WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychology religion social

  1. Psychology of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  2. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  3. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the ... between psychology and religion has revolutionised the field of psychology of .... emerging system of social interactions affects the organisation of the society in so ..... while 65.4 per cent represented the female gender. Concerning ...

  4. Religion, Purpose in Life, Social Support, and Psychological Distress in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p psychological distress to religiosity) indicated strong indirect protective effects of religiosity on psychological distress through purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p psychological distress increases religious involvement, which then increases purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.

  5. Religion and Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2010-01-01

    /organisations) and local religious leaders to catalyse entrepreneurial activity. Thus these three dimensions of religious institutions (ideological discourse, networks, and leadership) will be examined in relation to social entrepreneurship. For the sake of simplifying the empirical base of this study, the field of social...... entrepreneurship will be limited to social enterprise which are co-operatives, mutuals and trading voluntary organisations (or non-profits), since there is a good evidence base of religious involvement in entrepreneurship in this sector, from which a number of cases will be drawn using secondary sources. However......This chapter is concerned with the role of religion in social entrepreneurship. It takes an institutional perspective and examines the way religious institutions and actors have supported social entrepreneurship. Weber has argued for the role of (protestant) religion in motivating people to take...

  6. Religion and Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2010-01-01

    as well as philanthropists. This has operated through religious leadership discourse, for example papal encyclicals orienting priests to support economic solutions to poverty and social problems in their communities, and the direct action of individual priests, institutional development (networks...... the theoretical framework developed will be based on the broader field of literature linking religion and entrepreneurship, thus this theoretical framework should have applicability to broader definitions of the social entrepreneurship field. The chapter covers three religious institutional dimensions underlying...

  7. Cultural Consonance, Religion and Psychological Distress in an Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals approximate prototypes encoded in cultural models. Low cultural consonance is associated with higher psychological distress. Religion may moderate the association between cultural consonance and psychological distress. Brazil, with substantial variation in religion, is an important society for the examination of this hypothesis. Research was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, using a mixed-methods design. Measures of cultural consonance were derived using ethnographic methods and then applied in a survey of 271 individuals drawn from four distinct social strata. Low cultural consonance was associated with higher psychological distress in multiple regression analysis ( B = -.430, p < .001. Members of Pentecostal Protestant churches reported lower psychological distress independently of the effect of cultural consonance ( B = -.409, p < .05. There was no buffering effect of religion. Implications of these results for the study of religion and health are discussed.

  8. Beyond Freud in psychoanalytic psychology of religion? On the discussion of religion as projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1907, Sigmund Freud initiated the psychoanalytic psychology of religion, until the present day the most important contributor to the psychology of religion literature in general, and the branch of psychological critique of religion best known outside of psychology circles (having drawn attention

  9. Whither the psychology of religion: a spirituality-focused discussion of Paloutzian and Park's (2005). Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminiak, Daniel A

    2008-12-01

    Presuming Rayburn's (2006: Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 28, 86-92) review of (Paloutzian and Park's, (2005, New York: The Guilford Press) [corrected] Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality [corrected] and sketching an alternative paradigm, this review focuses on the Handbook's virtual conflation of religion and spirituality; relates this conflation to the hegemony of Protestant theology in North American psychology of religion; highlights the Handbook's lack of attention to [corrected] spirituality per se, which--if [corrected] not inseparably linked with theism, but, rather, [corrected] related to the self-transcending, meaning-making dimension of the human mind--could [corrected] provide an explanatory breakthrough in the field of the psychology of religion and of the social sciences overall; and sees Handbook's advocacy for a "multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm" as a regrettable acceptance of the failed, long-term strategy of the field of psychology in general.

  10. A terror management analysis of the psychological functions of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kenneth E; Rothschild, Zachary K; Weise, Dave R; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    From a terror management theory (TMT) perspective, religion serves to manage the potential terror engendered by the uniquely human awareness of death by affording a sense of psychological security and hope of immortality. Although secular beliefs can also serve a terror management function, religious beliefs are particularly well suited to mitigate death anxiety because they are all encompassing, rely on concepts that are not easily disconfirmed, and promise literal immortality. Research is reviewed demonstrating that mortality salience produces increased belief in afterlife, supernatural agency, human ascension from nature, and spiritual distinctions between mind and body. The social costs and benefits of religious beliefs are considered and compared to those of secular worldviews. The terror management functions of, and benefits and costs associated with, different types of religious orientation, such as intrinsic religiosity, quest, and religious fundamentalism, are then examined. Finally, the TMT analysis is compared to other accounts of religion.

  11. Methodological issues in the psychology of religion: toward another paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzen, Jacob A; Hood, Ralph W

    2006-01-01

    Recent evaluations have identified the psychology of religion as a field in crisis and have called for a new multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. However, a critical meta-perspective on methods reveals a broad range of methodologies, each appropriate for particular levels of complexity in the psychology of religion. No single methodology is appropriate for every level, nor can higher levels of complexity be explained by data from lower levels. The authors identify the different types of research practiced in the psychology of religion and critically discuss philosophical presuppositions involved in two major methodological traditions, the empiricist-analytical and the hermeneutical, often identified as quantitative and qualitative traditions, respectively.

  12. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Ole

    2004-01-01

    En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber.......En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber....

  13. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Ole

    2004-01-01

    En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber.......En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber....

  14. Taboo Religion? A contextual analysis of the marginalization of German psychology of religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belzen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking the history of the psychology of religion as a case, two theses are presented: (1) Psychology has always been determined by a multitude of contextual factors, among them seemingly trivial ones such as "market" and "fashion," and (2) research on its history readily turns into critical reflecti

  15. Music and religion: psychological perspectives and their limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Belzen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Criticizing some psychological approaches that speak in too general terms about both music and religion, this article turns to a precise empirical observation and asks what psychology might possibly contribute to its understanding, after first necessarily questioning what terms such as ‘rel

  16. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  17. Religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliade, Mircea

    1977-01-01

    A historical review of the scientific study of religion since the late nineteenth century. Concludes that religious researchers today must use approaches of many disciplines, including history, sociology, psychology, and phenomenology. For journal availability, see SO 506 201. (Author/DB)

  18. Social representations about religion and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Moema da Silva; Santos, Marília Borges Couto; Pinheiro, Tiago Gomes

    2015-01-01

    to identify the social representations about the concepts of spirituality and religion of of health teachers. exploratory and descriptive study, based on a qualitative approach. 25 subjects participated in it. The following instruments were used to collect data: questionnaire to identify the profile; questionnaire of free association, whose inducing words were religion and spirituality, and an interview based on the scale FICA (Puchalski, 2006). the representations about religion and spirituality, for professors, are forged around the faith in God and it gives them meaning and purpose to deal with the challenges of personal and professional living. there are still barriers that need to be overcome with a view to a comprehensive care. For this, it is essential to incorporate spirituality in the process in the curricula of health courses.

  19. A psychological perspective on the source and function of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen van der Merwe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explored psychological perspectives on the following: the reasons for humans’ religiousness, the influence of religion on people’s perspective on life and the importance of understanding the impact of religion on the lives of people. Theories, including psychoanalytical and evolutionary answers regarding the origin of human’s penchant to be religious were discussed. Subsequently, the focus was on the dominant influence of religious notions in people’s worldview, providing meaning and powerfully influencing their cognitions, emotions and behaviour. Finally, the importance of nurturing spiritual (faith development was discussed.

  20. Sociology: a lost connection in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Snyder, Benjamin H

    2009-11-01

    For the first half of the 20th century, sociology was one of the closest allies of social psychology. Over the past four decades, however, the connection with sociology has weakened, whereas new connections with neighboring disciplines (e.g., biology, economics, political science) have formed. Along the way, the sociological perspective has been largely lost in mainstream social psychology in the United States. Most social psychologists today are not concerned with collective phenomena and do not investigate social structural factors (e.g., residential mobility, socioeconomic status, dominant religion, political systems). Even when the social structural factors are included in the analysis, psychologists typically treat them as individual difference variables. Sociologist C. Wright Mills famously promoted sociological imagination, or the ability to see distal yet important social forces operating in a larger societal context. By comparing sociological perspectives to psychological perspectives, this article highlights the insights that the sociological perspective and sociological imagination can bring to social psychology.

