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Sample records for psychology sociology economics

  1. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TRIAD ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY

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    Corneliu\tSorin\tBAICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground economy, in view of researchers, economists and jurists, is a theoretical complex construct, a phenomenon with profound social and economic reverberations. This study argues multidisciplinary integrative the sociological, psychological and socio-psychological approach of underground economy. The premises of this study are given by methodological individualism and rational choice theory through building in neoclassical version of Homo economicus able to interact in a multidisciplinary and multifaceted manner with the area of social sciences. For the nonce, we submit to analysis an integrative model of Homo Oeconimicus with Homo Sociologicus, aggregated with elements of social psychology. Synergistic effects of this integrative approach consist of the ability to give an answer as relevant on symptoms and forms of deviant behavior and thus to explain the development of underground economy. The finality of this paper, starting from the stated premises, resides in the explanation and analysis of deviant behavior in the framework of the morphology and causality of underground economy. Deviant behavior in the context of our analysis reveals the coherence perspective on the following issues: anatomy and etiology of underground economy (informal and underground activities, illegal labor, tax fraud, etc.; attitude towards rules, society and the state (tax mentality, tax morality, moral conscience; tax compliance or non-compliance (willingness to pay tax liabilities. This paper is intended to constitute a pleading for an interdependent approach, multi-causal and interdisciplinary of underground economy

  2. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  3. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved......The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...

  4. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

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    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  5. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

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    Sévigny, R

    1983-01-01

    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice.

  6. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  7. Psychological and Sociological Determinants of Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the psychological and sociological determinants of academic achievement of school-going adolescents. Six self-report measures were administered randomly to 280 senior secondary III students in Ibadan. Results showed that the six psychological and sociological factors (motivation, anxiety, and ...

  8. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R M

    1988-01-01

    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be...

  10. ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY: BETWEN COOPERATION AND INTOLERANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Božo Stojanović

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialisation and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an incresingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be i...

  11. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be inspiring for the research in other sciences, particularly sociology and political science. Applying the results he got by analyzing the logic of collective action, Olson managed to attain significant insight concerning the functioning of economics and society as a whole.

  12. Labor Economics and Sociology of Labor: Demarkation Problem

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    S N Lebedev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important economic and sociological problems taking into account their relevance to economics and sociology of labor as two independent sciences. The author suggests some demarcation boundaries of the concepts relevant to contemporary life within these two disciplines.

  13. A conceptual framework of impression management: new insights from psychology, sociology, and critical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Merkl-Davies, Doris M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual framework, based on the concepts of rationality and motivation, which uses theories and empirical research from psychology/behavioural finance, sociology and critical accounting to systematise, advance and challenge research on impression management. The paper focuses on research which departs from economic concepts of impression management as opportunistic managerial discretionary disclosure behaviour resulting in reporting bias or as ‘cheap talk’. Using...

  14. The Influence of psychological-sociological factors on self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Remeikienė, Rita; Startienė, Gražina; Vasauskaitė, Jovita

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the influence of psychological-sociological factors on a self-employed person, which is little explored in business literature. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that the psychological-sociological factors of self-employment can be divided into groups based on certain personal characteristics and individual psychological states, and the influence of psychological-sociological factors of self-employment is threefold: positive, negative, and unclear (both positiv...

  15. Unification and mechanistic detail as drivers of model construction: models of networks in economics and sociology.

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    Kuorikoski, Jaakko; Marchionni, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    We examine the diversity of strategies of modelling networks in (micro) economics and (analytical) sociology. Field-specific conceptions of what explaining (with) networks amounts to or systematic preference for certain kinds of explanatory factors are not sufficient to account for differences in modelling methodologies. We argue that network models in both sociology and economics are abstract models of network mechanisms and that differences in their modelling strategies derive to a large extent from field-specific conceptions of the way in which a good model should be a general one. Whereas the economics models aim at unification, the sociological models aim at a set of mechanism schemas that are extrapolatable to the extent that the underlying psychological mechanisms are general. These conceptions of generality induce specific biases in mechanistic explanation and are related to different views of when knowledge from different fields should be seen as relevant.

  16. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.

  17. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Swaton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)

  18. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour ...

  19. Should economic psychology care about personality structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1993-01-01

    Since economic psychology is primarily interested in (a) how people in general react to the economic aspects of their environment, and (b) how these reactions change the economic components of their environment, as yet individual differences are not an important issue in economic-psychological research. After a brief look at how economic psychology used to deal with individual differences in the past, some suggestions are given, based on literature from social psychology, economic psychology,...

  20. Personality Psychology and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Almlund, Mathilde; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the power of personality traits both as predictors and as causes of academic and economic success, health, and criminal activity. Measured personality is interpreted as a construct derived from an economic model of preferences, constraints, and information. Evidence is reviewed about the "situational specificity" of personality traits and preferences. An extreme version of the situationist view claims that there are no stable personality traits or preference parameters tha...

  1. Innovation, markets and uncertainty in Classical Economic Sociology

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    Roberto Herranz González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address two important dimensions of the sociological approach to markets by such classics as Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel and Charles Horton Cooley. We observe the way in which they have all analysed two important dimensions: the role of innovation and the role played by institutions. In particular, we look at the role of innovation in the division of labor and the expansion of markets, and analyze the role of institutions in the social construction of markets, the reduction of uncertainty and its performance in the circulation of commodities. The paper shows how they have all adopted an evolutionary and historical perspective and, with the exception of Weber, chosen a dynamic perspective (that is, a critical perspective using the neo-classical approach in economics.

  2. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-27

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour as either rational or not rational, is too narrow and stark. Behaviour may reflect an interaction of cognitive and emotional factors and this can be captured more effectively using an approach that focuses on the interplay of different decision-making systems. In understanding the mechanisms affecting economic and financial decision-making, an interdisciplinary approach is needed which incorporates ideas from a range of disciplines including sociology, economic psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroeconomics.

  3. The comparative organizational inequality network: Toward an economic sociology of inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomaskovic-Devey, D.; Bandelj, N.; Boeckmann, I.; Boza, I.; Křížková, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-21 ISSN 1871-3351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13766S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : economic sociology * organizational inequality * linked employer-employee data Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/175567/1/econ_soc_19-1-3.pdf

  4. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

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    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  5. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints

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    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  6. Determinateness and Indeterminateness in Schumpeter's Economic Sociology: The Origin of Social Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, Kiichiro

    2008-01-01

    This article traces Schumpeter's texts that fit his definition of "economic sociology" given in the introductory chapter of History of Economic Analysis (1954). The findings are as follows: (1) Since his early years, Schumpeter had a vision of "socio–cultural development" that was characterized by a general interdependence and a distinction between statics and dynamics. (2) Schumpeter adopted the term "evolution" to describe the historical change in his economic sociology. Moreover, he would ...

  7. Movie portrayals of juvenile delinquency: Part II--Sociology and psychology.

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    Snyder, S

    1995-01-01

    The visual media, especially movies, are appealing to youth with their rapid presentation of visual images of immediate gratification and unbridled pursuit of materialism. As social class differences in America widen, movies may serve both as a reflection of the social psychology of juvenile delinquency and as an etiologic factor in the development of such wayward youth. This paper examines some current aspects of the sociology and psychology of juvenile delinquency, and presents the historical significance of movies since the 1930s as both a visual representation and causative factor in the social psychology of delinquent youth.

  8. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

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    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  9. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

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    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  10. Globalization: Economic and psychological aspects

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    Ljajić Samir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization requires a change of human identity, stepping out from the field of their own culture and its solutions, which are becoming obsolete, and which block one to fit in. It changes ones understanding, knowledge, morality, competence, which causes insecurity and fear. Quickly unwinding change reduces the ability to predict future which evokes fear and resistance to the arrival of foreigners and their capital and values, which are seen as intrusive and aggressive, and extreme reactions emerge. The idyllic image of global prosperity becomes the image of a global catastrophe. Individuals give in to this pressure and incidence of mental illnesses such as depression, substance abuse, suicide and murder, is rising. The authors conclude that psychology has its place in the study of the influence of globalization on humans. At present, the research of the negative consequences of globalization in general and the economic crisis in particular on man should have primacy, and in this regard preventive actions should be developed in order to avoid deeper disorders in future.

  11. What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Peter Jan; Lander, Michel W.; van Essen, Marc

    Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of

  12. Neo-Pluralist Political Science, Economic Sociology and the Conceptual Foundations of the Comparative Capitalisms Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    the strengths of neo-pluralism and economic sociology – their attention to detail in considering the huge range of ‘types’ of capitalism that exist across the world – come at a high price. Put briefly, the redefinition of ‘capitalism’ as ‘the economy’ concentrates research agendas on the specific political...

  13. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Weel, Bas ter

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  14. Economics, Politics and Education. Sociology of the School.

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    Dawkins, David

    This monograph, one in a series on theory and educational issues in Australia, explores links between education and political and economic structures. Two sections provide an analysis of an education-work program and five readings. The Transition Education Program is described as a government response to the 1979 economic crisis. The policy and…

  15. Inter-firm networks : economic and sociological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westbrock, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836273

    2010-01-01

    Inter-firm collaborations have recently been recognized as a valuable mode for the organization of economic activity, next to markets and hierarchies. This recognition is supported by empirical evidence that strategic alliances between firms facilitate the generation and dissemination of

  16. Psychology and Economics rather than Psychology versus Economics: Cultural differences but no barriers!

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Brandstätter; Werner Güth; Hartmut Kliemt

    2009-01-01

    During the last three decades the ascent of behavioral economics clearly helped to bring down artificial disciplinary boundaries between psychology and economics. Noting that behavioral economics seems still under the spell of the rational choice tradition - and, indirectly, of behaviorism - we scrutinize in an exemplary manner how the development of some kind of "cognitive economics" might mirror the rise of "cognitive psychology" without endangering the advantages of the division of labor a...

  17. Sociological context of economic activity in modern society

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    Marković Danilo Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to the need of thinking about economic activity in modern society in terms of its basic features as a society of global capitalism with many contradictions and their stakeholders in dynamic social structure. In the context of such an approach, an overview to the main phases has been made in the recent history of capitalism (since the 1960th. It has also been pointed to the impact of globalization in promoting money as a driving force of the phase development of capitalism and the consequences of capital virtualization Within those considerations, it is specifically pointed to the connection of globalization and virtualization of capital in shaping the social background, to the creation of economic activity, its social stratification, social inequality and demands for the pursuit of justice and fairness in these conditions, as well as the limiting factors of that realization.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA: RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Alfirević, Nikša; Petković, Saša; Gutović, Tea

    2017-01-01

    In this study, authors analyze the practices and effectiveness of educational management and leadership, according to the selected psychological and sociological characteristics of school principals in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The selected psychological traits have been already analyzed in the case of entrepreneurial orientation and proved to be relevant for differentiation of schools and principals, according to their inclination to entrepreneurship. In this paper, more comprehensiv...

  19. Economics and psychology. The framing of decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    In the Theory of Rational Decision Making the psychological aspects are set aside. This contribution seeks to point out the relevance of psychology into economic decisions. The essay treats the "framing of decisions", which is a pillar of Kahneman's behavioral theory. Framing must be considered a special case of the more general phenomenon of dependency from the representation. The best-known risky choice-framing problem, i.e. the "Asian Disease Problem", is shown where an essential aspect of...

  20. Sociology, economics, and gender: can knowledge of the past contribute to a better future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the profoundly gendered nature of the split between the disciplines of economics and sociology that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasizing implications for current efforts to bring the fields more closely together. Drawing on historical documents and feminist studies of science, it investigates the gendered processes underlying the divergence of the disciplines in definition, method, and degree of engagement with social problems. The recently developed field of economic sociology and other efforts to bridge the disciplinary gap have the potential to heal this disciplinary split, if they are broadened, deepened, and made wiser and more self-reflective through the use of feminist analysis.

  1. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

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    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  2. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  3. Attitudes of Economics and Sociology Students towards Cooperation. A Cross-Cultural Study

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    Joanna Dzionek-Kozlowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of university education on the learners’ attitudes remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the Economics students’ unwillingness to cooperate is frequently attributed to the content of economic courses, and the theories of profit maximization. This article contributes to the discussion on students’ attitudes towards cooperation based on the survey of 341 Polish and Romanian students. Since these countries differ in terms of collectivism/individualism dimension, we focus on tracing the influence of cultures on cooperativeness. Specifically, we investigate three variables. First, the impact of culture on the willingness to cooperate, secondly, the influence of gender on collaboration, and finally, the differences in attitudes among the students of Sociology and Economics. We find significant differences between Polish and Romanian students’ attitudes towards cooperation, we also observe higher level cooperation among females than males. We detect a drop in cooperation from the first year to the subsequent years of undergraduate studies in Economics.

  4. Complexity and the culture of economics: a sociological and inter-disciplinary analysis

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    Hendrik Van den Berg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a sociological explanation for why the field of economics has so severely restricted the scope of its analysis to the point where it failed to foresee the financial crises, economic recessions, and other large shifts in economic activity that have characterized the global economy in recent decades. This paper’s analysis of the culture of economics draws heavily on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, the French sociologist who developed a useful framework with which to analyze the culture of an intellectual field like economics. Specifically, the paper describes how the neo-liberal doxa supports the restrictive neoclassical (marginalist modeling approach that is a central element of the habitus of mainstream economics. Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence shows how the orthodox economics culture perpetuates itself even in the face of the complete failure of the culture’s favored neoclassical and rational expectations models to anticipate recent macroeconomic crises. The paper concludes with some thoughts on how this understanding of the culture of economics can enable economists to free themselves from the oppressive culture of mainstream economics.

  5. The order of social sciences: sociology in dialogue with neighbouring disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Bögenhold

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing sociology with economics, psychology or history shows that borderlines between disciplines have become fluent and always newly oscillating. Economists, especially prominent positions awarded with Nobel prizes, are increasingly discussing items as motivation, rationality, norms or culture which belong to the domain of sociology. Sociology should acknowledge this kind of ‘imperialism’ and claim own competencies.

  6. Piketty, economics and sociology: The analytical and political agenda on inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Grdešić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the work of Thomas Piketty on inequality, with special emphasis on the reception of his ideas in the social sciences. First, a quantitative analysis of the works that cite Piketty’s most important publications examines the reception of Piketty in academic debates. Next, the critiques of Piketty from economics and sociology, two often opposed disciplines that have devoted the most attention to discussing Piketty, are considered. This article supplements existing critiques with additional suggestions that are relevant to both the scientific analysis of inequality and the process of imaging various reforms that could cope with the problem of inequality.

  7. Plural economics and territorial development from the perspective of sustainable development: theoretical elements of an economic sociology and a socio-economics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lévesque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This text focuses on the contribution that the concept of plural economics is able to make today toward the advancement of research on the viability of territorial dynamics for sustainable development. The first part of our line of argumentation is centered on clarifying the concept of plural economics, based on studies on economic and social solidarity and on proposals emerging from the New Economic Sociology and the socio-economics of territories. In the second part, the concept of sustainable development is characterized from the angle of the so-called societal paradigm and its interactions with territory and with a plural and social economics. Aligned with the critique of the premises of neo-classical economics, the author accepts the need to re-connect the economy to a broader social and ecological perspective and to seek more effective answers to the challenges raised by the planetary socio-environmental crisis.. Keywords: Sustainable territorial development, plural economics, New Economic Sociology, economics of solidarity, ecological economics.

  8. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  9. What Factors Constitute Structures of Clustering Creative Industries? Incorporating New Institutional Economics and New Economic Sociology into A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Ismalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries tend to cluster in specific places and the reasons for this phenomenon can be a multiplicity of elements linked mainly to culture, creativity, innovation and local development. In the international literature, it is pretty well recognized that creativity is frequently characterized by the agglomeration of firms so that creative industries are not homogeneously distributed across the territory but they are concentrated in the space. Three theories are becoming the dominant theoretical perspectives in agglomeration economies theory and they are increasingly being applied in industrial clusters analysis to study the effect of clustering industries. The theories are Marshall’s theoretical principles of localization economies, Schmitz’s collective efficiency and Porter’s five-diamond approach. However, those have adequately theorized neither the institutionalization process through which change takes place nor the socio-economic context of the institutional formations of clustering creative industries. This text begins by reviewing three main theories to more fully articulate institutionalization processes of an economic institution. Specifically, this paper incorporates new institutional economics (NIE and new economic sociology (NES to explain the processes associated with creating institutional practices within clustering creative industries. Both streams of institutional theory constitute that economic organizations are socially constructed. Next, this text proposes the framework that depicts the socio-economic context better and more directly addresses the dynamics of enacting, embedding and changing organizational features and processes within clustering creative industries. Some pertinent definitions are offered to be used in a conceptual framework of research about how economic institutions like clustering creative industries constitute their structures.

  10. The Supply of Environmentalism: Psychological Interventions and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser

    2014-01-01

    Long before behavioral economists began to combine economic theory with discoveries from psychology, environmentalists were nudging and framing and pushing their cause through psychological interventions. These interventions appear to have changed behavior by altering beliefs, norms, and preferences. However, because psychological interventions are often coarse, they have also resulted in inadvertent, offsetting side effects. This article discusses the interactions between environmental prefe...

  11. Effects of online marketing on Iranian ecotourism industry: Economic, sociological, and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Riasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to evaluate the impacts of implementing online marketing strategies on Iranian ecotourism industry. The study had eight hypotheses which were designed based on economic, sociological, and cultural aspects of Iranian ecotourism industry. The results indicate that the expansion of online marketing increased the number of foreign tourists who visited Iran’s natural tourist attractions, while it had no significant impact on the number of domestic tourists who visited these tourist attractions. The results also indicated that online marketing did not increase the amount of investment in Iranian ecotourism industry. Additionally, online ecotourism marketing did not have a significant influence on the total number of travels to Iran’s historical tourist attractions. Respondents believe implementing online marketing strategies in Iranian ecotourism industry helps Iran expand its cultural tourism in rural areas and it expands its hospitality industry; they also believe that online marketing helps to create more jobs in Iranian ecotourism industry and to improve working conditions in this industry.

  12. APPLICATION OF THE BATTERY OF TESTS IN EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOMOTOR STATUS OF THE WATER POLO PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A huge international success of the Montenegrin national water polo team incre- ased the interest rate for this sport among the young people in our country. Announced construction of at least five pools in Podgorica, as well as reconstruction of already exi- sting ones in Niksic and some of the coastal cities will offer a new perspective for the de- velopment of this sport in Montenegro. Water Polo World League Super Final which is, according to announcements, to be held at the pools in Podgorica will probably enhance the interest in this sport even more. Due to the reasons mentioned above, the intensifying of the expert selection is more popular than ever. This paper lists some of the tests for the evaluation of psychological, sociological and anthropomotor status of younger age categories that are adequate in the process of systematic selection for doing water polo

  13. Challenges in global biodiversity conservation and solutions that cross sociology, politics, economics and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Sean; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2012-12-23

    The study and practice of conservation biology is inherently interdisciplinary, addresses short and long time-scales and occurs within complex human-natural interfaces. Zoos and aquaria, in partnership with researchers, other non-government organizations, government, industry and educators, are combining knowledge of species and ecosystems with economics, psychology and law to create solutions for conserving biodiversity. From 22 to 25 May, the Conservation Forum of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria was a venue for discussing conservation research, education and interventions, from the scale of villages to global policy.

  14. Socio-Economic Status and Psychological Constructs of Heads of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The valid psychological constructs were adoption behaviour, leadership abilities, cosmopoliteness, education level, and attitude to innovation. There was a significant ... Key words: Socio-economic Status, Adoption, Leadership, Cosmopolitness, Education, Attitude, Innovation.

  15. Syringe sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  16. Local Environmental Grassroots Activism: Contributions from Environmental Psychology, Sociology and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L.; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. PMID:25806672

  17. Local environmental grassroots activism: contributions from environmental psychology, sociology and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L; Perkins, Douglas D

    2015-03-23

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast "Not in My Back Yard" (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated.

  18. Psychology, behavioral economics, and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, O; Ariely, D; Cooke, A; Dunning, D; Epley, N; Gneezy, U; Koszegi, B; Lichtenstein, D; Mazar, N; Mullainathan, S; Prelec, D; Shafir, E; Silva, J

    2005-01-01

    Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research that has and can be used to inform policy, reflect on the kind of behavioral science that is important for policy, and approaches for convincing policy-makers to listen to behavioral scientists. We suggest that policymakers are unlikely to in...

  19. The nuclear controversy from the sociological and psychological points of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharioth, J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear controversy has recently taken a dynamic turn full of tensions. This is particularly true of the FRG where, after many years of continuous speedy development and the erection of the first large commercial power stations, a tough resistance movement of citizens' initiatives, expecially a radical opposition of some groups, has been growing over the past six months. Since the peaceful uses of nuclear energy were first embarked upon in the Federal Republic in the mid-fifties also the economic situation and the wishes and objectives of the working population have undergone major changes. While, in the sixties, most people sought high grade, qualitatively demanding jobs, a wish which was catered to very much by the fundamentally new technology of the utilization of nuclear energy, the two major goals of the working population, i.e., job security and job quality, have meanwhile changed positions on the scale of values. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Socio-Economic And Psychological Implications Of Burn Injury In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn is a global problem with a magnitude of chains of psychological effects on surviving victims and socio economic implications for the individual, the immediate family and the society at large. This paper seeks to highlight the major consequences of burn injuries in the Nigerian society. There is a growing evidence of ...

  1. Economic Psychology: Its Connections with Research-Oriented Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam; Benigno, Joann

    2003-01-01

    To enhance student interest in research methods, tests and measurement, and statistics classes, we describe how teachers may use resources from economic psychology to illustrate key concepts in these courses. Because of their applied nature and relevance to student experiences, topics covered by these resources may capture student attention and…

  2. Sociological Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  3. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hal G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guido Van Hal Medical Sociology and Health Policy, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium Abstract: The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. Keywords: economic recession, mental health, suicide, social protection, austerity, review

  4. Commentary: Monozygotic twins or unrelated stepchildren? On the relationship between economic psychology and behavioral economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D.; Azar, O.H.; Antonides, G.; Dunning, D.; Frank, R.H.; Lea, S.; Ölander, F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen increased cooperation between psychologists and economists. This is mirrored in interdisciplinary journals (like the Journal of Economic Psychology or the Journal of Socio-Economics) as well as in interdisciplinary conferences. During one of these conferences, The IAREP/SABE

  5. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  7. DISCLOSURE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yakovlevna Litau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idea of entrepreneurship was transformed throughout several centuries, and today it is widely accepted that this concept can be disclosed through the personality of entrepreneur who is a driving force of development of small enterprises as a whole.Purpose: disclosure of psychological aspects of a person of entrepreneur as one of the main factors influencing the process of small enterprises development.Results:Primary importance of the personality of entrepreneur as the subject predetermining an orientation and intensity of small enterprises development is conceptualized.Need of use of a subject and methods of psychology, economic psychology for an explanation of a phenomenon of small enterprises development is disclosed.Practical implications: the research results can be used for improvement of the effectiveness of small enterprises activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-46

  8. Who is to Blame on July 22, 2011? Psychological and Sociological Blame Frames in the Reporting of Anders Breivik in the Dutch Speaking Broadsheet Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On July 22, 2011 Anders Breivik murdered a large amount of people in Norway. In this study we investigate a sample of articles that were published about Breivik and his deeds in the Flemish and Dutch press. We will investigate these articles looking for the so-called “attribution of responsibility frame.” The murders from Breivik could be explained psychologically (“he is insane” as well as sociologically (far-right political parties are responsible because of having spread hate speech. We present a typology of subtypes of frames. We will furthermore investigate how many times these types of frames occur in different media outlets.

  9. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts......What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...

  10. Characteristics of economic life in the Olt Country from Middle Ages to early XXth Century. Elements of economic sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROŞCULEŢ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Olt Country is a Romanian area of noble origins, a blessed preserver of some rich and ancient cultural traditions, but also of a particular economic development. The dominant characteristic of the economic life, from the Middle Ages to the early decades of the XXth century is the autarchical peasant household, based on family production.

  11. The Economics and Sociology of Religious Giving: Instrumental Rationality or Communal Bonding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Jared L.

    2010-01-01

    Religious individuals commonly make sizable monetary sacrifices by contributing to their congregations. This social action resides in the overlap of religious and economic realms of behavior, creating a certain tension. Following a Weberian approach to social inquiry, I treat religious giving as social action whereby individuals direct their…

  12. Economic, Demographic, and Sociological Factors Influencing the Geographic Mobility of Young Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis H.

    Geographic mobility of the labor force is an adjustment mechanism essential to the maintenance of a growing economy which is undergoing technological change and a rising educational level. This study analyzes the factors which influence mobility decisions to determine whether these choices are made on the basis of rational economic motives. To…

  13. Information security: where computer science, economics and psychology meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Moore, Tyler

    2009-07-13

    Until ca. 2000, information security was seen as a technological discipline, based on computer science but with mathematics helping in the design of ciphers and protocols. That perspective started to change as researchers and practitioners realized the importance of economics. As distributed systems are increasingly composed of machines that belong to principals with divergent interests, incentives are becoming as important to dependability as technical design. A thriving new field of information security economics provides valuable insights not just into 'security' topics such as privacy, bugs, spam and phishing, but into more general areas of system dependability and policy. This research programme has recently started to interact with psychology. One thread is in response to phishing, the most rapidly growing form of online crime, in which fraudsters trick people into giving their credentials to bogus websites; a second is through the increasing importance of security usability; and a third comes through the psychology-and-economics tradition. The promise of this multidisciplinary research programme is a novel framework for analysing information security problems-one that is both principled and effective.

  14. The expansion of the education market and economization of education system: sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klyov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ attention is drawn to the phenomenon of marketing and economization, and the expansion of the education market. It is noted that universities and research institutes, hospitals and schools, the military and the church, newspapers and television stations, museums and opera houses – all of them are completely different types of organizations, but as well as several others over the past decades were subjects of economization. It is considered the concept of commodification (converting the product into a commodity in relation to subsistence production, quasi­goods, fake goods, real goods and fictitious capital. Overall, it is analyzed the understanding of the market economy of K. Polanyi, the role of information, knowledge and intellect in the post­industrial economy. It is alleged that in such circumstances, knowledge takes the form of the product. As knowledge is collectively produced and hasn’t got any deficiency (from an economic point of view, it is not competitive, it obtains the commodity form, being artificially scarce. The article is observed that the market mindset has a profound impact on the education system: from elementary to high school education goal is to collect as much information as possible for the purposes of the market.

  15. Sexual harassment on the job: psychological, social and economic repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, H L

    1984-09-01

    This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.

  16. Medical sociology for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaska, N L

    1977-12-01

    This article defines the role of a medical sociologist in a medical institution concerned with health care delivery. The role in applied research and teaching is also discussed. The distinction is made between sociology in medicine and sociology of medicine. Five broad areas of research included under the category of sociology of medicine are the consumer of health care; the social, cultural, and economic enviroments as they relate to health and illness; health and illness behavior; patient education; and the evaluation of services provided to the consumer. Research methodologies utilized by sociologists are briefly presented, and research issues of concern in the sociology of medicine are outlined. The knowledge and information provided by a medical sociologist are supplemental to the physician's practice and are expressed ultimately as a benefit for the patient.

  17. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  18. Psychology of Economics in the Analysis of Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jonas Alves Correia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychology of Economics addresses issues far beyond market research. Thus, studies in this area also observe variables such as work, unemployment, decisions about purchases and savings, investments, financing, responses to advertising, among others. The present research was carried out with the objective of analyzing, through the fundamentals of consumer behavior, its relation to the propensity for compulsive or superfluous consumption. This quantitative study relates, using as means of phenomena and variables a description of the consumers behavior through the statistical tool Propensity Score Matching of Stata software. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data, which was applied online from April to August in 2016. Data analysis was performed by the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression with controlled dummy variables (dependent variable, whether or not it belongs to the consumer group Compulsive by the set of explanatory (independent variables. The results showed that the average monthly spending of compulsive consumers increases, and the higher the income of individuals, the greater the spending on unnecessary or superfluous consumption. Considering the gender variable, male individuals have higher levels of unnecessary spending and are prone to superfluous consumption. Thus, consumption is composed of influences for purchase and that the consumer determines consumption, according to economic position (income factor and cultural factors (customs, needs, impulsivities within the society.

