validity were also assessed. Interesting to note was that entrepreneurship climate correlates more with general employee attitude (e.g. employee engagement; R= 0.420, p < 0.001 and organisational commitment, R = 0.331, p < 0.001 than with self-reported innovation (R = 0.277, p < 0.001 and R = 0.267, p < 0.001. Contribution: This paper not only provided information on the reliability
Hsueh, Yu-Jung; Chu, Hsin; Huang, Chang-Chih; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Chou, Kuei-Ru
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the MAST-C were examined in this study. The MAST-C had an internal consistency of 0.83 and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. It had a good content validity index of 0.92. Factor analysis identified four factors and the optimal cutoff point for the MAST-C was a score of 6/7, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.83, a positive predictive value of 0.92, and a negative predictive value of 0.83. The MAST-C provides a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for clinically diagnosing alcoholism and clinical management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Araban, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Vida; Goodarzi, Fataneh
It is obvious that unhealthy nutritional behaviors have caused the increasing incidence of diabetes. This study aimed to design the Measure of Nutritional Perceptions and Behaviors in diabetic men and to evaluate its psychometric properties. A questionnaire was developed within 7 factors. Three methods of face validity, content validity, and construct validity were employed to ensure the validity of the scale. 206 men with diabetes completed the questionnaires. Internal was used to evaluate the reliability of the scale. The mean age of men was 58.26 (9.74) years. Results showed that each item in the final questionnaire was highly correlated with the total score of each dimension Pnutritional behaviors were desired and the overall structure of the questions was confirmed. This questionnaire can be used to identify individuals at risk for unhealthy nutritional behaviors and also to conduct and evaluate the impact of educational interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ringblom, Jenny; Wåhlin, Ingrid; Proczkowska, Marie
Emergence delirium and emergence agitation have been a subject of interest since the early 1960s. This behavior has been associated with increased risk of injury in children and dissatisfaction with anesthesia care in their parents. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale is a commonly used instrument for codifying and recording this behavior. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, focusing on the factor structure, in a sample of children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The reliability of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was also tested. One hundred and twenty-two children younger than seven years were observed at postoperative care units during recovery from anesthesia. Two or 3 observers independently assessed the children using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. The factor analysis clearly revealed a one-factor solution, which accounted for 82% of the variation in the data. Internal consistency, calculated with Cronbach's alpha, was good (0.96). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, which was used to assess interrater reliability for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale sum score, was 0.97 (P Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale for assessing emergence delirium in children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The kappa statistics for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale items essentially indicated good agreement between independent raters, supporting interrater reliability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mraity, H.; England, A.; Hogg, P.
Purpose: Using AP pelvis as a catalyst, this paper explains how a psychometric scale for image quality assessment can be created using Bandura's theory for self-efficacy. Background: Establishing an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent upon the quality of the radiographic image. Image quality, as a construct (i.e. set of attributes that makes up the image quality), continues to play an essential role in the field of diagnostic radiography. The process of assessing image quality can be facilitated by using criteria, such as the European Commission (EC) guidelines for quality criteria as published in 1996. However, with the advent of new technology (Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography), some of the EC criteria may no longer be suitable for assessing the visual quality of a digital radiographic image. Moreover, a lack of validated visual image quality scales in the literature can also lead to significant variations in image quality evaluation. Creating and validating visual image quality scales, using a robust methodology, could reduce variability and improve the validity and reliability of perceptual image quality evaluations
Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera
Full Text Available Simulation from a categorical or diagnostic perspective, has turned into a more dimensional point of view, so it is possible to establish different “levels” of simulation. In order to analyse, from a psychometric perspective, the possible prediction of simulated behaviour based on common measures of general psychopathology, the objective of the current study was to analyse possible predictors of the Structured Symptomatic Simulation Inventory (SIMS scores considering as dependent variables the total SIMS score, the SIMS subscales scores, and the cut-off points usually suggested to discriminate between “no suspected simulation”/“suspected simulation”, which usually are 14 and 16. In terms of possible predictors, a set of variables were established: a categorical (sex, type of treatment - psychopharmacological, psychotherapeutic, combined-, type of work activity, being self-employed or not, presence-absence of a history of psychopathology (both familial and personal, presence or not of associated physical pathology, diagnosis -according to ICD-10- and the final proposal -return to work, sick leave extended, proposal of permanent work incapacity-; and b continuous (perceived stress -general and current, self-esteem, results of a screening questionnaire for personality disorders and scores on a symptoms questionnaire. In addition, a descriptive study of all variables was carried out and possible differences of genre were analysed.
Chan, Keung Sum; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Lopez, Violeta
This article is a report on psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the herth hope index. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately measures the level of hope in patients with heart failure is crucial before any hope-enhancing interventions can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such instrument for Chinese people. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A purposive sample of 120 Hong Kong Chinese patients with heart failure between the ages of 60 and 80 years admitted to two medical wards was recruited during an 8-month period in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the herth hope index, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the herth hope index were assessed. The newly translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in assessing the level of hope in Hong Kong Chinese patients with heart failure. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Potkin, Steven G; Bugarski-Kirola, Dragana; Edgar, Chris J; Soliman, Sherif; Le Scouiller, Stephanie; Kunovac, Jelena; Miguel Velasco, Eugenio; Garibaldi, George M
Unemployment can negatively impact quality of life among patients with schizophrenia. Employment status depends on ability, opportunity, education, and cultural influences. A clinician-rated scale of work readiness, independent of current work status, can be a valuable assessment tool. A series of studies were conducted to create and validate a Work Readiness Questionnaire (WoRQ) for clinicians to assess patient ability to engage in socially useful activity, independent of work availability. Content validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity were evaluated in three separate studies. Content validity was supported. Cronbach's α was 0.91, in the excellent range. Clinicians endorsed WoRQ concepts, including treatment adherence, physical appearance, social competence, and symptom control. The final readiness decision showed good test-retest reliability and moderate inter-rater reliability. Work readiness was associated with higher function and lower levels of negative symptoms. Low positive and high negative predictive values confirmed the concept validity. The WoRQ has suitable psychometric properties for use in a clinical trial for patients with a broad range of symptom severity. The scale may be applicable to assess therapeutic interventions. It is not intended to assess eligibility for supported work interventions. The WoRQ is suitable for use in schizophrenia clinical trials to assess patient work functional potential.
Hu, Fa-Wen; Wang, Pei; Li, Li-Ju
In this study, we used the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire (CMACIQ) and collected valid data from 1,036 participants to systematically examine the mental model of cultural identity in Chinese multiethnic adolescents. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed on the data to discover the factor structure and dimensions of cultural identity. The psychometric properties of the scale were rigorously validated in 2,744 new multiethnic participants from 5 native ethnic groups in Yunnan province in China. The results indicated that CMACIQ had reasonable metric properties and good fit indices. The hierarchical model of cultural identity consisted of 2 second-order factors, Ethnic Cultural Identity and Mainstream Cultural Identity in School. The first higher order factor was composed of preference for ethnic things, ethnic acceptance, religious belief, and ethnic convention, while the second comprised 2 first-order factors, Social Norms and Dominant Culture. The potential application and limitations of CMACIQ are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Pallmeyer, T P
Four studies were conducted on a sample of 230 undergraduates to determine the psychometric properties of a measure of alexithymia, the Schalling-Sifneos Scale. In the first study it was found that scores on the scale are approximately normally distributed for each sex with 8.2% of males and 1.8% of females in the alexithymia range. In the second study a factor analysis of the scale revealed three distinct factors: (1) 'difficulty in expression of feelings'; (2) 'the importance of feelings especially about people'; (3) 'day-dreaming or introspection'. In the second factor analytic study, scores from several standard psychological tests on the same subjects were introduced with the scale items. Two factors in this analysis were comprised almost entirely of the other test scores: a 'general psychological distress factor' and a 'concerns about physical symptoms factor'. The other two factors were similar to factors 1 and 2 above in terms of items. The Rathus Assertiveness Scale loaded positively on the equivalent of factor 1. In the lst study, it was shown that Schalling-Sifneos Scale score is relatively orthogonal to other psychological tests with the exception of a Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and thus is measuring something other than depression, anxiety, etc.
Juliane Callegaro Borsa
Full Text Available This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Positivity Scale (P-Scale. Participants were 730 subjects (65% women, aged from 17 to 70 years old (M = 31.0 years; SD = 11.43, from 21 Brazilian states. The sample was randomly split in two halves to cross-validate the results. With the first half of the sample (n1 = 365, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted. With the second half of the sample (n2 = 365, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA assessed the fit of the exploratory model. Convergent validity and group differences were also evaluated. The EFA and CFA presented a one-dimensional structure for the P-Scale. Moderate correlations were found between the P-Scale and mental-health, subjective happiness and life-satisfaction. The levels of positivity presented a low positive correlation with age, educational level and financial income. Slightly significant effects were found for occupational status and marital status. Positivity appears to be more closely related to personal dispositions than to sociodemographic aspects. Our results suggest that the P-Scale is a reliable measure with which to evaluate the levels of positivity in Brazil.