  1. Religion in human evolution: on some generative and selective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    2012-01-01

    On the use of moral psychology in reconstructing the evolutionary role of religion in human social development......On the use of moral psychology in reconstructing the evolutionary role of religion in human social development...

  2. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  3. (Social constructionism and social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Bečaj

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20th century a number of alternative approaches to positivistic and individualistic traditional social psychology appeared. Among them most important are social representations, social identity theory and especially a variety of different orientations usually labelled as social constructionism. What all those approaches have in common is radical change on the metatheoretical level. It could be said that new approaches are quite promising, but it seems that epistemological and ontological questions as well as problems of social motivation are not yet satisfactory clarified. It seems that the identity of psychology depends on the resolution of this theoretical uncertainties.

  4. Religion, Modernity and Social Rights in European Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambeta, Evie

    2008-01-01

    Religion, as social construct and institutional reality, has played a pivotal role in shaping European societies. In spite of the impact of Enlightenment theories in the formation of European modernity, institutionalized religions and established churches have managed to maintain their influence in the public domain. Educational systems, the par…

  5. Digital Religion, Social Media and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contributions on religion and computer-mediated communication cohere around the question: how will core religious understandings of identity, community and authority shape and be (re)shaped by the communicative possibilities of Web 2.0?...

  6. Digital Religion, Social Media and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contributions on religion and computer-mediated communication cohere around the question: how will core religious understandings of identity, community and authority shape and be (re)shaped by the communicative possibilities of Web 2.0?......Contributions on religion and computer-mediated communication cohere around the question: how will core religious understandings of identity, community and authority shape and be (re)shaped by the communicative possibilities of Web 2.0?...

  7. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  8. A Multiparadigmatic Approach to Religion in Social Work Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. Singletary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The attention given to faith-based human services in the past decade has created interest in pedagogical models of the ethical integration of spirituality, religion and social work practice. Following a discussion of philosophical, theoretical, and theological perspectives, this paper explores different sociological paradigms of knowledge and practice that may be of value when seeking to utilize spiritual and religious content into social work education. The implications of this article relate to educational settings that seek to incorporate content on religion and spirituality in social work education as well as to social work practice in religious organizations.

  9. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    In the world of Greek Comedy, the traditionally austere gods of Tragedy are lowered to fit the streets of Athens. Religion is omnipresent in comedy on many levels, and we find gods on stage, prayers and oaths performed, sacrifices narrated, festivals performed. Religion in comedy is generally...

  10. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Article on the different ways on which religion is relevant to discussions of discrimination and the normative issues this gives rise to.......Article on the different ways on which religion is relevant to discussions of discrimination and the normative issues this gives rise to....

  11. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.

  12. Is analytical psychology a religion? Jung's search for a substitute for lost faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, A

    1999-10-01

    Analytical psychology does not aim at curing neurotic symptoms, but at bringing about a change in the patient's attitude to him or her self, and therefore to life in general. This new attitude can be described as religious, but it has nothing to do with creeds or conventional forms of worship. Analytical psychology is not a religon, but can be described as a prolegomenon to religion or religion in statu nascendi.

  13. Dualism of Social Conditions: Religion, Morality and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the topic of social dualism through religion, morality and science. The paper refers to one of the most original works uncovering the social roots of religion – The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life by Emile Durkheim (1858–1917 who is considered to be the founder of modern sociology. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life develops the coherent theory of religion as well as ventilates different aspects of the religious life. The message of the paper is: is religion the generative essence of social aspect, does a state of constant dependence stimulate a sense of religious piety, is a moral social order able to stabilize dualism of human energy. The paper proposes an assertion that science as a social phenomenon reflects knowledge and the values of its perception which are impacted by imagination and classified codes of cultural forms. As a result a thesis is proposed – a cultural (influenced by environment and a personal (influenced by internal factors desire for differentiation and its provoked conflict is of a social character. The second part of the paper deals with relation between science and social phenomena with inherent dualism. A short discussion is presented on L’ Année Sociologique (a group of scientists initiated by Durkheim representing a new sociological paradigm, the beginning of scientific social culture giving sense to cooperation of sociological theory and practice. 

  14. Financial hardship and psychological distress: Exploring the buffering effects of religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite ample precedent in theology and social theory, few studies have systematically examined the role of religion in mitigating the harmful effects of socioeconomic deprivation on mental health. The present study outlines several arguments linking objective and subjective measures of financial hardship, as well as multiple aspects of religious life, with psychological distress. Relevant hypotheses are then tested using data on adults aged 18–59 from the 1998 US NORC General Social Survey. Findings confirm that both types of financial hardship are positively associated with distress, and that several different aspects of religious life buffer against these deleterious influences. Specifically, religious attendance and the belief in an afterlife moderate the deleterious effects of financial hardship on both objective and subjective financial hardship, while meditation serves this function only for objective hardship. No interactive relationships were found between frequency of prayer and financial hardship. A number of implications, study limitations, and directions for future research are identified. PMID:20556889

  15. Religion priming and an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism interact to affect self-control in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Mojaverian, Taraneh; Kim, Heejung S

    2015-02-01

    Using a genetic moderation approach, this study examines how an experimental prime of religion impacts self-control in a social context, and whether this effect differs depending on the genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (rs53576). People with different genotypes of OXTR seem to have different genetic orientations toward sociality, which may have consequences for the way they respond to religious cues in the environment. In order to determine whether the influence of religion priming on self-control is socially motivated, we examine whether this effect is stronger for people who have OXTR genotypes that should be linked to greater rather than less social sensitivity (i.e., GG vs. AA/AG genotypes). The results showed that experimentally priming religion increased self-control behaviors for people with GG genotypes more so than people with AA/AG genotypes. Furthermore, this Gene × Religion interaction emerged in a social context, when people were interacting face to face with another person. This research integrates genetic moderation and social psychological approaches to address a novel question about religion's influence on self-control behavior, which has implications for coping with distress and psychopathology. These findings also highlight the importance of the social context for understanding genetic moderation of psychological effects.

  16. Religion in education in South Africa: was social justice served?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L van der Walt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The promulgation of South African policy regarding the place of religion in public education was delayed until 2003, after a lively debate. The National Policy on Religion in Education effectively banned confessional, sectarian religion frompublic schools, but allowed for the teaching of Religion Studies as an academic subject and for religious observances, on condition that these were offered in a fair and equitable manner. Given the nature of the debate around religion and education in South Africa,¹ it can be asked whether the state has served social justice through thisPolicy. A discussion of human rights, social justice, morality and the role of the state leads to the conclusion that although the state never actually mentioned the philosophical or moral driving forces behind the Policy, it is most likely that it applied tenets of secularism, value-plurality, pragmatic political expediency and modus Vivendi. This was probably the best route for the state to follow considering how, in the past, education suffered from the over-emphasis of divisive factors. Revised policy could arguably take cognisance of how actors on the ground dealt with this conundrum.

  17. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  18. A Case Study of Social and Media Influence on Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Miranda Dawn

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand different religions and cultures by comparing and contrasting the similarities, differences, and opinions found within two religious/cultural groups. This case study uses the Social Learning Theory of communication to illustrate how perceptions of others are formed in a community with a growing Muslim population. It…

  19. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is a thematic issue of the journal Religion 47 (3) entitled Exploring Aniconism. It contains elleven research articles on the use of aniconism in different religious traditions. Table of Content 1. Aniconism: definitions, examples and comparative perspectives (Milette Gaifman, concluding...