  19. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  20. A psychological look at economic growth : an omni-political manifesto

    OpenAIRE

    Elle, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis is an attempt to synthesize the psychological theory of self-esteem, as formulated by Nathaniel Branden, with economic thought in order to provide an innovative way of analyzing historical economic data. The nations of examination are The United States of America and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Initially there will be an exploration of why this type of analysis may be useful at this time in the procession of economic and psychological history. Branden's six pill...

  1. Another sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    contributing dianostics of the social pathologies of the modern state. Such an approach can find inspiration in classical sociology, but it is also important to realize that, today, we are living in another modernity. A liberation from social technology must thus include a liberation from objectivistic methods....

  2. Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology: Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe paper provides a review of the literature that connects Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology, and discusses some research that is related to the seven disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent

  3. The transition from pediatric to adult care for youth with epilepsy: Basic biological, sociological, and psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Busiah, Kanetee; Cohen, David; Pack, Alison; Nabbout, Rima

    2017-04-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults. Second, puberty is a major change during the transition age. The three most important but separate neuroendocrine axes involved in puberty are gonadarche (activation of the gonads), adrenarche (activation of adrenal androgen production), and activation of the growth hormone-insulin like growth factor. Third, sexual debut occurs during the transition years, and at an earlier age in adolescents with epilepsy than controls. Adult sexual performance is often unsatisfactory. Although AED-induced alterations in sexual hormones and temporal lobe epilepsy may play a role in hyposexuality, depression, anxiety, and other social factors appear most important. Fourth, psychological development is very important with an evolution from an early stage (ages 10-13years) with concrete thinking, to a middle stage (ages 14-17) with analytic and more abstract introspective thinking, and then to a late stage (ages 18-21) with at least the beginnings of adult reasoning. Epilepsy may derail this relatively orderly progression. Adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder may present with severe behavior problems that are sometimes related to undiagnosed epilepsy. Fifth, bone health in adolescence is critical to establish adequate mineralization for all of adult life. While AED interference with Vitamin D metabolism is important, there is evidence that the effects of AEDs on bone are more complex and involve changes in remodeling

  4. The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development. NBER Working Paper No. 14695

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of…

  5. The different worlds of inequality: Psychological determinants and implications of economic inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Steiniger, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Social and economic inequalities have been a concern in human societies throughout history. In recent years especially wealth and income inequality have been the focus of controversial public, political, and scientific debates. The present thesis seeks to contribute to the ongoing inequality debate by regarding economic inequality from a psychological point of view. Together with Detlef Fetchenhauer, Thomas Schlösser, and Daniel Ehlebracht, I experimentally investigated the psychological dete...

  6. Integration of biological, economic and sociological knowledge by Bayesian belief networks: the interdisciplinary evaluation of potential management plans for Baltic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levontin, Polina; Kulmala, Soile; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need to evaluate fisheries management plans in a comprehensive interdisciplinary context involving stakeholders. The use of a probabilistic management model to evaluate potential management plans for Baltic salmon fisheries is demonstrated. The analysis draws on several scientific...... studies: a biological stock assessment with integrated economic analysis of the commercial fisheries, an evaluation of recreational fisheries, and a sociological study aimed at understanding stakeholder perspectives and potential commitment to alternative management plans. A Bayesian belief network is used...... is highlighted by modelling the link between commitment and implementation success. Such analyses, relying on prior knowledge, can forewarn of the consequences of management choices before they are implemented...

  7. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  8. Economic Hardship in the Family of Origin and Children's Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in…

  9. How Does the Economic Crisis Affect the Psychological Well-Being? Comparing College Students and Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…

  10. What Are the Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems during Childhood? Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has established evidence of a strong link between poor physical health during childhood (and even in utero) and health and economic outcomes much later in adulthood. But much less is known about the long-term economic consequences of psychological conditions experienced during childhood, although childhood psychological…

  11. The death and resurrection of 'economics with psychology': remarks from a methodological standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Muramatsu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the merits of contemporary economic analysis is its capacity to offer accounts of choice behavior that dispense with details of the complex decision machinery. The starting point of this paper is the concern with the important methodological debate about whether economics might offer accurate predictions and explanations of actual behavior without any reference to psychological presuppositions. Inspired by an exercise of rational reconstruction of ideas, I aim to offer an interpretation of the process of freeing economic analysis from psychology at the end of the 19th century and the contemporary resurrection of behavioral approaches in the late 1980s.

  12. Piketty's challenge for sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mike

    2014-12-01

    This paper argues that Piketty's book should not simply be seen as that of an economist, but that it contains significant resources for sociologists to draw upon. These are firstly, this approach to social science and his use of visualizations which chime closely with recent claims about the power of description. Secondly I consider his conceptualization of time and history - which in rebutting epochal arguments about the speed of contemporary change allows for a much better appreciation of the 'long durée'; and finally his conceptualization of social classes and privilege through his elaboration of a sociology of accumulation and inheritance. In all these ways, Piketty's work assists in developing an account of elites and wealth which should be highly productive for future sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  13. Development of relative body mass (BMI of students from Łódź, depending on the selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruszkowska-Przybylska Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19-26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05 was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject

  14. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  15. The microcredit group: Where psychology and economics meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Brunori

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses from a psychologica and group-analyst point of view the Grameen model of microcredit (Yunus, aimed at promoting both economic development of the territory and the development of human capital using a methodology based on the social bondings represented by the group.Keywords: Microcredit group; Local development; Relational good

  16. The sterility of equilibrium economics: an aspect of sociology of science La esterilidad de la economía del equilibrio: un aspecto de la sociología de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt V. V.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that economic science is yet to reach maturity and that equilibrium theory does not grasp actual economic relationships,and is sterile for policy making. It analyses the creation of castsamong economists, the impossibility of formalizing all economic phenomena in terms of individual optimization, and the ideological biases of scientific work. It suggests the need to reassess the basic hypothesis of the general equilibrium approach and to rebuild the analytical framework of economics. Based upon Krishnamurti "ephilosophy, it shows that the main thrust of human behavior is notselfishness but envy, and that this motivation weakens the traditional theory of individual and firm behavior.Este articulo muestra que la ciencia economica no ha alñcanzado la madurez que la la teoria del equilibrio no capta las relaciones economicas reales y es esteril para formular politicas ecopnomicas. Analiza la formacion de castas entre los economistas, la imposibilidad de formalizar todos los fenomenso economicos en terminos de optimizacion individual y los sesgos ideologicos del trabajo cientifico. Indica la necesidad de replantear las hipotesis basicas del enfoque del equilibrio general y de reconstruir el aparato analitico de la economia. Con base en la filosofia de Krishnamurti, muestra que la fuerza motriz de la conducta humana es la envidia y no el egoismo , y que esta motivacion resta validez a la teoria tradicional del comportamiento de los individuos y de las empresas.

  17. On sociological catastrophe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, L.

    1974-01-01

    The present paper deals with standard terms of sociological catastrophe theory hitherto existing, collective behaviour during the catastrophe, and consequences for the empiric catastrophe sociology. (RW) [de

  18. Social-psychological parameters of the Semipalatinsk region economical rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basybekova, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper is noted that global entropy processes that being generated by nuclear explosions on the Semipalatinsk region are leading not only to an environment change and disease incidence increase but also resulting the disturbances of human behavior regulatory mechanisms, and it consciousness degradation. In population of Semipalatinsk region we have observed a high psychical depressions, changes of perception coordinates, thought, motivational sphere, reduction of will energy potential, increase of suicides and other deviations in the mental health. Interpersonal and social relationships have become non-adequate. Mentioned factors and problems together with a set of technical and environmental aspects are exerting on an economic systems efficiency and State Programmes realization. Economical rehabilitation of the region and the country in total without system approach is not realistic, in which human factor should take proper place

  19. Understanding the Decision to Enroll in Graduate Business Programs: Influence of Sociological and Economic Factors and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This ex post facto study describes the associations of economic factors as well as social and cultural capital variables on enrollment in business master's degree programs and differences of associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Data from the 2008/2012 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B: 08/12) of those who completed a…

  20. The Contribution of J.M. Keynes to the Analysis of the Psychological Motives of Economic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Kozlova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the contribution of John Maynard Keynes to the study of the psychological motives of economic behavior. The origins of the analysis of the psychological motives in economics before Keynes are reviewed. The relative importance of rational and irrational motives of economic behavior in the Keynesian theory is analyzed. It is shown that Keynes's analysis of the behavior of the economic agents under uncertainty and the lack of information contributed to the elaboration of the bounded rationality theory by Simon. The article also describes the input of Keynes to the formation of a new «Keynesian» model of human behavior, which implies the importance of expectations, taking into account the psychological and social factors of economic behavior. The main psychological tendencies in the actions of the consumers and investors described by Keynes (the basic psychological law, liquidity preference, the influence of the «market psychology» on the investor's decisions and their relevance nowadays are examined. The article shows further development of the ideas of Keynes in the Akerlof and Shiller's theory of animal spirits and in the financial instability hypothesis of Minsky. It also gives a description of a confidence multiplier, introduced by Akerlof and Shiller, and shows how the cosumers' confidence can be measured nowadays. Besides, the article stresses that the study of the psychological motives of economic behavior, undertaken by Keynes, contributed to the development of such new disciplines at the interface between the economy and psychology as the economic psychology and behavioral economics.

  1. Psychological Health Before, During, and After an Economic Crisis: Results from Indonesia, 1993 – 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jed; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical health, and child education have been established in several studies. The crisis also adversely impacted the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population. Comparing responses of the same individuals interviewed before and after the crisis, we document substantial increases in several different dimensions of psychological distress among male and female adults across the entire age distribution. In addition, the imprint of the crisis can be seen in the differential impacts of the crisis on low education groups, the rural landless, and residents in those provinces that were most affected by the crisis. Elevated levels of psychological distress persist even after indicators of economic well-being such as household consumption had returned to pre-crisis levels, suggesting the deleterious effects of the crisis on the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population may be longer lasting than the impacts on economic well-being. PMID:25892838

  2. Psychological Health Before, During, and After an Economic Crisis: Results from Indonesia, 1993 - 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jed; Thomas, Duncan

    The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical health, and child education have been established in several studies. The crisis also adversely impacted the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population. Comparing responses of the same individuals interviewed before and after the crisis, we document substantial increases in several different dimensions of psychological distress among male and female adults across the entire age distribution. In addition, the imprint of the crisis can be seen in the differential impacts of the crisis on low education groups, the rural landless, and residents in those provinces that were most affected by the crisis. Elevated levels of psychological distress persist even after indicators of economic well-being such as household consumption had returned to pre-crisis levels, suggesting the deleterious effects of the crisis on the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population may be longer lasting than the impacts on economic well-being.

  3. Economic and Sociological Correlates of Suicides: Multilevel Analysis of the Time Series Data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bruce Qiang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    For the effects of social integration on suicides, there have been different and even contradictive conclusions. In this study, the selected economic and social risks of suicide for different age groups and genders in the United Kingdom were identified and the effects were estimated by the multilevel time series analyses. To our knowledge, there exist no previous studies that estimated a dynamic model of suicides on the time series data together with multilevel analysis and autoregressive distributed lags. The investigation indicated that unemployment rate, inflation rate, and divorce rate are all significantly and positively related to the national suicide rates in the United Kingdom from 1981 to 2011. Furthermore, the suicide rates of almost all groups above 40 years are significantly associated with the risk factors of unemployment and inflation rate, in comparison with the younger groups. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Modelling efficient innovative work: integration of economic and social psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of integration of economic and social psychological approaches to the solution of enhancing the efficiency of innovation management. The content, features and specifics of the modelling methods within each of approaches are unfolded and options of integration are considered. The economic approach lies in the generation of the integrated matrix concept of management of innovative development of an enterprise in line with the stages of innovative work and the use of the integrated vector method for the evaluation of the innovative enterprise development level. The social psychological approach lies in the development of a system of psychodiagnostic indexes of activity resources within the scope of psychological innovative audit of enterprise management and development of modelling methods for the balance of activity trends. Modelling the activity resources is based on the system of equations accounting for the interaction type of psychodiagnostic indexes. Integration of two approaches includes a methodological level, a level of empirical studies and modelling methods. There are suggested options of integrating the economic and psychological approaches to analyze available material and non-material resources of the enterprises’ innovative work and to forecast an optimal option of development based on the implemented modelling methods.

  5. Economic Stressors and Psychological Distress: Exploring Age Cohort Variation in the Wake of the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined processes linking age cohort, economic stressors, coping strategies and two indicators of psychological distress (i.e. depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms). Structural equation models were conducted utilizing data from a national survey that was undertaken in order to understand life change consequences of the period of economic downturn from 2007 to 2009 known as the Great Recession. Findings revealed that the associations between economic stressors and symptoms of both depression and anxiety were significantly greater for members of the millennial cohort compared with baby boomers. These effects are partly explained by the greater tendency of members of the baby boomer cohort to use active coping strategies. These findings clarify the circumstances in which age matters most for the associations among economy-related stressors, coping strategies and psychological well-being. They highlight how difficult economic circumstances influence the availability of coping strategies and, in turn, psychological well-being-and differently for younger and older age cohorts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Racism, empire and sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Reviews of Gurminder K Bhambra, Connected Sociologies; Peo Hansen and Stefan Jonsson, Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism; Wulf D. Hund, Alana Lentin (eds) Racism and Sociology

  7. Introduktion til klassisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas......Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas...

  8. Economics versus psychology.Risk, uncertainty and the expected utility theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The present contribution examines the emergence of expected utility theory by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, the subjective the expected utility theory by Savage, and the problem of choice under risk and uncertainty, focusing in particular on the seminal work “The Utility Analysis of Choices involving Risk" (1948) by Milton Friedman and Leonard Savage to show how the evolution of the theory of choice has determined a separation of economics from psychology.

  9. Big data, computational science, economics, finance, marketing, management, and psychology: connections

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wong, Wing-Keung

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe paper provides a review of the literature that connects Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology, and discusses some research that is related to the seven disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent econometric and statistical models to estimate the parameters in the associated models, as well as conduct simulation to examine whether the estimators in their theories on estimation and hypothesis testin...

  10. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  11. Sociology as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the meaning of practicing sociology, claiming to "commit a social science" still makes sense. Accepts Max Weber's arguments that sociology clarifies human affairs and is oriented to certain virtues. Suggests, however, that sociology is a passion as well as a profession, something Weber recognized but did not elaborate. (NL)

  12. Sport and Society: An Introduction to Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hilmi

    A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…

  13. Perfiles Latinoamericanos: Regional sociology, connected sociologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of sociology published in the 48 numbers of the Perfiles Latinoamericanos magazineis analyzed. The diversity of topics, perspectives, and methodologies of the articles define aseries of fields of reflection around civil society, collective action, subjectivities and social identities,cities, media, violence, and theory. The essay suggests how the sociology that is producedin Latin America is not isolated but connected with international debates. It converges forms ofdoing theory and research with resonances on a global scale.

  14. 2015 Hans O. Mauksch Address: How Departments Can Respond to the Changing Popularity of the Sociology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    While the popularity of the psychology major and the sociology major were comparable in 1970, sociology witnessed a decline while psychology witnessed expansion. This article considers strategies of expanding the popularity of the sociology major, considering data from a variety of sources. Primary recommendations are to configure programs to…

  15. Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Henry, Andrea; Nickels, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

  16. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Eurocentrism, sociology of religion, inter-religious dialogue, Ibn. Khaldun, paper read at ... Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of South Africa. ... Journal of Investigative Psychology, 1(3): 191-206. Lebakeng, T.J., 2000.

  17. How psychological framing affects economic market prices in the lab and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Ulrich; Camerer, Colin F; Fox, Craig R; Langer, Thomas

    2013-07-16

    A fundamental debate in social sciences concerns how individual judgments and choices, resulting from psychological mechanisms, are manifested in collective economic behavior. Economists emphasize the capacity of markets to aggregate information distributed among traders into rational equilibrium prices. However, psychologists have identified pervasive and systematic biases in individual judgment that they generally assume will affect collective behavior. In particular, recent studies have found that judged likelihoods of possible events vary systematically with the way the entire event space is partitioned, with probabilities of each of N partitioned events biased toward 1/N. Thus, combining events into a common partition lowers perceived probability, and unpacking events into separate partitions increases their perceived probability. We look for evidence of such bias in various prediction markets, in which prices can be interpreted as probabilities of upcoming events. In two highly controlled experimental studies, we find clear evidence of partition dependence in a 2-h laboratory experiment and a field experiment on National Basketball Association (NBA) and Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup) sports events spanning several weeks. We also find evidence consistent with partition dependence in nonexperimental field data from prediction markets for economic derivatives (guessing the values of important macroeconomic statistics) and horse races. Results in any one of the studies might be explained by a specialized alternative theory, but no alternative theories can explain the results of all four studies. We conclude that psychological biases in individual judgment can affect market prices, and understanding those effects requires combining a variety of methods from psychology and economics.

  18. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  19. Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology: Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a review of the literature that connects Big Data, Computational Science, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Management, and Psychology, and discusses research issues that are related to the various disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent econometric and statistical models to estimate the parameters in the associated models, as well as conduct simulation to examine whether the estimators in their theories on estimation and hypothesis testing have good size and high power. Thereafter, academics and practitioners could apply theory to analyse some interesting issues in the seven disciplines and cognate areas.

  20. Effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress among farmers and non-farmers of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P farmers (β = 0.30, P farmers (β = 0.20, P farmers had a comparable prevalence of psychological distress when compared with non-farmers in rural China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. John Foran’s sociology of revolution: From historical sociology to the sociological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yu Karasyev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers J. Foran’s sociology of revolution through the stages of evolution of his theoretical and methodological views and the works representing them. The trajectory of Foran’s sociology of revolution reflects in many respects the development of the contemporary comparative and historical sociology of revolution: from the fundamental historical research of a few classical cases to the quantitative study of an extremely wide range of examples and after that to the prediction of the ‘revolution-like’ events’ in future. According to Foran, there are three ways to consider the future of revolutions: 1 the analysis of the revolutions of the past, 2 the look into the future in terms of the existing theories, 3 the sources of sociological imagination. These three methods correspond to three stages in Foran’s sociology of revolution: after conducting the historical study of the situation and revolutions in Iran, the comparative analysis of 39 revolution events in the Third World countries and then an attempt to imagine patterns of future revolutions on the example of Zapatistas’ revolution in Mexico in 1994 and the struggle for global justice at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the evolution of the subject and methodology of the theory, the concept ‘political culture of opposition’ remained the central category of Foran’s model. This complex notion describes such social process when under the influence of material and discursive elements the revolutionaries found out some common discourse that prescribed them to participate in collective actions to change their societies. Thus, Foran states that revolutions are the product of both structural conditions and human agency and the latter is due to both political-economic and cultural reasons. The cultural-structural character of Foran’s approach makes it relevant for the study of contemporary revolutionary events.

  2. Financial Investing Made for Women: The Economic and Psychological Reasons Why Women Invest Differently Than Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Reece

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial Investing is becoming not only a way to plan for a future source of retirement, but also a method to control a personal financial situation without having to rely on government aid or family member support to survive during the elderly years. Today, individuals cannot depend on social security being available in the future for financial support. It is especially vital for women to become more interested in making long-term investments that will provide a secure and effective approach to money management and financial planning. However, as various studies have concluded, women are less interested than men in managing their finances due to various economic and psychological reasons related to risk aversion, sociopolitical and biological factors, and income. This study reviews previous research findings related to the relationship between women and investments, as well as several economic and psychological reasons behind the gender gap on financial investing are presented. Surveys were used to identify the main reasons for women’s tendency to rely less on financial investments. It was found that women who had some source of financial investment showed confidence in the stock market, as well as in their financial decisions. These results contradict some of the findings shown in previous research.

  3. Socio-cognitive Elaborations and Reactions to Economic Crisis: Insights from Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamos Papastamou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue dedicated to the social psychological study of the economic crisis in four European Union countries along the Mediterranean includes six empirical papers discussing different aspects of the phenomenon. Four papers are part of a larger project that started in 2011, aiming to compare the social representations of the economic crisis in France, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. Starting from the study of the social representations of the causes of the crisis and the measures to overcome it, various social psychological parameters that interfere are examined. Thus, the political, ideological, and social positioning, and the axiological universe of the participants are considered as important predictors and mediators in the different papers. Additionally, possible political participatory activities in reaction to the crisis are considered. The presentation of the outcome of this research project is completed by a paper analyzing the way the crisis was depicted in the Italian press and a paper looking at the impact of the financial threat to political participation in France. The research presented here reveals the ways social subjects give meaning to a situation of crisis and thus provides social and political insights into social thinking and behavior with important policy implications for individual nations as well as Europe at large. In this paper, we present the general framework of the studies carried out and we introduce the collection of empirical papers of the special issue.

  4. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaydullaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  5. Encouraging Healthful Dietary Behavior in a Hospital Cafeteria: A Field Study Using Theories from Social Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Mary Carol

    2013-01-01

    Public policy efforts to curb obesity often adhere to a rational actor model of human behavior, asserting that consumer behavior will change provided proper economic incentives, nutritional information, and health education. However, rigorous academic research related to such questions remains limited in scope and appears inconclusive as to the success of such economic and cognitive interventions. In contrast, research in social psychology and behavioral economics suggests that decision mak...

  6. Socioeconomic status, labour market connection, and self-rated psychological health: the role of social capital and economic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.

  7. Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greendorfer, Susan L.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes the issues which created the schism between physical education and sociology. If the subdiscipline of sports sociology is to survive, these misunderstandings must be erased. Current investigations of relevant topics are of interest to both physical educators and coaches and could begin to bridge the gap. (MT)

  8. Sociology through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  9. Practicing Sociological Imagination through Writing Sociological Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Alem

    2009-01-01

    Sociological imagination is a quality of mind that cannot be adopted by simply teaching students its discursive assumptions. Rather, it is a disposition, in competition with other forms of sensibility, which can be acquired only when it is practiced. Adhering to this important pedagogical assumption, students were assigned to write their…

  10. Incorporating Psychological Predictors of Treatment Response into Health Economic Simulation Models: A Case Study in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jen; Pollard, Daniel; Basarir, Hasan; Thokala, Praveen; Cooke, Debbie; Clark, Marie; Bond, Rod; Heller, Simon; Brennan, Alan

    2015-10-01

    . Health economic modeling has paid limited attention to the effects that patients' psychological characteristics have on the effectiveness of treatments. This case study tests 1) the feasibility of incorporating psychological prediction models of treatment response within an economic model of type 1 diabetes, 2) the potential value of providing treatment to a subgroup of patients, and 3) the cost-effectiveness of providing treatment to a subgroup of responders defined using 5 different algorithms. . Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate relationships between patients' psychological characteristics and treatment effectiveness. Two psychological prediction models were integrated with a patient-level simulation model of type 1 diabetes. Expected value of individualized care analysis was undertaken. Five different algorithms were used to provide treatment to a subgroup of predicted responders. A cost-effectiveness analysis compared using the algorithms to providing treatment to all patients. . The psychological prediction models had low predictive power for treatment effectiveness. Expected value of individualized care results suggested that targeting education at responders could be of value. The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested, for all 5 algorithms, that providing structured education to a subgroup of predicted responders would not be cost-effective. . The psychological prediction models tested did not have sufficient predictive power to make targeting treatment cost-effective. The psychological prediction models are simple linear models of psychological behavior. Collection of data on additional covariates could potentially increase statistical power. . By collecting data on psychological variables before an intervention, we can construct predictive models of treatment response to interventions. These predictive models can be incorporated into health economic models to investigate more complex service delivery and reimbursement strategies.

  11. Decision-Making Under Risk: Integrating Perspectives From Biology, Economics, and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep

    2014-08-01

    Decision-making under risk has been variably characterized and examined in many different disciplines. However, interdisciplinary integration has not been forthcoming. Classic theories of decision-making have not been amply revised in light of greater empirical data on actual patterns of decision-making behavior. Furthermore, the meta-theoretical framework of evolution by natural selection has been largely ignored in theories of decision-making under risk in the human behavioral sciences. In this review, I critically examine four of the most influential theories of decision-making from economics, psychology, and biology: expected utility theory, prospect theory, risk-sensitivity theory, and heuristic approaches. I focus especially on risk-sensitivity theory, which offers a framework for understanding decision-making under risk that explicitly involves evolutionary considerations. I also review robust empirical evidence for individual differences and environmental/situational factors that predict actual risky decision-making that any general theory must account for. Finally, I offer steps toward integrating various theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on risky decision-making. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet

    2003-01-01

    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  13. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-02-01

    While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  15. Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-01-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions — for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people’s environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change....

  16. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  17. Social, economic, and psychological impacts of MDR-TB treatment in Tijuana, Mexico: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, M D; Quezada, L; Bhat, P; Moser, K; Smith, J; Perez, H; Laniado-Laborin, R; Estrada-Guzman, J; Rodwell, T C

    2013-07-01

    The State of Baja California, Mexico, had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in 2009. To understand the socio-economic burden of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico. From July to November 2009, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 patients enrolled in a US-Mexico binational MDR-TB treatment program, Puentes de Esperanza (Bridges of Hope), which was designed to support MDR-TB patients. In-depth interviews were coded to identify major themes in patient experiences of MDR-TB diagnosis and care. While some patients were able to maintain their pre-MDR-TB lives to a limited extent, most patients reported losing their sense of identity due to their inability to work, social isolation, and stigmatization from family and friends. The majority of participants expressed appreciation for Puentes' role in 'saving their lives'. Being diagnosed with MDR-TB and undergoing treatment imposes significant psychological, social and economic stress on patients. Strong social support elements within Puentes helped alleviate these burdens. Improvements to the program might include peer-support groups for patients undergoing treatment and transitioning back into the community after treatment.

  18. Sociology of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...

  19. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  20. Human Right for Fair Wage: sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomareva T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of sociological research devoted to the analysis of the fair wage problem. The authors analyze the dynamics of labor load and the level of wages in the economic market conditions taking as an example the Omsk Region

  1. The Sociology of Family Health. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumba-Masagazi, A. H. K., Comp.

    This unannotated bibliography is on man, his family, the society he makes and lives in, and his health. It is about man and his East African environment. It attempts to bring together both the applied and social sciences as they affect the family. Among the disciplines drawn from are: anthropology, sociology, medicine, religion, economics, labor…

  2. Social kapital og økonomisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    Hvad er social kapital? Vi søger at besvare dette spørgsmål i en tværvidenskabelig tilgang, som forener økonomi og sociologi. Dette sker i tre dele. Det generelle økonomiske udgangspunkt er hentet fra New Institutional Economics (NIE) med dets fokus på asymmetrisk information og deraf følgende...

  3. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.

  4. Colour attitude test: the possibility of application in sociology

    OpenAIRE

    V P Tkach

    2009-01-01

    The article provides the analysis of the cognitive potential of colour tests in sociology. Nowadays colour tests which are extensively used in the framework of psychology find practically no application in sociological research due to a number of their peculiarities. However, it should be recognized that such tests as colour attitude test demonstrate the richest cognitive potential for the identification of value preferences and social attitudes system at the level of the unconscious of vario...

  5. Colour attitude test: the possibility of application in sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Tkach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the cognitive potential of colour tests in sociology. Nowadays colour tests which are extensively used in the framework of psychology find practically no application in sociological research due to a number of their peculiarities. However, it should be recognized that such tests as colour attitude test demonstrate the richest cognitive potential for the identification of value preferences and social attitudes system at the level of the unconscious of various social groups. The methodological experiment carried out by the author has proved demonstratively the feasibility and high efficiency of colour attitude tests application in the framework of empirical sociological research.

  6. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  7. When Do Financial Incentives Reduce Intrinsic Motivation? Comparing Behaviors Studied in Psychological and Economic Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or “crowd out” intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. Method: We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. Results: In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. Conclusion: The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PMID:24001245

  8. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Socio-economic and psychological predictors of domestic greywater and rainwater collection: Evidence from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Anthony M.; Spash, Clive L.; Measham, Thomas G.