Endsley, Paige; Weobong, Benedict; Nadkarni, Abhijit
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a 10-item screening questionnaire used to detect alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT has been validated in only two studies in India and although it has been previously used in Goa, India, it has yet to be validated in that setting. In this paper, we aim to report data on the validity of the AUDIT for the screening of AUDs among men in Goa, India. Concurrent and convergent validity of the AUDIT were assessed against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS) for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and functional status respectively through the secondary analysis of data from a community cohort of men from Goa, India. The AUDIT showed high internal reliability and acceptable criterion validity with adequate psychometric properties for the detection of alcohol abuse and dependence. However, all of the optimal cut-off points from ROC analyses were lower than the WHO recommended for identification of risk of all AUDs, with a score of 6-12 detecting alcohol abuse and 13 and higher alcohol dependence. In order to optimize the utility of the AUDIT, a lowered cut-off point for alcohol abuse and dependence is recommended for Goa, India. Further validation studies for the AUDIT should be conducted for continued validation of the tool in other parts of India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Markowetz, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Montag, Christian; Switala, Christina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E
For the first time in history, it is possible to study human behavior on great scale and in fine detail simultaneously. Online services and ubiquitous computational devices, such as smartphones and modern cars, record our everyday activity. The resulting Big Data offers unprecedented opportunities for tracking and analyzing behavior. This paper hypothesizes the applicability and impact of Big Data technologies in the context of psychometrics both for research and clinical applications. It first outlines the state of the art, including the severe shortcomings with respect to quality and quantity of the resulting data. It then presents a technological vision, comprised of (i) numerous data sources such as mobile devices and sensors, (ii) a central data store, and (iii) an analytical platform, employing techniques from data mining and machine learning. To further illustrate the dramatic benefits of the proposed methodologies, the paper then outlines two current projects, logging and analyzing smartphone usage. One such study attempts to thereby quantify severity of major depression dynamically; the other investigates (mobile) Internet Addiction. Finally, the paper addresses some of the ethical issues inherent to Big Data technologies. In summary, the proposed approach is about to induce the single biggest methodological shift since the beginning of psychology or psychiatry. The resulting range of applications will dramatically shape the daily routines of researches and medical practitioners alike. Indeed, transferring techniques from computer science to psychiatry and psychology is about to establish Psycho-Informatics, an entire research direction of its own. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Kenneth T; Wei, Meifen; Zhao, Ran; Chuang, Chih-Chun; Li, Feihan
The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), a measure of loss associated with crossing national boundaries, was developed across 2 samples of international students. With Sample 1 (N = 262), exploratory factor analyses were used to select the 14 CCLS items and to determine 3 factors: Belonging-Competency (α = .87), National Privileges (α = .68), and Access to Home Familiarity (α = .72). With Sample 2, confirmatory factor analyses (N = 256) cross-validated the 3-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Cronbach alphas of CCLS subscale scores in Sample 2 ranged from .73 to .87. The validity of the CCLS scores was supported by its associations with related variables in the expected directions. Perceived cross-cultural losses were positively associated with negative affect, migration grief and loss, and discrimination and were negatively associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, general self-efficacy, and social connection with mainstream society. Moreover, the CCLS total and 2 subscale scores added significant incremental variance in predicting subjective well-being over and above related constructs. The results indicated measurement invariance and validity equivalency for the CCLS scores between men and women. The overall results from these 2 samples support CCLS as a psychometrically strong measure. 2015 APA, all rights reserved
Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S
This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed.
Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (Pnutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
Maria Regina Ferreira Brandão
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Burnout Inventory for Referees (BIR in Portuguese in a sample of professional soccer referees and to explore the nomological validity of the inventory through concurrent validation. The analysis showed a factorial structure of burnout for the referees with one second order factor and three first order factors; physical and emotional exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. A cross-validation procedure showed that the factor structure was replicable, and the inventory demonstrated internal reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, the study assessed the concurrent validity of the inventory by examining the correlation between the scores of the Burnout Inventory for Referees and the scores of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. The subscales of burnout and total burnout were positively correlated with tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion and negatively with vigor, as expected. In conclusion, the Portuguese version of BIR presents good evidence of validity and reliability in the assessment of referees who may be at risk of suffering from burnout.
Razaghi Reza Sharif
Full Text Available Educational institutions use different ways to evaluate their teachers. Asking students to rate their teachers is common practice. The purpose of this research was to examine the reliability of the instruments used to evaluate the instructors in a college of medicine. This cross-sectional descriptive research used questioners that evaluated instructors. The questioner was targeting different dimensions of instructors. Item analysis in addition to exploratory factor analysis was performed on 1040questioners answered by the students of the College of Medicine of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. SPSS software was used to perform the analysis. The psychometric properties of questionnaires including Cronbach alpha was determined. The result of exploratory factor analysis and item analysis indicated that three of the subscales of the questioner showed sufficient reliability to evaluate the instructors and two subscales needed further examination. This type of evaluations is necessary to ensure quality of instructors working in an institution as well as providing reliable feedback to the instructors. The result showed that while some subscales of the questioner seems to target the concept of interest; a re-evaluation of the instrument would be valuable to increase its reliability for the administrators in the colleges.
Mittelstädt, Justin M; Pecena, Yvonne; Oubaid, Viktor; Maschke, Peter
This paper investigates personality traits as potential factors for success in an astronaut selection by comparing personality profiles of unsuccessful and successful astronaut candidates in different phases of the ESA selection procedure. It is further addressed whether personality traits could predict an overall assessment rating at the end of the selection. In 2008/2009, ESA performed an astronaut selection with 902 candidates who were either psychologically recommended for mission training (N = 46) or failed in basic aptitude (N = 710) or Assessment Center and interview testing (N = 146). Candidates completed the Temperament Structure Scales (TSS) and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R). Those candidates who failed in basic aptitude testing showed higher levels of Neuroticism (M = 49.8) than the candidates who passed that phase (M = 45.4 and M = 41.6). Additionally, candidates who failed in basic testing had lower levels of Agreeableness (M = 132.9) than recommended candidates (M = 138.1). TSS scales for Achievement (r = 0.19) and Vitality (r = 0.18) showed a significant correlation with the overall assessment rating given by a panel board after a final interview. Results indicate that a personality profile similar to Helmreich's "Right Stuff" is beneficial in astronaut selection. Influences of test anxiety on performance are discussed. Mittelstädt JM, Pecena Y, Oubaid V, Maschke P. Psychometric personality differences between candidates in astronaut selection. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):933-939.
Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen
To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.
Szajer, Katarzyna; Karakuła, Hanna; Grzywa, Anna; Parnas, Josef; Perzyńska, Aneta; Zaborska, Anna; Pawezka, Justyna; Sekunda, Agnieszka; Piszczek, Rafał; Skórska, Małgorzata
Abstract thinking belongs to intellectual abilities of the highest level of the evolutionary development, thanks to which operations such a classification, systematisation and comparison are possible. An analysis of the psychometric properties of the Proverb-Metaphor Test (TPM) which has been used in the German speaking countries since 2001. The TPM was subject to the process of translation--retranslation--travesty in order to be adapted to clinical conditions in Poland. 60 patients of the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Lublin with diagnosed paranoid schizophrenia (according to ICD-10 criteria). PANSS and TPM was carried out amongst 15 patients at the beginning of the hospitalisation (the first stage of the research) and among all persons during the remission of syndromes (the second stage). The WAIS-R (PL) was used in the second stage. 1. The TPM is a reliable instrument, of high criteria propriety. 2. The evaluated test is a relatively homogeneous research tool. 3. The TPM is, thanks to its simple construction and the short carrying out time, a practical method of abstract thinking evaluation. 4. The TPM may be a useful instrument enabling long term prognosis.
Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi C
Objective To find the internal consistency of the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) among medical students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods A total of 352 medical students, mean age=20.0 years (SD=1.9) reported their attitudes towards Afro-Colombians; 59.4 % were women. Students completed the 10-item version of MRS. Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were done to propose a brief version of the MRS. Results The 10-item version showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.48 and a McDonald omega of 0.15. The short version, the Brief Modern Racism Scale (BMRS) (items 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8) presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.64 and McDonald omega of 0.65. The BMRS showed one salient factor responsible of 41.6 % of the total variance. Conclusions A Spanish-language short version of the MRS shows better psychometric performance than the original version. Further study is needed to corroborate these findings or make adjustments for Colombian cultural regions.