  20. Jesus Heard the Word of God, but Mohammed had Convulsions: How Religion Clause Principles Should Be Applied to Religion in the Public School Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Elizabeth D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why public schools are making religion an important part of social-studies curriculum and why teaching of religion may create unintended constitutional violations. Explores the efficacy of current legal tests of constitutionality of religion in schools. Proposes new test for evaluating the constitutionality of religion in public-school…

  1. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates intergenerational care in family life in Denmark. It compares different patterns of care between three groups of families: 1) Monoethnic Danish Families (n=701), 2) Monoethnic South Asian Families (n =5) and 3) Multiethnic Families (n=15). Through the use of network analys...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation......This paper investigates intergenerational care in family life in Denmark. It compares different patterns of care between three groups of families: 1) Monoethnic Danish Families (n=701), 2) Monoethnic South Asian Families (n =5) and 3) Multiethnic Families (n=15). Through the use of network analysis...... institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults...

  2. Social capital and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.

  3. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  4. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  5. The comeback of the psychology of religion: the aims of the present volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.; Belzen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    "The psychology of religion is back. It is alive and kicking!" If that were the main message of the present volume, or even of this introduction, one would immediately need to raise some critical questions. We should at least ask why this assertion should count as special, as something worth mention

  6. Ideology, politics and personality: shaping forces in Dutch psychology of religion, 1907-1957

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the academic establishment of the psychology of religion in the Netherlands has been stronger than in any other Western country, the start of these developments has been remarkably late (in 1957), especially when taking into account that Dutch academic life: (1) before World War II modeled

  7. THE ROLE OF RELIGION AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endy Saputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitan ini adalah untuk mengungkapkan bagaimana agama dan teknologi pertanian dapat memberdayakan masyarakat dan mendorong sebuah transformasi sosial. Survei dan wawancara diterapkan guna mendapatkan data yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian. Objek penelitian ini adalah komunitas petani di Banjarnegara yang tergabung dalam organisasi petani yang difasilitasi oleh organisasi massa islam Muhammadiyah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa agama, dalam hal ini ajaran agama yang dipegang erat oleh organisasi massa Islam (Muhammadiyah dapat meningkatkan kondisi ekonomi sebuah komunitas petani di Banjarnegara. Muhammadiyah memfasilitasi komunitas petani tersebut untuk menerapkan teknologi pertanian yang tepat sehingga dapat meningkatkan hasil panen secara signifikan. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa agama dan teknologi pertanian memainkan peranan penting dalam memberdayakan masyarakat dan membawa transformasi sosial bagi komunitas petani di Banjarnegara. The objective of this study is to reveal how religion and agricultural technology can empower a peasant community and foster a social transformation. Survey and interview were implemented to gain the data. The object of the study was a community of peasants in Banjarnegara district that belong to a peasant organization facilitated by Muhammadiyah. The results show that religion, in this case is religious teaching tightly-hold by an Islamic mass organization (Muhammadiyah, can improve the economic condition of a community of peasants in Banjarnegara. Muhammadiyah facilitated the peasants community to apply a proper agricultural technology which can improve the crops significantly.  The study conclude that religion and agricultural technology play a great role in empowering society and bring about social transformation for peasants community in Banjarnegara.

  8. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.; Kugelmann, R.

    2009-01-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian

  9. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  10. Religion and self: notions from a cultural psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Belzen

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction of a cultural psychological perspective, this paper turns to the concept of self. The paper proposes to conceive of that reality to which the concepts of self refer as a narrative, employing especially autobiographies and other ego-documents in empirical exploration. After

  11. Religion, theology and the social sciences in a society in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne de Villiers

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The societal changes introduced with the advent of the new political dispensation in South Africa in 1994 brought with them serious consequences for the different religions and for the academic disciplines devoted to the study of religion. This includes disciplines such as theology and religious studies, as well as those social sciences with an academic interest in religion as influential societal factor. The second part of the article presents a brief survey of the impact of these societal changes on religion, particularly the Christian religion, and the academic disciplines of theology, religious studies and the social sciences. An outline of the position and role of religion and the academic disciplines of theology, religious studies and the social sciences in the apartheid society from which South Africa is evolving, is used as point of departure in the first part of the article. The third part of the article ventures beyond mere description of the position and role of religion and the different academic disciplines involved with the study of religion. It aims to make out a case that in the New South Africa religion and academic disciplines exclusively devoted to the study of religion, such as theology, need the social sciences.

  12. At the intersection of culture and religion: a cultural analysis of religion's implications for secondary control and social affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Kim, Heejung S

    2011-08-01

    Religion helps people maintain a sense of control, particularly secondary control-acceptance of and adjustment to difficult situations--and contributes to strengthening social relationships in a religious community. However, little is known about how culture may influence these effects. The current research examined the interaction of culture and religion on secondary control and social affiliation, comparing people from individualistic cultures (e.g., European Americans), who tend to be more motivated toward personal agency, and people from collectivistic cultures (e.g., East Asians), who tend to be more motivated to maintain social relationships. In Study 1, an analysis of online church mission statements showed that U.S. websites contained more themes of secondary control than did Korean websites, whereas Korean websites contained more themes of social affiliation than did U.S. websites. Study 2 showed that experimental priming of religion led to acts of secondary control for European Americans but not Asian Americans. Using daily diary methodology, Study 3 showed that religious coping predicted more secondary control for European Americans but not Koreans, and religious coping predicted more social affiliation for Koreans and European Americans. These findings suggest the importance of understanding sociocultural moderators for the effects of religion.

  13. Transforming han: a correlational method for psychology and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Whachul

    2015-06-01

    Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform.

  14. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  15. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  16. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...

  17. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-08-01

    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children.

  18. Re-reading Discourse and Social Psychology: transforming social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work.

  19. Religion, Spirituality, and Health Status in Geriatric Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Daaleman, Timothy P.; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Religion and spirituality remain important social and psychological factors in the lives of older adults, and there is continued interest in examining the effects of religion and spirituality on health status. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of religion and spirituality with self-reported health status in a community-dwelling geriatric population.

  20. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  1. A conservative's social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Clark

    2015-01-01

    I suggest that social psychologists should stick to studying positive and negative attitudes and give up stigmatizing some attitudes as "prejudice." I recommend that we avoid assuming that race and ethnicity have no biological foundations, in order to avoid a collision course with modern biology. And I wonder how much difference the target article recommendations can make in the context of hiring a social psychologist for an academic position.

  2. Influencing Policy with Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)

  3. Toward a more social social psychology of power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to take a step toward a more social social psychology of power. In my opinion the existing social psychology on power is insufficiently social, and too material and physical. I believe this material and physical view has greatly influenced how social psychology has studied

  4. The Three Faces of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    1977-01-01

    Social psychology's current crisis largely reflects the division of the field into three increasingly isolated domains: psychological social psychology, symbolic interactionism, and psychological sociology. Brief critical discussion of these facets indicates that the strengths of each complement the weaknesses in the others, highlighting a need…

  5. The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.

  6. Spirituality and Religion among the General Public: Implications for Social Work Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2015-07-01

    Conceptualizations play a central role in social work discourse, shaping actions in the areas of practice, research, and education. Although many formulations of spirituality and religion have been advanced by social work scholars, the views of members of the general public have been largely absent from the professional conversation. The present article adds to the profession's evolving discussion on spirituality and religion by describing common understandings of spirituality and religion among the general population and by discussing the implication of these views for social work discourse on spirituality and religion. By understanding common views among the public, the social work profession is better positioned to provide ethical and professional services that respect clients' spiritual beliefs and values.