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe importance of securing water supply necessitates that all options be explored. Research has indicated that demand on water catchments can be substantially decreased when a large proportion of households reuse greywater and/or install rainwater tanks. This paper reports on an internet survey completed by 354 households residing in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding regions. Statistical analyses examined the relationship between socio-economic and psychological variables and the likelihood of the garden being irrigated with greywater and/or rainwater. The results show income, gender, age and education could not differentiate residents who were irrigating their garden with water from a tank from residents who were not. Residents who used tank water on their gardens had a higher self-reported understanding of a range of water supply options. Female participants and lower income residents were more likely to use greywater on their garden. Participants who irrigated the garden with greywater were more likely to judge various other water collection and recycling proposals as being appropriate. General concerns about water collection and reuse risks were not found to predict which households used tank water and/or greywater on their garden.

  10. Generational Differences in the Officer Corps: Sociological Factors That Impact Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Triscari, Craig

    2002-01-01

    .... Additionally it examined sociological differences consisting of values, career stages, economic trends, enemy threat, milestones, technology, and gender and race relationships that develop between the generations...

  11. Adolescents' psychological health complaints and the economic recession in late 2007: a multilevel study in 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Rathmann, Katharina; Elgar, Frank J; de Looze, Margaretha; Hofmann, Felix; Ottova-Jordan, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Bosakova, Lucia; Currie, Candace; Richter, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The recent economic recession, which began in 2007, has had a detrimental effect on the health of the adult population, but no study yet has investigated the impact of this downturn on adolescent health. This article uniquely examines the effect of the crisis on adolescents' psychological health complaints in a cross-national comparison. Data came from the World Health Organization collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2005-06 and 2009-10. We measured change in psychological health complaints from before to during the recession in the context of changing adult and adolescent unemployment rates. Furthermore, we used logistic multilevel regression to model the impact of absolute unemployment in 2010 and its change rate between 2005-06 and 2009-10 on adolescents' psychological health complaints in 2010. Descriptive results showed that although youth and adult unemployment has increased during the economic crisis, rates of psychological health complaints among adolescents were unaffected in some countries and even decreased in others. Multilevel regression models support this finding and reveal that only youth unemployment in 2010 increased the likelihood of psychological health complaints, whereas its change rate in light of the recession as well as adult unemployment did not relate to levels of psychological health complaints. In contrast to recent findings, our study indicates that the negative shift of the recent recession on the employment market in several countries has not affected adolescents' psychological health complaints. Adolescents' well-being instead seems to be influenced by the current situation on the labour market that shapes their occupational outlook. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationships among Economic, Newsroom and Content Variables: A Path Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Stephen; And Others

    Efforts to discover what variables affect news media content have taken many approaches during the past 35 years. These approaches have emphasized psychological factors, sociological factors, cultural and social forces, and economic factors. Evidence exists that all these forces play a role in determining what becomes news. To examine how these…

  13. Persuasion through artifacts: Sociological and psychological dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that applicants use various impression management tactics during employment interviews to influence interviewers' evaluations of their performance. Yet, little research has examined inteviewers/perceptions of applicant's impression management and their degree of nonverbal influence. This PhD study examines these questions, using both quantitative and qualitative data: Do interviewers accurately perceive applicant's impression management tactics? How are these perceptions integrated into their evaluations of applicant's nonverbal behaviour? Is perception accuracy influenced by artifacts (professional clothing that interviewees wear? It has cross-cultural design, because describes the differences in European Commission interviewers' social perceptions and Romanian human resources managers on one hand, and between social perceptions of European Commission public servants and Romanian employees on the other hand, concerning 12 key concepts: persuasion, first impressions, professional image, credibility, authenticity, competence, self- confidence, self-management, self-presentation, self-promotion, impression management tactics, professional appearance.

  14. Physical Education, Sociology, and Sociology of Sport: Points of Intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George H.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the rise of sociology and physical education (PE), discussing linkages that initially existed and the separation that transpired between them. Also examines connections between social theory and PE before the sociology of sport was formally developed. Details the rise of sociology of sport, highlighting roles of physical educators. (SM)

  15. Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…

  16. The Role of Discussion Boards in Facilitating Communities of Inquiry: A Case of ICT and Sociology Courses at Zagreb School of Economics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela; Magzan, Masha; Juric, Visnja

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the use of technology to design an electronic learning community for students. The importance of social experience in education and social participation through communication is examined through discussion boards of two different freshmen courses offered at Zagreb School of Economics and Management (ZSEM). Effectiveness and…

  17. The peculiarities of connection between social capital and psychological health of the people with different economic status: the analysis of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександра Андріївна Ніздрань

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and methodological foundations and the organization of the empirical research of the connection between social capital and psychological health of persons with low level of economic status were proved. The peculiarities of the state of psychological health and the development of social capital constituents depending on the level of economic well-being of a person were revealed. The model of the influence of social capital as a factor of the psychological health of persons with low level of economic status was given

  18. Emotions, perceptions and economic behavior. A critical-philosophical approach to the place of Psychology in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Caballero de la Torre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior

  19. Towards a Cultural Psychology of Science:Economics and Economists in Contemporary Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Carre Benzi, David

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis is an enquiry about two distinct but complementary issues: the personal dimension of scientific activity, and the influential role that economists have had during the last decades in Chile. Regarding the former, this work complements existing philosophical, social, and psychological studies of science with a cultural psychology perspective. This perspective aims to be sensitive to the personal nature of the scientific activity but also to the cultural conditions in which sc...

  20. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory...... approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-actor opposition in sociology. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice theory approach...... in relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable...

  1. Did Harriet Martineau's sociological methods influence Emile Durkheim's sociological methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Jon Eric

    1995-01-01

    Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) published How to Observe Morals and Manners in 1838. The book was perhaps the first sociological methodology text. Emile Durkheim (1855-1917) published The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) 57 years later. Durkheim's book has traditionally been labeled as the first sociological methodology text, while Martineau's book has been virtually forgotten by modern day sociologists. The author identifies significant similarities between the two tex...

  2. The emergence of sociology from political economy in the United States: 1890 to 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cristobal

    2009-01-01

    Professional sociology in the U.S. began as a field area within economics, but gradually emerged as a separate discipline. Using new data on joint meetings and the separation of departments, I track interdisciplinary relations through three phases: sponsorship (1890-1905), collaboration (1905-1940), and disengagement (post-1940). In the early years, sociology was mostly a branch of economics departments. With the formation of the American Sociological Society, relations with economics began to be more characterized by professionally autonomous collaboration. The 1920s saw a large wave of sociology departments separating from economics. Still, joint annual meetings (including joint presidential addresses) remained the norm until 1940. Paradigmatic conflict between institutional and neoclassical economists was the major force that sustained the economics-sociology collaboration. As institutionalism faded from the scene in the late 1930s, so went interdisciplinary contact.

  3. Tales of sociology and the nursing curriculum: revisiting the debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Law, Kate

    2007-08-01

    . Sociology and the nursing curriculum; editorial. Nurse Education in Practice 4, 81-82; Mowforth, G., Harrison, J., Morris, M., 2005. An investigation into adult nursing students' experience of the relevance and application of behavioural sciences (biology, psychology and sociology) across two different curricula. Nurse Education Today 25, 41-48]. Much attention has been given to the role, utility and value of sociology mostly within pre-registration but also post-registration nursing curricula. Through an initial analysis of a series of letters appearing in The Nursing Times over a 12 week period in 2004, and using an analytical framework of four tales (realist, critical, deconstructive and reflexive) we revisit this relationship. Unlike previous debates our argument is that this relationship is more usefully viewed as emblematic of the legitimation crisis inherent in all modern projects. We argue that in order to move beyond the 'utility' discussion, an interrogation of the knowledge claims of both nursing and sociology is required.

  4. 2004 American Sociological Association Presidential address: for public sociology*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burawoy, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Responding to the growing gap between the sociological ethos and the world we study, the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways. These public sociologies should not be left out in the cold, but brought into the framework of our discipline. In this way we make public sociology a visible and legitimate enterprise, and, thereby, invigorate the discipline as a whole. Accordingly, if we map out the division of sociological labor, we discover antagonistic interdependence among four types of knowledge: professional, critical, policy, and public. In the best of all worlds the flourishing of each type of sociology is a condition for the flourishing of all, but they can just as easily assume pathological forms or become victims of exclusion and subordination. This field of power beckons us to explore the relations among the four types of sociology as they vary historically and nationally, and as they provide the template for divergent individual careers. Finally, comparing disciplines points to the umbilical chord that connects sociology to the world of publics, underlining sociology's particular investment in the defense of civil society, itself beleaguered by the encroachment of markets and states.

  5. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  6. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  7. Toward Understanding School Psychology around the Globe: Economical, Educational, and Professional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the field of school psychology continues to develop rapidly, few recent studies have examined how it is directly affected by a country's economy and education. This study examined the effect of gross domestic product, public spending on education, and public support for education on the ratio of school psychologists to students, level of…

  8. In Praise of Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn

    2017-08-01

    This reflection on the relevance of sociology starts with the different forms of social knowledge, and some autobiographical reflection on my engagement with the discipline. A research-based social science is made urgent by the prevalence of distortion and pseudoscience in the public realm. However, the research-based knowledge formation is embedded in a global economy of knowledge that centers on a privileged group of institutions and produces major imbalances on a world scale. Sociological data collection has important uses in policy and public discussion. But data need to be embedded in a larger project of understanding the world; this is what gives excitement to the work. Sociology has a potential future of marginality or triviality in the neoliberal economy and its university system. There are better trajectories into the future-but they have to be fought for. Cette réflexion sur l'utilité de la sociologie commence avec les différentes formes de savoir social, ainsi que quelques réflexions biographiques sur mon engagement avec la discipline. Le besoin d'une science sociale orientée vers la recherche est devenue nécessaire suite à la prédominance de la distorsion et de la pseudoscience dans la sphère publique. Par contre, ce savoir centré sur la recherche est lié à une économie globale de la connaissance qui est proche d'un groupe privilégié d'institutions et produit des déséquilibres majeurs au niveau mondial. La collecte de données sociologiques a une grande utilité en politique et dans les discussions publiques. Mais ces données doivent être liées à un projet plus large de compréhension du monde ; c'est ce qui rend ce travail excitant. La sociologie risque la marginalisation ou la trivialité dans une économie néo-libérale et son système universitaire. Il existe de meilleures trajectoires pour l'avenir - mais elles doivent être défendues. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  9. Basic Social-Economic Factors Modelling Customer’s Psychological Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Krastev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some social and economic factors influencing on customer’s behaviour – such as social class, social-economic status,occupation, education, income, referent groups, family, gender roles and marketing. Some comparisons are made between some factorsinfluencing on customer’s behaviour in the U.S. and in Bulgaria.

  10. Toward Publicly Responsive Sociology Curricula: The Role of Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…

  11. What has become of critique? Reassembling sociology after Latour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tom

    2017-09-06

    This paper offers a defence of sociology through an engagement with Actor Network Theory (ANT) and particularly the critique of 'critical' and politically engaged social science developed by Bruno Latour. It argues that ANT identifies some weaknesses in more conventional sociology and social theory, and suggests that 'critical' and 'public' orientated sociologists can learn from the analytical precision and ethnographic sensibilities that characterize ANT as a framework of analysis and a research programme. It argues, however, that Latour et al. have too hastily dispensed with 'critique' in favour of a value neutral descriptive sociology, and that the symmetrical and horizontalist approach adopted in ANT is particularly ill-suited to the development of scientific knowledge about social structures. It argues that a more straightforwardly realist sociology would share many of the strengths of ANT whilst being better able to interrogate, empirically and normatively, the centres of contemporary social power. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. The contribution of psychological distress to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality: a population-based follow-up of 28 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostamo Aini I

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors associated with low social status have been proposed as one possible explanation for the socio-economic gradient in health. The aim of this study is to explore whether different indicators of psychological distress contribute to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality. Methods The data source is a nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional survey, "Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population" (AVTK. The survey results were linked with socio-economic register data from Statistics Finland (from the years 1979-2002 and mortality follow-up data up to 2006 from the Finnish National Cause of Death Register. The data included 32451 men and 35420 women (response rate 73.5%. Self-reported measures of depression, insomnia and stress were used as indicators of psychological distress. Socio-economic factors included education, employment status and household income. Mortality data consisted of unnatural causes of death (suicide, accidents and violence, and alcohol-related mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model. Results In unnatural mortality, psychological distress accounted for some of the employment status (11-31% and income level (4-16% differences among both men and women, and for the differences related to the educational level (5-12% among men; the educational level was associated statistically significantly with unnatural mortality only among men. Psychological distress had minor or no contribution to socio-economic differences in CHD mortality. Conclusions Psychological distress partly accounted for socio-economic disparities in unnatural mortality. Further studies are needed to explore the role and mechanisms of psychological distress associated with socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality.

  13. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  14. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  15. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effects of economic deprivation on psychological well-being among the working population of Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan; Endrass, Jerome; Schweizer, Ivo; Teng, Hsun-Mei; Rossler, Wulf; Gallo, William T

    2006-01-01

    Background The association between poverty and mental health has been widely investigated. There is, however, limited evidence of mental health implications of working poverty, despite its representing a rapidly expanding segment of impoverished populations in many developed nations. In this study, we examined whether working poverty in Switzerland, a country with substantial recent growth among the working poor, was correlated with two dependent variables of interest: psychological health and unmet mental health need. Methods This cross-sectional study used data drawn from the first 3 waves (1999–2001) of the Swiss Household Panel, a nationally representative sample of the permanent resident population of Switzerland. The study sample comprised 5453 subjects aged 20–59 years. We used Generalized Estimating Equation models to investigate the association between working poverty and psychological well-being; we applied logistic regression models to analyze the link between working poverty and unmet mental health need. Working poverty was represented by dummy variables indicating financial deficiency, restricted standard of living, or both conditions. Results After controlling other factors, restricted standard of living was significantly (p psychological well-being; it was also associated with approximately 50% increased risk of unmet mental health need (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 – 2.06). Conclusion The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the potential psychological impact of material deprivation on working Swiss citizens. Such knowledge may aid in the design of community intervention programs to help reduce the individual and societal burdens of poverty in Switzerland. PMID:16952322

  17. Teaching Sociology through Student Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    After several years of teaching Sociological Thought--an upper division course that focuses on classical, modern, and contemporary sociological theories--the author came across the idea of student portfolios. As a consequence, the course has undergone far-reaching changes. The content remains relatively intact; however, today the theory course…

  18. RESULTS OF 2011 STATE DUMA ELECTIONS: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Fedotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sociological forecasting of political processes arose as a powerful industry. Nevertheless, results of the polls conducted by the major agencies diverged significantly with the voting in 2011 State Duma elections. The article analyses major complications in forecasting results of elections using sociological data, including psychological factors, role of mass media and administrative resource. The author identifies strategies of the opposition, as well as proves predominant importance of Vladimir Putin for the electoral success of the ruling party on the basis of the polls.

  19. Influence of sociological determinants in consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Bujari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior belongs within the scope of delicate issues in theoretical marketing concepts of marketing. The main reason for such treatment of specific issues derives from human individuality in the decision making process for purchasing. From the complexity of human nature, arise challenges in their efforts to look at the internal motives of consumers, their psychological elements and conditions, the internal psychological determinants of behavior, but also the influence of culture, social class, family, lifestyle, as external sociological determinants, regardless of the particular autonomous characteristics of being socially exposed to certain environmental impacts that are undoubtedly of great importance to one’s behavior as a consumer. On the other hand, there is a series of hidden motifs for which their oversight is necessary because they are crucial to the decision-making process. Having this in mind, the researchers focused their objectives on analyzing the determinants of consumer behavior in the decision-making process to be marketed. Various sources of data have been used in the analysis and the theoretical processing of the work. Most of them have a secondary character and include domestic contemporary literature and foreign literature related to this issue. The basic concept of this paper, besides the introductory part and the conclusions, is also composed of interrelated parts. Given the analysis of different sociological determinants such as culture, social classes, reference groups and so on we understand their impact and their importance in bringing decisions in the market for personal consumption.

  20. Do Underachievers Need Sociology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladin El-Mafaalani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a promising model for using sociological learning to support the education of young people who are socially disadvantaged or display behavioral problems. A great many of these students are trapped in patterns of negative behavior. The goal of the model is to enable these young people to think explicitly about the role they are playing and to encourage them to strike out in a new direction. To this end, Erving Goffman’s sociological insights are used to stage a theatrical performance about school. This approach is informed by the microsociological tradition of proceeding from the concrete to the abstract in order to facilitate inductive learning and self-reflection. Goffman’s theory of social action provides the social-theoretical background for the theatrical action, while also serving as a medium of contrast for the analysis of the individual, interaction, and institution in subsequent reflections about school. In this way, sociological theory not only serves as a theoretical foundation for the lesson, but is also explicitly its subject.Der Aufsatz zeigt eine erfolgversprechende Möglichkeit auf, soziologisches Lernen als Beitrag zur Förderung sozial benachteiligter und verhaltensauffälliger Jugendlicher in der Schule zu implementieren. Die meisten dieser Schüler sind in ihren Handlungsmustern gefangen. Ziel ist es, diesen Jugendlichen die Möglichkeit zu eröffnen, bewusst über ihre Rolle nachzudenken und einen anderen Weg einzuschlagen. Hierfür werden Erkenntnisse aus Erving Goffman‘s Soziologie für ein schulisches Schauspiel genutzt, um ganz im Sinne der mikrosoziologischen Tradition vom Konkreten auf das Abstrakte zu schließen und damit induktives Lernen sowie Selbstreflexion zu ermöglichen. Goffman‘s Theorie sozialen Handelns bildet für das szenische Spiel zunächst das sozialtheoretische Hintergrundrauschen, um schließlich in der Reflexion der sozialen Situation in der Schule als Kontrastmittel f

  1. Social inequality in psychological distress among young people in five countries with little economic disparity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Meilstrup, Charlotte

    in the family (high, medium, low) and 2) parents’ occupational social class (OSC) measured by father’s and mother’s occupation (highest ranking parent: high, medium, low, unclassifiable). We performed age-adjusted multilevel logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and country. Results The overall country......) for psychological distress was 1.36 (95% CI 1.25-1.48) in the medium FAS-group and 2.07 (95% CI 1.78-2.40) in the low FAS-group. The association appeared in all countries although only significant in Iceland and Sweden (girls only). OSC: The Odds Ratio (OR) for psychological distress was 1.01 (95% CI 0.......89-1.15) in the medium OSC-group, 1.37 (1.24-1.52) in the low OSC-group and 1.66 (95% CI 1.49-1.85) in the unclassifiable OSC-group. For girls this finding was robust and significant across all countries except Sweden. For boys the association was graded but not significant. Implications A socioeconomic gradient...

  2. Cultural, economic, and psychological predictors of colonoscopy in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Barg, Frances K; Guerra, Carmen E; Shea, Judy A; Armstrong, Katrina; Ferguson, Monica; Weathers, Benita; Coyne, James; Troxel, Andrea B

    2011-11-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among adults in the US and colonoscopy is efficacious in reducing morbidity and mortality from CRC, screening rates are sub-optimal. Understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and health care context within which decisions about colonoscopy are made allows physicians to address patients' most salient beliefs and values and other constraints when making screening recommendations. To evaluate the direct and interactive effects of socioeconomics, health care variables, psychological characteristics, and cultural values on colonoscopy use. National survey completed between January-August 2009 in a random sample of African American, white, and Hispanic adults ages 50-75 without cancer (n = 582). Self-reported colonoscopy use. Only 59% of respondents reported having a colonoscopy. The likelihood of colonoscopy increased with having health insurance (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.24, 6.43, p = 0.004), and increasing age (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.77, p = 0.001). In addition, respondents with greater self-efficacy were more likely to have a colonoscopy (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.35, 4.29, p = 0.003). Programs that help patients to overcome access and psychological barriers to screening are needed.

  3. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Katsora

    2015-04-01

    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  4. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMING IN RADIO TEOCELO, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.

  6. The value of psychological treatment for borderline personality disorder: Systematic review and cost offset analysis of economic evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, Denise; McCarthy, Alexandra; Bourke, Marianne E.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a common mental health condition with high patterns of service utilisation of inpatient and community treatment. Over the past five years there has been significant growth in research with economic data, making this systematic review a timely update. Methods Empirical studies written in English or German, published up to December 2015, and cited in major electronic databases were examined using the PRISMA systematic review method. Papers were included that had one of the following: data related to cost of BPD to society, the individual, the carer or families; cost benefits of interventions. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2015 and converted into US- dollars (USD $) using purchasing power parities. Results We identified 30 economic evaluations providing cost data related to interventions for BPD across 134,136 patients. The methodological quality was good, almost all studies fulfilled ≥ 50% of the quality criteria. The mean cost saving for treating BPD with evidence-based psychotherapy across studies was USD $2,987.82 per patient per year. A further mean weighted reduction of USD $1,551 per patient per year (range $83 - $29,392) was found compared to treatment as usual. Evidence-based psychological treatment was both less expensive as well as more effective, despite considerable differences in health cost arrangements between individual studies and countries. Where it was able to be calculated, a significant difference in cost-savings between different types of evidence-based psychotherapies was found. Discussion Individuals with BPD consistently demonstrate high patterns of service utilization and therefore high costs. The findings of this review present a strong argument in favour of prioritizing BPD treatments in reimbursement decisions, both for the affected individual and the family. The provision of evidence based treatment, irrespective of the type of psychological treatment, may lead to widespread

  7. The value of psychological treatment for borderline personality disorder: Systematic review and cost offset analysis of economic evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Meuldijk

    Full Text Available Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD is a common mental health condition with high patterns of service utilisation of inpatient and community treatment. Over the past five years there has been significant growth in research with economic data, making this systematic review a timely update.Empirical studies written in English or German, published up to December 2015, and cited in major electronic databases were examined using the PRISMA systematic review method. Papers were included that had one of the following: data related to cost of BPD to society, the individual, the carer or families; cost benefits of interventions. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2015 and converted into US- dollars (USD $ using purchasing power parities.We identified 30 economic evaluations providing cost data related to interventions for BPD across 134,136 patients. The methodological quality was good, almost all studies fulfilled ≥ 50% of the quality criteria. The mean cost saving for treating BPD with evidence-based psychotherapy across studies was USD $2,987.82 per patient per year. A further mean weighted reduction of USD $1,551 per patient per year (range $83 - $29,392 was found compared to treatment as usual. Evidence-based psychological treatment was both less expensive as well as more effective, despite considerable differences in health cost arrangements between individual studies and countries. Where it was able to be calculated, a significant difference in cost-savings between different types of evidence-based psychotherapies was found.Individuals with BPD consistently demonstrate high patterns of service utilization and therefore high costs. The findings of this review present a strong argument in favour of prioritizing BPD treatments in reimbursement decisions, both for the affected individual and the family. The provision of evidence based treatment, irrespective of the type of psychological treatment, may lead to widespread reductions in

  8. A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, George

    2013-01-01

    British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Entrepreneurial Regions: Do Macro-Psychological Cultural Characteristics of Regions Help Solve the “Knowledge Paradox” of Economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Stuetzer, Michael; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Potter, Jeff; Audretsch, David B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, modern economies have shifted away from being based on physical capital and towards being based on new knowledge (e.g., new ideas and inventions). Consequently, contemporary economic theorizing and key public policies have been based on the assumption that resources for generating knowledge (e.g., education, diversity of industries) are essential for regional economic vitality. However, policy makers and scholars have discovered that, contrary to expectations, the mere presence of, and investments in, new knowledge does not guarantee a high level of regional economic performance (e.g., high entrepreneurship rates). To date, this “knowledge paradox” has resisted resolution. We take an interdisciplinary perspective to offer a new explanation, hypothesizing that “hidden” regional culture differences serve as a crucial factor that is missing from conventional economic analyses and public policy strategies. Focusing on entrepreneurial activity, we hypothesize that the statistical relation between knowledge resources and entrepreneurial vitality (i.e., high entrepreneurship rates) in a region will depend on “hidden” regional differences in entrepreneurial culture. To capture such “hidden” regional differences, we derive measures of entrepreneurship-prone culture from two large personality datasets from the United States (N = 935,858) and Great Britain (N = 417,217). In both countries, the findings were consistent with the knowledge-culture-interaction hypothesis. A series of nine additional robustness checks underscored the robustness of these results. Naturally, these purely correlational findings cannot provide direct evidence for causal processes, but the results nonetheless yield a remarkably consistent and robust picture in the two countries. In doing so, the findings raise the idea of regional culture serving as a new causal candidate, potentially driving the knowledge paradox; such an explanation would be consistent with research

  10. Entrepreneurial Regions: Do Macro-Psychological Cultural Characteristics of Regions Help Solve the "Knowledge Paradox" of Economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Obschonka

    Full Text Available In recent years, modern economies have shifted away from being based on physical capital and towards being based on new knowledge (e.g., new ideas and inventions. Consequently, contemporary economic theorizing and key public policies have been based on the assumption that resources for generating knowledge (e.g., education, diversity of industries are essential for regional economic vitality. However, policy makers and scholars have discovered that, contrary to expectations, the mere presence of, and investments in, new knowledge does not guarantee a high level of regional economic performance (e.g., high entrepreneurship rates. To date, this "knowledge paradox" has resisted resolution. We take an interdisciplinary perspective to offer a new explanation, hypothesizing that "hidden" regional culture differences serve as a crucial factor that is missing from conventional economic analyses and public policy strategies. Focusing on entrepreneurial activity, we hypothesize that the statistical relation between knowledge resources and entrepreneurial vitality (i.e., high entrepreneurship rates in a region will depend on "hidden" regional differences in entrepreneurial culture. To capture such "hidden" regional differences, we derive measures of entrepreneurship-prone culture from two large personality datasets from the United States (N = 935,858 and Great Britain (N = 417,217. In both countries, the findings were consistent with the knowledge-culture-interaction hypothesis. A series of nine additional robustness checks underscored the robustness of these results. Naturally, these purely correlational findings cannot provide direct evidence for causal processes, but the results nonetheless yield a remarkably consistent and robust picture in the two countries. In doing so, the findings raise the idea of regional culture serving as a new causal candidate, potentially driving the knowledge paradox; such an explanation would be consistent with research on

  11. Entrepreneurial Regions: Do Macro-Psychological Cultural Characteristics of Regions Help Solve the "Knowledge Paradox" of Economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Stuetzer, Michael; Gosling, Samuel D; Rentfrow, Peter J; Lamb, Michael E; Potter, Jeff; Audretsch, David B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, modern economies have shifted away from being based on physical capital and towards being based on new knowledge (e.g., new ideas and inventions). Consequently, contemporary economic theorizing and key public policies have been based on the assumption that resources for generating knowledge (e.g., education, diversity of industries) are essential for regional economic vitality. However, policy makers and scholars have discovered that, contrary to expectations, the mere presence of, and investments in, new knowledge does not guarantee a high level of regional economic performance (e.g., high entrepreneurship rates). To date, this "knowledge paradox" has resisted resolution. We take an interdisciplinary perspective to offer a new explanation, hypothesizing that "hidden" regional culture differences serve as a crucial factor that is missing from conventional economic analyses and public policy strategies. Focusing on entrepreneurial activity, we hypothesize that the statistical relation between knowledge resources and entrepreneurial vitality (i.e., high entrepreneurship rates) in a region will depend on "hidden" regional differences in entrepreneurial culture. To capture such "hidden" regional differences, we derive measures of entrepreneurship-prone culture from two large personality datasets from the United States (N = 935,858) and Great Britain (N = 417,217). In both countries, the findings were consistent with the knowledge-culture-interaction hypothesis. A series of nine additional robustness checks underscored the robustness of these results. Naturally, these purely correlational findings cannot provide direct evidence for causal processes, but the results nonetheless yield a remarkably consistent and robust picture in the two countries. In doing so, the findings raise the idea of regional culture serving as a new causal candidate, potentially driving the knowledge paradox; such an explanation would be consistent with research on the

  12. A sociological dilemma: Race, segregation and US sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    US sociology has been historically segregated in that, at least until the 1960s, there were two distinct institutionally organized traditions of sociological thought – one black and one white. For the most part, however, dominant historiographies have been silent on that segregation and, at best, reproduce it when addressing the US sociological tradition. This is evident in the rarity with which scholars such as WEB Du Bois, E Franklin Frazier, Oliver Cromwell Cox, or other ‘African American Pioneers of Sociology’, as Saint-Arnaud calls them, are presented as core sociological voices within histories of the discipline. This article addresses the absence of African American sociologists from the US sociological canon and, further, discusses the implications of this absence for our understanding of core sociological concepts. With regard to the latter, the article focuses in particular on the debates around equality and emancipation and discusses the ways in which our understanding of these concepts could be extended by taking into account the work of African American sociologists and their different interpretations of core themes. PMID:25418995

  13. Methodological pluralism and structure of sociological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Polyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the historical-sociological analysis is used as a means to show the differences between theoretical and empirical sociology. There exist several, basic traditions in theoretical sociology. The investigation of their competing theoretical and methodological principles carried out in the paper; identify some fundamental features of sociological theory as a whole.