Contardi, Anna; Imperatori, Claudio; Amati, Italia; Balsamo, Michela; Innamorati, Marco
Affect lability, an important aspect of emotion dysregulation, characterizes several psychiatric conditions. The short Affective Lability Scales (ALS-18) measures three aspects of changeability between euthymia and affect states (Anxiety/Depression, AD; Depression/Elation, DE; and Anger, Ang). The aim of our study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of an Italian version of the ALS-18 in a sample of adults recruited from the general population. The sample was composed of 494 adults (343 women and 151 men) aged 18 and higher (mean age = 31.73 years, SD = 12.6). All participants were administered a checklist assessing socio-demographic variables, the ALS-18 and measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated adequate fit of the three-factor model (RMSEA = 0.061, 95% CI = 0.054/0.069; CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.055), and the presence of a higher-order general factor. Internal consistency was satisfactory for all the lower-order dimensions and the general factor (ordinal α > 0.70). The ALS-18 was significantly associated with concurrent measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. These findings indicate that the ALS-18 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring affect lability, although discriminant validity of subdimensions scores could be problematic.
Meadows, K A; Abrams, C; Sandbaek, A
AIMS: To adapt the Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-1) for use with English speaking patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the adapted measure in a UK and Danish sample of insulin, tablet and diet-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Following...... items (56.25%) were retained following initial item analysis. A three-factor solution accounting for 45.6% and 40.3% of the total explained variance was identified in the UK and Danish samples, respectively. Factors were interpreted as psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA...
Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Egger, J.I.M.
Klinefelter's syndrome (KS; karyotype 47,XXY) is associated with specific neurocognitive impairments, especially delayed language development and impaired socioemotional evolution. There is an increased risk for psychiatric disturbances, particularly schizophrenia and affective spectrum disorders. A
Horn, Katyana Kowalchuk; Jennings, Sophie; Richardson, Gillian; Vliet, Ditte Van; Hefford, Cheryl; Abbott, J Haxby
Systematic review of the literature. To summarize peer-reviewed literature on the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and to identify its use as an outcome measure. Searches were performed of several electronic databases from 1995 to May 2010. Studies included were published articles containing (1) primary research investigating the psychometric and clinimetrics of the PSFS or (2) the implementation of the PSFS as an outcome measure. We assessed the methodological quality of studies included in the first category. Two hundred forty-two articles published from 1994 to May 2010 were identified. Of these, 66 met the inclusion criteria for this review, with 13 reporting the measurement properties of the PSFS, 55 implementing the PSFS as an outcome measure, and 2 doing both of the above. The PSFS was reported to be valid, reliable, and responsive in populations with knee dysfunction, cervical radiculopathy, acute low back pain, mechanical low back pain, and neck dysfunction. The PSFS was found to be reliable and responsive in populations with chronic low back pain. The PSFS was also reported to be valid, reliable, or responsive in individuals with a limited number of acute, subacute, and chronic conditions. This review found that the PSFS is also being used as an outcome measure in many other conditions, despite a lack of published evidence supporting its validity in these conditions. Although the use of the PSFS as an outcome measure is increasing in physiotherapy practice, there are gaps in the research literature regarding its validity, reliability, and responsiveness in many health conditions.
An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in the United States. Impairments in attention following TBI severely limit everyday functioning in a multifaceted manner. A precise assessment is critical in identifying the types of attention impairments and in recommending appropriate tasks to aid in attention rehabilitation. A Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA) was developed to fill this need and revised to reflect variations of attention ability that exist in the general population. The purpose of the study was to investigate the theoretically-based constructs of the Music-based Attention Assessment-Revised (MAA-R) using a factorial approach and to examine item properties and test reliability in relation to the exploratively-derived factor constructs. The MAA-R is a 54-item multiple-choice, melodic contour identification test, designed to assess three different types of auditory attention including sustained, selective, and divided attention. The psychometric validation of the MAA-R was conducted with healthy adults (n = 165) and patients diagnosed with a moderate to severe TBI (n = 22). Exploratory factor analysis identified five factor constructs, including Sustained-Short, Sustained-Med to Long, Selective-Noise, Selective & Divided, and Divided-Long. After item elimination, the final 45-item MAA-R provided evidence of high internal consistency as computed by split-half reliability coefficients (r = .836) and Cronbach's alpha (alpha = .940). The aggregate findings suggest that the MAA-R is a valid and reliable measure that provides assessment information in regards to the different types of auditory attention deficits frequently observed in patients with TBI. Development and revision issues as well as the use of melodic contours in auditory attention assessment are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.
Nimbi, Filippo Maria; Tripodi, Francesca; Simonelli, Chiara; Nobre, Pedro
The Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ) is a validated and widespread used tool to assess the association among negative automatic thoughts, emotions, and sexual response during sexual activity in men and women. To test the psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the SMQ focusing on the Automatic Thoughts subscale (SMQ-AT). After linguistic translation, the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct, and discriminant validity) were evaluated. 1,051 participants (425 men and 626 women, 776 healthy and 275 clinical groups complaining about sexual problems) participated in the present study. 2 confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the fit of the original factor structures of the SMQ versions. In addition, 2 principal component analyses were performed to highlight 2 new factorial structures that were further validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Cronbach α and composite reliability were used as internal consistency measures and differences between clinical and control groups were run to test the discriminant validity for the male and female versions. The associations with emotions and sexual functioning measures also are reported. Principal component analyses identified 5 factors in the male version: erection concerns thoughts, lack of erotic thoughts, age- and body-related thoughts, negative thoughts toward sex, and worries about partner's evaluation and failure anticipation thoughts. In the female version 6 factors were found: sexual abuse thoughts, lack of erotic thoughts, low self-body image thoughts, failure and disengagement thoughts, sexual passivity and control, and partner's lack of affection. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the adequacy of the factor structure for men and women. Moreover, the SMQ showed a strong association with emotional response and sexual functioning, differentiating between clinical and control groups. This measure is useful to evaluate patients and design interventions focused on
Deepak, Kishore K; Al-Umran, Khalid Umran; AI-Sheikh, Mona H; Dkoli, B V; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah
The functionality of distracters in a multiple choice question plays a very important role. We examined the frequency and impact of functioning and non-functioning distracters on psychometric properties of 5-option items in clinical disciplines. We analyzed item statistics of 1115 multiple choice questions from 15 summative assessments of undergraduate medical students and classified the items into five groups by their number of non-functioning distracters. We analyzed the effect of varying degree of non-functionality ranging from 0 to 4, on test reliability, difficulty index, discrimination index and point biserial correlation. The non-functionality of distracters inversely affected the test reliability and quality of items in a predictable manner. The non-functioning distracters made the items easier and lowered the discrimination index significantly. Three non-functional distracters in a 5-option MCQ significantly affected all psychometric properties (p psychometrically as effective as 5-option items. Our study reveals that a multiple choice question with 3 functional options provides lower most limit of item format that has adequate psychometric property. The test containing items with less number of functioning options have significantly lower reliability. The distracter function analysis and revision of nonfunctioning distracters can serve as important methods to improve the psychometrics and reliability of assessment.
Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J
Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095
Dibble, Elizabeth H; Baird, Grayson L; Swenson, David W; Healey, Terrance T
The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric analysis of the constructs and reliability of an outpatient radiology-specific patient satisfaction survey and identify factors that drive patient experience so that radiology practices can improve the quality of their diagnostic imaging services. This retrospective study examined responses to eight patient satisfaction questions from a survey originally developed by a nascent marketing team and then administered at five outpatient imaging centers from January 7, 2013, to November 11, 2015. Patients' responses were reviewed to identify factors that affected patient experience, and a psychometric analysis of the survey instrument itself was performed, including exploratory factor analyses and reliability testing. Patient responses were compared among sites, examination types, and questions. Free-text comments were qualitatively categorized and compared by examination type. In total, 6,512 surveys were completed among 137,059 patient encounters. Using exploratory factor analyses of the eight survey questions, three relevant patient experience constructs were derived: (1) front office experience, (2) intake experience, and (3) examination experience. Overall, good scale reliability was observed. Perceived quality of care had the most positive ratings; wait time had the most nonpositive ratings. Of 2,024 free-text comments, 1,859 were positive (most pertaining to staff), and 155 were negative (most pertaining to convenience). MRI patients were most likely to share negative comments, typically regarding the examination experience itself. Psychometric analysis of a patient survey derived three core patient experience constructs: front office experience, intake experience, and examination experience. The survey indicates the need to decrease wait times, streamline the registration process, and improve patient comfort during MRI examinations. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Zarem, Cori; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Neil, Jeffrey; Wallendorf, Michael; Inder, Terrie; Pineda, Roberta
To establish the psychometrics of the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS). In this prospective cohort study of 75 preterm infants (39 females, 36 males) born at or before 30 weeks gestation (mean gestational age 26.56 wks, SD 1.90, range 23-30 wks; mean birthweight 967.33 g, SD 288.54, range 480-2240), oral feeding was videotaped before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The NOMAS was used to classify feeding as normal, disorganized, or dysfunctional. Neurobehavior was assessed at term equivalent, and infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Children returned for developmental testing at 2 years corrected age. Associations between NOMAS scores and (1) neurobehavior; (2) cerebral injury and metrics; and (3) developmental outcome were investigated using χ(2) -analyses, t-tests, and linear regression. For reliability, six certified NOMAS evaluators rated five randomly selected NOMAS recordings and re-scored them 2 weeks later in a second randomized order. Reliability was calculated with Cohen's kappa statistics. Dysfunctional NOMAS scores were associated with lower Dubowitz scores [t=-2.14; mean difference -2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.157 to -4.49); p=0.036], higher stress on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (t=2.61; mean difference 0.073 [95% CI 0.017-0.129]; p=0.0110), and decreased transcerebellar diameter (t=-2.22; mean difference -2.04 [CI=-3.89 to -0.203]; p=0.03). No significant associations were found between NOMAS scores and 2-year outcome. Some concurrent validity was established with associations between NOMAS scores and measures of infant behavior and cerebral structure. The NOMAS did not show predictive validity in this study of preterm infants at high risk of developmental delay. Reliability was variable and suboptimal. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Akerman, Eva; Fridlund, Bengt; Samuelson, Karin; Baigi, Amir; Ersson, Anders
This is a further development of a specific questionnaire, the 3-set 4P, to be used for measuring former ICU patients' physical and psychosocial problems after intensive care and the need for follow-up. The aim was to psychometrically test and evaluate the 3-set 4P questionnaire in a larger population. The questionnaire consists of three sets: "physical", "psychosocial" and "follow-up". The questionnaires were sent by mail to all patients with more than 24-hour length of stay on four ICUs in Sweden. Construct validity was measured with exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation. This resulted in three factors for the "physical set", five factors for the "psychosocial set" and four factors for the "follow-up set" with strong factor loadings and a total explained variance of 62-77.5%. Thirteen questions in the SF-36 were used for concurrent validity showing Spearman's r(s) 0.3-0.6 in eight questions and less than 0.2 in five. Test-retest was used for stability reliability. In set follow-up the correlation was strong to moderate and in physical and psychosocial sets the correlations were moderate to fair. This may have been because the physical and psychosocial status changed rapidly during the test period. All three sets had good homogeneity. In conclusion, the 3-set 4P showed overall acceptable results, but it has to be further modified in different cultures before being considered a fully operational instrument for use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sigerson, Leif; Li, Angel Y-L; Cheung, Mike W-L; Luk, Jeremy W; Cheng, Cecilia
To develop a consensus on the definition and measurement of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), several recent studies have used the DSM-5's proposed criteria for IGD as the basis in scale construction. This study contributes to this emerging consensus by developing and validating a new Chinese Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (C-IGDS) based on the DSM-5 criteria. A representative sample of Hong Kong community adults (n=502, 50% men, mean age=37.1, age range=18-60) was recruited for a telephone survey with random digit dialing. Various statistical techniques were used to assess the psychometric properties of the C-IGDS. The C-IGDS had good reliability (Cronbach's α=0.91) and structural validity (CFA model fit: RMSEA=0.027, CFI=0.991, TLI=0.988) in our sample. Moderate to moderately strong correlations with depressive symptoms (r=0.617, pgaming hours (r=0.412, p<0.001) supported the criterion validity of the C-IGDS. In addition, the C-IGDS exhibited strict measurement invariance for sex and at least strong measurement invariance for age. In addition to providing the first Chinese scale for measuring IGD based on the DSM-5's proposed criteria, this study provides empirical support for the validity of these diagnostic criteria as the basis for a universal measure of IGD. Most important, this study is the first to reveal the criteria's measurement invariance, thereby indicating their suitability for use with diverse demographic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Measurement of treatment satisfaction in diabetes is important as it has been shown to be associated with positive outcomes, reduced disease cost and better health. The aim of this study was to assess the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Greek version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ. Methods A sample of type II diabetes patients (N = 172 completed the DTSQ status version, the SF-36 health survey and also provided data regarding treatment method, clinical and socio-demographic status. Instrument structure, reliability (Cronbach's a and construct validity (convergent, discriminative, concurrent and known-groups were assessed. Results The DTSQ measurement properties were confirmed in the Greek version with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Scale reliability was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92. Item-scale internal consistency and discriminant validity were also good, exceeding the designated success criteria. Significant correlations were observed between DTSQ items/overall score and SF-36 scales/component scores, which were hypothesized to measure similar dimensions. Known groups' comparisons yielded consistent support of the construct validity of the instrument. Conclusions The instrument was well-accepted by the patients and its psychometric properties were similar to those reported in validation studies of other language versions. Further research, incorporating a longitudinal study design, is required for examining test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument, which were not addressed in this study. Overall, the present results confirm that the DTSQ status version is a reasonable choice for measuring diabetes treatment satisfaction in Greece.
Full Text Available Background: During the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the negative effects that providing therapy may have on therapists. Of special interest is a phenomenon called secondary traumatization, which can arise while working with traumatized clients. To develop a simple screening tool for secondary traumatization, a quantitative assessment instrument was constructed using a data-driven approach based on qualitative interviews with affected trauma therapists as well as experienced supervisors in trauma therapy. Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the newly developed Questionnaire for Secondary Traumatization (FST acute and lifetime version and to determine the most appropriate scoring procedure. Method: To this end, three independent samples of psychotherapists (n=371, trauma therapists in training (n=80, and refugee counselors (n=197 filled out an online questionnaire battery. Data structure was analyzed using factor analyses, cluster analyses, and reliability analyses. Results: Factor analyses yielded a six-factor structure for both the acute and the lifetime version with only a small number of items loading on differing factors. Cluster analyses suggested a single scale structure of the questionnaire. The FST total score showed good internal consistencies across all three samples, while internal consistency of the six extracted factors was mixed. Conclusion: With the FST, a reliable screening instrument for acute and lifetime secondary traumatization is now available which is free of charge and yields a sum score for quick evaluation. The six-factor structure needs to be verified with confirmatory factor analyses.
Bruijning, Janna E; van Rens, Ger; Knol, Dirk; van Nispen, Ruth
In the past, rehabilitation centers for the visually impaired used unstructured or semistructured methods to assess rehabilitation needs of their patients. Recently, an extensive instrument, the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI), was developed to systematically investigate rehabilitation needs of visually impaired adults and to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying factor structure and other psychometric properties to shorten and improve the D-AI. The D-AI was administered to 241 visually impaired persons who recently enrolled in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation center. The D-AI uses graded scores to assess the importance and difficulty of 65 rehabilitation goals. For high-priority goals (e.g., daily meal preparation), the difficulty of underlying tasks (e.g., read recipes, cut vegetables) was assessed. To reduce underlying task items (>950), descriptive statistics were investigated and factor analyses were performed for several goals. The internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability of the D-AI were investigated by calculating Cronbach α and Cohen (weighted) κ. Finally, consensus-based discussions were used to shorten and improve the D-AI. Except for one goal, factor analysis model parameters were at least reasonable. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (range, 0.74 to 0.93). In total, 60% of the 65 goal importance items and 84.4% of the goal difficulty items showed moderate to almost perfect κ values (≥0.40). After consensus-based discussions, a new D-AI was produced, containing 48 goals and less than 500 tasks. The analyses were an important step in the validation process of the D-AI and to develop a more feasible assessment tool to investigate rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons in a systematic way. The D-AI is currently implemented in all Dutch rehabilitation centers serving all visually impaired adults with various rehabilitation needs.
McGilton, Katherine S
To describe the development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale (SSS). The development of the items of the scale was based on Winnicott's relationship theory and on focus groups with 26 healthcare aides (HCAs) and 30 supervisors from six long-term care (LTC) facilities in Ontario, Canada. Content validity of the 15-item instrument was established by a panel of experts. Based on a secondary analysis of data collected from 222 HCAs in 10 LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada, the SSS was subjected to principal components analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with the theoretical conceptualization of the instrument. Factor I was labeled Respects Uniqueness and Factor II was labeled Being Reliable. Internal consistency of Factor I was .95, and that of Factor II was .91. Discriminant validity was also established. The focus groups revealed that "being available to staff" while "recognizing the HCA as an individual, and taking a moment to get to know them" was essential to feeling supported by their supervisor. The SSS is a reliable and valid measure of supervisory support of supervisors working in LTC facilities. At the core of supportive supervision is the supervisor's ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with each HCA. It is through respecting the uniqueness of each HCA and being reliable that supervisor-HCA relationships can flourish. Supportive leadership in LTC settings is a major contributor to HCAs' job satisfaction and retention and to quality of patient care. Therefore, a tool developed and tested to measure supervisors' supportive capacities in LTC is primal to evaluate the effectiveness of supervisors in these environments.