  7. The concept of spirituality and its relation to religion in positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fernandes Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical study that aims to provide a review of current scientific studies on the concept of spirituality and proposes some issues for future research. The article brings a literature review on the subject, including several areas of positive psychology. Articles and books in Portuguese, Spanish and English were examined  and held a computerized search in the SciELO (www.scielo.br and electronic Indexer Google Scholar, and the references of materials examined. The descriptors were: conceit, espirit, religion, and their counterparts in Spanish and English. The purpose of this review is outline some definitions to set limits and help in conducting research when the researcher should choose constructs and measurement instruments. Comment some classical authors such as Wundt, Maslow and James. After there is a difference about religion and spirituality, discussing their similarities and antagonisms that are mentioned in the reviewed literature and how the concept of spirituality appears in Positive Psychology

  8. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  9. Religion and union formation in Italy: Catholic precepts, social pressure, and tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vignoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Italy is customarily viewed as a traditional Catholic country. At the same time, couples are increasingly living together without marrying. Establishing links between religion and family formation is a complex issue and little is known about specific mechanisms through which religion shapes family change in the country. Objective: We aim to shed light on which aspects of religion are important in decisions about family formation. Methods: We analyze data from eight focus group interviews conducted in Florence. In the transcripts we identify any references to religion and systematically compare categories to investigate how religiosity intertwines with relationship choices. We apply bottom-up coding procedures to identify meaning and concepts within three theoretically relevant areas: Catholic precepts, social pressure, and tradition. Results: Despite the predominance of religion in the studied setting, Italians behave without according much importance to Catholic precepts and dogmas. Religion seems to influence people's family behaviors through social pressures to marry generated by the family of origin and the judgment of 'others'. Tradition also plays an important role. Conclusions: The widely prevailing pressure of parents and peers and the hedonistic aspects of the traditional Church wedding seem to be more important in partnership formation than Catholic prescripts. Thus, we posit that the direct effect of religion on individual choices is overestimated when interpreting the Italian family. In addition, we note the divergence that exists between the lack of state laws concerning consensual unions and the acceptance of cohabitation on an individual basis.

  10. Contemporary Social Psychology in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Dorwin

    1979-01-01

    The current state of social psychology is assessed in light of its historical and social context. The discipline is viewed as a social system, and it is argued that the properties of this system have influenced the research techniques, substantive content, and theories of contemporary social psychology. (Author/RD)

  11. Nursing research on religion and spirituality through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    Critical theories such as postcolonial feminism and intersectionality can provide new and vital perspectives on the interplay between social justice, religion, spirituality, health, and nursing. Criticality prompts us to examine taken-for-granted assumptions, such as the neutrality and universality of spirituality, while analyzing social relations of power, including the racialization of religion and religious patriarchy, that may result in oppressive conditions and social exclusion. The argument is made that when refracted through critical, intersectional lenses, religious and spiritual traditions can be rich sources of theoretical foundations and practical services that could inform nursing's recent re/turn toward social justice.

  12. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  13. Community Psychology, Evaluation, and Social Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…

  14. Community Psychology, Evaluation, and Social Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…

  15. Revisiting Jung's "A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity": some implications for psychoanalysis and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Amy Bentley

    2011-03-01

    This article explores one of C. G. Jung's generally neglected essays, his psychological interpretation of the Trinity, and links up key theoretical notions with several more mainstream psychoanalytic concepts. It further uses the notions of oneness, otherness, thirdness, and the fourth to consider the recent points of convergence between psychoanalysis and religion.

  16. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  17. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  18. Social Psychological Support of Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aismontas B.B.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the main goals, objectives, functions and mechanisms of social psychological support of students with disabilities and special needs in higher education. We describe the experience in providing such support at the Department of Distance Learning of the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. We show that social psychological support of students with disabilities is a specially organized process involving the creation of an optimally accessible and nurturing environment which contributes to the development of general cultural, professional competencies as well as to healthy personality development in individuals. Macro social, psychological and pedagogical features of the environment play a key role in social psychological support. Psychological and educational support of students with disabilities involves several types of assistance, each with its own tasks and features, however only the optimal combination of these forms embodies social psychological support as a whole.

  19. Religion and Social Hidden Curriculum--The Educative Influences of Christianity and Islam in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Bedmar, Vincente; Llorent, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam, on the social functions of women based on the sacred texts of both, references to a hidden social curriculum in the history. Faced with the growing religious pluralism in contemporary societies, we believe that the debate on how the two main religions in…

  20. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  1. Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Amabile, Teresa M.; Pillemer, Julianna

    2012-01-01

    Scholars began serious study into the social psychology of creativity about 25 years after the field of creativity research had taken root. Over the past 35 years, examination of social and environmental influences on creativity has become increasingly vigorous, with broad implications for the psychology of human performance, and with applications to education, business, and beyond. In this article, we revisit the origins of the social psychology of creativity, trace its arc, and suggest dire...

  2. Religion-based emotional social support mediates the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Joseph D; Hurtado, Gabriela; Morales, Lori R A; Seligman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that increased religiosity is associated with better mental health and many authors have conjectured that religion-based social support may help explain this connection, scant research has directly examined whether religion-based support mediates religiosity and mental health. The present study examined whether various dimensions of religion-based support (social interaction, instrumental, and emotional) mediated the relationship between religiosity and mental health in college students in the Midwest United States. As expected, of the support dimensions, perceived emotional support was the strongest predictor of decreased hopelessness, depression, and suicide behaviors; and the relationships among intrinsic religiosity and the mental health variables were fully mediated by emotional support. These findings provide strong support to the notion that the relationship between religiosity and mental health can be reduced to mediators such as social support. Research and theoretical implications are discussed.

  3. Exploring the social without a separate domain for religion: on actor-network theory and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peik Ingman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-secular societies—after secularisation—it may increasingly be the case that the connecting and structuring of religious matter is done outsidedesignated religious sites and without appointed religious experts. The centres of calculation have changed and so the connections between these are different. The former ways of translation and ordering are transforming into new ones. By exiting the designated sites religious matter has found new freedom with the new associations and inventions in the processes of translation. Less control leads to more heterogeneous agencies and facilitates the mobility of religious materials. This less controlled mobility of religious actants can also produce an apparent increase of religious matter, but this does not necessarily mean the return of religion. In any case, this increased plurality combined with increased mobility calls for perspectives which can recognise novelty, andnot just in comparison with previous states of affairs. Actor-network theory (ANT is about tracing the webs of associations between myriad actants whose collective actions produce what we call ‘society’. Dismissing the notion of ‘the social’ as a kind of ‘stuff ’, ANT insists that sociology should focus on the interactional processes—the circulation of ‘the social’ among human and non-human actants—collectively assembling emerging states of affairs.

  4. Training and education in religion/spirituality within APA-accredited clinical psychology programs: 8 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Rachel M; Handal, Paul J; Brawer, Peter A; Ubinger, Megan

    2011-06-01

    This study was a follow up investigation of Brawer et al.'s (Prof Psychol Res Pr 33(2):203-206, 2002) survey of education and training of clinical psychologists in religion/spirituality. Directors of clinical training were surveyed to determine whether changes had occurred in the coverage of religion and spirituality through course work, research, supervision, and in the systematic coverage of the content area. Results indicated an increased coverage in the areas of supervision, dedicated courses, inclusion as part of another course, and research. There was no increase in systematic coverage, but significantly more programs provided at least some coverage. The current study also assesses other areas of incorporation as well as directors' opinions regarding the importance of religion/spirituality in the field of psychology.

  5. Ein Ende, das zum Anfang wurde: die Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie, 1907-1913: zur (Vor)Geschichte der IAPR (1/4) - The end that turned into a new beginning: the journal for the psychology of religion, 1907-1913: on the (pre)history of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR’s (pre)history analyses the fate of the

  6. Ein Ende, das zum Anfang wurde: die Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie, 1907-1913: zur (Vor)Geschichte der IAPR (1/4) - The end that turned into a new beginning: the journal for the psychology of religion, 1907-1913: on the (pre)history of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR’s (pre)history analyses the fate of the for

  7. Assortative sociality, limited dispersal, infectious disease and the genesis of the global pattern of religion diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Why are religions far more numerous in the tropics compared with the temperate areas? We propose, as an answer, that more religions have emerged and are maintained in the tropics because, through localized coevolutionary races with hosts, infectious diseases select for three anticontagion behaviours: in-group assortative sociality; out-group avoidance; and limited dispersal. These behaviours, in turn, create intergroup boundaries that effectively fractionate, isolate and diversify an original culture leading to the genesis of two or more groups from one. Religion is one aspect of a group's culture that undergoes this process. If this argument is correct then, across the globe, religion diversity should correlate positively with infectious disease diversity, reflecting an evolutionary history of antagonistic coevolution between parasites and hosts and subsequent religion genesis. We present evidence that supports this model: for a global sample of traditional societies, societal range size is reduced in areas with more pathogens compared with areas with few pathogens, and in contemporary countries religion diversity is positively related to two measures of parasite stress. PMID:18664438

  8. Social Justice in School Psychology: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    The topic of social justice is not new to dialogue and research within disciplines that serve children, such as education and psychology. The commitment to social justice within the fields of education and psychology is evidenced by the attention that their organizations--the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American…

  9. Applying Social Psychological Concepts Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Jessica L.; Wichman, Aaron L.