  14. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  15. Catastrophes: sociological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babosov, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Various types of accidents - natural, ecological, technological and social are analysed. Consequences of accidents and co-operation of the people in extreme conditions of crises and accidents are considered. It is shown the social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and ways of a decrease of negative consequences on the person

  16. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    significant as well as some of the lesser known and overlooked contributions of Zygmunt Bauman to contemporary sociology - ethics, freedom, utopia, genocide, metaphors, ambivalence, politics, strangers, globalization, power and consumerism. In separate chapters Bauman inspired scholars from the United Kingdom...

  17. Følelser og sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind; Jacobsen, Michael Hviid

    2017-01-01

    En introduktion til bogen om følelsernes sociologi eller emotionssociologi - herunder om den ekspressive revolution og den affektive vending, om forskning i følelser og dens klassifikationer, tilgange, teorier og metoder....

  18. Sport Sociology and the Discipline of Sociology: Present Status and Speculations about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Eldon E.; Spreitzer, Elmer

    The status of the sociology of sport within the discipline of sociology is explored. Review of the subfield since 1971 indicates an increase in the number of publications and communication relating to sport sociology topics. It is hypothesized, however, that sport sociology will not in the near future receive equal acceptance within sociology with…

  19. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers.

  20. Are all conservatives alike? A study of the psychological correlates of cultural and economic conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, H Michael

    2009-10-01

    The author addresses the question of whether cultural and economic conservatism differ among American citizens in their relation to measures of epistemic beliefs and motives, dogmatism, death-related anxiety, and the tendency to exhibit dogmatic aggression against those who hold beliefs and values that diverge from one's own. Data from this study suggest that these types of conservative attitudes exhibit different correlational patterns with the aforementioned measures. Research participants who held more culturally conservative attitudes were more likely to score higher on measures of the belief that knowledge is certain, dogmatism, need to evaluate, and fear of death. They also scored lower on need for cognition than did their less conservative counterparts. Moreover, participants who scored higher on cultural conservatism were more likely to exhibit dogmatic aggression. Economic conservatism was largely unrelated to measures of epistemic beliefs and motives, fear of death, dogmatism, and aggressiveness. Ancillary regression analyses revealed that belief that knowledge is certain and dogmatism were the strongest predictors of cultural conservatism. Cultural conservatism, fear of death, and need for structure were significant predictors of dogmatic aggression.

  1. A Discussion on the European Debt Crisis by Fiscal Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jen Chang

    2016-01-01

    Sociology. The economic profits conflict of investment, consumption, international business and labor market will have influence on the government’s revenue and expenditure. Furthermore, the root of the European debt crisis is the uneven income distribution by financialization and neoliberalism.

  2. Quantitative Methodology in Sociology: The Last Twenty-five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Karl F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that recent work in research methods in sociology consists largely of adapting methods developed elsewhere (statistics, demography, economics) for answering relatively simple questions about social change. These questions reflect practical as well as theoretical concerns. Discusses social indicators, social forecasting, cohort, occupational…

  3. The opposition to nuclear energy: spychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis: four convergent approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1979-01-01

    After tracing the psychological and social history of nuclear energy, the author analyzes the diverse approaches used by the social sciences to study the psychosocial repercussions of nuclear achievement. Psychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis, the four approaches cited, are complementary, not exclusive [fr

  4. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  5. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  6. Regarding Bioethics: A Sociology of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    C. Wright Mills said that when done well, sociology illuminates the intersection of biography and history. This essay examines how the author's vocational choices and career path were shaped by historical circumstance, leading him to a degree in sociology and to participation in the odd and interesting interdiscipline of bioethics. Drawing on a distinction between sociology in bioethics and sociology of bioethics, the essay considers the value of sociology to the bioethical project.

  7. Sociological researches in the region of Ignalina nuclear power plant: stages and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiuzhas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The article examines the sociological researches made by the scientific researchers of the Lithuanian Institute of Philosophy and Sociology during the period of 1989-1997. The investigation in this region was started on the eve of Lithuanian independence restoration. The scientists wanted to find out the integration problems and difficulties of Visaginas population to the transformational life of Lithuania. Another reason of the research set for the first time in Lithuania was the investigation of the attitudes of Visaginas inhabitants to the influence of Ignalina NPP upon people and environment, economic and social development. In 1993 the research was started in accordance with the State's program T he Atomic Energetic and Environment a nd last up to 1997. It included three stages. In the first place the examination of the experts a survey about the evaluation of living environment, ecological and social state was done. The second stage surveyed the work conditions and the social psychological atmosphere in the Ignalina NPP. The investigation of the living and activity conditions of the regional population was done in the third stage. (author)

  8. Sociological concept of morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first discusses the overall unity of the total normative regulation, from which it is separated in the late Roman empire the right, but only in the new century and the morale. There are analyzed the relationship between the moral and ethical reflection and Weber's distinction between pure ethics will (Gesinnungsethik and ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik. The morale is determined by the good as the highest value, as a specific form of social norms but also as a kind of human behavior. These three definitions can be combined in an integrative approach. There are examined the dimensions of moral statements, subjective and objective side of morality, as well as the difference between morale and morality. A general notion of morale can not be defined in substantive but only in formal way . The formal definition is a constituent of general as well as of sociological concept of morale and it is related to morality as a social phenomenon. Its essence is to define the morale by specific norms, the characteristics of the internal and external mandatory (with the pricks of conscience as the most distinctive moral sanction and control exercised by the formal not institutionalized or diffuse society , and in consideration of morality as a social process (actions of people associated moral norms . The basic types of social moral process - being, education, functioning and changing of morale are described. There are briefly analyzed the influence of society to the morale and social function of morale, with special emphasis on the relationship between law and morale.

  9. The Academic, Administrative, Economic, Social, and Psychological Problems Faced by Students of Textile and Clothing Major at King Abdul-Aziz University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…

  10. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  11. Toward a sociology of the Brazilian Corporate Sustainability Index?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Souza Sartore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to collaborate with the academic debate about the social construction of economic tools, this article captures the social construction of the Corporate Sustainability Index (ISE of Bovespa. From an economic approach, the index is the numeric representation of financial profitability of sustainable enterprises, however, from that of sociology, the ISE is the window to apprehend the symbolic struggles that constitute the Brazilian market of Socially Responsible Investment (SRI. This idea is demonstrated by the recovery of the chronological history of the development of ISE which shows the elements of the arbitrary political process searching for its economic neutrality. This article emphasizes the need to explore sociologically the financial indexes as well as other classification tools of the economic world.

  12. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  13. Socio-economic differences in use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicine for pain and psychological problems among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette Jorgine; Hansen, Claus Dalsgaard; Andersen, JH

    2014-01-01

    of medicine for pain and psychological problems according to parental educational level and household income. Young girls used twice as much medicine for pain and psychological problems compared to young boys. SES differences based on parental educational level were directly associated with the use...... in the use of prescribed medicine for pain. Conclusion: The risk of use of prescribed medicine for psychological problems increased in adolescents with decreasing parental education, while the risk of overall medicine use and use of over-the-counter medicine was increased in adolescents from low household......The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18...

  14. Prospects for pro-environmental protein consumption in Europe: Cultural, culinary, economic and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Aiking, Harry

    2018-02-01

    The current ratio between plant and animal protein in the Western diet is causing serious threats to both public health and the environment. Healthy, pro-environmental protein consumption requires a transition to a diet with more plant protein and considerably less animal protein. The present paper focuses on the prospects of this transition by analyzing consumer responses to some key options in the context of regional differences across Europe. The aim is to assess how responses to the options might be shaped by 1) cultural, culinary and economic spatial gradients (including GDP per capita) at regional level and 2) differences in environmental friendly behavior and gender at individual level. The study, covering all EU members in 2012, compares regional level statistics (food supply data) with individual level statistics (consumer survey data) and vice-versa. The south-north latitude gradient showed a decreasing trend in vegetable and pulse protein supplies and, in parallel, a decreasing trend in positive consumer responses to the key options, probably due to differences in meal experiences. The west-east longitude gradient showed decreasing levels of animal protein supplies and GDP per capita. Individuals' willingness to do something positive for the environment and their gender played a weak but consistent role in the responses. To effectively stimulate diet changes, it is important to seek ways in which culinary and environmental aspects can complement each other and to ensure that diet changes do not depend solely on individual decisions but become an integral part of regional social processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooperation between medicine and sociology in head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Emmanuel; Grandazzi, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first-century medicine is facing many challenges--knowledge and command of technical advances, research development, team management, knowledge transmission, and adaptation to economic constraints--without neglecting "human" aspects, via transformed carer-patient relationships, social change, and so on. The "modern" physicians know that simply treating disease is no longer enough. One of their essential missions lies in offering the individual patient overall care, which implies acknowledging the latter as an individual within a family, social, and professional environment. Indeed, medical practice requires pluridimensional knowledge of the patients' experience of their disease. Yet the contribution sociology can offer to health care remains largely unknown to many physicians, and medical training includes only limited instruction in the human sciences. On the basis of a few observations taken from sociological research, we would like to demonstrate how, in head and neck oncology, interdisciplinary collaboration between medicine and sociology can prove propitious to improving patient care and attention to their close relations.

  16. What is analytical sociology? Towards sociology as 'normal science'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekić Milovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the basics of analytical sociology, relatively new and in our scientific community little known intellectual movement. In the introductory part I try to identify the general causes of its occurrence. In the second part I provide its preliminary definition. In the third part I reconstruct its prehistory. In the fourth and main part I discuss the basis of its scientific program. In the final part I try to establish implications of the adoption of this program as a guide for the sociological enterprise in the future.

  17. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  18. Medical sociology as a vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosk, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    This article extends Weber's discussion of science as a vocation by applying it to medical sociology. Having used qualitative methods for nearly 40 years to interpret problems of meaning as they arise in the context of health care, I describe how ethnography, in particular, and qualitative inquiry, more generally, may be used as a tool for understanding fundamental questions close to the heart but far from the mind of medical sociology. Such questions overlap with major policy questions such as how do we achieve a higher standard for quality of care and assure the safety of patients. Using my own research, I show how this engagement takes the form of showing how simple narratives of policy change fail to address the complexities of the problems that they are designed to remedy. I also attempt to explain how I balance objectivity with a commitment to creating a more equitable framework for health care. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  19. Latin american sociology's contribution to sociological imagination: analysis, criticism, and social commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Tavares-dos-Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the role played by sociology in the analysis of the transformation processes in the Latin American societies, in following the construction process of both State and Nation, and in questioning the social issues in Latin America. Six periods of sociology in Latin America and in the Caribbean Islands are analyzed: (i sociology's intellectual inheritance; (ii the authoritative-teaching sociology; (iii the "scientific sociology" period and the configuration of the "critical sociology"; (iv the institutional crisis, consolidation of the "critical sociology", and the diversification of sociology; (v the sociology of authoritarianism, of democracy, and of exclusion; and (vi the institutional consolidation and the worldization of sociology in Latin America (from the year 2000 on. It can be said that the distinctive features of the sociological knowledge in the continent have been: internationalism, hybridism, critical approach to the processes and conflicts in the Latin American societies, and social commitment on the part of the sociologist.

  20. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  1. Teaching Sociology and Womens’ Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Ali Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical...

  2. Can sociology help to improve nursing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David

    The first in a five-part series on sociology offers an overview of the debate about the relationship between sociology and nursing. Although sociological education is currently limited within nurse education, there is a long-held argument for its relevance. With a growing emphasis on preventative and public healthcare, sociology may yet prove its usefulness. Subsequent articles cover four of the key social factors affecting health.

  3. The Corpus Status of Literature in Teaching Sociology: Novels as "Sociological Reconstruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Using fiction in teaching sociology involves what Harvey Sacks calls "sociological reconstruction". Numerous comments on teaching sociology provide advice and suggestions on the use of literature and "what counts" as "sociological" literature, including specific titles. This paper goes further: while the use of literature is a routine feature of…

  4. Should We Talk about the Pain? Personalizing Sociology in the Medical Sociology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C. H.; Sumerau, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the potential of personalizing sociology curriculum, specifically in Medical Sociology courses, to increase student engagement and sociological awareness. Based on our experiences offering separate Medical Sociology courses at a large public research university and a small private teaching university, respectively, we…

  5. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  6. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  7. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  8. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  9. The sociologist and the state. An assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Willem

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology based on a reading of his posthumously published lectures on the state in Sur l'État. It argues that the state was a foundational element in Bourdieu's rendition of the symbolic order of everyday life. As such, the state becomes equally pivotal in Bourdieu's sociology, the applicability of which rests on the existence of the state, which stabilizes the social fields and their symbolic action that constitute the object of sociology. The state, which Bourdieu considers a 'meta'-ordering principle in social life, ensures that sociology has a well-ordered object of study, vis-à-vis which it can posit itself as 'meta-meta'. The state thus functions as an epistemic guarantee in Bourdieu's sociology. A critical analysis of Bourdieu's sociology of the state offers the chance of a more fundamental overall assessment of Bourdieu's conception of sociology that has relevance for any critical sociological perspective that rests on the assumption of a meta-social entity, such as the state in Bourdieu's work, as a final ordering instance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  10. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  11. “IDENTITY” IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Polyakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of identity has come to the fore of contemporary societies in the conditions when the institutional structures of these societies their ascriptive statuses have become looser when modernity is “liquid”, “soft”. Varions conceptualizations of identity are becoming a basic part of contemporary sociological theory. The paper aims to reveal the key problems that sociology faces when striving to work out a theory of identity. The paper takes as its starting point the classic notion of identity. This notion was shaped by Erik Erikson on the basis of his dynamic psychology. The paper proves that the contemporary identity is connected with the process of individualization in modern societies. Numerous and varied studies of contemporary identity can be divided into three large groups according to three methodological approaches: constructivist, postmodern and interactionist. The paper compares the major theories based on these approaches and reveals their theoretical and methodological problems. The paper shows that the constructivist approach is based on the notion of reflexivity which is viewed as a mechanism of identity formation by an individual. Identity is a reflexive project which is being realized in a conscious manner. The postmodern theories of identity reveal the fragmentation incompleteness of ego-identitity and it’s narcissic decay. They also reveal the inability of the individual to solve the problem of continuity and unity of her (his own personality. Identity as a notion is replaced by the notion of identification which reduces identity to varions modes of repsentation. The interactionist methodology conld open up the way to tackle, the problem of individual’s unity and continuity as the main problem of human existence. This is the condition of the individual’s psychic and social health. 

  12. Toward a Sociology of Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John

    2017-02-01

    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  13. Sociology, medicine and the construction of health-related sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nelson Filice de; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Starting from a paper about closing the gap between sociology and medicine in Brazil and the United Kingdom that was published in 1971, a historical update was made with the aim of reflecting on the new shapes of health-related teaching and research within the social and human sciences, in these two countries. The methodology was qualitative and the study was developed using secondary data. The reflections were developed through the authors' immersion in Brazilian and British realities. It was concluded that the interface between sociology and health has expanded, although persistent old difficulties exist in relation to the structure and focus of the healthcare system, medical school power and medical student culture.

  14. A Discussion on the European Debt Crisis by Fiscal Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jen Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is that discuss thereasons of European debt crisis. Every European country adopts austeritypolicy, which cannot solve government debt problems and further lead toeconomic exacerbation and continuous recession, based on the neoclassicaleconomic theory. In order to realize the root of European debt crisis, thisarticle adopts the reaseach method of fiscal sociology. In this study, wethink that the government debt problem is the result of economic profitsconflict based on the Fiscal Sociology. The economic profits conflict ofinvestment, consumption, international business and labor market will haveinfluence on the government’s revenue and expenditure. Furthermore, the root ofthe European debt crisis is the uneven income distribution by financializationand neoliberalism.

  15. Sociology: a view from the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard

    2010-12-01

    From the vantage point of criminology, one of sociology's main export subject areas, the present and future of sociology appear a good deal more promising than John Holmwood's essay on the discipline's misfortune would suggest. Sociology remains in high demand by students and faculty hiring remains strong, even in its more critical sub-fields, such as race and ethnicity, sex and gender, and social inequality. Holmwood is correct that sociology is vulnerable to external pressures to demonstrate its relevance to social practice, but those pressures come from left-wing social movements as well as from centres of power. He is also correct that external pressures contribute to internal disagreement, but sociology has been at war with itself since the 1960s, with little evident decline in its academic standing or intellectual vitality. Those of us on the discipline's diaspora, who depend on sociology for both support and light, must remain hopeful about sociology's continued good fortune.

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  17. Toward a Metatheory of Economic Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    Dholakia and Turcan present their interdisciplinary metatheory of bubbles with short case studies of minor and major bubbles. They comprehensively identify and exemplify constructs of the theory, set its temporal and contextual boundaries, and examine the underlying economic, psychological......, and social dynamics assumptions, explaining how these elements are related. By doing so, they provide a partial window into the precarious nature of contemporary finance-driven capitalism and suggest some possible ways of overcoming the wrenching ups and downs of the prevalent system. The case studies...... and original research in Toward a Metatheory of Economic Bubbles have far-reaching implications for the study and practice of entrepreneurship and marketing, public and corporate finance, and public policies towards innovation, economy, and finance. It contributes to the defining issues for economic sociology...

  18. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most inspirational and controversial thinkers on the scene of contemporary sociology. For several decades he has provided compelling analyses and diagnoses of a vast variety of aspects of modern and liquid modern living. His work is increasingly popularized, appraised...... life and intellectual trajectory published here for the first time in English. In this postscript aptly entitled "Pro Domo Sua" ("About Myself"), he describes the pushes and pulls that throughout the years have shaped his thinking....

  19. [A sociological approach to vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelège, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The term precarity covers many realities. It has become one of those "portmanteau words" which, as a resuIt of being constantly reassessed, is losing its meaning. In order to avoid an overly sectional approach to the mechanisms of social precarity, or exclusion, it is necessary to understand in more general terms the sociological processes around the concept of the social tie and its effects of rupture.

  20. Sustainability through the Lens of Environmental Sociology: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saidul Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our planet is undergoing radical environmental and social changes. Sustainability has now been put into question by, for example, our consumption patterns, loss of biodiversity, depletion of resources, and exploitative power relations. With apparent ecological and social limits to globalization and development, current levels of consumption are known to be unsustainable, inequitable, and inaccessible to the majority of humans. Understanding and achieving sustainability is a crucial matter at a time when our planet is in peril—environmentally, economically, socially, and politically. Since its official inception in the 1970s, environmental sociology has provided a powerful lens to understanding the challenges, possibilities, and modes of sustainability. This editorial, accompanying the Special Issue on “sustainability through the Lens of Environmental Sociology”, first highlights the evolution of environmental sociology as a distinct field of inquiry, focusing on how it addresses the environmental challenges of our time. It then adumbrates the rich theoretical traditions of environmental sociology, and finally examines sustainability through the lens of environmental sociology, referring to various case studies and empirical analyses.

  1. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  2. Sociology of bodies/emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Scribano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at pointing out that the division between a sociology of the bodies and the emotions is, to say the least, unnecessary. The basic idea that runs through this argument is very simple but needs to be justified: it is not possible to search and reflect on bodies/emotions separately, as if it were any chance of one not referring to the other and viceversa. The strategy of the exposition we have selected is as follows: 1 we outline in an introductory manner the existing approaches in the social studies on bodies and emotions, 2 we point out three kinds of reasons/motives to argue the inadequacy of the categorical/aporetic division of a sociology of the bodies and one of the emotions, 3 we put forward our perspective regarding a sociology of bodies/emotions, and 4 we analize the problem of hunger as an example of our viewpoint. Finally, we invite to reflect on the exposed as a means to open a possible discussion in methodological, theoretical, epistemological and political terms.

  3. Revitalizing sociology: urban life and mental illness between history and the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a re-thinking of the relationship between sociology and the biological sciences. Tracing lines of connection between the history of sociology and the contemporary landscape of biology, the paper argues for a reconfiguration of this relationship beyond popular rhetorics of 'biologization' or 'medicalization'. At the heart of the paper is a claim that, today, there are some potent new frames for re-imagining the traffic between sociological and biological research - even for 'revitalizing' the sociological enterprise as such. The paper threads this argument through one empirical case: the relationship between urban life and mental illness. In its first section, it shows how this relationship enlivened both early psychiatric epidemiology, and some forms of the new discipline of sociology; it then traces the historical division of these sciences, as the sociological investment in psychiatric questions waned, and 'the social' become marginalized within an increasingly 'biological' psychiatry. In its third section, however, the paper shows how this relationship has lately been revivified, but now by a nuanced epigenetic and neurobiological attention to the links between mental health and urban life. What role can sociology play here? In its final section, the paper shows how this older sociology, with its lively interest in the psychiatric and neurobiological vicissitudes of urban social life, can be our guide in helping to identify intersections between sociological and biological attention. With a new century now underway, the paper concludes by suggesting that the relationship between urban life and mental illness may prove a core testing-ground for a 'revitalized' sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  4. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  5. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson's model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in 'individualisation' and 'self-reflexivity' as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work.

  6. Pure sociology and social geometry as an example of formal sociological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes pure sociology and social geometry of Donald Black as an example of formal sociological theory. Starting with the importance of formal and analytical theory in sociology, we present the bold theoretical strategy and/or the paradigm of the sociology of behavior of social life. The examples of pure sociology and social geometry concerning law, violence and homosexuality are presented as well. A review and critique of pure sociology as a scientific formal theory is offered in the end.

  7. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  8. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  9. Love, from a sociological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Piazzesi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to examine erotic love and intimacy from a sociological point of view? Does this endeavour entail a definition of love, and, if so, is such a definition possible from a sociological perspective? This paper discusses the epistemological challenges implied by the task of constructing love as the object of sociological inquiry. We will start by giving a definition of the task itself and by detailing the peculiarities of a sociological inquiry on love. We will point out why it is imperative for such an inquiry to remain open to the historicity of love as an emotion and as a form of interaction. Finally we will explore love as the object of a sociological investigation in order to spell out what becomes visible to the sociological eye once the correct epistemological precautions are taken.

  10. Comparative education and the ?new? sociologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusz, Andrew R.; Parks-Trusz, Sandra L.

    1981-12-01

    The authors examine the impact of the `new' sociologies on comparative education by reviewing five comparative readers published during the past twenty years. While the `new' sociologies have had considerable impact within sociology and the sociology of education, minimal impact is found within comparative education. The authors further show that while critical new sociologies such as Marxism, neo-Marxism, and Critical theory have had some penetration into comparative education, use of the interpretative sociologies such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, and semiotics has generally been absent. The authors conclude by suggesting that a synthesis of the critical and interpretative modes would prove fruitful for further work in comparative education. The five texts are: Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.), Education, Economy and Society (1961); Eckstein and Noah (eds.), Scientific Investigations in Comparative Education (1969); Beck, Perspectives on World Education (1970); Karabel and Halsey (eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (1977); and Altbach and Kelly (eds.), Education and Colonialism (1978).

  11. Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Maria

    2013-12-01

    This paper re-examines the sociological study of resistance in light of growing interest in the concept of affect. Recent claims that we are witness to an 'affective turn' and calls for a 'new sociological empiricism' sensitive to affect indicate an emerging paradigm shift in sociology. Yet, mainstream sociological study of resistance tends to have been largely unaffected by this shift. To this end, this paper presents a case for the significance of affect as a lens by which to approach the study of resistance. My claim is not simply that the forms of actions we would normally recognize as resistance have an affective dimension. Rather, it is that the theory of affect broadens 'resistance' beyond the purview of the two dominant modes of analysis in sociology; namely, the study of macropolitical forms, on the one hand, and the micropolitics of everyday resistance on the other. This broadened perspective challenges the persistent assumption that ideological forms of power and resistance are the most pertinent to the contemporary world, suggesting that much power and resistance today is of a more affective nature. In making this argument, it is a Deleuzian reading of affect that is pursued, which opens up to a level of analysis beyond the common understanding of affect as emotion. I argue that an affective approach to resistance would pay attention to those barely perceptible transitions in power and mobilizations of bodily potential that operate below the conscious perceptions and subjective emotions of social actors. These affective transitions constitute a new site at which both power and resistance operate. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  12. The Cost Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Model-Based Economic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigeneia Mavranezouli

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder is one of the most persistent and common anxiety disorders. Individually delivered psychological therapies are the most effective treatment options for adults with social anxiety disorder, but they are associated with high intervention costs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the relative cost effectiveness of a variety of psychological and pharmacological interventions for adults with social anxiety disorder.A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs of 28 interventions for social anxiety disorder from the perspective of the British National Health Service and personal social services. Efficacy data were derived from a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Other model input parameters were based on published literature and national sources, supplemented by expert opinion.Individual cognitive therapy was the most cost-effective intervention for adults with social anxiety disorder, followed by generic individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, phenelzine and book-based self-help without support. Other drugs, group-based psychological interventions and other individually delivered psychological interventions were less cost-effective. Results were influenced by limited evidence suggesting superiority of psychological interventions over drugs in retaining long-term effects. The analysis did not take into account side effects of drugs.Various forms of individually delivered CBT appear to be the most cost-effective options for the treatment of adults with social anxiety disorder. Consideration of side effects of drugs would only strengthen this conclusion, as it would improve even further the cost effectiveness of individually delivered CBT relative to phenelzine, which was the next most cost-effective option, due to the serious side effects associated with phenelzine. Further research needs to determine more accurately the long

  13. Fashion in the context of contemporary sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Voronkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the content of the various options of fashion’s theory and research strategies of national sociological schools is identified and analyzed in the article. To those schools belong scientists from the USA, France and Germany: R. Barthes, H. Blumer, J. Baudrillard, P. Bourdieu, Th. Veblen, G. Simmel, W. Sombart. In particular, representatives of American sociology study fashion, especially in the context of a definition of psychological factors affecting both the individual (Th. Veblen, and so on Collective (G. Bloomer behavior of members of modern society. French researchers P. Bourdieu, R. Barthes and J. Baudrillard offer analyze fashion as a social phenomenon that puts the functioning of all spheres of personality and needs, especially solid theoretical interpretations. German sociologists examined fashion, especially as one of many forms of life (G. Simmel, in which the trend towards social cohesion combined with the trend towards individual differences that are beginning to engage in the conditions of formation and development of capitalist society (W. Sombart. It is substantiated that the historical development of each country affected the establishment of national sociological schools. This reflected not only in the formation of the leading areas of research, but also on specificity of the analysis of other social phenomena and processes, particularly in the study of the problem field of fashion.

  14. Nutrition and inequalities. A note on sociological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcott, Anne

    2002-09-01

    This article provides an overview of three approaches taken to illuminate the sociological contribution to the field of nutrition and inequalities, in the hope of prompting future researchers to pursue the lines of enquiry suggested. Under the heading of inequalities in food use, the paper first exemplifies the utility of 'political arithmetic', possibly the sociological approach best known in public health. This includes socio-economic patterning in food purchases as well as disadvantage in access, where studies of poverty represent a longstanding focus. A rural/urban dimension has, however, been left dormant. A second approach is illustrated by work on public understandings of nutrition, encompassing primarily small-scale studies of beliefs about nutrition, which emphasise the plurality of lay definitions of diet and health. Lacking are studies which build on this work to uncover the relation to health inequalities. Third to be introduced is sociological work on the social distribution of taste, which illuminates the potential for examining enduring, shared ideas of styles in eating embedded in forms of the social organisation of the home that is associated with different socio-economic levels. The paper ends with comment on practical implications for public health practice and policy designed to reduce inequalities in nutrition.