Hill, Bridget; Williams, Gavin; Olver, John; Ferris, Scott; Bialocerkowski, Andrea
To evaluate reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of the Brachial Assessment Tool (BrAT), a new patient-reported outcome measure for adults with traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI). Prospective repeated-measure design. Outpatient clinics. Adults with confirmed traumatic BPI (N=43; age range, 19-82y). People with BPI completed the 31-item 4-response BrAT twice, 2 weeks apart. Results for the 3 subscales and summed score were compared at time 1 and time 2 to determine reliability, including systematic differences using paired t tests, test retest using intraclass correlation coefficient model 1,1 (ICC 1,1 ), and internal consistency using Cronbach α. Agreement parameters included standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change, and limits of agreement. BrAT. Test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC 1,1 =.90-.97). Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α=.90-.98). Measurement error was relatively low (standard error of measurement range, 3.1-8.8). A change of >4 for subscale 1, >6 for subscale 2, >4 for subscale 3, and >10 for the summed score is indicative of change over and above measurement error. Limits of agreement ranged from ±4.4 (subscale 3) to 11.61 (summed score). These findings support the use of the BrAT as a reproducible patient-reported outcome measure for adults with traumatic BPI with evidence of appropriate reliability and agreement for both individual and group comparisons. Further psychometric testing is required to establish the construct validity and responsiveness of the BrAT. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Telch, Michael J; Pujols, Yasisca
Erectile dysfunction is a highly publicized and prevalent condition with marked adverse effects on men's social, emotional, and quality of life. Although several instruments have emerged for assessing erectile dysfunction and its impact on men's quality of life, none of the existing instruments provide a specific assessment of men's erectile performance anxiety. This article reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Erectile Performance Anxiety Index (EPAI)--a 10-item self-report scale designed to fill an important gap in the assessment of male erectile dysfunction. A total of 207 men ranging in age from 18 to 79 took part in the study. All subjects completed an online battery consisting of the EPAI, along with measures of related sexual functioning, social anxiety, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms. A small subset of study participants (N = 42) completed the EPAI a second time for determining test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by Pearson's product-moment correlations. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Factor validity was evaluated by a maximum likelihood factor analysis with oblique rotation. Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the strength of association between the EPAI and measures varying in their hypothesized shared variance with the construct of erectile performance anxiety. The EPAI demonstrated excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha = 0.93 and excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.85) over an average period of 3.5 weeks. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution that accounted for 63% of the total variance. Preliminary evidence supports the convergent and discriminant validity of the EPAI. Results support the use of the EPAI as a reliable, valid, and efficient instrument for the assessment of erectile performance anxiety. Potential research and clinical applications are discussed. © 2013 International
Bennett, Robert M; Friend, Ronald; Jones, Kim D; Ward, Rachel; Han, Bobby K; Ross, Rebecca L
Introduction The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) is a commonly used instrument in the evaluation of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Over the last 18 years, since the publication of the original FIQ, several deficiencies have become apparent and the cumbersome scoring algorithm has been a barrier to widespread clinical use. The aim of this paper is to describe and validate a revised version of the FIQ: the FIQR. Methods The FIQR was developed in response to known deficiencies of the FIQ with the help of a patient focus group. The FIQR has the same 3 domains as the FIQ (that is, function, overall impact and symptoms). It differs from the FIQ in having modified function questions and the inclusion of questions on memory, tenderness, balance and environmental sensitivity. All questions are graded on a 0–10 numeric scale. The FIQR was administered online and the results were compared to the same patient's online responses to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the original FIQ. Results The FIQR was completed online by 202 FM patients, 51 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (31 RA and 20 SLE), 11 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 213 healthy controls (HC). The mean total FIQR score was 56.6 ± 19.9 compared to a total FIQ score of 60.6 ± 17.8 (P FIQ were closely correlated (r = 0.88, P FIQ domains (r = 0.69 to 0.88, P FIQ that has good psychometric properties, can be completed in less than 2 minutes and is easy to score. It has scoring characteristics comparable to the original FIQ, making it possible to compare past FIQ results with future FIQR results. PMID:19664287
correctly identify adherent patients with undetectable viral load were also observed for three studies. Although the data provided in the reports were heterogeneous, these were valuable and reported enough evidence of validity for the instrument. The selected studies represented 41.7 % of those initially identified, and only eight out of 20 documents were peer reviewed. The CEAT-VIH has been used for a variety of individuals of different ages, sex, socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. It has been a reliable and valid tool in measuring adherence to HIV treatment among different samples, and has been used with a wide range of study populations and countries (i.e., Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania and Spain). Encouraging data reported here may allow the recommendation of the CEAT-VIH as a valuable measure to use in HIV adherence research, especially in countries where the questionnaire already has available psychometric evidence.
Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.
Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661
Liou, Shwu-Ru; Liu, Hsiu-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Ching-Yu
The purpose of the study was to develop and psychometrically test the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale. Clinical reasoning is an essential skill for providing safe and quality patient care. Identifying pre-graduates' and nurses' needs and designing training courses to improve their clinical reasoning competence becomes a critical task. However, there is no instrument focusing on clinical reasoning in the nursing profession. Cross-sectional design was used. This study included the development of the scale, a pilot study that preliminary tested the readability and reliability of the developed scale and a main study that implemented and tested the psychometric properties of the developed scale. The Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale was developed based on the Clinical Reasoning Model. The scale includes 15 items using a Likert five-point scale. Data were collected from 2013-2014. Two hundred and fifty-one participants comprising clinical nurses and nursing pre-graduates completed and returned the questionnaires in the main study. The instrument was tested for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Its validity was tested with content, construct and known-groups validity. One factor emerged from the factor analysis. The known-groups validity was confirmed. The Cronbach's alpha for the entire instrument was 0·9. The reliability and validity of the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale were supported. The scale is a useful tool and can be easily administered for the self-assessment of clinical reasoning competence of clinical nurses and future baccalaureate nursing graduates. Study limitations and further recommendations are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Foster, Roxie L; Park, Jeong-hwan
Anxiety and fear are among the most frequently reported emotional responses to hospitalization and are known to be contributing factors to pain and other negative patient outcomes. The first step in confronting unnecessary anxiety and fear is to identify valid and clinically feasible assessment instruments. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate instruments that measure children's fear or anxiety associated with hospitalization or painful procedures. A search was conducted of published English-language literature from 1980 through 2010 with the use of Ovid Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Medline, Nursing/Academic Edition, Cinahl, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria specified that the self-report instrument: 1) was developed in English; 2) was developed for and/or widely used with hospitalized children or children undergoing medical procedures or treatment; and 3) had research evidence of psychometric properties from at least five different studies. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed only five fear or anxiety instruments with adequate testing for evaluation of reliability and validity. Although all instruments have beginning psychometric adequacy, no one tool stands out as superior to the others. Therefore, we recommend that researchers and clinicians exercise caution in choosing assessment instruments, balancing potential strengths with reported limitations. Using more than one tool (triangulating) may be one way to achieve more credible results. Knowledge of credible existing instruments alerts us to what is possible today and to the imperative for research that will improve communication with children tomorrow. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike
Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs' cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs' cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension's Cronbach's α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs' cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive assessment of HCPs' cultural competence, and has the
Dovey, Terence M; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I; Wilken, Markus; Meyer, Caroline
This study assessed the specificity and sensitivity of two commonly used psychometric methods to assess ARFID in children. To achieve this, a sample of 329 mothers and one father completed the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that both measures were able to successfully differentiate a known clinical sample from those of typically developing population. Although the BPFAS was more accurate at differentiating ARFID from the general population, the CFNS was acceptable and on some metrics better than its longer counterpart. The ability of a food neophobia scale to differentiate clinical and population samples, and detect gradation of food avoidance within the population sample, suggests that the multitude of psychometric measures available may be measuring similar constructs. Therefore, confidence can be expected in cross-site comparisons despite each using different psychometric measures of food avoidance in children. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available These analyses examine the psychometric properties of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test with Immediate Recall (FCSRT-IR. FCSRT-IR is a measure of memory under conditions that control attention and cognitive processing in order to obtain an assessment of memory unconfounded by normal agerelated changes in cognition. FCSRT-IR performance has been associated with preclinical and early dementia in several longitudinal epidemiological studies. Factor and item response theory analyses were applied to FCSRT-IR data from patients at a geriatric primary care center who had independently established clinical diagnoses. The results provide supporting evidence for the psychometric adequacy of the FCSR-IR in terms of reliability, essential (sufficient unidimensionality, information across the continuum of memory disability/ability, and classification accuracy. The psychometric adequacy of the FCSRT-IR adds further validity to its use as a case finding strategy for dementia.