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates a writing assignment in which social psychology students gathered examples from outside the classroom (e.g., cartoons, movies) and analyzed them with course material. Compared to a control group, students who completed the assignment learned that it was easier to apply social psychology to the real world. A follow-up survey…

  10. Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.; Pillemer, Julianna

    2012-01-01

    Scholars began serious study into the social psychology of creativity about 25 years after the field of creativity research had taken root. Over the past 35 years, examination of social and environmental influences on creativity has become increasingly vigorous, with broad implications for the psychology of human performance, and with applications…

  11. Samuel Butler's "Erewhon" as Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Don R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of Samuel Butler's utopian novel, "Erewhon," in a social psychology class to demonstrate the universality of social psychological insights and to provide a literary dimension to the course. Reports that student evaluations indicated that "Erewhon" was successful in increasing the liberal arts value of the…

  12. Religion's Effect on Mental Health in Schizophrenia: Examining the Roles of Meaning-Making and Seeking Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T.; Weisman de Mamani, Amy

    2015-01-01

    While a growing body of research suggests that religion offers mental health benefits for individuals with schizophrenia, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying this effect. The present study investigated two potential mediators (seeking social support and meaning-making coping) that may elucidate the nature of this relationship. The sample included 112 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether religion was related to symptom severity and quality of life (QoL), and whether seeking social support and meaning-making coping mediated these effects. As expected, meaning-making coping significantly mediated the effect of intrinsic religion (use of religion as a framework to understand life) on QoL. While extrinsic religion (use of religion as a social convention) was associated with seeking social support, it did not relate to either outcome variable. Findings offer insight into the ways in which religion may improve the mental health of patients with schizophrenia. Results suggest that the adaptive elements of intrinsic religion seen in prior research may be explained by the meaning that religion offers. Clinical interventions that encourage patients to find meaning amidst adversity may improve QoL in this population. Future research would benefit from further investigation of the meaning-making process in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:23428788

  13. Contributions of Literature to Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasio Ovejero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two main kind of psychology: a intuitive psychology, and an academic and professional psychology. These two psychologies are different, but they can make important reciprocals contributions. And the best of the intuitive psychology, that in my opinion is in the literature and overall in the romance, can be very useful for professional psychologists. The main end of this paper is to show how the social psychologists can learn from the intuitive psychology of the great romances. This contribution of the romance to the social psychology is, at least, at these two levels. At the level of construction of the subjectivity and the modern subject and the, therefore, of the psychology’s arise, and at the level of some concrete subjects studied by the psychologists (romantic love, jealousy, infidelity, compunction, emotions, vengeance, human relations…

  14. The epidemiology of lost meaning: a study in the psychology of religion and existential public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Melder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The existential dimension of spirituality has proven to be of great importance over the last two decades when it comes to studies of self-rated health and quality of life. We see the positive effects it has on blood pressure, depression and life expectancy for chemotherapy and HIV patients, to mention just a few examples. In the public health sector, it is interesting to note that this existential/spiritual dimension had already been present in the early years when the term public health first came into the Swedish language. In the year 1926 public health was defined as ‘a people’s physical and spiritual health’. During the intervening years of major medical and scientific technical improvements in the field, the existential/spiritual perspective had been put aside, but now once again this dimension has come into focus. The central question is, how does the existential dimension of health, understood as a person’s ability to create and maintain functional meaning making systems, affect the person’s self-rated health and quality of life? The working theories and basic perspectives in this article are drawn from health research with attention to the existential dimension, public health from the perspective of the psychology of religion, and object relations theory.

  15. Social Representations in Psychology: A Bibliometrical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicher, V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the evolution of social representations theory (SRT over time, languages, and journals by comparing it with the evolution of social identity theory (SIT. Additionally, we perform a lexical analysis of abstracts on SRT and discuss the changes of topics over time and languages. While SRT is less represented in mainstream journals of social psychology than SIT, it is more widely distributed across linguistic areas, as shown by the relative frequency of different languages. Two major research domains often associated with SRT are health issues and intergroup dynamics. Papers concentrating on SRT as a theoretical approach are more recent and primarily written in English, while French-language papers focus less on theoretical aspects. While SRT is diverse and recognized in social psychology, it is not as widely known as other social psychological theories (e.g., SIT. We conclude with thoughts on how to promote wider integration of SRT with mainstream social psychology.

  16. Social cognition. Practical psychology of management

    OpenAIRE

    Bazarov, Takhir

    2010-01-01

    Management as a form of cognition implies gaining new experience and knowledge, particularly about oneself. Traditionally, the psychology of social cognition distinguishes between an object and a subject of cognition (i.e. the one who cognizes). The subject of cognition can represent both an individual and a social group. As consciousness and mentality of an individual changes in modern society, essential topics of social cognitive psychology assume new importance: society components are beco...

  17. Extrapolating psychological insights from Facebook profiles: a study of religion and relationship status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean; Dutta, Debo; Dommety, Gopal

    2009-06-01

    Online social network users may leave creative, subtle cues on their public profiles to communicate their motivations and interests to other network participants. This paper explores whether psychological predictions can be made about the motivations of social network users by identifying and analyzing these cues. Focusing on the domain of relationship seeking, we predicted that people using social networks for dating would reveal that they have a single relationship status as a method of eliciting contact from potential romantic others. Based on results from a pilot study (n = 20) supporting this hypothesis, we predicted that people attempting to attract users of the same religious background would report a religious affiliation along with a single relationship status. Using observational data from 150 Facebook profiles, results from a multivariate logistic regression suggest that people providing a religious affiliation were more likely to list themselves as single (a proxy for their interest in using the network to find romantic partners) than people who do not provide religious information. We discuss the implications for extracting psychological information from Facebook profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that information from publicly available online social networking profiles can be used to predict people's motivations for using social networks.

  18. Research topics in Social Psychology in Brazil

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    Cláudio V. Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available How is the portrait of the Brazilian scientific production in Social Psychology of the past few years? This study aims to address especifically this question, by visiting the articles published by Brazilian scholars since 1980, all of whom have been recognized and sponsored by the Brazilian National Council on Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq. Production from 80 Brazilian researchers was analysed, based on phenomena traditionally studied by Social Psychologists (e.g., Social Influence, which served as a priori categories. Articles that reflect studies developed in 5 geopolitical regions of the country, but data showed regions South and Southeast with the highest concentration in terms of academic production. Such finding is discussed in terms of the influence of an individualist culture on Brazilian research. Observing the main Social Psychology topics studied by Brazilians, it was noticed a centrality of the "Psychological" approach to Social Psychology, mainly originated in English-speaking countries.

  19. Social psychology as a natural kind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason P

    2009-06-01

    Although typically defined as the study of how people and groups interact, the field of social psychology comprises several disparate domains that make only indirect contributions to understanding interpersonal interaction, such as emotion, attitudes and the self. Although these various phenomena seem to have little in common, recent evidence indicates that the topics at the core of social psychology form a natural group of domains with a common functional neuroanatomy, centered on the medial prefrontal cortex. That self-referential, attitudinal, affective and other social phenomena converge on this region might reflect their shared reliance on inexact and internally generated estimates that differ from the more precise representations underlying other psychological phenomena.