  15. Audiological rehabilitation in sociological perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    , or they can relate to particular situations. On entering the hearing clinic for the first time, many patients express discomfort when confronted with becoming partners in decision-making concerning the choice of hearing aid type. In the fitting room, the audiologist operates within a dominant medical...... as the 'truth'. By building on a sociological approach to hearing impairment that reaches beyond the medical definition, we see another picture emerging. Some patients embark on the process of getting a hearing aid and come to the hearing aid fitting as a response to social pressure from relatives or colleagues...

  16. Sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    I kapitlet diskuteres ud fra et sociologisk perspektiv brug af et screeningsinstrumentet til opsporing af depression efter indlæggelse for hjertesygdom. HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Det er en udbredt praksis at screene udskrevne hjertepatienter for depression. Som screeningsinstru...

  17. Toward a Sociology of Environmental Flows: A New Agenda for Twenty-First-Century Environmental Sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging sociology of networks and flows, as it can be found in the works of Castells and Urry among others, offers promising perspectives for environmental sociology in rethinking its principle object of study: nature and environment. The sociology of flow perspective takes us beyond the

  18. The Fourth Sociology and Music Education: Towards a Sociology of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    By identifying three main sociologies that characterise broad movements in the field since its inception, this paper provides a background to considerations of music education from the perspective of sociology. A fourth sociology is then proposed that may be useful to interrogate the complexities of the field of 21st century music education. This…

  19. A Sociology "of" or a Sociology "for" Education? The New Zealand Experience of the Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The sociology of education in New Zealand, as in other countries, is affected by the dilemma inherent to the discipline, namely: is it a sociology "of" education or a sociology "for" education? In this article I analyse three factors in which the dilemma is played out: "cultural oppositionism" in the indigenous…

  20. From the Actor to the Actions. Sociology and the Transformations of Intellectuals towards Network Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Antonelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the transformation of intellectuals in contemporary global post-industrial society, through a critical review on sociological studies and researches. The thesis is that contemporary intellectuals should not consider a socio-cultural élite or vanguard but a swarm of social actors defined by their relationship with the digital media and the economic sphere. After two introductive paragraphs focused on the critic approach – it is based on the new knowledge sociology –  the third and the fourth ones argues the most important studies on intellectuals wrote in industrial society age (theory of the New Class, New-Marxism theory, Weberanian theory, sociology of knowledge. The least paragraphs are focused on a discussion about the new sociology of intellectuals in a post-industrial society and the problem of the relationships between digital media and the intellectual actions in contemporary world.

  1. Sociological theory and social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Díez Nicolás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley’s and Duncan’s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung’s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart’s theory of values’ change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values’ change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values’ change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ‘security’ values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  2. Toward a Global Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Z. Fareen

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an example of a global approach to teaching the sociology of religion, a course that typically focuses on American religious phenomena. It builds on three interventions in the movement for a global sociology: connecting the local and global, moving beyond methodological nationalism, and developing an ethical orientation toward…

  3. One Hundred Years of Sociological Solitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    2005-01-01

    This Cuban-born author presents a narrative on the social events in the United States that marked his life as he embarked on a career in the field of sociology in the 1960s and 70s. He advocates for sociologists' awareness of social realities and the evolution of sociological studies from a socially-conscious perspective.

  4. [Where are we in general sociology ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, history and social sciences have experienced a kind of merging, and a vast number of specialized domains have emerged. Yet the durkheim - ian register of "general sociology" seems somehow neglected. Firstly, this article analyzes the reasons for this neglect, and secondly, it indicates how, through a long-term reflexivity, one can formulate a new agenda for general sociology.

  5. Sociology and Social Work in Nigeria: Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the evolution of sociology and social work in Nigeria and examines the current characteristics and areas of convergences and divergences in both fields. It was only in the 1960s that universities in Nigeria began to offer degree programmes in sociology with the. first sub-department and full department ...

  6. Violence in soccer: a socio-psychological review

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Christiano Barreto Fensterseifer; Nivia Marcia Velho; Mário Luiz C. Barroso

    2005-01-01

    Violence in Soccer has been worrying specialists in Physical Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law and Press for many years. Despite their best efforts to reduce it, violence continues to increase. The purpose of this review study is to verify what the above-mentioned sciences have to say about violence in soccer. The literature suggests that there are two big theories about this problem: an internal and psychological one, and an external and sociological one. Therefore, data analyses suggest...

  7. Sociology as Moral Philosophy (and Vice Versa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    In this article, I want to make an attempt to reconnect sociology to moral philosophy and moral philosophy to sociology. The thesis I want to defend is that sociology continues by other means the venerable tradition of practical and moral philosophy. Like its forebears, it stands and falls with a defense of "practical wisdom" (Aristotle) and "practical reason" (Kant). The development of a moral sociology presupposes, however, that one recognizes and rejects Max Weber's theory of axiological neutrality as an extremist position and that one carefully articulates prescriptive and descriptive, internal and external, as well as observer and actor positions. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  8. Applying Psychology to Economic Policy Design: Using Incentive Preserving Rebates to Increase Acceptance of Critical Peak Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Letzler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This project extends the idea that policy makers should address problems by improving economic incentives. This project adds that presenting incentives in a way that reflects how people make decisions can sometimes improve consumers’ responses to the incentives and policy outcomes. This paper uses behavioral economics to propose ways to increase electricity policy effectiveness. The cost of generating power fluctuates enormously from hour to hour but most customers pay time-invariant prices f...

  9. The Sociology and Entrenchment. A Cystic Fibrosis Test for Everyone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Stemerding, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology......Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology...

  10. African Journals Online: Sociology & Anthropology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 41 of 41 ... It welcomes articles and other academic communications from scholars in Africa and elsewhere ... Creative Artist: A Journal of Theatre and Media Studies ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics.

  11. The Phenomenological, Sociological, and Psychological Understanding of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pompe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When trying to investigate the understanding of music, there are a number of epistemologically and methodologically diverse perspectives, and this is associated with the fairly vague definition of music. Firstly, music exists in the form of a waving motion as a physical-acoustic dimension that reaches the listener’s/receiver’s ear. At the time of the »reception« of music, the human neuropsychological mechanism is triggered, which causes the process of semiosis – when we imbue music with meaning strongly exceeding the basic, physical characteristics of music as a sound. In the history of music studies, one can discern the periodical shifting of scientific methodologies that have placed now this and later the other perspective in the center of their research. Meanwhile the author of the article claims that for a holistic understanding of music one needs to employ all the different methodological starting points. Music must be understood as a “two-sided” process: it is possible to investigate the “path” that leads from the creation of music to the emergence of listener’s meaning or to begin with the latter and try to connect it with the intentionality of the author.

  12. Giving and volunteering in the Netherlands : Sociological and psychological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Volunteer work, membership of voluntary associations, philanthropy and donation of blood and organs are studied by scholars from a wide range of disciplines. Sociologists and economists assume that good intentions are universal, but that some people have a stock of human and social capital that

  13. Crisis Management: Psychological and Sociological Factors in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Section A. Cognitive Prooeaes While what has been a Ued the " rational model" of decision - making may not adequately account for the operation of the...obstacles blocking rational decision - making . 7. What part does fatigue play in reacting to a crisis? Fatigue results from two factors. First...further important question of the impact of these variables on decision - making . It is a difficult theoretical problem to link the maladaptive emotional

  14. Sociological and ethical issues in transplant commercialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Miran

    2009-04-01

    'Global transplant commercialism' (practices and policies involving international trade in organs from living vendors, e.g., 'transplant tourism') is currently subjected to unprecedented criticism. In parallel, the debate around 'local transplant commercialism' (practices and policies that confine trade in organs from living vendors to national markets or economic unions) is heating up. In an attempt to assess the potential outcomes of these trends, this article reviews and discusses some sociological and ethical issues, ending with a proposal for a reinvigorated anticommercialist strategy. The current international campaign against global transplant commercialism is conducted by an ad hoc alliance between strange bedfellows, proponents of local transplant commercialism on the one hand and opponents of any transplant commercialism on the other. Disparities in the rigor of the respective ethical discourses, the expanding list of precedents of legitimized commerce in the human body, and the political economy of transplantation, all suggest that the former have the upper hand. Recent achievements in the struggle against international organ trafficking may not herald the abolition of transplant commercialism but rather presage its reconfiguration in deglobalized forms. In light of such a prospect, those who wish to prevent the pervasive commodification of the human body from entering the gates of transplant medicine should consider devising a new, perhaps more radical, strategy.

  15. A risk-economic approach to nuclear power generation. Beyond the myth of absolute safety and unthinkable events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a risk-economic approach to nuclear power generation, a very timely yet rather neglected area in the economics profession. The economic and psychological consequences of Japan's recent catastrophe have been so grave and wide-spread, thus calling for careful reexamination of the economics of risk and uncertainty. It is Daniel Bernoulli, a mathematical genius of the 18 th century, who first introduced the expected utility theory into decision making under risk. Although a great deal of applications has been done in many areas since then, it appears that the most recent nuclear meltdown of Japan is casting serious doubt upon the general validity of existing risk theories. It is high time for us to establish a new comprehensive approach by taking account of psychological, sociological, cultural, and historical factors. (author)

  16. Ilya Neustadt, Norbert Elias, and the Leicester Department: personal correspondence and the history of sociology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John; Hughes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The central aims of this paper are: (1) to explore the utility of using personal correspondence as a source of data for sociological investigations into the history of sociology in the UK; (2) in relation to this undertaking, to advance the beginnings of a figurational analysis of epistolary forms; and (3), to provide an empirically-grounded discussion of the historical significance of the Department of Sociology at the University of Leicester (a University largely ignored in 'standard histories' of the subject) at a formative phase in the development of the discipline within the UK. The correspondence drawn upon in the paper is between Norbert Elias and Ilya Neustadt between 1962 and 1964 when Elias was Professor of Sociology at the University of Ghana and Ilya Neustadt was Professor of Sociology and Head of the Sociology Department at the University of Leicester. From an analysis of this correspondence, we elucidate an emergent dynamic to the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, one which, we argue, undergirds the development of sociology at Leicester and the distinctive character of the intellectual climate that prevailed there during the 1960s. The paper concludes with a consideration of whether it was a collapse of this dynamic that led to a total breakdown in the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, and by extension, an important phase in the expansion of sociology at Leicester. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  17. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  18. Labor satisfaction as an indicator of public administration efficiency (sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Labor satisfaction is an indicator of social wellbeing of the working population. The study of subjective perceptions of labor is an important indicator of public administration efficiency. The article contains the analysis of the population’s satisfaction with labor, particularly, with one of its structural components – labor conditions. It reveals the high correlation of these indicators with the satisfaction with everyday life and labor productivity. It determines the degree of employees’ satisfaction with working conditions in such areas as health and psychological atmosphere at the workplace, equipment capability and security. The study discloses employees’ estimates in socio-demographic and territorialdimensional aspects. The research demonstrates the interrelation between satisfaction with working environment and implementation of labor potential. The analysis indicates the importance of regular sociological research into the issues of satisfaction with various aspects of labor activity. The article indicates that for the country’s development it is necessary to take into account the labor satisfaction factor (in the narrow sense – working conditions while developing strategies and approaches for social-economic policy and defining the standards of social responsibility, primarily, of the state and employers

  19. Social Change: Toward an Informed and Critical Understanding of Social Justice and the Capabilities Approach in Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  20. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  1. A Sociology of Knowledge Approach to European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Scholars are deeply involved in the process of European integration, but we lack systematic understanding of this involvement. On the one hand, scholars, academic ideas and ideologies shape European integration and policies (e.g. the Economic and Monetary Union and the free movement of people......). On the other hand, EU institutions, policies and practitioners produce particular forms of knowledge (e.g. the Eurobarometer and benchmarking of national performances) that inform social scientific choices of theories, methods and research topics. Drawing on the new sociology of knowledge as well as Science...

  2. Mathematical-statistical models and qualitative theories for economic and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Maturo, Fabrizio; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad spectrum of problems related to statistics, mathematics, teaching, social science, and economics as well as a range of tools and techniques that can be used to solve these problems. It is the result of a scientific collaboration between experts in the field of economic and social systems from the University of Defence in Brno (Czech Republic), G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), Pablo de Olavid eUniversity of Sevilla (Spain), and Ovidius University in Constanţa, (Romania). The studies included were selected using a peer-review process and reflect heterogeneity and complexity of economic and social phenomena. They and present interesting empirical research from around the globe and from several research fields, such as statistics, decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. The volume is divided into two parts. The first part, “Recent trends in mathematical and statistical models for economic and social sciences”, collects pap...

  3. Psychological morbidity in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy depends on phenotypic, social, economic, and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsterer J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Josef Finsterer,1 Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub2 1Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Austria; 2University of Tunis El Manar, Genomics Platform, Pasteur Institute of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia We have read with interest the article by Garcia et al1 about the effect of visual impairment on psychological well-being with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals.1 Among the 103 Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON patients, half became depressed with negative impacts on interpersonal relations and career goals. At diagnosis, older age corresponded to higher depression prevalence than young age. We have the following comments and concerns.View the original paper by Garcia and colleagues.  

  4. First Contact: Teaching and Learning in Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Introduction to Sociology course is usually the first contact that students have with the discipline of sociology. This course can determine whether students take other sociology courses or learn to use sociology in their lives as adults and citizens. "First Contact" identifies important issues facing instructors in introducing students to the…

  5. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  6. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  7. The sociology of innovation in modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some of the main features of the development of astronomy since 1945, stressing sociological factors, and drawing examples mainly from the history of radio astronomy. Particular attention is given to aspects which appear to distinguish astronomy from other recently-studied sciences - notably, the prevalence of serendipitous discoveries, and the lack of any general resistance from the 'parent' discipline. The work of Kuhn and Hagstrom is used to illuminate these features, and also to indicate how a sociological analysis can be advanced of individual research decisions, and of the nature of disputes within science. Common misconceptions about the nature and scope of sociology are briefly discussed; in particular, it is emphasized that the kind of sociology of science under discussion cannot be normative. (author)

  8. The Challenge of Training in Applied Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doyle Paul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explores the challenge of expanding nonacademic employment opportunities for sociologists and training sociology students for such employment. Suggests several interrelated strategies for these students that address issues of marketing and public relations as well as curriculum revision. (Author/BSR)

  9. The Reflexive Principle of Sociological Theorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaidullayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to describe the reflexive principle in theory-making, which integrates the basic modern methodological paradigms and lays the foundation for the development of sociology. On the basis of the theoretical ideas of P. Bourdieu, A. Giddens and P. Ricoeur the author defines the concept of social reflexion and reveals its peculiarities in sociology as compared to reflexion in philosophy. According to the author, the fulfillment of reflexive functions in sociology is connected with the task of analyzing the complex structure of the polysemantic object, considering the specific quality of the subjects and their various trends of development. The presence of the poles — objectivity-subjectivity, rationality-irrationality, consciousness-unconsciousness etc, requires a reproduction of the dichotomies engendering them in social life and development of cognitive methods for their study in sociology.

  10. EDITORIAL: | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Book Review | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Third Worldism | Nash | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Brazilian environmental sociology: a provisional review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Leila da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims firstly at the reconstitution and analysis of history within the scope of international environmental sociology situated in the context of contemporary sociology. It also discusses - from the standpoint of literature (Buttel, Dunlap, Hanning, among others - its theoretical-methodological and institutional aspects as well in order to understand the obstacles encountered to legitimate and consolidate a set of problems which, until recently, were not dealt with by social sciences. Secondly, it analyses the Brazilian case. Environmental sociology in Brazil is strongly influenced by American empirical sociology, the precursor of the institutionalization process for the themes. On the other hand, further analysis of this case is relevant to understand the relationship between the scientific sphere, and the creation of environmental policies and social movements.

  20. Knowledge networking on Sociology: network analysis of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets about Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Cárdenas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While mainstream scientific knowledge production have been widely studied in recent years with the development of scientometrics and bibliometrics, an emergent number of studies have focused on alternative sources of production and dissemination of knowledge such as blogs, YouTube videos and comments on Twitter. These online sources of knowledge become relevant in fields such as Sociology, where some academics seek to bring the sociological knowledge to the general population. To explore which knowledge on Sociology is produced and disseminated, and how is organized in these online sources, we analyze the knowledge networking of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets on Twitter using network analysis approach. Specifically, the present research analyzes the hyperlink network of the main blogs on Sociology, the networks of tags used to classify videos on Sociology hosted on YouTube, and the network of hashtags linked to #sociología on Twitter. The main results point out the existence of a cohesive and strongly connected community of blogs on Sociology, the very low presence of YouTube videos on Sociology in Spanish, and Sociology on Twitter is linked to others social sciences, classical scholars and social media

  1. Towards a Sociological Model of Corporate Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Dingsdale, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to establish a sociological grounding for the field of Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE) through the development of an organic sociological model. I argue that there are four key problems underlying the CE literature 1) no unifying theoretical base 2) no multi-dimensional, organic model 3) no multi-dimensional analysis 3) no easily implementable model and 4) no identification of critical antecedents. Scholars have failed to understand that without a unifyin...

  2. Socialkonstruktivismer i klassisk og moderne sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)......En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)...

  3. Remembering a sociology of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Sznaider, Natan

    2014-01-01

    A sociology of human rights sounds almost like a contradiction in terms. Sociology is about social groups, about particular experiences, about how people, embedded in space and time, make sense of their lives and give meaning to their world. It deals with power and interest and the social bases of our experiences. On the other hand, human rights are about human beings in general, without temporal or spatial references, not about groups and their boundaries. Human rights are about humanity, lo...

  4. The Impact of Feminism on Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Walby

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of feminism on British sociology over the last 60 years. It focuses on changes in the intellectual content of the discipline, including epistemology, methodology, theory, concepts and the fields of economy, polity, violence and civil society. It situates these changes in the context of changes in gendered organisation of sociology, the rise of women's/gender studies, the ecology of social sciences and societal changes, especially the transformation of the gen...

  5. A Feminist Critique of Rational-Choice Theories: Implications for Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Provides a feminist critique of rational-choice theory and the interdisciplinary feminist theories of sociology. Applies the separative model of self to four assumptions of the neoclassical economics version of rational-choice theory. Uses research on marital power to illustrate how removing distorting assumptions can help illuminate sociological…

  6. Publication productivity of Czech sociology in scientific journals within the last decade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basl, J.; Münich, D.; Sidorkin, Oleg

    -, č. 392 (2009), s. 1-41 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Czech sociology * research * journals with impact factor Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp392.pdf

  7. The Missing Piece: A Sociological Autopsy of Firearm Suicide in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Greta Yoder

    2011-01-01

    Social, economic, violence, political, and gun access predictors of suicide and gun suicide were examined via sociological autopsy. The model predicting suicide rates overall had the best results, X[superscript 2](9, N = 50) = 5.279 (CMIN, the goodness of fit statistic that represents the minimum discrepancy between the unrestricted sample…

  8. The Influence of Curricula Content on English Sociology Students' Transformations: The Case of Feminist Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Andrea; Ashwin, Paul; McLean, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Previous research identifies the importance of feminist knowledge for improving gender equity, economic prosperity and social justice for all. However, there are difficulties in embedding feminist knowledge in higher education curricula. Across England, undergraduate sociology is a key site for acquiring feminist knowledge. In a study of four…

  9. Use of New Approaches in Teaching Sociology (Application of a Technique for Producing Idea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Levent

    2011-01-01

    Society-based research subjects are the study of sociology which is an important branch of science in the field of social science. It is a branch of studying society, social values, social groups, social classes and economical, political, social, religious, lawful institutions, population, usage, custom, value, norm, beliefs and relations and…

  10. "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies": Correction to Hubbard et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies" by Jason Hubbard, William T. Harbaugh, Sanjay Srivastava, David Degras and Ulrich Mayr ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , Advanced Online Publication, Aug 11, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” should have read: “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires that contained scales to reflect the Prosocial Disposition construct: the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991), from which we used the agreeableness scale to measure prosocial disposition; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980), from which we used the empathic concern and perspective-taking scales; and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-39037-001.) Individual and life span differences in charitable giving are an important economic force, yet the underlying motives are not well understood. In an adult, life span sample, we assessed manifestations of prosocial tendencies across 3 different measurement domains: (a) psychological self-report measures, (b) actual giving choices, and (c) fMRI-derived, neural indicators of “pure altruism.” The latter expressed individuals’ activity in neural valuation areas when charities received money compared to when oneself received money and thus reflected an altruistic concern for

  11. The Institution of Sociological Theory in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Cinthya; Silver, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Using theory syllabi and departmental data collected for three academic years, this paper investigates the institutional practice of theory in sociology departments across Canada. In particular, it examines the position of theory within the sociological curriculum, and how this varies among universities. Taken together, our analyses indicate that theory remains deeply institutionalized at the core of sociological education and Canadian sociologists' self-understanding; that theorists as a whole show some coherence in how they define themselves, but differ in various ways, especially along lines of region, intellectual background, and gender; that despite these differences, the classical versus contemporary heuristic largely cuts across these divides, as does the strongly ingrained position of a small group of European authors as classics of the discipline as a whole. Nevertheless, who is a classic remains an unsettled question, alternatives to the "classical versus contemporary" heuristic do exist, and theorists' syllabi reveal diverse "others" as potential candidates. Our findings show that the field of sociology is neither marked by universal agreement nor by absolute division when it comes to its theoretical underpinnings. To the extent that they reveal a unified field, the findings suggest that unity lies more in a distinctive form than in a distinctive content, which defines the space and structure of the field of sociology. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  12. On the nature and sociology of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.

  13. Practical Application of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Eckley, Jeri Cassel; Culver, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, who often have different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated will all relevant information informing system decisions. The practical application of the sociology in systems engineering brings in various organizational development concepts including the principles of planned renegotiation and the application of principles to address information barriers created by organizational culture. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, consistent terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that help address the organizational social structure (culture). In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, and insider-outsider behavior. Unintended consequences can result when these social issues are present. These issues can occur when localized subcultures shift from the overarching organizational culture, or when the organizational culture prevents achievement of system goals. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information and provides key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss the practical application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  14. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  15. Socio-economic and psychological correlates of suicidality among Hong Kong working-age adults: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ka Y; Chen, Eric Y H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Lee, Dominic T S; Law, Y W; Conwell, Yeates; Yip, Paul S F

    2006-12-01

    The global toll of suicide is estimated to be one million lives per year, which exceeded the number of deaths by homicide and war combined. A key step to suicide prevention is to prevent less serious suicidal behaviour to preclude more lethal outcomes. Although 61% of the world's suicides take place in Asia and the suicide rates among middle age groups have been increasing since the economic crisis in many Asian countries, population-based studies of suicidal behaviour among working-age adults in non-western communities are scarce. Data from a population-based survey with 2015 participants were used to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and behaviour among the working-age population in Hong Kong, and to study the associated socio-economic and psychological correlates. We focused particularly on potential modulating factors between life-event-related factors and suicidal ideation. Six per cent of the Hong Kong population aged 20-59 years considered suicide in the past year, while 1.4% attempted suicide. Hopelessness, reasons for living, and reluctance to seek help from family and friends had direct association with past-year suicidal ideation. Reasons for living were found to moderate the effect of perceived stress on suicidal ideation. Suicidality is a multi-faceted problem that calls for a multi-sectored, multi-layered approach to prevention. Prevention programmes can work on modulating factors such as reasons for living to reduce suicidal risk in working-age adults.

  16. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  17. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  18. Social Change and Sport: A Sociological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KAPLAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the relation between social change and sports from a sociological point of view. This study is descriptive in its aim, periodic (discussion in the length of time it covers and theoretical based on literature in its techniqu e. “Social change” is a value judgement - free concept which does not indicate a direction but determines the new situation, the difference occurring in the society compared to the former era or situation. Every society changes in time; however, it cou ld at times be „‟positive‟‟ (in the direction of development, progress, etc... and „‟negative‟‟ at other times (in the direction of regress, deconstruction, etc.... As a social institution, sport, while affecting some social institutions (family, edu cation, economics, politics, religion, communication, healthcare, law, is also affected by them. The process of social change has affected, moreover, has determined sports. As a social event, phenomenon, and institution, sports gains its meaning in the society that it takes place; and it both gets affected by the changes in the society and affects these changes there. It could be the „‟reason‟‟ and the „‟result‟‟ of social changes. Radical changes in the sports and even in the rules of branche s of sports are made depending on the changing social needs, preferences and expectations. Although there isn‟t an obligatory relation between „‟social progress‟‟ and „‟sports‟‟ theoretically, it can be said that the process of social progress contributes to sports and vice versa.

  19. Political sociology of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kazemi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach in the field of human rights is Legal attitude. Legal attitude more than anything else on the identification and recognition of human rights by the government is focused. At the same time, governments are the biggest violators of human rights norms. Despite the gap between the legal obligations of states and the real world, legal analysis of this gap is not possible. Therefore, in the era of inflation of rights, according to Louis Henkin , transition needs based approach to the protection of human rights is justified. Social sciences, especially political sociology may be, to identify obstacles to the realization of human rights in different societies and operate it is used. Since the main subject of political sociology "explores the relationship between state and society" is, knowledge can be produced in the field of political sociology in understanding the inability of governments establishing human rights norms and effective ways to fix it. Therefore, it can be said that human rights political sociology focus on: how to advance the state of human rights in a society and its institutionalization and consolidation within all relationships and political processes. رهیافت مسلط در حوزه مطالعات حقوق بشر، نگرش حقوقی است.نگرش حقوقی بیش از هرچیز بر شناسایی و به رسمیت شناختن حقوق بشر توسط دولت‌ها متمرکز است.در عین حال، دولت‌ها خود بزرگترین ناقضین هنجارهای حقوق بشری می‌باشند. با وجود شکاف میان تعهدات حقوقی دولت‌ها و جهان واقعی، تحلیل حقوقی از این شکاف ممکن نیست. لذا، در عصر تورم حقوق به تعبیر هنکین، نیازمند گذار از رهیافت مبتنی بر توجیه به حفاظت از حقوق بشر هستیم. علوم اجتماعی بویژه جامعه

  20. "Moral Ecology" and "Moral Capital": Tools towards a Sociology of Moral Education from a South African Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…

  1. The high-rise building. A review of sociological approaches for study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vergara Vidal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The verticalization of Chilean cities is a phenomenon that attracts the public interest and requires an understanding that exceeds the economic reasons and technical possibilities that lead to the proliferation of high buildings within them. This paper reviews in the sociological literature the treatment given to high-rise buildings with the aim of providing clues that collaborate with the social study of these architectural forms. The conclusions identify an epistemological turn that has allowed tools to link the architectural, material and technical aspects involved in high-rise buildings with the sociological analysis of these.

  2. Provoking misunderstanding: a comment on Black's defence of value-free sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Martyn

    2014-09-01

    This paper is a response to a recent article dealing with the concept of value-free sociology by Donald Black. It argues that while a defence of Weber's position on the role of values in sociological research is necessary and important, what is offered by Black is counter-productive in important respects. This is because it encourages some of the misunderstandings that it is aimed at remedying and, even more importantly, offers a simplistic discussion of what are complex issues. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  3. Synthesizing Proximate and Distal Levels of Explanation: Toward an Evolution-Informed Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Williams

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that despite the growing acceptance of psychological research by mainstream sociologists, the discipline of sociology remains largely averse to biology. This is because the kind of psychological research that sociologists now utilize tends to rely on the same assumptions of thought, action, and human behavior—broadly construed—that sociologists have on the whole tacitly endorsed since Durkheim's seminal criticism of Kantian categories in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life: Namely, that fundamental categories of perception, though naturally experienced, are socially constructed. This assumption is present in both psychological work on schemas and the dual-process model, which continue to be incorporated into sociological analysis at a growing pace. We further demonstrate how sociologists' overall positive reception of this kind of psychological research was facilitated by two factors: the rejection of biological explanations of human behavior and the tacit commitment to social causes by many sociologists in the field throughout the twentieth century. We demonstrate how synthesizing biological research with sociological research can extend existing sociological work by focusing on the study of parenting and crime and deviance. In these subfields, we believe sociologists can gain better understanding of their topics by moving from relatively proximate concerns to more distal ones. We conclude by asserting that seeing individuals' decision-making styles and capacities as a product of both evolved and social processes can lead to the development of more robust and yet parsimonious models of action in the discipline. Doing so need not make sociologists blindly endorse evolutionary approaches to human behavior, but start our theories with a view to both long and short history.