Culpepper, Steven; Janssen, Rianne; González, Jorge; Molenaar, Dylan
This proceedings book highlights the latest research and developments in psychometrics and statistics. Featuring contributions presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of Zurich and held in Zurich, Switzerland from July 17 to 21, 2017, its 34 chapters address a diverse range of psychometric topics including item response theory, factor analysis, causal inference, Bayesian statistics, test equating, cognitive diagnostic models and multistage adaptive testing. The IMPS is one of the largest international meetings on quantitative measurement in psychology, education and the social sciences, attracting over 500 participants and 250 paper presentations from around the world every year. This book gathers the contributions of selected presenters, which were subsequently expanded and peer-reviewed.
Gobbett, Matthew J; Sellen, Joselyn L
The most widely implemented offending behaviour programme in the United Kingdom was Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS), a cognitive-behavioural group intervention that aimed to develop participant's general cognitive skills. A new offending behaviour programme has been developed to replace ETS: the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP). This study reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of TSP using psychometric assessments. Phasing of the two programmes created an opportunity to compare the two programmes consecutively. Forty participants, 20 from each programme, completed a range of psychometric measures to examine cognition, attitudes, and thinking styles. Analysis of pre- and post-programme psychometric results indicated that participants of TSP demonstrated improvements on 14 of the 15 scales, 9 of which were statistically significant. Effect sizes between pre-post results were generally greater for TSP than ETS, demonstrating that TSP had a more positive impact on the thinking styles and attitudes of participants than the ETS programme.
Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.
This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…
Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin
This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…
Arbuckle, R.A.; Humphrey, L.; Vardeva, K.; Arondekar, B.; Scott, J.A.; Snoek, F.J.
Objective: To assess the psychometric validity, reliability, responsiveness, and minimal important differences of the Diabetes Symptoms Checklist-Revised (DSC-R), a widely used patient-reported outcome measure of diabetes symptom distress. Research Design and Methods: Psychometric validity of the
Timmerman, Angelique A; Speyer, Renée; Heijnen, Bas J; Klijn-Zwijnenberg, Iris R
Dysphagia can have severe consequences for the patient's health, influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Sound psychometric properties of HRQoL questionnaires are a precondition for assessing the impact of dysphagia, the focus of this study, resulting in recommendations for the appropriate use of these questionnaires in both clinical practice and research contexts. We performed a systematic review starting with a search for and retrieval of all full-text articles on the development of HRQoL questionnaires related to oropharyngeal dysphagia and/or their psychometric validation from the electronic databases PubMed and Embase published up to June 2011. Psychometric properties were judged according to quality criteria proposed for health status questionnaires. Eight questionnaires were included in this study. Four are aimed solely at HRQoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia: the deglutition handicap index (DHI), dysphagia handicap index (DHI'), M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), and SWAL-QOL, while the EDGQ, EORTC QLQ-STO 22, EORTC QLQ-OG 25 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 focus on other primary diseases resulting in dysphagia. The psychometric properties of the DHI, DHI', MDADI, and SWAL-QOL were evaluated. For appropriate applicability of HRQoL questionnaires, strong scores on the psychometric criteria face validity, criterion validity, and interpretability are prerequisites. The SWAL-QOL has the strongest ratings for these criteria, while the DHI' is the most easy to apply given its 25 items and the use of a uniform scoring format. For optimal use of HRQoL questionnaires in diverse settings, it is necessary to combine psychometric and utility approaches.
Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Festinger, David S; Lynch, Kevin G; Marlowe, Douglas B
Systematically identifying reasons that clients enter substance abuse treatment may allow clinicians to immediately focus on issues of greatest relevance to the individual and enhance treatment engagement. We developed the Survey of Treatment Entry Pressures (STEP) to identify the specific factors that precipitated an individual's treatment entry. The instrument contains 121 items from 6 psychosocial domains (i.e., family, financial, social, medical, psychiatric, legal). The current study examined the STEP's psychometric properties. A total of 761 participants from various treatment settings and modalities completed the STEP prior to treatment admission and 4-7 days later. Analyses were performed to examine the instrument's psychometric properties including item response rates, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and factor structure. The items displayed adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency within each psychosocial domain. Generally, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 2-factor structure reflecting type of reinforcement schedule. The study provides preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the STEP. The STEP may provide a reliable way for clinicians to characterize and capitalize on a client's treatment motivation early on which may serve to improve treatment retention and therapeutic outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse; Anttila, Heidi
(Participation Repertoire). PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate a range of psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 in a sample of adult powered mobility device (PMD) users. METHOD: Data collected from PMD users ( N = 248) in Denmark, Finland, and Norway as part of a larger study were analyzed using state...... scale and six components of the Frequency scale. IMPLICATIONS: The NOMO 1.0 should be used for research purposes and not for clinical practice. Better reliability should be established for the Need for Assistance and Ease/Difficulty scales prior to further psychometric testing to establish the validity...
This paper examines the demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons who were denied unescorted access authorization for protected areas and vital islands of nuclear power plants, in accordance with the relevant proposed rule of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Demographic characteristics examined include age, sex, occupation, education, marital status, and number of children. Behavioral characteristics examined include substance use/abuse/treatment and instances of antisocial behavior. Psychometric characteristics examined include elevations on basic MMPI clinical scales, elevations on special indices of psychosis and substance abuse, and endorsement of so-called critical items
Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life, and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing because it cannot, by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric and neurophysiologic techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries and computerized tests have proved useful in diagnosing MHE and predicting its outcomes. Neurophysiologic tests also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike. Testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort, and local expertise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos
The study analyzed psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 400 men and 453 women who had had a partner for the last 6 mo. or longer at the time of the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution with the factors Initiation and No shyness/Refusal. Internal consistency values for total scores were .87 and .83 for the factors, respectively. Convergent validity tests were also satisfactory. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the Spanish version of the scale has appropriate psychometric properties.
Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K
Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred...... diagnostic test battery in cirrhosis is often the Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests but the effect on these of other medical conditions is not known. We aimed to examine the effects of common chronic (non-cirrhosis) medical conditions on the CRT and PSE tests. We...
Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Bech, Per
In recent years, much effort has been invested in the development of new instruments for assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For many new instruments, modern psychometric methods, such as item response theory (IRT) models, have been used, either as supplemental to classical....... The models include Rasch models (Rasch 1980; Fischer and Molenaar 1995), other IRT models (Samejima 1969; van der Linden and Hambleton 1997), and factor analytic models for categorical data (Muthén 1984). “Modern” psychometric methods have actually a rather long history within psychiatric research (both...
Rodriguez, A Noel; DeWitt, Peter; Fisher, Jennifer; Broadfoot, Kirsten; Hurt, K Joseph
To characterize the psychometric properties of a novel Obstetric Communication Assessment Tool (OCAT) in a pilot study of standardized difficult OB communication scenarios appropriate for undergraduate medical evaluation. We developed and piloted four challenging OB Standardized Patient (SP) scenarios in a sample of twenty-one third year OB/GYN clerkship students: Religious Beliefs (RB), Angry Father (AF), Maternal Smoking (MS), and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). Five trained Standardized Patient Reviewers (SPRs) independently scored twenty-four randomized video-recorded encounters using the OCAT. Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient-2 (ICC-2) were used to estimate internal consistency (IC) and inter-rater reliability (IRR), respectively. Systematic variation in reviewer scoring was assessed using the Stuart-Maxwell test. IC was acceptable to excellent with Cronbach's alpha values (and 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]): RB 0.91 (0.86, 0.95), AF 0.76 (0.62, 0.87), MS 0.91 (0.86, 0.95), and IPV 0.94 (0.91, 0.97). IRR was unacceptable to poor with ICC-2 values: RB 0.46 (0.40, 0.53), AF 0.48 (0.41, 0.54), MS 0.52 (0.45, 0.58), and IPV 0.67 (0.61, 0.72). Stuart-Maxwell analysis indicated systematic differences in reviewer stringency. Our initial characterization of the OCAT demonstrates important issues in communications assessment. We identify scoring inconsistencies due to differences in SPR rigor that require enhanced training to improve assessment reliability. We outline a rational process for initial communication tool validation that may be useful in undergraduate curriculum development, and acknowledge that rigorous validation of OCAT training and implementation is needed to create a valuable OB communication assessment tool.