  20. Religion as Bridging or Bonding Social Capital: Race, Religion, and Cross-Racial Interaction for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Religion is the most segregated arena of American life, but its effect on collegiate diversity outcomes has been overlooked, despite the significance of both race and religion in many students' lives. This study examines whether religious observance, religious worldview identification, and participation in a religious student organization are…

  1. Religion as Bridging or Bonding Social Capital: Race, Religion, and Cross-Racial Interaction for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Religion is the most segregated arena of American life, but its effect on collegiate diversity outcomes has been overlooked, despite the significance of both race and religion in many students' lives. This study examines whether religious observance, religious worldview identification, and participation in a religious student organization are…

  2. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  3. Social work practitioners' integration of clients' religion and spirituality in practice: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxhandler, Holly K; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2014-07-01

    Emerging research on religion, spirituality, health, and mental health has begun to catch the attention of helping professionals. Some clients are expressing a desire for their health and mental health practitioners to initiate discussion of their religious or spiritual beliefs as they relate to their case. Social workers are the most represented group among personnel providing mental health services, so it is important to understand their attitudes, views, and behaviors regarding integrating clients' religion and spirituality (RS) into practice. Few studies have assessed such an integration; those that are available focus primarily on practitioner characteristics and use of specific helping activities to integrate clients' RS in treatment. This article discusses how RS have been integrated into social work practice and education and reviews instruments used to assess such practices. In addition, the findings from previous studies examining social workers' integration of clients' RS are compared with those of other helping professions. Finally, implications for education and practice are discussed.

  4. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  5. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, we strived to call attention to the possibility of ordinating and coordinating reality in different ways, of recognizing that there are multiple and diverse actants in a discipline and of making a Social Psychology that searches for complex connections that articulate humans and non-humans and perform multiple realities.

  6. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  7. The Integration of Clients' Religion and Spirituality in Social Work Practice: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxhandler, Holly K; Parrish, Danielle E; Torres, Luis R; Achenbaum, W Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the results of a cross-sectional study of licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs') views and behaviors related to integrating clients' religion and spirituality in clinical practice. A total of 442 LCSWs from across the United States who advertised their services on the Internet provided anonymous responses to an online administration of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale. The results indicate that LCSWs have positive attitudes, high levels of self-efficacy, and perceive such integration as feasible, but report low levels of engagement in integrating clients' religious and spiritual beliefs into practice. Moreover, two variables emerged as significant predictors for LCSWs' overall orientation toward integrating clients' religion and spirituality in practice: practitioners' intrinsic religiosity and prior training (prior course work or continuing education). Implications and next steps for social work education and continuing training efforts are discussed.

  8. The ‘Friendship Dynamics of Religion,’ or the ‘Religious Dynamics of Friendship’? A Social Network Analysis of Adolescents Who Attend Small Schools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Schwadel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal social network data on adolescents in seven schools are analyzed to reach a new understanding about how the personal and interpersonal social dimensions of adolescent religion intertwine together in small school settings. We primarily address two issues relevant to the sociology of religion and sociology in general: (1) social selection as a source of religious homophily and (2) friend socialization of religion. Analysis results are consistent with Collins’ interaction ritual chain theory, which stresses the social dimensions of religion, since network-religion autocorrelations are relatively substantial in magnitude and both selection and socialization mechanisms play key roles in generating them. Results suggest that socialization plays a stronger role than social selection in four of six religious outcomes, and that more religious youth are more cliquish. Implications for our understanding of the social context of religion, religious homophily, and the ways we model religious influence, as well as limitations and considerations for future research, are discussed. PMID:23017927

  9. Infertility in India: social, religion and cultural influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sheoran

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The study concluded that there is a huge burden on the part of female to have a baby after marriage. Also the childless women face social and financial adversities at time and this is not limited to low income or low education strata. Health care professionals need to understand cultural and social implications of infertility in order to provide counseling, and referring women with fertility concerns for consultation and further treatment. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1783-1788

  10. Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2011-03-01

    What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social.

  11. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Keywords: Adjustment, blindness, Nigeria, psychological and social. Résumé. Background: ... clés de l'interaction sociale, mariage et famille. Majorité devaient être ..... unable to play a useful role in life,' 'feel nervous, tense, and worried,' ... findings in mothers with sickle cell disease children. (28%)[34] and ...

  12. Social Psychological Perspectives on Trump Supporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Pettigrew

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available No one factor describes Trump’s supporters. But an array of factors – many of them reflecting five major social psychological phenomena can help to account for this extraordinary political event: authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, prejudice, relative deprivation, and intergroup contact. Research on the topic demonstrates that these theories and concepts of social psychology prove centrally important in helping to understand this unexpected event. This paper describes the supporting data for this statement and demonstrates the close parallels between these American results and those of research on far-right European supporters.

  13. Game Theory and Social Psychology: Conformity Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc

    2011-11-01

    Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.

  14. On the Social Psychology of Social Mobility Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoff, Alan C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses two types of research--the "new structuralism" approach and "work and personality" studies--on the occupational attainment aspect of social mobility. Suggests that a life course approach to social mobility processes may provide a basis for integrating the structural and social psychological perspectives. Contains 25…

  15. Performative Social Science and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119

  16. Religion and Substance Use among Youths of Mexican Heritage: A Social Capital Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Nieri, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated levels of substance use among many Latino youths, there has been little research on protective factors against such use. In keeping with federal commitments to address health disparities, this prospective study examined the protective influence of religion on substance use among a school-based sample (N = 804) of youths of Mexican heritage in the American Southwest. Drawing from the social capital literature, the authors posited that both integration into religious networks and trust in religious values at time 1 (Tl) would predict less likelihood of using substances at time 2 (T2) but that exposure to religious norms at Tl would not predict subsequent substance use at T2. The hypotheses regarding religious networks and religious norms were largely confirmed, whereas little support emerged for the hypothesis regarding religious values. The results are discussed in light of the various pathways through which religion may exhibit a protective influence. PMID:22140302

  17. New social tasks for cognitive psychology; or, new cognitive tasks for social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettersten, John

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate how differing theories of rationality lead to differing practices, their social rules must be analyzed. This is true not merely in science but also in society at large. This analysis of social thinking requires both the identification of innate cognitive social psychological processes and explanations of their relations with differing rules of rational practice. These new tasks can enable social psychologists to contribute to the study of how social situations facilitate or inhibit rational practice and enable cognitive psychologists to improve social psychological theory. In contrast to dominant current research strategies, social and cognitive psychologists can integrate social studies of rational practices and their consequences with studies of underlying cognitive psychological processes. In this article I do not attempt to carry out these tasks but rather point to both their lack of recognition and their importance.

  18. Social support and religion: mental health service use and treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, A; Gearing, R E; Alonzo, D; Baldwin, S; Harmon, S; McHugh, K

    2013-08-01

    The perceptions and religious beliefs held by family members, mental health and health care professionals, and the community may affect the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. To better identify and understand the influence of families, professionals and community members on individual's treatment for schizophrenia, this review paper examines: (1) the religious perceptions of families, professionals, and the public towards schizophrenia; (2) religious perceptions of the etiology of schizophrenia; (3) how others perceive religion as a coping mechanism; and (4) how religion influences treatment engagement and help-seeking behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycInfo databases were systematically searched from 1980 to 2010 using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and religion, religiosity, spirituality, and faith. Forty-three (n = 43) original research studies met the inclusion criteria. This study found that religious beliefs influence the treatment of schizophrenia in the following ways: Religious themes were positively associated with coping, treatment engagement and help-seeking behavior. Evidence of religious underpinnings was found in perceptions of etiology. The findings also indicate that there is often both a preference among family members and caregivers to utilize religious-based professionals and caution toward mental health professionals. Researchers and professionals may find avenues for improving treatment through examining the interaction of religious and schizophrenia at the social support level.

  19. Enhancing placebo effects: insights from social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, Jim; Elkins, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions.