  4. "It's Not Rocket Science!": High School Sociology Teachers' Conceptions of Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Since academic sociology's birth in this country, sociologists have not been shy about publicly praising and ridiculing the discipline. Though sociologists have been the primary participants in the seemingly endless debates about sociology's proper subject matter, methods, and purpose, there is another group that has also struggled over the past…

  5. Sociology of the Prison Classroom: Marginalized Identities and Sociological Imaginations behind Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Thompson, Gretchen H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use sociology of the college classroom to analyze their experiences as feminists teaching sociology courses in the "unconventional setting" of prison. Reflective writing was used to chronicle experiences in the classes. They apply the concepts of doing gender, interaction order, and emotion work to the prison classroom. Based on their…

  6. Why, Where, and How to Infuse the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory into the Sociology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Earl, II

    2012-01-01

    The Atlanta Sociological Laboratory is the moniker bestowed on scholars engaged in sociological research at Atlanta University between 1895 and 1924. Under the leadership of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1897-1914, this school made substantive yet marginalized contributions to the discipline. Its accomplishments include, but are not limited to, its…

  7. Towards a Sociological Understanding of Robots as Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oost, Ellen; Reed, Darren

    While Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have, in the past, primarily mediated or facilitated emotional bonding between humans, contemporary robot technologies are increasingly making the bond between human and robots the core issue. Thinking of robots as companions is not only a development that opens up huge potential for new applications, it also raises social and ethical issues. In this paper we will argue that current conceptions of human-robot companionship are primarily rooted in cognitive psychological traditions and provide important, yet limited understanding of the companion relationship. Elaborating on a sociological perspective on the appropriation of new technology, we will argue for a richer understanding of companionship that takes the situatedness (in location, network and time) of the use-context into account.

  8. [From sociology in medicine to the sociology of collective health: contributions toward a necessary reflexivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    This text looks at the difference between sociology in medicine (collaborator of health institutions) and the sociology of medicine (independent of health institutions). If consistent, sociology in medicine should become a sociology of medicine. As an example, it is shown how the study of the social determinants of health and illness begins by assuming non-problematically the ontological reality of health and illness, but ends up problematizing the very concept of health-disease, demonstrating that the study of health determinants also requires the study of the determinants of the social construction of disease. The urgent necessity of objectifying collective health itself is argued. By applying sociological tools we can examine the so-called objective factors in the determination of health and disease, the socially constructed nature of these categories of knowledge, and the struggles and power relations that determine whether or not such categories are viable.

  9. Social inequalities in post-reform Russia: A sociological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Gorshkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers social inequality as a key feature of the development of the contemporary society and social sciences. On the one hand, it is an objective and progressive process without which successful (creative development of society and individual is impossible; on the other hand, it may lead to dramatic social stratification, provoke a growth of social tensions, and destabilize society. In the Russian scientific discourse the social inequalities and their consequences are explained with the help of two concepts - social-stratification structure, i.e. a multidimensionally organized social space in which social groups differ in terms of possession of power, property and social status; and social strata , i.e. social-economic groups occupying different and unequal places in the macro-social system. The author uses a wide range of empirical (statistical and sociological data to present the picture of social model in the contemporary Russian society focusing on the dramatic stratification in terms of wealth and the income gap (the decile ratio widening to a critical mark; interpreting the Russian data in the international context (the current and optimum decile ratio in different countries; identifying statistical and sociological indicators for measuring different aspects of social inequality (for instance, the differentiation of incomes as the deviation of the actual income distribution from absolutely equal; emphasizing regional differences in social inequalities in Russia; and discussing possible mechanisms and means of mitigating social inequalities. The second part of the article presents the results of the national sociological research conducted by the experts of the Institute of Sociology and underlies some other dimensions of social inequalities as gender relations and an access to modern computer technologies and telecommunications and their correct use. The author concludes that the high level of social-economic and other types

  10. "The man who committed a hundred burglaries": Mark Benney's strange and eventful sociological career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond M

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the life and career of the sociologist Mark Benney. It describes the processes, not all of them edifying, by which he made the transition from life as a career criminal, via literature, to become a sociologist first at the London School of Economics and then at the University of Chicago. Benney's career is then used to illuminate particular episodes in the history of sociology, including the attempt to introduce into British sociology in the period after the Second World War quantitative survey techniques of the kind that were then becoming more widely used in the United States, and his work with David Riesman on the Interview Project, Riesman's attempt to develop a empirically based sociology of the interview. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Integrating medical and environmental sociology with environmental health: crossing boundaries and building connections through advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats.

  12. Cultures of choice: towards a sociology of choice as a cultural phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ori

    2017-09-07

    The article explores different ways to conceptualize the relationship between choice and culture. These two notions are often constructed as opposites: while sociologies of modernization (such as Giddens') portray a shift from cultural traditions to culturally disembedded choice, dispositional sociologies (such as Bourdieu's) uncover cultural determination as the hidden truth behind apparent choice. However, choice may be real and cultural simultaneously. Culture moulds choice not only by inculcating dispositions or shaping repertoires of alternatives, but also by offering culturally specific choice practices, ways of choosing embedded in meaning, normativity, and materiality; and by shaping attributions of choice in everyday life. By bringing together insights from rival schools, I portray an outline for a comparative cultural sociology of choice, and demonstrate its purchase while discussing the digitalization of choice; and cultural logics that shape choice attribution in ways opposing neoliberal trends. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  13. Multicriteria and multiagent decision making with applications to economics and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Maturo, Antonio; Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and timely report on the topic of decision making and decision analysis in economics and the social sciences. The various contributions included in the book, selected using a peer review process, present important studies and research conducted in various countries around the globe. The majority of these studies are concerned with the analysis, modeling and formalization of the behavior of groups or committees that are in charge of making decisions of social and economic importance. Decisions in these contexts have to meet precise coherence standards and achieve a significant degree of sharing, consensus and acceptance, even in uncertain and fuzzy environments. This necessitates the confluence of several research fields, such as foundations of social choice and decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. A large spectrum of problems that may be encountered during decision making and decision analysis in the areas of economics and the social ...

  14. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  15. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  16. Vocation in Theology and Psychology: Conflicting Approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Recent contributions in the fields of psychology, sociology, and theology reveal opposing attitudes about the subject of calling or vocation with regard to one's work. Whereas psychologists have rediscovered the concept, theologians increasingly show reluctance to accept a vocational view of work. In offering an alternative perspective, this…

  17. Reading Bourdieu: On The Possibility of A Post-Positivist Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Meder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to quest for an opportunity of post-positivist sociology by focusing on the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu`s intellectual production and addressing the point on which historical basis Bourdieu`s sociological perspective is established. In this context, in the first part of the article, it is going to be pointed out by which movements (successively structuralism, interactionism and pragmatism criticizing does he arrive at the scientific understanding that tries to overcome the tension between objectivism which looks down on the social and subjectivism which accepts individuals` quotidian life and ideas without questioning. This, in other words, means a construction of a new scientific language becoming hybridized between the structuralist terminology and the phenomenological attitude and damaging the main backbone of mainstream sociology. Bourdieu`s understanding of sociology, whose works are also being read as an eternal argument against positivism, empiricism, structuralism, existentialism, phenomenology, economism, Marxism, methodological individualism and grand narratives, provides a new point of view by criticising subjective and objective forms of knowledge and the essentialist perspective of reality. The concept of habitus being the crucial notion of this Bourdieu based innovative thought is also going to be dealt with in terms of an opportunity of post-positivist sociology

  18. Social economical and psychological considerations in conveying potential radiation risks from high level natural background radiation to the residents of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ghiassi-nejad, M.

    2003-01-01

    psychological factors would waste the resources and cause harsh events. In this paper the need for considering social, economic and psychological factors in conveying potential radiation risks from high level natural background radiation to the residents of Ramsar is discussed. (Author)

  19. Rescuing from oblivion: social characteristics and career destinations of early British 'sociology' graduates, 1907-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Christopher T

    2015-12-01

    Those students who were among the first sociology graduates in the UK barely feature in standard histories of the discipline, which all have an intellectual and institutional focus. This article remedies this neglect by researching the social backgrounds and later careers of sociology graduates from the London School of Economics and Political Science [LSE] and Bedford College for Women from the first such graduate in 1907 until those graduating in the 1930s. Data for this exercise were compiled from a variety of sources. The more important are: UK censuses, especially that of 1911; various civil registration records; archived student files; and, for the graduates who entered university teaching, issues of the Yearbook of the Universities of the Empire [later the Commonwealth Universities' Yearbook]. The dataset includes all identified graduates in the BSc(Econ), Special Subject Sociology, degree from 1907 to 1935 and all in the BA (Honours) in Sociology degree from 1925 to 1939. LSE sociology graduates tended to be older and to have more cosmopolitan backgrounds, with fathers more likely than for Bedford College graduates to come from commercial rather than professional backgrounds. Both institutions' graduates' careers tended to the Civil Service and local government. LSE graduates gravitated to education, especially to higher education if male, whilst those of Bedford College went into welfare work, countering a stereotype from some previous literature that especially women graduates were heavily constrained to follow careers in schoolteaching. The article also gives comparisons with the social-class profile and career destinations of several cohorts of postwar sociology graduates, noting a number of similarities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  20. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  1. Sociology, Hypocrisy, and Social Order

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    influence of the US fought the former Soviet Union because it regarded communism as an affront .... that they will bring up policies that will make Africans poorer. Ghana ... social and economic rights for people of colour. So much .... are levelled against the former President and his friends over use/misuse of public funds in ...

  2. The sociological knowledge and problematic behaviors’ prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Serjanaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of sociology knowledge in students attending teaching Master Program, specialists in education, experienced teachers, as well as high school graduates who study sociology in high school. The issues discussed involve not only the role of teacher on recording and straightening such problematic behaviors but even the ways of changing the situation on the future. Phenomena such as: culture, subculture, ethnicity, religion, race and gender diversity, prejudices and discrimination which derive by these kinds of diversities; inequality of social strata, the understanding of social role, cultural norms practicing and their respecting are present in our schools environment. These are reasons why teachers and students must have information about above-mentioned phenomena. Ministry of Education and Sport must add Sociology as a subject of core curricula of high school and teachers programs’ studies.

  3. Introduction: why a Sociology of Pandemics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Robert; Hoffman, Lily M; Staniland, Karen

    2013-02-01

    Infectious disease has re-emerged as a public health threat in an increasingly globalised era, adding trans-national actors to traditional national and local government actors. This special issue showcases new sociological work in response to this challenge. The contributors have investigated the social construction of new and re-emerging diseases; the development of surveillance systems, public health governance; the impact of scientific/technical modalities on uncertainty and risk, the interplay of infectious disease, public health and national security concerns, and public and media responses. The case studies range broadly across North America, Europe and Asia and define new agendas for medical sociologists and public health policymakers. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Desperately seeking sociology: nursing student perceptions of sociology on nursing courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgley, Alison; Timmons, Stephen; Crosbie, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present the findings of a qualitative study exploring the perceptions of students confronted by a requirement to learn sociology within a nursing curriculum. Those teaching sociology have a variety of explanations (more or less desperate), seeking to justify its place on the nursing curriculum. While there may be no resolution to the debate, the dispute thus far, has largely been between sociology and nursing academics. Absent from this debate are the voices of students 'required' to learn both nursing and sociology. What do students make of this contested territory? When students are trying to learn their trade, and know how to practice safely and efficaciously what do they make of the sociological imagination? How realistic is it to expect students to grasp both the concrete and practical with the imaginative and critical? Findings from this qualitative, focus group study suggest that students do indeed find learning sociology within a nursing curriculum "unsettling". It would seem that students cope in a number of ways. They fragment and compartmentalise knowledge(s); they privilege the interception of experiential learning on the path between theory and practice; and yet they appear to employ sociological understanding to account for nursing's gendered and developing professional status.

  5. Networks versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article analyses the neglected relationship between networks and unemployment. It challenges the neo-classic understanding of the transition from unemployment to employment and elaborates the line of reasoning within economic sociology. Based on theories of information problems at the labour...

  6. Sociology of Knowledge Perspective on Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter addresses one of the enduring questions in sociology of knowledge: how is it possible that subjective meanings become objective facticities? It adopts this question to understand the entrepreneurship phenomenon, and, more specifically, to understand how new business or venture ideas...... and new sectors or industries (as subjective meanings) are legitimated and institutionalized (become socially established as reality). Building on Berger and Luckmann’s Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, the chapter suggests an alternative order objectivation of meaning to understand entrepreneurship...

  7. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  8. Financial Literacy: Empirical Sociological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henye Livia Kovacsne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises that started in the USA and spread all over Europe highlighted the importance of research in the field of financial culture. A variety of research projects pointed out that the general population’s financial literacy is lacking basic knowledge. The ever changing economic climate, demographic changes, tendencies in the financial processing sector and the acceleration in product innovation put considerable pressure on the everyday decision making process of a household. The overview of the international and national research on the subject proves that the improving of the population’s, especially the young people’s financial literacy is a priority both in leading economic countries and in Hungary, too. The idea of financial culture is as complex as the variety of research into the topic proves it. This article aims to point out the complicated nature of the notion and the variety of research that has been inserted into it.

  9. Beyond capital? The challenge for sociology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmwood, John

    2014-12-01

    This article offers a 'local', British, reading of Piketty's landmark book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, suggesting that the challenge it offers to sociological approaches to inequality is more fundamental than hitherto recognized. The variations in 'national trajectories' exposed by Piketty reveal Britain to be anomalous in terms of standard approaches to the path dependencies embedded in different welfare regimes. Using the recent work of Monica Prasad on 'settler capitalism' in the USA and the tax and debt-finance regime associated with it, the article suggests that colonialism and empire and its postwar unravelling has had deep consequences for British social stratification, albeit largely neglected by British sociologists. Finally, it points to the fact that the form of tax and debt-finance regime that has become reinforced in Britain is at the heart of recent radical reforms to higher education. These are the currently unexplicated conditions of our future practice as sociologists and, therefore, an obstacle to building a critical sociology on the foundations laid out by Piketty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  10. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About this journal. Journal Home > African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. The Correlation of Sociology, Historical and Dialectical Materialism - USSR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NARSKIY, I

    1960-01-01

    .... 5, 1957, has brought many responses. This is because the article touched not only on the question of the correction of sociology and historical materialism, but inevitably raised the problem of the correction of sociology...

  12. The sociology of medical screening: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Natalie; Eborall, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Medical screening raises fundamental issues for sociological inquiry, but at present a well-developed sociology of medical screening is lacking. This special issue on the sociology of screening brings together an exciting collection of new work that tackles medical screening from a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches. In this opening paper, we begin by explaining what we mean by screening, and why we believe screening merits sociological attention. Secondly, we reflect on the sociology of screening to date and provide an introduction for those new to this area. We then provide an overview of the papers in this collection, highlighting links and contrasts between papers. We conclude by reflecting on sociology's potential contribution to wider debates about screening, and propose future research directions. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Life Strategies of Young People: Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov’ Borisovna Osipova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern reality is the world of formation of various life prospects of a young person. The relevance of the topic depends, firstly, on insufficient sociological research into the mechanism of formation and realization of life strategies of modern youth; and, secondly, on the need to substantiate the sociological concept of youth life strategies in terms of professional self-determination with regard to its social and group characteristics. In this context, young people as the most active social group are of great interest to the authors who consider them a research target. Due to the transitivity of a social status and the incomplete processes of social maturity formation young people need a targeted design of their future. The sociological analysis of the issue involves a clarification of the concept of “life strategy” at the conceptual level (A.A. Volokitin, S.N. Ikonnikova, E.I. Golovakha, Yu.A. Zubok, V.T. Lisovsky, M.N. Rutkevich, G.V. Leonidova, K.A. Ustinova, etc.. The article presents the author’s definition of “life strategies”, which is a dynamic system of perspective individual orientation aimed at designing one’s life in the future. At the same time the results of the author’s sociological research are presented, including a standardized interview, questionnaires, which provide an opportunity to form an idea about the living choices of young people living in Yugra. The declining influence of social institutions and the emerging opportunities for developing their life prospects on their own challenges young people to select their life targets and ways of their implementation independently. The article justifies the necessity of intensified activation of new forms of young students’ management when planning their life trajectory. Life strategies disclose its content in specific life situations associated with choice. The key choice is the career choice of young people which directly depends on the socio-economic

  14. A Socio-Psychological Exploration of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwasomba, Chijioke

    2009-01-01

    Using a socio-psychological approach, the essay explores Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment. The exploration highlights Dostoyevsky's heavy reliance on the use of psychological realism, showing in the process the intricate interplay between psychology, sociology and literature. In the novel, the reader comes across the merging of the…

  15. Scientific Discovery in Deep Social Space: Sociology without Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Michalski

    2008-01-01

    Globalization affords an excellent opportunity to develop a genuinely universal, scientific sociology. In recent decades the politicization of the discipline has undermined the central mission of sociology: scientific discovery and explanation. The paper identifies several intellectual shifts that will facilitate the expansion and communication of such a science in an emerging global village of sociological analysts: 1) breaking with classical sociology to build upon innovative theoretical id...

  16. The Continuation of the Dialectic in Sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2010-01-01

    A rapidly changing ‘society’ that requires ‘new units of analysis’, ‘new roles for sociology’, and new democratic commitment to ‘the publics’ has implications for the identity and calling of sociology. In this so-called ‘identity crisis’, some sociologists have introduced the so-called ‘after

  17. Time for creative integration in medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S

    1995-01-01

    The burgeoning of medical sociology has sometimes been accompanied by unfortunate parochialism and the presence of opposing intellectual camps that ignore and even impugn each other's work. We have lost opportunities to achieve creative discourse and integration of different perspectives, methods, and findings. At this stage we should consider how we can foster creative integration within our field.

  18. Sociology of religion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Kees; Sengers, Erik; Blasi, Anthony J.; Giordan, Giuseppe

    In 1960, the Dutch journal of the Catholic Social-Ecclesial Institute (Kaski) Sociaal Kompas became Social Compass. This shift rounded off a period now considered as the heyday of Dutch sociology of religion. Ironically, in those years, Catholic sociologists in particular contested the legitimacy of

  19. New Biological Sciences, Sociology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Since the Human Genome Project mapped the gene sequence, new biological sciences have been generating a raft of new knowledges about the mechanisms and functions of the molecular body. One area of work that has particular potential to speak to sociology of education, is the emerging field of epigenetics. Epigenetics moves away from the mapped…

  20. Teaching the Sociology of Gender and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffre, Patti; Anderson, Cynthia; Bird, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes two teaching strategies from our workshop, "Teaching the Sociology of Gender and Work," that can help students understand the mechanisms and consequences of workplace gender inequality at the macro- and micro-levels. Cynthia Anderson's class project uses wage and sex composition data that allows students to learn actively how…

  1. introductory concepts on sociological jurisprudence: jhering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    sociological theory whose main and pervasive message is that “law is a social .... content of law is infinitely varied and relative to the different societies. There is thus ... All legal principles for Jhering can be reduced to the security of condition of.

  2. Sociology, environment and health: a materialist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N J; Alldred, P

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews the sociology of environment and health and makes the case for a postanthropocentric approach based on new materialist theory. This perspective fully incorporates humans and their health into 'the environment', and in place of human-centred concerns considers the forces that constrain or enhance environmental capacities. This is not an empirical study. The paper uses a hypothetical vignette concerning child health and air pollution to explore the new materialist model advocated in the paper. This paper used sociological analysis. A new materialist and postanthropocentric sociology of environment and health are possible. This radically reconfigures both sociological theory and its application to research and associated policies on health and the environment. Theoretically, human health is rethought as one among a number of capacities emerging from humans interactions with the social and natural world. Practically, the focus of intervention and policy shifts towards fostering social and natural interactions that enhance environmental (and in the process, human) potentiality. This approach to research and policy development has relevance for public health practice and policy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regression Analysis and the Sociological Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Regression analysis is an important aspect of most introductory statistics courses in sociology but is often presented in contexts divorced from the central concerns that bring students into the discipline. Consequently, we present five lesson ideas that emerge from a regression analysis of income inequality and mortality in the USA and Canada.

  4. On the New Approach in Sociological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A roundtable was held in April 2010, by correspondence and with participants in attendance; it was organized by the editorial board of "Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia" jointly with the faculty of sociology of the Russian State University of the Humanities [RGGU]. The focus of the proceedings was a discussion (taking account of…

  5. The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

  6. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  7. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  8. One Hundred Years of Sociological Solitude?

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the American Sociological Association's centennial, The Chronicle asked seven sociologists to discuss what attracted them to the field, what they consider to be the discipline's fortes and failings, and where they'd like to see it go from here.

  9. Xenophobia In Contemporary Society: A Sociological Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This chapter examines the problem of xenophobia from a sociological perspective. The chapter discusses the problematique of xenophobia as a subject of study and includes an assessment of the incidence/prevalence of xenophobia in contemporary society, as well as indicators of xenophobia. The chapter also provides ...

  10. Reflections on Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Sociology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the original ambition of sociology to constitute itself into an encyclopaedia of the social sciences has largely failed (because of the obligation to restrict its scope through disciplinary specialization), the discipline has been more successful as a key actor in interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary encounters that cover a wide ...

  11. "World Religions" in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…

  12. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarov, I.V.; Terebov, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  13. From Medicalisation to Pharmaceuticalisation - A Sociological Overview. New Scenarios for the Sociology of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordogna Mara Tognetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the sociological literature on pharmaceuticalisation and see how sociology helps us understand and explain the phenomenon. We then discuss how sociology, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries, defines the process of pharmaceuticalisation and how this last is evolving. The paper points out that, while medicalisation remains a key concept for health sociology, it is increasingly being queried and/or extended to allow for a techno-scientific era of biomedicalisation (Clarke et al. 2003 and to acknowledge the importance of the pharmaceutical industry in this process (Williams, Martin and Gabe 2011a, 2011b. Particular attention will be paid to the process of pharmaceuticalisation as brought about not just by doctors and their prescriptions, but by the central role of pharmaceutical promoters and the marketing of drugs.

  14. American Sociology in a Transnational World: Against Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, John

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, in spite of its cosmopolitan origins, U.S. sociology is regarded widely as parochial in its outlook and concerns. Discusses factors contributing to the intellectual isolationism of U.S. sociological research and pedagogy. Provides suggestions for internationalizing the sociology curriculum. (CFR)

  15. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  16. Durkheim's Sociology of Education: Interpretations of Social Change Through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Marc A.

    1976-01-01

    Three questions are examined: (1) Why have contemporary American educators generally ignored Durkheim's sociology of education? (2) What were Durkheim's contributions to the sociology of education as his analysis related to social change through education? and (3) What is the relationship between Durkheim's sociology of education, social change,…

  17. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined. Krzysztof Konecki

  18. Enriching Sociology 100: Using the Novel "Things Fall Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Cheryl J.

    2005-01-01

    The author has been teaching Introduction to Sociology for several years, and each semester new students bring their own perspectives to the study of sociology, making the content fresh and new. In order to help students understand sociological concepts in more experiential ways and to give them a glimpse into a culture that may be different from…

  19. Simulating Secularization: A Pedagogical Strategy for the Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Instructing students in sociological theory is a foundational part of the discipline, but it can also be a challenge. Readers of "Teaching Sociology" can find a number of activities designed to improve students' understanding of sociological theory in their general theory courses, but there are fewer activities designed to improve…

  20. Racial entanglements and sociological confusions: repudiating the rehabilitation of integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluvan, Sivamohan

    2018-06-01

    In line with the broader nationalist advances currently remaking the Western political landscape, the concept of integration has witnessed a marked rehabilitation. Whilst many influential critiques of the sociology of integration are already available, this article contests the concept's renewed purchase through addressing its own internal incoherence. Based on research in Stockholm, this critique concerns the relationship between ethnic identity and cultural integration. It will be argued that integration and the production of difference are intertwined, entangled dualities, and far from being a benign entanglement, this duality is premised on the force and reach of everyday civic racisms. Of pivotal and unique analytical significance here is the observation that racism should not only be considered an exogenous process that impedes integration, but as a multifaceted phenomenon folded into integration. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. Feeding Strategies Derived from Behavioral Economics and Psychology Can Increase Vegetable Intake in Children as Part of a Home-Based Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravener, Terri L; Schlechter, Haley; Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Schwartz, Marlene; Zucker, Nancy; Finkelstein, Stacey; Wang, Y Claire; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with children who reported consumption of fewer than two servings of vegetables daily. Children (aged 3 to 5 years) in both control (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups received a week's supply of plainly packaged (ie, generic) vegetables, presented by parents as a free choice with an alternative snack (granola bar), during baseline (Week 1) and follow-up (Week 4). During Weeks 2 and 3, the control group continued to receive generic packages of vegetables presented as a free choice, but the treatment group received vegetables packaged in containers with favorite cartoon characters and stickers inside, presented by parents as the default choice. Children in the treatment group were allowed to opt out of the vegetables and request the granola bar after an imposed 5-minute wait. General Linear Model repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare vegetable and granola bar intake between control and treatment groups across the 4-week study. Both within- and between-subjects models were tested. A time×treatment interaction on vegetable intake was significant. The treatment group increased vegetable intake from baseline to Week 2 relative to control (Ppsychology in the home to increase children's vegetable intake and decrease intake of a high-energy-density snack. Additional studies are needed to test the long-term sustainability of these practices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Origins and canons: medicine and the history of sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran

    2010-01-01

    Differing accounts are conventionally given of the origins of medical sociology and its parent discipline sociology. These distinct "histories" are justified on the basis that the sociological founders were uninterested in medicine, mortality and disease. This article challenges these "constructions" of the past, proposing the theorization of health not as a "late development of sociology" but an integral part of its formation. Drawing on a selection of key sociological texts, it is argued that evidence of the founders' sustained interest in the infirmities of the individual, of mortality, and in medicine, have been expunged from the historical record through processes of "canonization" and "medicalization."

  3. Self-inflicted violence: a sociological concern and a public health problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo

    1998-04-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first is to reflect on the meaning of suicide as a sociological issue, commenting on an article by E.D. Nunes (1988) on the famous work by Durkheim. The second is to discuss the same issue within the field of public health, analyzing the contributions by the father of sociology and approaches by the fields of epidemiology, psychology, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis, highlighting the work of Brazilian authors. The paper presents information on the Brazilian epidemiological context and concludes by demonstrating that only from an analytical point of view can violent causes as a whole can be studied separately. Thus, they constantly require epistemological and epidemiological surveillance to construct indicators capable of contributing to change. This is all the more true because data on current violence need to be viewed within the context of the social crisis and changes Brazil is undergoing.

  4. The denial of death thesis: sociological critique and implications for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Camilla; Rodin, Gary

    2004-03-01

    It has become commonplace to say that contemporary western society is 'death-denying'. This characterization, which sociologists have termed the 'denial of death thesis', first arose in the social science, psychological and clinical medical literature in the period between 1955 and 1985. During the same time period, the hospice and palliative care movements were developing and in part directed themselves against the perceived cultural denial of death in western society. While the denial of death has been taken for granted by the lay public as well as by clinicians, in the sociological literature it has been increasingly questioned. In this paper we use sociological critiques of the denial of death thesis to raise critical questions about the theory and practice of contemporary palliative care. In particular, we argue that the emphasis of palliative care should not be on extinguishing the denial of death but on the relief of suffering.

  5. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur Pj; Oosterveer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology's contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology's strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change.

  6. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.

  7. Sociological perspectives for the study of nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cruz-Doimeadios

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to explain the society-nature relationship from the disciplines Environmental Sociologyand Cultural Sociology which reveal the arranging function of culture in the orientation of the everyday social doing with respect to the management of novel because it, passes over the thesis that Sociology of Culture states, which is centered in the role of the institucional component a as regulator of the social doing so as to stop the deterioration of the natural spaces. The result consist of the systematization of the theoretical grounds of the disciplines the allow to understand the meaning of culture in social organization around the individuals and groups doing on the nature as objest of analysis.