Siegert, Richard J; Jackson, Diana M; Turner-Stokes, Lynne
A psychometric evaluation of the Needs and Provision Complexity Scale (NPCS). The NPCS is designed to evaluate both needs for health and social support (NPCS-Needs) and services provided to meet those needs (NPCS-Gets). A consecutive cohort of patients were recruited from nine specialist neurorehabilitation units in London. Four hundred and twenty-eight patients were assessed at discharge (63.1% males; mean age 49 years) of whom 73.6% had acquired brain injury (49.5% stroke/subarachnoid, 14.7% traumatic brain injury, 9.3% 'other acquired brain injury'), 8.9% spinal cord injury, 6.1% peripheral neuropathy, 4.9% progressive neurological and 6.3% other neurological conditions. The NPCS-Needs was completed by the clinical team at discharge and 212 patients reported NPCS-Gets after six months. NPCS-Gets repeatability was tested in a subsample (n = 60). Factor analysis identified two principal domains ('Health and personal care' and 'Social care and support') accounting for 66% of variance, and suggested a large general factor underpinning the NPCS. Internal consistency was high (alpha = 0.94) and repeatability acceptable. Intraclass coefficients for domain scores were healthcare 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.80); personal care 0.83 (0.73-0.90); rehabilitation 0.65 (0.45-0.78); social/family support 0.66 (0.46-0.79) and environment 0.84 (0.74-0.90). Linear-weighted kappas for item-by-item agreement ranged from 0.42 to 0.83. Concurrent validity was demonstrated through correlations with measures of dependency and community integration. Notwithstanding a 50% response rate after six months, the NPCS has good internal consistency, a robust two-factor structure, acceptable test-retest reliability and initial evidence of concurrent validity. © The Author(s) 2014.
von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N
The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Poghosyan, Lusine; Nannini, Angela; Finkelstein, Stacey R; Mason, Emanuel; Shaffer, Jonathan A
Policy makers and healthcare organizations are calling for expansion of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce in primary care settings to assure timely access and high-quality care for the American public. However, many barriers, including those at the organizational level, exist that may undermine NP workforce expansion and their optimal utilization in primary care. This study developed a new NP-specific survey instrument, Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire (NP-PCOCQ), to measure organizational climate in primary care settings and conducted its psychometric testing. Using instrument development design, the organizational climate domain pertinent for primary care NPs was identified. Items were generated from the evidence and qualitative data. Face and content validity were established through two expert meetings. Content validity index was computed. The 86-item pool was reduced to 55 items, which was pilot tested with 81 NPs using mailed surveys and then field-tested with 278 NPs in New York State. SPSS 18 and Mplus software were used for item analysis, reliability testing, and maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis. Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire had face and content validity. The content validity index was .90. Twenty-nine items loaded on four subscale factors: professional visibility, NP-administration relations, NP-physician relations, and independent practice and support. The subscales had high internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's alphas ranged from.87 to .95. Having a strong instrument is important to promote future research. Also, administrators can use it to assess organizational climate in their clinics and propose interventions to improve it, thus promoting NP practice and the expansion of NP workforce.
Kern, Robert S; Gold, James M; Dickinson, Dwight; Green, Michael F; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Baade, Lyle E; Keefe, Richard S E; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Seidman, Larry J; Lee, Cathy; Sugar, Catherine A; Marder, Stephen R
The MATRICS Psychometric and Standardization Study was conducted as a final stage in the development of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The study included 176 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 300 community residents. Data were analyzed to examine the cognitive profile of clinically stable schizophrenia patients on the MCCB. Secondarily, the data were analyzed to identify which combination of cognitive domains and corresponding cut-off scores best discriminated patients from community residents, and patients competitively employed vs. those not. Raw scores on the ten MCCB tests were entered into the MCCB scoring program which provided age- and gender-corrected T-scores on seven cognitive domains. To test for between-group differences, we conducted a 2 (group)×7 (cognitive domain) MANOVA with follow-up independent t-tests on the individual domains. Classification and regression trees (CART) were used for the discrimination analyses. Examination of patient T-scores across the seven cognitive domains revealed a relatively compact profile with T-scores ranging from 33.4 for speed of processing to 39.3 for reasoning and problem-solving. Speed of processing and social cognition best distinguished individuals with schizophrenia from community residents; speed of processing along with visual learning and attention/vigilance optimally distinguished patients competitively employed from those who were not. The cognitive profile findings provide a standard to which future studies can compare results from other schizophrenia samples and related disorders; the classification results point to specific areas and levels of cognitive impairment that may advance work rehabilitation efforts. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Al Ansari, Ahmed; Strachan, Kathryn; Hashim, Sumaya; Otoom, Sameer
Effective clinical teaching is crucially important for the future of patient care. Robust clinical training therefore is essential to produce physicians capable of delivering high quality health care. Tools used to evaluate medical faculty teaching qualities should be reliable and valid. This study investigates the psychometric properties of modification of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) instrument in the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in four teaching hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Two-hundred ninety-eight medical students were invited to evaluate 105 clinical teachers using the SETQ instrument between January 2015 and March 2015. Questionnaire feasibility was analyzed using average time required to complete the form and the number of raters required to produce reliable results. Instrument reliability (stability) was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale and for each sub-scale (factor). To provide evidence of construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify which items on the survey belonged together, which were then grouped as factors. One-hundred twenty-five medical students completed 1161 evaluations of 105 clinical teachers. The response rates were 42% for student evaluations and 57% for clinical teacher self-evaluations. The factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was composed of six factors, explaining 76.7% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 or higher for the six factors in the student survey; for the clinical teacher survey, Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. In both instruments, the item-total correlation was above 0.40 for all items within their respective scales. Our modified SETQ questionnaire was found to be both reliable and valid, and was implemented successfully across various departments and specialties in different hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Mraity, H.; England, A.; Akhtar, I.; Aslam, A.; De Lange, R.; Momoniat, H.; Nicoulaz, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Mazhir, S.; Hogg, P.
Purpose: To develop and validate a psychometric scale for assessing image quality perception for chest X-ray images. Methods: Bandura's theory was used to guide scale development. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify items/factors which could be used to evaluate image quality using a perceptual approach. A draft scale was then created (22 items) and presented to a focus group (student and qualified radiographers). Within the focus group the draft scale was discussed and modified. A series of seven postero-anterior chest images were generated using a phantom with a range of image qualities. Image quality perception was confirmed for the seven images using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 17.2–36.5). Participants (student and qualified radiographers and radiology trainees) were then invited to independently score each of the seven images using the draft image quality perception scale. Cronbach alpha was used to test interval reliability. Results: Fifty three participants used the scale to grade image quality perception on each of the seven images. Aggregated mean scale score increased with increasing SNR from 42.1 to 87.7 (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). For each of the 22 individual scale items there was clear differentiation of low, mid and high quality images. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of >0.7 was obtained across each of the seven images. Conclusion: This study represents the first development of a chest image quality perception scale based on Bandura's theory. There was excellent correlation between the image quality perception scores derived using the scale and the SNR. Further research will involve a more detailed item and factor analysis
As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...
The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.
Full Text Available The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test is a popular measure of individual differences in Theory of Mind that is often applied in the assessment of particular clinical populations (primarily, individuals on the autism spectrum. However, little is known about the test’s psychometric properties, including factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity evidence. We present a psychometric analysis of the test followed by an evaluation of other empirically proposed and statistically identified structures. We identified, and cross-validated in a second sample, an adequate short-form solution that is homogeneous with adequate internal consistency, and is moderately related to Cognitive Empathy, Emotion Perception, and strongly related to Vocabulary. We recommend the use of this short-form solution in normal adults as a more precise measure over the original version. Future revisions of the test should seek to reduce the test’s reliance on one’s vocabulary and evaluate the short-form structure in clinical populations.
Full Text Available Background: Designing a valid and reliable questionnaire that allows a fair evaluation of sexual knowledge and attitudes and develop a proper sexual educational program is necessary. Objective: The present study was designed to develop and psychometric evaluation of the sexual knowledge and attitudes scale for premarital couples. Materials and Methods: An exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two phases; in the first, in order to develop a questionnaire an item pool was generated on sexual knowledge and attitudes through focus group discussions and individual interviews. In the second phase, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined. For this purpose, face validity, content validity as well as construct validity were conducted. Reliability was assessed by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: In the first phase an item pool with 88 questions was generated (sexual knowledge 45 items and sexual attitudes 43 items. In the second phase, the number of final items reduced to 33 and 34 items of sexual knowledge and sexual attitudes respectively, through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Five factors for sexual knowledge and six factors for sexual attitudes identified by EFA. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for two sections was 0.84 and 0.81 respectively. The test- retest correlations for sexual knowledge and sexual attitude was 0.74 and 0.82 respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Premarital Couples is a valid and reliable instrument. Further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the questionnaire.
van Loosbroek Erik
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties and the perceived usefulness of the BARO (Dutch: BAsisRaadsOnderzoek; Protection Board Preliminary Examination of Juvenile Suspects. The BARO is a first-line screening instrument for the identification of psychiatric disorders, adverse environmental factors, and levels of (dysfunction in adolescent offenders (age 12 to 18, to be used by social workers of the Child Protection Board (CPB following a police arrest. Method CPB workers administered the BARO to 295 juvenile offenders (91% boys, 9% girls. A subgroup of 66 offenders (89% boys, 11% girls underwent an elaborate diagnostic assessment by forensic psychologists and psychiatrists. Using these assessments the most relevant psychometric properties of the BARO were studied. The perceived usefulness was studied using questionnaires to be filled in by the CPB social workers. Results The internal consistency of the instrument was sufficient to good, the concurrent validity of the CPB social workers applying the BARO and the forensic experts carrying out the comprehensive diagnostic assessment was strong, the discriminatory value of the instrument was moderate to strong, and the perceived usefulness of the instrument was evaluated as good to very good by the majority of the CPB workers. Discussion The BARO has sufficient to good psychometric properties including moderate to strong discriminatory value and is considered a good screening instrument by the CPB social workers. In conclusion, the BARO seems to be a very promising first-line screening instrument to identify psychiatric and psychosocial problems in young offenders.