  20. Identity of psychology, psychological paradigms and constructivism: Toward a perspective social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Musek

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical self-reflexion is a healthy practice of any science including psychology. Nevertheless, psychology has long ago outgrew the age of the search for its own identity. It is however a science sui generis, determined by a radical split into Lockean and Kantian (objective and phenomenological paradigm, each completely legitimate but also completely different in defining the objectives as well as the methods of research. That internal splitting is presented in all psychological disciplines. In social psychology, social constructivism emerged decades ago as a typical disciplinary "paradigm" (although subordinated to both previously mentioned paradigms. The present contribution is aimed to show that social constructivism could be effectively merged with the theoretical frame of cognitivism, dominant theoretical orientation in contemporaneous psychology. On the other hand, social constructivism failed to understand the proper relationship between human nature and human cultural context. Human beings are evolutionary evolved as beings genetically programmed for the construction of the culture and social milieu. Human beings are not products of the culture in the proper sense of meaning. The truth is quite opposite: the culture is a product of human biological equipment. But this is an equipment that predisposes human individual to be a social, cultural being uniquely capable of learning, uniquely capable of receiving the influence of his own products – social environment and culture.

  1. Politicized Collective Identity: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bernd; Klandermans, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Develops a social psychological model of politicized collective identity that revolves around three conceptual themes (collective identity, the struggle for power, and the wider societal context of that power struggle). Discusses how collective identity has been politicized, showing that politicized collective identity has important consequences…

  2. Social psychology on the flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Social psychological and personality factors that can influence resource management on the flight deck are discussed. It is argued that personality and situational factors intersect to determine crew responses and that assessment of performance under full crew and mission conditions can provide the most valuable information about relevant factors. The possibility of training procedures to improve performance on these dimensions is discussed.

  3. On the Very Idea of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Given the centennial of the publication of the first two textbooks in social psychology, the one by William McDougall and the other by Edward Alsworth Ross, the author stresses that it is an auspicious time for reflection. It is a time to reconsider the movements into which these volumes were secreted, and the resulting trajectories of…

  4. The sacrifice of knowledge: vain debates in the social scientific study of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2013-03-01

    Since its inception, the social scientific study of religion has been a battleground for scholars advocating for the advantages of one sort of methodology over against the other. I argue that these debates have more to do with the personalities of the researchers rather than any kind of justifiable proof that one method is better than another. I argue that the process by which scholars quarrel over methods is a sign of stagnation or regression in the academy; I draw broad implications for the health of the discipline of religious studies.

  5. Twenty-five years later--what do we know about religion/spirituality and psychological well-being among breast cancer survivors? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Judith A; Brockopp, Dorothy Y

    2012-03-01

    A diagnosis of cancer is a life-changing event for most people. The trauma and uncertainties of a breast cancer diagnosis can affect survivors' psychological well-being. Religion and/or spirituality can provide a means of support for many women as they live with the realities of a diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this focused review is to critically analyze and synthesize relationships among psychological well-being, religion, and spirituality among women with breast cancer. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PsycINFO databases were searched: January 1985-March 2010. The search terms religi*(religious/religion), spiritu*(spiritual/spirituality), breast cancer, psychological adjustment, psychological outcomes, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and outcomes were searched for separately and in combination. Eighteen quantitative studies were analyzed in order to examine associations among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being for women diagnosed with breast cancer. These three variables were operationally defined as follows: (a) religious practice, religious coping, and perception of God; (b) spiritual distress, spiritual reframing, spiritual well-being, and spiritual integration; and (c) combined measure of both the religion and spirituality constructs. Results of this review suggest that within this population, limited relationships exist among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being. Given the various definitions used for the three variables, the strength and clarity of relationships are not clear. In addition, the time of assessment along the course of the disease varies greatly and in some instances is not reported. Diagnosis and/or prognosis, factors that could influence psychological well-being, are frequently not factored into results. There does, however, appear to be sufficient evidence to include a brief, clinically focused assessment of women diagnosed with

  6. Religious prosociality and morality across cultures: how social enforcement of religion shapes the effects of personal religiosity on prosocial and moral attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrova, Olga; Siegers, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    The question of whether religiosity is linked to prosocial behavior is currently hotly debated in psychology. This research contributes to this debate by showing that the nature of individuals' religious orientations and their relationships to prosociality depend on their country's social enforcement of religiosity. Our analyses of data from more than 70 countries indicate that in countries with no social pressure to follow a religion, religious individuals are more likely to endorse an intrinsic religious orientation (Study 1), engage in charity work (Study 2), disapprove of lying in their own interests (Study 3), and are less likely to engage in fraudulent behaviors (Study 4) compared with non-religious individuals. Ironically, in secular contexts, religious individuals are also more likely to condemn certain moral choices than non-religious individuals (Study 2). These effects of religiosity substantially weaken (and ultimately disappear) with increasing national levels of social enforcement of religiosity.

  7. The perceiving process and mystical orientation : an empirical study in psychological type theory among participants at the parliament of the world's religions

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Cargas, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 580 participants attending the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Barcelona 2004 completed the Francis-Louden Mystical Orientation Scale together with a measure of psychological type (the Francis Psychological Type Scales) in order to test the thesis based on Christopher Ross’ work that intuitive types would record significantly higher scores of mystical orientation in comparison with sensing types. The data supported Ross’ theory, and also added to the growing body of evidenc...

  8. Psicologia Social: uma especialidade da psicologia? Social Psychology: a specialties within psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Johannes van Stralen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo questiona a decisão do Conselho Federal de Psicologia de reconhecer a Psicologia Social como especialidade da Psicologia. Esta decisão foi uma resposta a reivindicações de psicólogos que, atuando no campo das políticas públicas, têm procurado uma identidade profissional própria. Ignora, porém, que a Psicologia Social constitui uma disciplina científica específica no campo das ciências sociais, à medida que articula níveis de explicação psicológicos e sociológicos. Argumento que a decisão se tornou possível, de um lado, pela dificuldade de a Psicologia Social construir um campo profissional próprio e, de outro lado, pela posição ambígua que a Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social tomou diante deste assunto. Concluo que o reconhecimento da Psicologia Social como especialidade da Psicologia poderá fortalecer a tendência de a Psicologia Social se tornar apenas uma disciplina básica no currículo da psicologia, em vez de uma disciplina autônoma que contribua para a compreensão de fenômenos coletivos.This article questions the decision of the Conselho Federal de Psicologia to recognise Social Psychology as a specialty within Psychology. This decision was an answer to the psychologists' claims working in the field of Public Politcs and serching for their own professional identity. However, the study ignores that Social Psychology is a specific scientific subject in the field of Social Sciences as it connects psychological and sociological levels of explanation. My argument is that this decision became possible partly because of the difficulties encountered by Social Psychology in forming its own professional field, and partly because of the ambiguos attitude taken by the Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social approaching this issue. It's possible to conclude that the recognition of Social Psychology as a specialty in Psychology may be able to strengthen the tendency of Social Psychology to become

  9. Linking religion and spirituality with psychological well-being: examining self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivtzan, Itai; Chan, Christine P L; Gardner, Hannah E; Prashar, Kiran

    2013-09-01

    Research largely shows that religion and spirituality have a positive correlation to psychological well-being. However, there has been a great deal of confusion and debate over their operational definitions. This study attempted to delineate the two constructs and categorise participants into different groups based on measured levels of religious involvement and spirituality. The groups were then scored against specific measures of well-being. A total of 205 participants from a wide range of religious affiliations and faith groups were recruited from various religious institutions and spiritual meetings. They were assigned to one of four groups with the following characteristics: (1) a high level of religious involvement and spirituality, (2) a low level of religious involvement with a high level of spirituality, (3) a high level of religious involvement with a low level of spirituality, and (4) a low level of religious involvement and spirituality. Multiple comparisons were made between the groups on three measures of psychological well-being: levels of self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. As predicted, it was discovered that, aside from a few exceptions, groups (1) and (2) obtained higher scores on all three measures. As such, these results confirm the importance of spirituality on psychological well-being, regardless of whether it is experienced through religious participation.