  8. Why Economists Should Pay Heed to Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman

    2015-01-01

    Gintis and Helbing suggest that certain elements from classical sociological theory can be usefully incorporated into a general equilibrium model, thereby providing a superior explanation of social behavior. Although the paper seemingly is addressed to sociologists, I argue that their message...... is likely to fall on deaf ears. Instead, their paper should properly be addressed to economists. Whether economists are prepared to listen, however, is an open question....

  9. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-12

    discord or hatred are fermented in connection with religious cults. CSO: 1809/15 72 JPRS-ÜPS-85-071 12 September 1985 SOCIOLOGY TV VIEWERS ON...is forbidden to bring viticulture products acquired from retail enterprises to canteens and cafes, and the sale of beer in cultural-entertainment...fact that it is planned to open two beer bars, two beer restaurants and a beer -hall on Zelenyy Islands, while Selenyy Island, as the author of the

  10. Sociological perspectives on self-help groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L; Rasmussen, J M

    2001-01-01

    and significance of self-help groups. FINDINGS: New empirical sociological evidence shows that health care professionals - nurses, psychologists, social workers - have become an integrated part and thus essential actors in self-help groups within as well as outside the framework of the formal health care system...... that it is necessary to introduce new aspects and themes for discussion in the health care debate and the work that goes beyond the predominantly individual orientated treatment and care function....

  11. Happiness and Memory: Some Sociological Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hyman

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to consider, in an exploratory fashion, the relationship between happiness and memory. Both of these areas of investigation are relative newcomers to sociology, and have rarely, if at all, been studied in tandem. The article draws upon data from qualitative interviews with British adults that formed part of an empirical study of people’s experiences and perceptions of happiness. In doing so, it suggests that people identify their memories and reflections on the past as so...

  12. Mod en pragmatisk sociologi om fysisk vold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønck, Mikkel Kronborg

    2017-01-01

    . Som et delvist svar på denne forsømmelse introduceres til den franske sociolog Luc Boltanskis »tilnærmede udkast« til en handlingsteori om vold, som er en del af en større handlingssociologi, der præsenteres i bogen Love and Justice as Competences. Der peges dog på et grundlæggende konceptuelt problem...

  13. Preconditions for Citizen Journalism: A Sociological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley Watson

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the citizen journalist and increased attention to this phenomenon requires a sociological assessment that seeks to develop an understanding of how citizen journalism has emerged in contemporary society. This article makes a distinction between two different subcategories of citizen journalism, that is independent and dependent citizen journalism. The purpose of this article is to present four preconditions for citizen journalism to emerge in contemporary society: advanced technolo...

  14. Implicit Discourse: Contributions to a Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Espluga Trenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the variety of types or dimensions of implicit discourse. Specifically, a typological characterisation is proposed, based on the intentions of the producer of the discourse, including a distinction between four basic dimensions: insinuated discourse, hidden discourse, ?failed? discourse and underlying discourse. Some examples are provided of each dimension, and then it is held that the proposed typology is useful for the sociological analysis of implicit discourse, that is, for its detection and interpretation.

  15. Towards a sociological analysis of London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, I focus on a number of productive scholarly avenues to which sociological analysis of London 2012 might want to attend. Understanding major sporting events - and thus the Olympic Games - as inextricably entangled with the media-industrial complex, I suggest London 2012 as a commodity spectacle that will emphasize gleaming aesthetics, a (sporting) city and nation collapsed into (simple) tourist images, and the presentation of a particular expression of self within the logi...

  16. Physiological Sociology. Endocrine Correlates of Status Behaviors,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    affiliative bonding. One psychiatric illness which manifests itself in social structural relationships in a profound was is sociopathic behavior. By the...very nature of the sociopathic individual, persons with the disorder display altered social behavior (Robins, 1966). The question as to whether such...Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. Goldman, H., Lindner, L., Dinitz, S., and Allen, H. The simple sociopath : Physiologic and sociologic

  17. Environmental sociology as the broadest framework for a research of the globalizing social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušić Ljubinko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-encompassing processes of globalization have contributed in a large measure to the confusion within scholarly attempts to decode its comprehensiveness, its causes, and its scope. The premise of this article is that the environment is a relevant sociological concept and a tool for the most complex and the most complete understanding of the impact that global processes have on social reality. We can also see that environmental sociology, as a distinct and very young - though well established - sub-discipline of sociology is a very suitable epistemological framework for testing the elements of globalization. This article considers the relationship between environmental sociology and the five common foundational sub-processes that define globalization and sustainable development. Those sub-processes are defined as political, economic, ecological, technological, and cultural. Furthermore, this article articulates the basis of the quest for the lowest common denominator within both theoretical and practical aspects of these sub-processes. In that sense, the question of the plausibility of the idea of sustainable development - as the intersection of the aforementioned sub-processes - is addressed.

  18. Debate on class issue in contemporary sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary debate on class issue within the sociology in English speaking countries focuses on two questions. The first question is whether the crisis of the Marxist class analysis, which arose as a consequence of weakening of class identity and class behavior, is at the same time a sign of crisis of sociological class conception. There are American, British and Australian sociologists whose answer to this question is affirmative. However, others have been claiming that the Marxist class analysis could be replaced by the Weberian concept of stratification. The second question in this debate is on the exploratory importance of class for sociological analysis. Some sociologists have been claiming that its explanatory capacity is exhausted. However, there are others who argue that classes remain one of the most important tools a modern sociologist has. Finally, this paper points to the third way of saving the class analysis. It is about focusing on collective identity and collective action of the members of "developed" professions, as a kind of "small" classes or "proto-classes".

  19. A comparison of agritourism and other farm entrepreneurs: implications for future tourism and sociological research on agritourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla Barbieri

    2009-01-01

    Agritourism research has been approached from both the tourism and sociology disciplines. Both have focused on understanding the complex set of goals--including those economic and intrinsic in nature--that drive entrepreneurial development. This study examined differences between agritourism farmers and other farm entrepreneurs to consider whether both the tourism and...

  20. Remembering a sociology of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociology of human rights sounds almost like a contradiction in terms. Sociology is about social groups, about particular experiences, about how people, embedded in space and time, make sense of their lives and give meaning to their world. It deals with power and interest and the social bases of our experiences. On the other hand, human rights are about human beings in general, without temporal or spatial references, not about groups and their boundaries. Human rights are about humanity, located in the world and connected to an inviolable nature. Global media representations, among others, create new cosmopolitan memories, providing new epistemological vantage points and emerging moral-political interdependencies. As such, memories of the Holocaust contribute to the creation of a common European cultural memory based on the abstract notion of human rights. Sociologically, a theory of human rights has to show how universal and particular memories co-exist, are reconciled etc. and what it means for the recognition of the “other”, and the broadening of circles of solidarity.Una sociología de los derechos humans suena casi como un oxímoron. La sociología se fija en los grupos sociales, en las experiencias particulares, y en cómo las personas, marcadas por el espacio y el tiempo, dan sentido a sus vidas y atribuyen un significado al mundo. Trata del poder, el interés y la base social de nuestras experiencias. Contrariamente, los derechos humanos se refieren a humanos en general, sin referencias temporales ni espaciales, y no a grupos y sus límites. Los derechos humanos tratan de la humanidad, ubicado en el mundo y conectado con su naturaleza inviolable. Representaciones mediáticas globales, entre otras, crean memorias cosmopólitas nuevas, disponiendo nuevos puntos de vista epistemológicos y interdependencias morales-políticas emergentes. Así, las memorias del Holocausto contribuyen a la creación de una memoria cultural europea com

  1. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  2. Ideological discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Parkhomenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of theoretical and methodological principles and key provisions of the discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology. It has been stated by the author that the analysis of the ideological aspects of gender discourse, which appeared at the XXI century, is oriented to the search of contemporary gender ideology of egalitarianism and tolerance that would take root in the mentality of different societies. Analysis of ideas of different ideologies and cultures suggests that any ideology can only perform a positive function when it is based on the values of the culture. Otherwise it does not receive social support. The study of the ideological aspects of gender discourse in feminist sociology has shown that in the process of gender socialization man and woman should pass pre-ideological (before adulthood and post-ideological stages. In such situation, gender orientation values are formed in several ways (legal, economic, religious, gender norms influence the assimilation and evaluation, and only subsequently change the gender behavior and gender acquiring competence. It has been stipulated in the article that the modern world is characterized by multivariate cultures and patterns of gender socialization. In feminist sociology it has been decided to allocate three basic types of gender ideologies and their corresponding patterns of gender socialization: a patriarchal gender ideology and socialization, which are characterized by a lack of awareness, significant changes, a sense of continuity of life, self-mastery behaviors that meet all standards of culture; b modernist gender ideology and socialization, characterized by such prevailing model of behavior as the adoption of new norms of behavior, activity and independence in women’s behavior, adults can learn from children, children try to develop their own style of behavior that is different from the behavior of their parents, conflict of generations, lots of

  3. Thinking Psychology Today

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  4. Economic Relationship among Self, Society and Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Jang Chung

    2013-01-01

    A scientific, economic relationship among self, society and nation is still not clearly known in philosophy, sociology and economics because of lack of concrete historical human data that would enable to substantiate it. Humanity experienced many conflicting economic and political systems. Consequently, philosophers, sociologists and economists have been investigating to study the economic relationship among self, society and nation that may lead to a desirable economic system for individual ...

  5. The sociological subject through the streets of Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Tiburri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the sociological subject, as conceptualized by Stuart Hall (2006, in the modernist architecture and urbanism, using the city of Brasilia as an icon. The sociological subject is the result of modernity in transformation, with its characteristics of isolation and individualism, together with a process of decentralization and fragmentation of identities. This idea will be led through the streets of the city-symbol of our modernism, largely designed from the principles of the Athens Charter, which aimed to solve the problems caused by rapid growth of cities. We try to understand how the modernist principles of the Athens Charter, who are considered to be the most significant manifest of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM, are present in Brasilia and how both the collective and the individual interact as well as how the sociological subject can move about those spaces. To do so, we analyze the principles of the Athens Charter, applied to Brasilia’s urban design, and determine how our sociological subject in practice interacts with this “ideal city” by observing the interactions between the collective, the individual, the public and private, the center, and the periphery.  We also consider the political and economic conditions in Brasilia during the 1950s and early 1960s, under the developmental policy of President Kubitschek, combined with the precepts of the ideal modern city. Thus, our analysis focuses on the sociological subject, who is individualistic and changes modern society, interacting with the structures of the nation-state, industrialization, democracy, and modern capitalism, and is part of a modernist city, with aspirations of community and social and spatial order in a country facing the future, progress, and development.

  6. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  7. ABOUT THE FOUNDERS OF LEGAL SOCIOLOGY AND THEIR IDEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA CRISTIANA NILĂ STRATONE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main founders of the juridical sociology are considered to be Eugen Ehrlich, Max Weber, Theodor Geiger and Georges Gurvitch, The researches of juridical sociology from Romania are demonstrating the existence of a real tradition in this domain at a national standard. Some roumanian explores of formation jurists have practicated in the cognitive demarche a sociologycal abordation about the law, what have been fatal conduced to the fixing of the base of the juridical sociology in Romania.

  8. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz; Kacperczyk, Anna; Marciniak, Łukasz

    2005-01-01

    Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research,2005, 6(3) The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined.

  9. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  10. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals......Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  11. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well as a complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offenses: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  12. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well asa complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offences: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  13. Capitalism, money and banking: a critique of recent historical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, G

    1999-03-01

    A conception of money as a 'neutral veil' masking a 'real' economy was adopted by orthodox economic theory after the Methodenstreit, and is also to be found, in a different form, in Marxian political economy. Both derive from an erroneous functionalist and anachronistic 'commodity' theory of money which, as Post-Keynesian economists argue, cannot explain the distinctive form of capitalist credit-money. Orthodox economic theory and classic Marxism have tacitly informed and flawed historical sociology's understanding of money's role in capitalist development. Mann and Runciman, for example, consider the 'economy' exclusively in terms of the social relations of production and imply that money is epiphenomenal and is to be explained as a response to the needs of the 'real' economy. They do not recognize the structural specificity of capitalist money and banking nor its importance. An alternative account of the autonomous historical conditions of existence of the specifically capitalist form of bank and state credit-money and its role in capitalist development is outlined.

  14. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  15. Classical sociology and cosmopolitanism: a critical defence of the social.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-03-01

    It is frequently argued that classical sociology, if not sociology as a whole, cannot provide any significant insight into globalization, primarily because its assumptions about the nation-state, national cultures and national societies are no longer relevant to a global world. Sociology cannot consequently contribute to a normative debate about cosmopolitanism, which invites us to consider loyalties and identities that reach beyond the nation-state. My argument considers four principal topics. First, I defend the classical legacy by arguing that classical sociology involved the study of 'the social' not national societies. This argument is illustration by reference to Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons. Secondly, Durkheim specifically developed the notion of a cosmopolitan sociology to challenge the nationalist assumptions of his day. Thirdly, I attempt to develop a critical version of Max Weber's verstehende soziologie to consider the conditions for critical recognition theory in sociology as a necessary precondition of cosmopolitanism. Finally, I consider the limitations of some contemporary versions of global sociology in the example of 'flexible citizenship' to provide an empirical case study of the limitations of globalization processes and 'sociology beyond society'. While many institutions have become global, some cannot make this transition. Hence, we should consider the limitations on as well as the opportunities for cosmopolitan sociology.

  16. The Sociological Imagination and Community-Based Learning: Using an Asset-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoutte, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Fostering a sociological imagination in students is a central goal for most introductory sociology courses and sociology departments generally, yet success is difficult to achieve. This project suggests that using elements of asset-based community development can be used in sociology classrooms to develop a sociological perspective. After…

  17. The Madoffization of Irish society: from Ponzi finance to sociological critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Lee F; O'Flynn, Micheal

    2017-12-01

    Financialization and neoliberal policy created the Celtic Tiger. This economic 'miracle' furthered creditors' and property developers' speculative interests, leading to an unstable financial pyramid that eventually imploded in 2008 with catastrophic consequences for Irish society. Using the sociological imagination as social critique, this paper offers a lens on fictitious capital and Ponzi finance in the context of Ireland's boom and bust. Critique is advanced using the Madoffization of society thesis, a sociological heuristic that draws formal comparisons between Bernie Madoff's US$65 billion Ponzi scheme, which collapsed in 2008, and financialized capitalism. The Madoff case exhibits five main elements or forms which, it has been argued, underlie the varying content of life on a much broader scale: accumulation by debt expansion, mass deception, efforts to maintain secrecy and silence, obfuscation, and scapegoating. In conclusion, a crucial difference between the Madoff case and the Madoffization of Irish society is underscored. Discussion also moves from critique to hope amidst calls to renew sociology and transform financialized capitalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. Gangs and a global sociological imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alistair; Hagedorn, John M

    2018-02-01

    Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization.

  19. Assessing the sociology of sport : On critical sport sociology and sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, Annelies Knoppers, one of the leading scholars in understanding the culture of sport in organizational settings, considers how the critical lens of sociology can enhance and mesh with research on sport management. Knoppers argues that there have been

  20. Choices and Chances: The Sociology Role-Playing Game--The Sociological Imagination in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joseph M.; Elias, Vicky L.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a sociology role-playing game (RPG) used to demonstrate the broad range of social forces, institutions, and structures in a semester-long series of in-class and homework assignments. RPGs and other simulation games have been frequently suggested as a useful teaching methodology because of their unique ability to allow…

  1. Family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behavioural problems, socio-economic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption among 4-12 year-old Victorians, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, A M N; Kumanyika, S; Tucker, K L

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this analysis was to assess relationships between family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behaviour difficulties and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among 4-12-year-old children in Victoria, Australia. We used the 2006 Victorian Child's Health and wellbeing data set that included 3370 randomly selected primary caregivers of 4-12-year-old children interviewed between October 2005 and March 2006. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; level of family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device-General Functioning Scale and parental psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-6 scale. The mean number of servings consumed per day was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 2.3) for fruit and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.1) for vegetables. The proportion of children meeting the minimum daily age-specific recommendation was 87.8% (95% CI: 86.4, 89.1%) for fruit and 36.5% (95% CI: 34.5, 38.5) for vegetables. Children with behaviour difficulties, low levels of prosocial behaviours and from poorly functioning households consumed fewer servings of F&V than children who did not experience any environment stressors or behavioural problems. Although parental psychological distress was not associated with fruit intake, daughters of parents who reported higher levels of psychological distress consumed fewer servings of vegetables than daughters of parents who reported lower levels of psychological distress. Child behavioural problems and family functioning and to some extent parental psychological distress were associated with F&V consumption. Programmes aimed at promoting F&V consumption in children should target those families with children experiencing behavioural problems or poorly functioning households.

  2. Sociology and the public understanding of science: from rationalization to rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper contributes to the reappraisal of sociological theories of modernity inspired by the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK). As much as these theories rely on received ideas about the nature of science that SSK has called into doubt, so do they rely on ideas about the public understanding of science. Public understanding of science has been assumed to conform to the monolithic logic and perception of science associated with rationalization, leading to an impoverished view of the cognitive outlook of the modern individual. Rationalization has become the basis for the construction of theoretical critique of science divorced from any clear reference to public understanding, with the result that theory has encountered considerable problems in accounting for public scepticism towards science. However, rather than question rationalization, the more typical strategy has been to propose radical changes in the modernization process, such as postmodernism and the risk society. Against this, an alternative view of public understanding is advanced drawn from SSK and rhetorical psychology. The existence of the sociological critique of science, and SSK in particular, suggests that the meaning of science in modernity is not monolithic but multiple, arising out of a central dilemma over the universal form of knowledge-claims and their necessarily particular, human and social grounding. This dilemma plays out not only in intellectual discourses about science, but also in the public's understanding of science. This argument is used to call for further sociological research into public understanding and to encourage sociologists to recognize the central importance of the topic to a proper understanding of modernity.

  3. AGROFORESTRY KALIWU IN SUMBA: A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyanto Dwi Prasetyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is one of the popular land management systems in Indonesia. The system helps the farmers to increase agricultural production, social life, and ecological stability. Traditional community in Sumba had been implementing agroforestry for a long time, known as Kaliwu and as a part of the indigenous knowledge. Kaliwu as a system is constructed socially through an intensive interaction between local people and its environment and transmitted from generation to generation. This study aimed to asses sociological aspects in behind Kaliwu practices, which allegedly become key factor the sustainability of this system socially, exist until now. The study was conducted for a year in 2009 in the Waimangura Village, Sumba Island. As social research, data was collected through social survey on 30 respondents, in-depth interview, observation, and literature review. Data was analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative procedures. The results indicated that sociologically, Kaliwu as an authentic knowledge of land management system passed on from generation to generation and constructed along with the socio-historical practices by the local people of Sumba. Social norms (adherence to traditional values, arrangement of labour systems, conflict management and social institution of farmer group became social factors that play significant role to make kaliwu sustainable.

  4. Sociological Theory and Social Reality [ENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN DÍEZ NICOLÁS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley?s and Duncan?s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung?s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart?s theory of values? change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values? change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values? change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ?security? values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  5. Why Sociology Is Silent Concerning Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Nikolov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Border in sociological sense means a barrier that separates social groups, strata, their values, and the difference between ways of life between particular social groups. Such groups may be separated by many dividing lines, or borders: social/living conditions, opportunities/prospects, legal rights/customs, viewpoints, and so on. Sometimes mobility does not permit other than individual, or small-group, crossing of these borders. It seems really strange why border topic is almost completely absent from the sociology. It is so pertinent to the fate and shaping of various social groups, depending from the location of the border. We think of a boundary whenever we think of an entity demarcated from its surroundings. Events, too, have boundaries – temporal ones: their beginning, climax, final. All our lives are bounded in the continuum between our births and our deaths. A philosopher would imply also that even imaginary, abstract entities, such as concepts or layouts, have boundaries of their own. One may say that condition for all this boundary/border talk is coherent, and whether it reproduces the world around us’ structure, or the organizing activity of our intellect, are matters of deep philosophical controversy. Borders are difficult to disappear totally even within the European Union, providing some obstacles to the freedom of movement to those left still outside the Schengen agreement.

  6. Recent Developments in Sociological Risk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief overview of the main streams and recent developments of sociological research and theorising on risk. It outlines shifts in cultural theory on risk, from risk society to reflexive modernisation, from governmentality on risk to governmentality on uncertainty and adds the often neglected systems theory approach. Some important insights result from these developments: Risk and uncertainty should be interpreted as systematically linked to each other because there are different ways beyond instrumental rationality how risk can be managed. Furthermore, risk understood as rational calculation is an uncertain business, too. Risks are at the same time both real and socially constructed. Risks and uncertainties have to be managed case by case. When ignorance or uncertainty is too big there are no general rationalities available to make reasonable decisions. Finally, it is argued for more theoretical integration of the outlined approaches. The article finishes with some considerations regarding the contribution of sociology to risk research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601301

  7. Towards a Sociology of the Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McGuigan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the mobile phone is an immensely significant social and cultural phenomenon. However, market hype and utopian dreams greatly exaggerate its importance. The fundamental issue for sociology is the process of change. Bound up with contemporary issues of change, the mobile phone is a prime object for sociological attention both at the macro and micro levels of analysis. This article considers the strengths and weaknesses of four methods for studying the sociality of the mobile phone (social demography; political economy; conversation, discourse and text analysis; and ethnography, the different kinds of knowledge they produce, and the interests they represent. Recent ethnographic research on the mobile phone, particularly motivated by issues around the uncertain transition from 2G to the 3G technology, has examined the actual experience of routine use. Interpretative research is now supplementing purely instrumental research, thereby giving a much more nuanced understanding of mobile communications. Critical research on the mobile phone, of which there is little, is beginning to ask skeptical questions that should be pursued further.

  8. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  9. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics: Advanced Search ... of characters; e.g., soci* morality would match documents containing "sociological" or "societal" .... Journal of Development and Communication Studies, Journal of East African Natural ...

  10. The Emergence and Development of the Sociology of Sport as an Academic Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, John W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Sport sociology as an academic specialty and its stages of development are described. Problems confronting future developments in sport sociology include critical mass, academic status, and ideological orientation, both in physical education and in sociology. (CJ)

  11. Goffman Meets Bauman at the Shopping Mall - en diakron konfrontation om selv, samfund og sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid

    2008-01-01

      This article offers a diachronic confrontation between the sociological perspectives of Erving Goffman and Zygmunt Bauman respectively. Due to their different locations in the history of sociology as well as their diametrically opposed locations regarding substantial discussions within sociolog...

  12. ENTREPRENEURSIPH IN ROMANIA. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neațu Alina-Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavioral economics combines insights of psychology, sociology and economics in trying to better understand and predict human decision-making. At the intersection of economic studies with social sciences, behavioral economics succeeds to demonstrate, using laboratory tests and experiments, that on a shorter term people are quite capable to perform profitable economic computations and adopt rational behaviors, but on a long term run they easily become fallible in performing rational mental accounting and are vulnerable to several factors such as emotions, certain mass-manipulation techniques, lack of self control or procrastination, etc. Extended research in the field of behavioral economics reports many other various behavioral anomalies that may have the ability to explain seemingly irrational and unpredictable responses of individuals, in general, and entrepreneurs, in particular – especially when finding themselves in conditions of risk, uncertainty or incomplete information. Furthermore, the elevated consistency of these abnormalities suggests that they are divergent only to our traditional models, but that they could otherwise be the norm. The present article seeks to explain how such insights from behavioral economics may help us better understand and enhance our perspective on entrepreneurship, what are some of the most frequent biases characteristic to entrepreneurial behavior and decision-making, accounting as most notable for the field of

  13. Sociologie de la lecture et de la bibliotheque: Choix de dix ans de la litterature speciale hongroise 1978-1987. Contribution a la Base de donnees internationale de Bibliologie (Sociology of Reading and Library Sociology: A Selection from the Hungarian Literature of a Decade 1978-1987. Contribution to the International Database of Bibliology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposvari-Danyi, Eva, Comp.; Lorincz, Judit, Comp.

    This 175-item bibliography was compiled as the Hungarian contribution to an international database. It includes books, chapters of books, periodical articles, manuscripts, and dissertations that deal with bibliology (i.e., the sociology and psychology of book and library use). Citations are restricted to works of Hungarian authors published in…

  14. History, Science And The Dilemma Of Contemporary Sociology: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and natural sciences are two important fields of study that have informed and influenced sociology as a discipline. Traditionally common to these influences on sociology is the need to generalise. Today, however only the natural sciences can still lay claim to this principle. In generalising, the natural science ...

  15. Avoiding Chaos in the Sociology of Sport Brickyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Barry D.

    1978-01-01

    If the sociology of sport is to flourish as a legitimate field of inquiry which can contribute valid knowledge rather than an array of bits of knowledge, a sociological perspective based on a sound philosophy of science must be adopted. (Author/LH)

  16. Guidelines for Teaching Undergraduate Sport Sociology. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Jay; Riemer, Brenda; Sailes, Gary; Harrison, Louis; Pittman, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Sport sociology is a subdiscipline of sociology that, since the late 1960s, has produced knowledge about sports as social phenomena in a wide range of societies. It may be included as a major specialization area in graduate programs in kinesiology, sports studies and physical education departments, and is widely offered as a single undergraduate…

  17. The Development of Visual Sociology: A view from the inside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Harper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflection by one of the founding members of the IVSA (International Visual Sociology Association about the events, ideas, social trends and revolutions within sociology that contributed to development of visual sociology. In 2016 the IVSA entered its 34th year and the author has been a participant in the organization for its full duration. The paper details the importance of documentary photography in the early era of visual sociology. During this era key papers by Howard Becker contributed to the intellectual movement’s original intellectual definition and created a pedagogical model that has served as a model for teaching visual sociology to this day. Moving from visual sociology as a method based on black and white photography, the discipline embraced and developed collaborative methods including photo elicitation and photovoice. A parallel track of visual sociology focused on the analysis of the visual dimension of society, drawing on semiotics and cultural studies. More recently visual sociology has begun to explore the rapidly changing meaning and social function of photographic imagery, as cameras and images have become ubiquitous in the cell phone era.

  18. Teaching Writing in Sociology: A Social Constructionist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leon; Holt, Mara

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of the "social constructionist" approach to teaching composition in sociology courses. Describes a course that is team taught by the authors and is based on the social constructionist paradigm. Stresses that sociological writing is a special type of discourse that can be taught most effectively by sociologists who…

  19. Rural Sociology in Brazil: Institutional Growth (1965-1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David O.; And Others

    Growth and present status of graduate programs, major research interests, and potential for US-Brazilian collaboration indicate the present state of rural sociology in Brazil. In contrast to US rural sociology's identity crisis of the past decade, the field in Brazil has blossomed. Graduate programs are underway at universities of Rio Grande do…

  20. The Structure of Sociology in the Educational Activities of Unesco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, B. Y.

    1974-01-01

    An exploration of the structure of sociology in Unesco's educational activities during 1970-1971 reveals that Unesco has dual political and cultural bureaucratic structures that are complementary for contributions in sociology. Journal is available from Mouton & Co., 5 Herder Street, The Hague, Netherlands. (ND)

  1. Pour une Sociologie des Apprentissages (Toward a Sociology of Learning)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcher, Louis

    1977-01-01

    A language, a social practice, cannot be taught or learned apart from determining sociological factors. The effect of this sociological understanding on foreign language methodology, particularly the functional approach, and learner-centered education is discussed. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  2. Towards a Realist Sociology of Education: A Polyphonic Review Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Michael; Hood, Susan; Barrett, Brian D.; Schubert, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This review essay evaluates Karl Maton's "Knowledge and Knowers: Towards a Realist Sociology of Education" as a recent examination of the sociological causes and effects of education in the tradition of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu and the British educational sociologist Basil Bernstein. Maton's book synthesizes the…

  3. Using the Sociological Imagination to Teach about Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell Trautner, Mary; Borland, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The sociological imagination is a useful tool for teaching about plagiarism and academic integrity, and, in turn, academic integrity is a good case to help students learn about the sociological imagination. ?We present an exercise in which the class discusses reasons for and consequences of dishonest academic behavior and then examines a series of…

  4. Representing the Other in Sociology of the Family Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Charlotte Chorn; Cannon, Julie Harms; Dietz, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of otherness as it applies to the content of sociology of the family texts. We conducted a study of the content of the indexes and the body of texts on sociology of the family, examining the way in which the experiences of whites were addressed relative to families of color. We found that whites…

  5. Polish Qualitative Sociology. Insight into the future of postdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The paper desctibes the definitions of following concepts: multidisiplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdysciplinarity, postdisciplinarity. MOreover it discuss the meanings of a concept of discipline. It describes the place of the Polish qualitative sociology in the context of postdisciplinary research. The main question of paper is: Does the POlish Qualitative Sociology has entered the postdisciplinary phase of research? DGS, UL Krzysztof Konecki

  6. The Empty Shops Project: Developing Rural Students' Sociological Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Evan; Burns, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    An informal research project with high local relevance was developed for a first-year sociology course at an Australian rural university campus. The project developed students' sociological insight by challenging them to investigate "truths" about their own region, rather than immediately pushing them to comprehend new and different…

  7. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.