Mahmoudian, Amaneh; Torabi Chafjiri, Razieh; Alipour, Atefeh; Shamsalinia, Abbas; Ghaffari, Fatemeh
Older adults with chronic disease are more vulnerable to abuse. Early and accurate detection of the elderly abuse phenomenon can help identify health-promoting solutions for the elderly, their family, and society. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire on elderly abuse by family caregivers among older adults on hemodialysis. Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used to develop the questionnaire. The item pool was compiled from literature reviews and the Delphi method. The literature reviews comprised 22 studies. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were verified using face, content, and construct validity, and the reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha reliability. A 57-item questionnaire was developed after the psychometric evaluation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index and Bartlett's test of sphericity showed reliable results. Seven components from the exploratory content analysis including psychological misbehavior, authority deprivation, physical misbehavior, financial misbehavior, being abandoned, caring neglect, and emotional misbehavior explained 74.769% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.98 and the interclass correlation coefficient was r =0.91 responding to the items twice ( p <0.001), which shows a high level of tool stability. This study developed a questionnaire to assess elderly abuse by family caregivers among older adults on hemodialysis. It is recommended as a mini scale that can be used both in statistical and practical studies, and that is valid and reliable. Nurses or other health care providers can use it in health centers, dialysis centers, or at the house of the patient.
Tomita, Machiko R; Saharan, Sumandeep; Rajendran, Sheela; Nochajski, Susan M; Schweitzer, Jo A
OBJECTIVE. To identify psychometric properties of the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool (HSSAT) to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD. We tested content validity, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, construct validity, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change. RESULTS. The content validity index was .98, the intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was .97, and the interrater reliability was .89. The difference on identified risk factors between the use and nonuse of the HSSAT was significant (p = .005). Convergent validity with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Home Safety Checklist was high (r = .65), and discriminant validity with fear of falling was very low (r = .10). The responsiveness to change was moderate (standardized response mean = 0.57). CONCLUSION. The HSSAT is a reliable and valid instrument to identify fall risks in a home environment, and the HSSAT booklet is effective as educational material leading to improvement in home safety. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Wang, Jen; Thombs, Brett D.; Schmid, Margareta R.
Abstract Background Growing recognition of the role of citizens and patients in health and health care has placed a spotlight on health literacy and patient education. Objective To identify specific competencies for health in definitions of health literacy and patient‐centred concepts and empirically test their dimensionality in the general population. Methods A thorough review of the literature on health literacy, self‐management, patient empowerment, patient education and shared decision making revealed considerable conceptual overlap as competencies for health and identified a corpus of 30 generic competencies for health. A questionnaire containing 127 items covering the 30 competencies was fielded as a telephone interview in German, French and Italian among 1255 respondents randomly selected from the resident population in Switzerland. Findings Analyses with the software MPlus to model items with mixed response categories showed that the items do not load onto a single factor. Multifactorial models with good fit could be erected for each of five dimensions defined a priori and their corresponding competencies: information and knowledge (four competencies, 17 items), general cognitive skills (four competencies, 17 items), social roles (two competencies, seven items), medical management (four competencies, 27 items) and healthy lifestyle (two competencies, six items). Multiple indicators and multiple causes models identified problematic differential item functioning for only six items belonging to two competencies. Conclusions The psychometric analyses of this instrument support broader conceptualization of health literacy not as a single competence but rather as a package of competencies for health. PMID:22390287
Wang, Jen; Thombs, Brett D; Schmid, Margareta R
Growing recognition of the role of citizens and patients in health and health care has placed a spotlight on health literacy and patient education. To identify specific competencies for health in definitions of health literacy and patient-centred concepts and empirically test their dimensionality in the general population. A thorough review of the literature on health literacy, self-management, patient empowerment, patient education and shared decision making revealed considerable conceptual overlap as competencies for health and identified a corpus of 30 generic competencies for health. A questionnaire containing 127 items covering the 30 competencies was fielded as a telephone interview in German, French and Italian among 1255 respondents randomly selected from the resident population in Switzerland. Analyses with the software MPlus to model items with mixed response categories showed that the items do not load onto a single factor. Multifactorial models with good fit could be erected for each of five dimensions defined a priori and their corresponding competencies: information and knowledge (four competencies, 17 items), general cognitive skills (four competencies, 17 items), social roles (two competencies, seven items), medical management (four competencies, 27 items) and healthy lifestyle (two competencies, six items). Multiple indicators and multiple causes models identified problematic differential item functioning for only six items belonging to two competencies. The psychometric analyses of this instrument support broader conceptualization of health literacy not as a single competence but rather as a package of competencies for health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vaughan, Robert; Laborde, Sylvain
The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometrics properties of the Emotional Intelligence Scale and assess the measurement invariance across elite (n = 367), amateur (n = 629), and non-athletes (n = 550). In total, 1,546 participants from various sports completed the emotional intelligence scale. Several competing models were compared…
Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…
Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.
This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…
Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David
There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…
Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Weber, Judith L.; Moore, Page C.; Johnson, Danya; Williams, Ed R.; Ward, Wendy L.; Robbins, James M.; Phillips, B. Allyson
The comprehensive assessment of middle school student bonding is important for basic research and to evaluate interventions. In this study, the psychometric properties of three assessment tools found in the literature were examined individually and then combined to create a shorter survey. With minor modifications, the tools were found to be…
Wedman, Jonathan; Lyrén, Per-Erik
When subscores on a test are reported to the test taker, the appropriateness of reporting them depends on whether they provide useful information above what is provided by the total score. Subscores that fail to do so lack adequate psychometric quality and should not be reported. There are several methods for examining the quality of subscores,…
Faraci, Palmira; Hell, Benedikt; Schuler, Heinz
This article describes the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation of the "Analyse des Schlussfolgernden und Kreativen Denkens" (ASK; Test of Inferential and Creative Thinking) for measuring inferential and creative thinking. The study aimed to (a) supply evidence for the factorial structure of the instrument, (b) describe its…
Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.
The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…
Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
a Danish respiratory outpatient clinic. The Rasch model was used to evaluate psychometric characteristics of the BMQ-COPD and to obtain necessity and concerns scales fulfilling criteria of unidimensionality and overall fit, and with all items showing individual item fit with no local dependencies...
Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia
This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…
Royal, Kenneth D.; Gonzalez, Liara M.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument intended to measure faculty competence as it pertains to their role as advisors, particularly in medical and professional programs. A total of 166 students completed the Faculty Advisor's Skills and Behaviors Inventory (FASBI). The psychometric…
Ning, Hoi Kwan
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) in a sample of Singapore secondary students (N = 1,171). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the AGQ-R in measuring the four achievements goals delineated in the 2 × 2 framework. Measurement invariance across ethnic groups was…
DiCrecchio, Nicole C.
Co-authorship networks have been studied in many fields as a way to understand collaboration patterns. However, a comprehensive exploration of the psychometrics field has not been conducted. Also, few studies on co-author networks have included longitudinal analyses as well as data on the characteristics of authors in the network. Including both…
van der Ark, L.A.; Wiberg, M.; Culpepper, S.A.; Douglas, J.A.; Wang, W.-C.
This proceedings volume compiles and expands on selected and peer reviewed presentations given at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS), organized by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and held in Asheville, North Carolina, July 11th to 17th, 2016.IMPS is one of the
This study intends to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the short form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI-SF). The study group consists of a total of 526 university students (54% were female) whose ages range from 18 to 32. In the translational equivalence study made over a two-week interval, the FFNI-SF…
Lovakov, Andrey V.; Agadullina, Elena R.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
This article aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) by using a sample of 1783 employees of a large Russian organization. We conducted a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests of the factorial structure and the
Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.
The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…