  8. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning Sociology of Religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching and learning of Sociology of Religion in Nigeria face some grave challenges. As an academic discipline in religious studies, many who teach this specialized discipline are not experts. This makes Sociology of. Religion anybody's game which does not promote sound scholarship, creativity and intellectual ...

  9. Revisiting the Utility of Industrial Sociology in National Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociology as an academic discipline has been entrenched in many Nigerian universities, however, not much is known about how the discipline has contributed or has been contributing to the national development. Although some scholars have discussed some contributions of sociology in the emerging economy like ...

  10. The Educational Imagination and the Sociology of Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable feature of the sociology of education is its proliferation under a broad gamut of research themes and topics. Understanding the relationship of education to social reproduction and social change are pivotal to the sociology of education, and have fruitfully informed research in fields such as gender and education, vocational education…

  11. The "Biographical Turn" in University Sociology Teaching: A Bernsteinian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Monica; Abbas, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what happens to disciplinary knowledge when it is taught in contemporary UK universities of different status. Here, Basil Bernstein's theories are applied to what sociology lecturers say about teaching, demonstrating that in conditions in which students are less likely to engage with sociological theory, lecturers,…

  12. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  13. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF INFLUENCE IN SOCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiyana B. Kolyshkina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to estimate the efficiency of psychological influence mechanisms in social advertising. Numerous psychological, sociological, culturological studies, devoted to this issue, do not answer the question which mechanisms will be efficient and will lead to the expected reaction of a recipient. The correlation between the psychological influence methods and the goals set by the creators is especially important for social advertising, because its efficiency can’t be measured by economic indicators as it occurs in commercial advertising. In addition, it should be remembered that for guaranteeing of efficiency in this kind of advertising one need to take into account such special features of a recipient as their beliefs and sets. The study concentrates on the comparison of psychological influence mechanisms, used in World Wildlife Fund (WWF social advertising. Its creators use a great number of methods. But as practice shows us by no means all of them lead to the planned results. The study justifies, that the efficiency of advertising influence should be estimated by such indicators as the willingness of a recipient to take part in WWF programs (conative component and their emotional response (affective component. Consequently, it has been established that the behaviour of a recipient does not depend on a chosen creative strategy’s type, which is used by the creators. The willingness of a recipient to take part in the programs, advertised by WWF, is estimated by the content of their social and psychological sets (attitudes. The displayed results prove that one need to refuse a cruel and shocking way of advertising, which causes people’s negative emotions. It is corroborated by experiments that social advertising which defends wild nature can be efficient on condition that it gives a recipient an opportunity to actualize their own social and psychological sets.

  14. Zamyšlení nad soudobou českou sociologií

    OpenAIRE

    Musil, Jiri

    2002-01-01

    The following comments compare the present orientations of Czech sociology with recent developments in European sociology. The analysis of sociology in Europe shows that the attention of European sociologists has shifted to social theory & social philosophy, sociology of culture, media, gender & feminism, political sociology, nationalism, ethnicity, & racism. Czech sociology, in the opinion of the author, still does not pay sufficient attention to such pressing issues of Czech society as nati...

  15. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  17. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The idea that economic activities may be described and studied as ‘embedded’ in social relations has been central to much debate in recent economic sociology. The present study analyses legal struggles over the status of begging in Unites States law, and argues that conflicting rhetorical accounts...

  18. Sociologia e literatura Sociology and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Leonel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Propomos discutir como Os sertões foi incorporado, pela crítica, como obra de literatura e como, posteriormente, o romance Grande sertão: veredas passou a ser lido como ensaio. Para tanto, examina-se, de um lado, em vários estudos, como o primeiro foi consagrado como obra compósita, pertencendo, ao mesmo tempo, ao campo da literatura, da sociologia e da ciência, o que se tornou moeda corrente e cânone quase inquestionável, sobrevivendo por mais de um século. De outro lado, investiga-se como a narrativa rosiana passou a ser vista, por uma determinada vertente da crítica, como ensaio ou estudo das relações de poder no Brasil. É essa indistinção, paradoxal, entre sociologia e literatura, ciência e fi cção que nos propomos investigar e problematizar, buscando compreender tal embaralhamento de gêneros. Palavras-chave: Grande sertão: veredas. Os sertões. Ficção. Sociologia. Ensaio. Crítica. The purpose is to discuss how Os sertões has been incorporated, by the critics, as literary work and how, after that, the novel Grande sertão: veredas started to be read as an essay. In order to achieve that, there is the examination, from one side, of several studies, on how the fi rst has been consecrated as composite work belonging, at the same time, to the literature, sociology and science fi elds, what has come as currency and unquestionable standard, surviving for over a century. On the other hand, there is the investigation of how the narrative of Rosa started to be seen, by a determined share of the critics, as essay or study of the power relationships in Brazil. It is this non-distinction, this paradox, between sociology and literature, science and fi ction, that we propose to investigate and put into matter, searching for comprehension in this gender mixture. Keywords: Grande sertão: veredas. Os sertões. Fiction. Sociology. Essay. Critics.

  19. Renewing Sociology of Education? Knowledge Spaces, Situated Enactments, and Sociological Practice in a World on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Sociology of education is caught in a dilemma. The study of education and society that unfolded through the twentieth century produced educational vocabularies that spoke into education policy and practice about inequality and social justice. Now that sociologically informed educational discourse is marginalised by individualistic…

  20. The Forest of Romania: a Social - Economic's Dramma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Roman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests were covering at the start of the third millennium around 26.5% of Romania's territory. Comprised into forest zones expanded in all historical provinces of the country, they are representing an important economic resource, an also an essential factor of the man-environment equilibrium. The organization of the rational exploitation of the forestry fund, adopted ever since the XIX Century, was abandoned after the forests nationalization, imposed by the communist regime in 1948. Urbanization and industrialization, held in view by this regime, did not take into account the ecological requirements and neither those linked to the renewal of the natural economic resources. The transition coming after the fall of communism, with pervert economic, psychological and sociological effects, has led to a savage exploitation of the forestry fund, the lack of some compensation measures (re-forestations, young forest protection, under the context of statal authority's dissolution (after the excessive communist authoritarism, having catastrophic consequences: land slides, desertification, pollution. The remake of the forest ownership structure, from before nationalization, is not, as a consequence, sufficient, the putting into possession having to be accompanied, in the goal of remaking the natural harmony of man with his existential environment, by a series of economic, legislative, educational initiatives, which the EU integration could facilitate.

  1. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Liu

    2014-01-01

    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  2. 'Material' in Adorno's sociology of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors are dealing with the musical 'material' as the key concept of Theodor Adorno's sociology of music. Being a synthesis of two, ideologically opposite - Schonberg's and Marx's - legacies, Adorno's 'material' combines also quite opposite meanings. On the one side, it echoes Schonberg's theory of relationship between tone (as natural phenomena and unconscious 'instinct' (that transforms composer into some kind of the tool of nature, and whole mankind as well. On the other side, Adorno was following Karl Marx general theory of capitalism (all cultural phenomena are determined by the material production, with one crucial innovation. Adorno's 'material' was reflecting the lack of virtual communist revolution, instead of its preparation (in the bosom of totalitarian capitalism. As the result of Adorno's 'negative dialectics' in the field of music, it was carrying the message of the suppressed apocalypse. .

  3. Sociologies of energy. Towards a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ariztía

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a panoramic view of the field of the social studies of energy while introducing the articles of the special issue. It begins by discussing the progressive interest on studying the social aspects of energy. We relate this interest to the increasing challenges imposed by global climate change as well as the growing sociological attention to the material dimension of social life. The article suggests understanding energy and energy related phenomena as a socio-technical object which involve material, social, cultural and technical elements. The article then briefly describes different research areas concerning the intersection between energy and society and present the contributions to the monograph. We suggest that the articles comprised in this special issue are not only relevant for social scientist interested on energy related issues; they might also help energy professionals and researchers from outside the social sciences to further problematize the social aspects and challenges of energy.

  4. [A sociological approach to the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschini, C

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the range and limits of some concepts of the family, related to theoretical perspectives and to possibilities of an empirical approach to this social group. It argues that in recent studies of the family one can find the symbolic outlook of anthropology on the one hand, which deepens the analysis of dynamics of family relationships, but is limited to strict segments of society. On the other hand, one can find demography and sociology surveys, capable of framing broad portraits which, although liable to generalization, are static and limited to family relations within the household. As an example of possible methodology, the paper describes the proceedings and results of [a study on] family structure and daily life in the city of Sao Paulo [Brazil], in which the author assembles some of the commented approaches, trying to overcome their limitations." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  6. THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the crime, through the re-evaluation and reconsidering the factors with a crime risk and placing them in an equal position in the social environment. Another objective of this study is to emphasize the importance of the gender role concerning the expectations of the society from the feminine population’s side. The present study is focused on the contribution of placing the research of feminine crime research on a basis characterized by unprecedented generality, under total influencing conditions, with orientation towards gender problematic.

  7. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Regionalization and multiculturalism in sociological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Milan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to deal with current and also controversial problems of regionalization and multiculturality together, by putting them in a broader sociological perspective, and then questioning them on the example of the current position of Vojvodina and growing demands for democratization, deregulation and decentralization of Serbia. Starting with a question how to harmonize very strong need of modern societies for homogenization with the equally strong and legitimate need for heterogeneity, which was one of the first and basic questions that sociology posed to itself, the author points out that regionalization and multiculturality solve nothing by themselves alone, if they are not put in the context of the crisis of modernity, which opens space for constructing essentially different pluralistic society. Process of regionalization in general, and in Serbia particularly, appears as a rational choice only if it goes together with already mentioned processes of democratization deregulation and decentralization, which should provide relatively fast transformation of old structures through development of the new ones. In other words, regionalization must be looked upon as one of the moments of the process of foundation of new pluralistic society, which contributes to opening and development, and not to closing, stagnation or regress, which eliminates or alleviates old conflicts and prevents creation of the new ones, which eliminates harmful consequences of stiff centralization and at the same time does not call for equally harmful unreasonable fragmentation which encourages demands for autonomy of parts and at the same time does not prevent integration and solidarity, which respects differences and does not endanger the social unity.

  9. History and Sociology: A genealogical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan UNGUREAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What could we possibly learn from a 70 year correspondence from the years of the Second World War, when the course of subsequent history has already been known? The sociologist is interested in seeing how an event unfolds, how it generates other actions, how the actors are driven by, what their strategies are and how they interact. The aim of the present essay is to identify those sociological concepts, that could lead us to explanations of the geopolitical, regarding the way Germany built up its hegemony, by starting from a genealogical perspective, that is, by identifying the logics of a situation and by understanding the reasoning behind individual decision while taking into consideration the analysis of the discourse. We take into account how enforcing a drastic peace treaty on Germany has lead to high surveillance costs that could not be sustained by the victors because of their path dependence, which ultimately led to the fact of the ‘good’ being sacrificed for the sake of the ‘comfortable’. We understand how military successes represent the test of truth for an ideology and provide the Nazi leaders with their legitimacy, inciting a group phantasm. We discern, in the relations between Germany, Soviet Union and the French-English duo, all the elements of a triad and, implicitly, all elements of power that are generated by a game based on imposing and accepting uncertainties. All of the above bare evidence to the fact that sociological notions and concepts can produce revelations when taken into new domains, such as geopolitics and war.

  10. Micro sociological study of family relationships: heuristic potential theoretical principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Zolotnyik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to demonstrate the heuristic potential of theoretical principles by microsoсiological analysis of one of the indicators of family – family relations. Theoretical analysis of the interaction experience is quite large, but there is the question about it’s possibility to describe the specifics of that relationship that arise in family interaction. The study of family relationships requires an integrated approach to the comprehension of many related components: system of spouses value orientations, family life cycle, socio­economic living conditions of couple. However, the accentuation exactly on action­behavioral aspect allows to make assumptions about correlations between: success of family interaction and microclimate in the family; satisfaction level of interpersonal interaction and overall satisfaction with marriage, familiarity of family interaction and density of childbearing, and so on. The presentation of microsoсiological theoretical achievements will be carried out of sociological schools, orientations and their members that are the most popular references in this area. this paper will presents the theory of exchange, supporters of symbolic interactionism, dramatic and etnometodological approach and family systems theory.

  11. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  12. The sociology of popular music, interdisciplinarity and aesthetic autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lee

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers the impact of interdisciplinarity upon sociological research, focusing on one particular case: the academic study of popular music. 'Popular music studies' is an area of research characterized by interdisciplinarity and, in keeping with broader intellectual trends, this approach is assumed to offer significant advantages. As such, popular music studies is broadly typical of contemporary intellectual and governmental attitudes regarding the best way to research specific topics. Such interdisciplinarity, however, has potential costs and this paper highlights one of the most significant: an over-emphasis upon shared substantive interests and subsequent undervaluation of shared epistemological understandings. The end result is a form of 'ghettoization' within sociology itself, with residents of any particular ghetto displaying little awareness of developments in neighbouring ghettos. Reporting from one such ghetto, this paper considers some of the ways in which the sociology of popular music has been limited by its positioning within an interdisciplinary environment and suggests two strategies for developing a more fully-realized sociology of popular music. First, based on the assumption that a sociological understanding of popular music shares much in common with a sociological understanding of everything else, this paper calls for increased intradisciplinary research between sociologists of varying specialisms. The second strategy, however, involves a reconceptualization of the disciplinary limits of sociology, as it argues that a sociology of popular music needs to accept musical specificity as part of its remit. Such acceptance has thus far been limited not only by an interdisciplinary context but also by the long-standing sociological scepticism toward the analysis of aesthetic objects. As such, this paper offers an intervention into wider debates concerning the remit of sociological enquiry, and whether it is ever appropriate for sociological

  13. Promoting Awareness about Psychological Consequences of Living in a Community Oppressed by the Mafia: A Group-Analytic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giordano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the Mafia have been extensively studied from sociological, economic, and historical points of view. However, little research has investigated the influence of the Mafia on individuals and communities in terms of its psychological and social impact. In order to contribute to the advancement of our understanding of the psychological effects of the Mafia on individuals and communities and to promote a participative process of social change, a group analytic intervention was conducted within a Community Based Participatory Research carried out in Corleone, a small Sicilian town with a historically recognized role in the evolution of the Mafia, as well as in the fight against its control. Qualitative findings from the group intervention revealed the development of an awareness process that allowed participants to become aware of their social unconscious anxieties and defenses and to recognize and manage the strong emotional impact related to the Mafia's presence in their lives. Highlighting how psychological processes can have negative impacts on individual and collective capacity to pursuit transformation and resilience, this article provides important insight on how clinical psychology may operate in socio-cultural contexts to promote the reconstruction of the traumatic social dimensions in the community.

  14. The sociological imagination in a time of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Kari Marie

    2018-04-01

    Despite rising calls for social science knowledge in the face of climate change, too few sociologists have been engaged in the conversations about how we have arrived at such perilous climatic circumstances, or how society can change course. With its attention to the interactive dimensions of social order between individuals, social norms, cultural systems and political economy, the discipline of sociology is uniquely positioned to be an important leader in this conversation. In this paper I suggest that in order to understand and respond to climate change we need two kinds of imagination: 1) to see the relationships between human actions and their impacts on earth's biophysical system (ecological imagination) and 2) to see the relationships within society that make up this environmentally damaging social structure (sociological imagination). The scientific community has made good progress in developing our ecological imagination but still need to develop a sociological imagination. The application of a sociological imagination allows for a powerfully reframing of four key problems in the current interdisciplinary conversation on climate change: why climate change is happening, how we are being impacted, why we have failed to successfully respond so far, and how we might be able to effectively do so. I visit each of these four questions describing the current understanding and show the importance of the sociological imagination and other insights from the field of sociology. I close with reflections on current limitations in sociology's potential to engage climate change and the Anthropocene.

  15. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  16. Fifty years of sociological leadership at Social Science and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Tietbohl, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, we examine some of the conceptual contributions of sociology of health and illness over the past fifty years. Specifically, we focus on research dealing with medicalization, the management of stigma, research on adherence and compliance, and patient-doctor interaction. We show how these themes that originated within sociology, diffused in other disciplines. Sociology in Social Science and Medicine started as an applied research tradition but morphed into a robust, stand-alone social science tradition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bringing the immigrant back into the sociology of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Krishnendu

    2017-12-01

    The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless, there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. Although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence and canonical supremacy: an analysis of how George Herbert Mead demoted Charles Horton Cooley in the sociological canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    This analysis assesses the factors underlying Charles Horton Cooley's place in the sociological canon as they relate to George Herbert Mead's puzzling diatribe-echoed in secondary accounts-against Cooley's social psychology and view of the self published scarcely a year after his death. The illocutionary act of publishing his critique stands as an effort to project the image of Mead's intellectual self and enhance his standing among sociologists within and outside the orbit of the University of Chicago. It expressed Mead's ambivalence toward his precursor Cooley, whose influence he never fully acknowledged. In addition, it typifies the contending fractal distinctions of the scientifically discursive versus literary styles of Mead and Cooley, who both founded the interpretive sociological tradition. The contrasting styles and attitudes toward writing of the two figures are discussed, and their implications for the problems of scale that have stymied the symbolic interactionist tradition are explored.

  19. El neoliberalismo y la sociología del desarrollo: tendencias emergentes y efectos inesperados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Portes

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the explanatory limitations of a "mercantile theoretical" approach towards the explanation of the unexpected results of the neoliberal policies applied in Latin America. This shortcoming is key product of the absence of a theoretical proposal about the articulations between the economy and social structure. To compensate for this, the article proposes the use of concepts coined by economic sociology such as socialnetworks, social capital, social reserve of collective action, unexpected consequences, amongst others, which show how institutions, social structures and demographic tendencies constitute elements that should be taken into consideration in the explanation and application of any development model.

  20. Towards a Comprehensive Socio-Psychological Perspective: A Critique of Social Dominance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tunçgenç, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    Psychology aims to understand human cognition and behavior, which necessitates making use of sociological-political theories. Social Dominance Theory (SDT) is one of the psychological theories that try to explain the individual-society relationship from a broad perspective. Yet, this theory has its shortcomings too. In an attempt to contribute to a well-grounded theory for psychological research, the paper at hand will discuss the shortcomings of SDT. The main discussion concerns following ap...

  1. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  2. An Environmental Sociology for the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Attention to the relationship between nature and society has been a defining feature of environmental sociology since its inception. Early research, incorporating insights from ecology, argued for the need to (1) theorize the causal connections between nature and society and (2) contextualize those connections in terms of biophysical limits resulting from resource scarcity. Over the past two decades, partly in response to new forms of existential threat such as climate change, the treatment of nature and society as distinct entities has given way to a focus on socio-natural assemblages. Using the Anthropocene as a lens to explore this emerging view, it is argued (1) that current theorizing on the socio-natural assemblage needs to pay more attention to the issues of temporality and complexity, (2) that taking these factors into account reconceptualizes the nature-society relationship as a complex, evolving socio-natural assemblage, (3) that this evolutionary process needs to be understood in the context of cosmic evolution and the tension between entropy and the emergence of local complexity, and (4) that constraints on human development arise from the tension between these two tendencies, not from resource scarcity. An environmental sociology for the Anthropocene, one based on assumptions about the nature of causal dynamics and context consistent with our understanding of current earth system science, is proposed. L'attention portée à la relation entre la nature et la société a été un trait caractéristique de la sociologie de l'environnement depuis sa création. La recherche initiale, intégrant les connaissances de l'écologie, a soutenu la nécessité de (1) théoriser les liens causaux entre la nature et la société et (2) contextualiser ces connexions en termes de limites biophysiques résultant de la pénurie de ressources. Au cours des deux derniéres décennies, en partie en réponse à de nouvelles formes de menace existentielle telles que le

  3. Conceptual model and economic experiments to explain nonpersistence and enable mechanism designs fostering behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djawadi, Behnud Mir; Fahr, René; Turk, Florian

    2014-12-01

    Medical nonpersistence is a worldwide problem of striking magnitude. Although many fields of studies including epidemiology, sociology, and psychology try to identify determinants for medical nonpersistence, comprehensive research to explain medical nonpersistence from an economics perspective is rather scarce. The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework that augments standard economic choice theory with psychological concepts of behavioral economics to understand how patients' preferences for discontinuing with therapy arise over the course of the medical treatment. The availability of such a framework allows the targeted design of mechanisms for intervention strategies. Our conceptual framework models the patient as an active economic agent who evaluates the benefits and costs for continuing with therapy. We argue that a combination of loss aversion and mental accounting operations explains why patients discontinue with therapy at a specific point in time. We designed a randomized laboratory economic experiment with a student subject pool to investigate the behavioral predictions. Subjects continue with therapy as long as experienced utility losses have to be compensated. As soon as previous losses are evened out, subjects perceive the marginal benefit of persistence lower than in the beginning of the treatment. Consequently, subjects start to discontinue with therapy. Our results highlight that concepts of behavioral economics capture the dynamic structure of medical nonpersistence better than does standard economic choice theory. We recommend that behavioral economics should be a mandatory part of the development of possible intervention strategies aimed at improving patients' compliance and persistence behavior. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fundamental Fields of Post-Schumpeterian Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2014-01-01

    economic evolution as a process of the innovative renewal of business routines. He also explored the idea that the development of economics requires coordinated efforts within the “fundamental fields” of theory, history, statistics, and economic sociology. The paper applies this idea in an analysis...

  5. Fundamental fields of post-Schumpeterian evolutionary economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    economic evolution as a process of the innovative renewal of business routines. He also explored the idea that the development of economics requires coordinated efforts within the “fundamental fields” of theory, history, statistics, and economic sociology. The paper applies this idea in an analysis...

  6. CONSUMER’S BEHAVIOUR – AN APPROACH FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BEHAVIOURAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CORNESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumer and his behaviour have concerned all economists, no matter if they are theoreticians or practitioners. Naturally, research in the domain has revealed new aspects, new theories and has led to the creation of schools of thought in time. Standard or neo-classic economics, which lays stress on absolute rationality, the maximization of results, modelling etc., cannot wholly decipher economic mechanisms or efficiently explain and guide the economic life of society. That is why, if we take as a starting point the observation that man lies at the heart of economy, we understand that the attempts to explain his role and the manner in which he behaves in economic life are more and more numerous and involve the use of concepts from different domains of study: psychology, sociology, etc. The present study aims at analysing the consumer’s behaviour from a perspective which already has a consistent and well-outlined profile in the economic science and is known as behavioural economics.

  7. Teaching Sociology of Education in Canada: A Comparative Study of the "Two Solitudes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the fields of sociology of education and Canadian sociological teaching. English and French Canadian sociology of education course outlines were systematically analysed in order to assess how national context, language and internal divisions influence the undergraduate teaching of sociology of education. The…

  8. Global Interconnectedness and Multiculturalism in Undergraduate Sociology Courses in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to explain a process of inserting global transnational elements into an undergraduate sociology course. After a review of global themes covered in introductory sociology textbooks, the author administered two projects (Global Multiculturalism and Sociology of Wal-Mart) in an undergraduate sociology course. The current study…

  9. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning Sociology of Religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    proper learning, training and research in Sociological theories, Research. Methods in ... There is need to shade light on the basic terms used in the title of this paper. ..... examination of their theses and dissertations are frustrating due to the.

  10. Standardization in measurement philosophical, historical and sociological issues

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaudt, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The application of standard measurement is a cornerstone of modern science. In this collection of essays, standardization of procedure, units of measurement and the epistemology of standardization are addressed by specialists from sociology, history and the philosophy of science.

  11. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  12. Three General Theoretical Models in Sociology: An Articulated ?(Disunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís García-Pereiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After merely a brief, comparative reconstruction of the three most general theoretical models underlying contemporary Sociology (atomic, systemic, and fluid it becomes necessary to review the question about the unity or plurality of Sociology, which is the main objective of this paper. To do so, the basic terms of the question are firstly updated by following the hegemonic trends in current studies of science. Secondly the convergences and divergences among the three models discussed are shown. Following some additional discussion, the conclusion is reached that contemporary Sociology is not unitary, and need not be so. It is plural, but its plurality is limited and articulated by those very models. It may therefore be portrayed as integrated and commensurable, to the extent that a partial and unstable (disunity may be said to exist in Sociology, which is not too far off from what happens in the natural sciences.

  13. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  14. Sociology and Complexity Science A New Field of Inquiry

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This book is the first to identify and review the new field of study, sociology and complexity science—or SACS for short. SACS is comprised of five cutting-edge areas of research: computational sociology, the British-based School of Complexity (BBC), complex social network analysis (CSNA), sociocybernetics and the Luhmann School of Complexity (LSC). Together, these five areas represent the latest development in complexity science and sociological systems thinking, offering researchers a powerful, new set of tools for addressing the growing complexity of sociological inquiry. This book also showcases a new method for modeling social systems, called the SACS Toolkit. The SACS Toolkit comes with a theoretical framework (social complexity theory), procedural algorithm (assemblage) and recommended toolset for modeling social systems (qualitatively, historically or numerically) from the ground-up. In fact, this book uses the SACS Toolkit to review the new field of SACS. The third feature of this book is its compe...

  15. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Johann Graaff. What is Sociology? Cape Town. Oxford University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation

  18. [Margot Jefferys: the British voice of medical sociology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2011-03-01

    Margot Jefferys (1916-1999) was not only the person who introduced medical sociology into Great Britain, but also the researcher and professor who, during thirty years, exerted the most deep influence on the teaching of health social sciences either in undergraduate or especially graduate studies, since the beginning of her career, in 1953, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. In addition to create a global panorama concerning the Jefferys' works, this study highlights two texts, which are situated into the field we are researching: the history of health sociology. The first one, published in 1991, discusses the relationships between epidemiology and sociology; and the second, published in 1996, discusses the field of medical sociology. Both texts are a series of considerations regarding the Jefferys' thought and the more recent questions of the field in Great Britain.

  19. Sociología y alimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Méndez, Cecilia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents briefly the relationship between sociology and food matters. In the first place, we point out some of the reasons by which we might explain why sociology has only lately started to systematically tackle this aspect of social life and we also point out what conditions have brought about this recent interest of this discipline in food. Secondly, we include an outline of the attention paid to food by some of the most important sociology scholars. Then we present an outline of the main theories underlying food sociology (and anthropology and we end up with a proposal to define the field of food sociology, starting from the analysis of the content of some of the most important current works on the sociology of food.

    En este trabajo, se exponen las relaciones entre la sociología y el fenómeno alimentario. En primer lugar, se apuntan algunas de las razones que podrían explicar el retraso con que la sociología se ha ocupado de forma sistemática de este ámbito de la vida social y las condiciones que han despertado el interés reciente de esta disciplina por el fenómeno alimentario. En segundo lugar, se presenta un esquema de la atención prestada por los clásicos de la sociología a la alimentación, de modo que se pueda contrastar la naturaleza de esta atención con el análisis sociológico actual. En tercer lugar, se presenta un esquema de las principales orientaciones teóricas que han marcado la sociología (y la antropología de la alimentación, para terminar con una propuesta de definición del campo de la sociología de la alimentación a partir de la consideración de los contenidos de algunos textos actuales de este campo de estudio.

  20. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175