  10. Social Psychology: research methods and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Emanoel Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the research methods adopted by researchers in the field of Social Psychology, differentiating them by considerations derived from the four epistemic dimensions. Our starting point was a study conducted to identify the theoretical references and research methods used by educators and researchers in the field of social psychology. The results presented here refer to data, obtained in the years 2011 and 2012, relating to 545 social psychologists and professors of social psychology, of which 157 responded in Portuguese and 388 in Spanish. The average age of participants was 41.5 years (standard deviation = 11.4; minimum = 21 years; maximum = 78, being 54% female and 43% male. The participants originated from 19 countries, with Spain (158, Brazil (149, Mexico (64, and Argentina (45 the most frequent. Based on the results, we sought to classify and subsequently to estimate the frequency of use of the methods, considering them based on the distribution of the researchers from two geographic regions, Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. Since geographical distribution did not provide a consistent criterion for differentiating between methods, we tried to understand the differences by considering ultimately the theoretical approach embraced by the researcher.

  11. Sacred content, secular context: a generative theory of religion and spirituality for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Although a secular profession, social work practitioners and educators do explore human spirituality, and this is embraced now by the profession as integral to a holistic view of the human being. Social workers in hospice and end-of-life care are on the front line of this shift. Still needed is for the profession to coalesce around a generative theory of religion to inform the discipline. The author proposes that a synthesis of ideas, particularly from anthropologists Ernest Becker and Fredrick Streng, provides a generative theory of religion that advances meaningful interface between diverse religious and spiritual ideations of clients and clinicians alike. This theory of generative death anxiety locates the basic religious urge as response to the human awareness of the ontological condition of mortality, which then becomes expressed existentially in all of its diverse particularities. This approach avoids being overly reductionist, yet does provide categories for clear analysis. It cultivates critical respect for human religiosity and fosters productive and creative incorporation of human spirituality into the practical and pragmatic clinical perspective.

  12. Searching for religion and mental health studies required health, social science, and grey literature databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Judy M; Cottrell, David J; Mir, Ghazala

    2014-07-01

    To determine the optimal databases to search for studies of faith-sensitive interventions for treating depression. We examined 23 health, social science, religious, and grey literature databases searched for an evidence synthesis. Databases were prioritized by yield of (1) search results, (2) potentially relevant references identified during screening, (3) included references contained in the synthesis, and (4) included references that were available in the database. We assessed the impact of databases beyond MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO by their ability to supply studies identifying new themes and issues. We identified pragmatic workload factors that influence database selection. PsycINFO was the best performing database within all priority lists. ArabPsyNet, CINAHL, Dissertations and Theses, EMBASE, Global Health, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were essential for our searches to retrieve the included references. Citation tracking activities and the personal library of one of the research teams made significant contributions of unique, relevant references. Religion studies databases (Am Theo Lib Assoc, FRANCIS) did not provide unique, relevant references. Literature searches for reviews and evidence syntheses of religion and health studies should include social science, grey literature, non-Western databases, personal libraries, and citation tracking activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How social is the social psychology of emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Two classic studies published 50 years ago showed how other people provide information that shapes the activation and interpretation of emotions. The present paper traces development of the social psychology of emotions from this starting point. Subsequent research into group-based and social appraisal has advanced understanding of the impact of social information on emotions and suggested new ways of investigating associated phenomena. Although potential integrations of interpersonal and group-oriented approaches offer promise for the future, the continuing focus on emotions as cognitively mediated effects of social factors should broaden to encompass dynamic relational processes.

  14. The Influence on Language Variation from Society and Social Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹丹

    2008-01-01

    Language variation, a kind of language form diverging from the language norm, is a common speech phenomenon and the focus of sociolinguistic studies. It is closely linked with society and social psychology. Not only is it controlled by complex social factors, but also influenced by various kinds of social psychology: the psychology of seeking curiosity and change, the psychology of avoiding vulgar language and seeking elegant language, the psychology of sexual differences between male and female, the psychology of worship, the psychology of adaptation and so on. People have complex social psychology and language is subject to variation. It is possible to further understand the way and the regulation of language variation only by linking society and social psychology to study language variation.

  15. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Berntson, Gary G; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior-one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21(st) century.

  16. [Placebo effect: a contribution of social psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balez, R; Leroyer, C; Couturaud, F

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians.

  17. [A psychological content of social phobia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagalakova, O A; Truevtsev, D V; Stoyanova, I Ya

    2017-01-01

    To perform a psychological analysis of social phobia syndrome. The subject area of research is the structure of mental activity and behavior in social activity. The study included 32 patients with symptoms of social phobia (ICD-10 F40.1) and 29 healthy people (controls). A complex of psychological methods (questionnaires; pathopsychological experiment) was used. Early maladaptive schemes and a tendency to mental rigidity can be a premorbid basis of the syndrome. Primary violation is in organizational target component by type of distortion of goal-setting regulation. The mechanism is a reduction in the mediation of emotions and behavior (an influence of emotions on the process of activity, excess metacognitive anxiety control leading to multi-task and exhaustion of resources of voluntary activity). Fear of negative evaluation leads to the fact that a wide class of situations is interpreted as threatening. Secondary are changes in the system of goals and motives of activity (technically performing components of social behavior act as a focus of attention, along with the target, the target replaces the suprasituational meaning). Along with a strong motivation to succeed, the motive of avoiding failure is formed, which leads to a decrease in social activity. Tertiary symptoms of syndrome dynamics (ways to cope with maladaptation) are destructive forms of decompensation (substance abuse, learned helplessness and hopelessness, suicidal behavior, etc.), repeatedly reinforcing the primary and secondary disturbances.

  18. Some feminist contributions to community social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mayorga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the contributions of feminist debate about intersectionality of social categories for Community Social Psychology in Brazil. This was set up as dedicated to theoretical analyze the social inequalities that characterize contemporary societies and propose methodological processes of intervention for questioning and processing of these realities. We discuss how the emergence of new actors and demands on public space, as distinct from the 60/70, is required to understand the oppression from various power systems such as gender, race and sexuality. We conclude that intersectional analysis should consider different levels of relationships between categories, the history of the same differential and common aspects of different systems of power as naturalization of inequality, the relationship between public and private relationship between equality and difference. Analyses based on intersectionality can contribute to processes of social intervention that considers the complexity of contemporary societies.

  19. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve.

  20. Social history of health psychology: context and textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.

  1. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  2. Religion as a Social Substitute for the State: Faith-Based Social Action in Twenty-First Century Brazil (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliott Mourier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and pluralist religion plays a vital role in development in contemporary Brazil. As advisors that supplement and, occasionally, even substitute for a state bureaucracy absent or overwhelmed in many vulnerable areas, Brazilian religious organisations are once again becoming the favoured partners of the state. This reconfiguration is taking place under markedly different conditions than in the colonial era, when the throne and the altar worked together in an intimate relationship. Since then, successive constitutions have imposed the legal separation of politics and religion. On a social level, however, the two spheres today appear dedicated to cooperation. This chapter analyses the current tendency of the Brazilian government to ‘contract’ an increasing number of religious entities to deliver and manage many of its social development responsibilities in ‘public-religious partnerships’. In light of this trend, the time has come to reconsider the historical relationship between the state and the Church(es in Brazil, a phenomenon currently characterised by the advent of a ‘supplemental secularism’.

  3. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural…

  4. Predicting College Students' Intergroup Friendships across Race/Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…

  5. Integration of Religion and Spirituality With Social Work Practice in Disability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Higashida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the integration of religion and spirituality (RS into disability issues from the perspective of social work in Sri Lanka. Participant observation was applied in the model administrative division of the national community-based rehabilitation (CBR program in Anuradhapura from February 2013 to January 2015. Theravada Buddhists constitute more than 99% of the population in the area studied. The participation opportunities included group activities, home visits to disabled people, and informal interviews with stakeholders. This study used the author’s field notes, which were based on the participant observation. By applying qualitative analysis, episodes and narratives were summarized into two main categories: RS-related activities and secondary RS-related phenomena. We found that the possible functions of RS practices, by disabled people and the other stakeholders, were alternative education, promotion of participation, and a sense of unity. These findings suggest that integration can be the practice to reconstruct RS aspects in disability issues.

  6. From religion to spirituality: megatrend in contemporary society or methodological artefact? A contribution to the Secularization debate from psychology of religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popp-Baier, U.

    2010-01-01

    After a short discussion of important issues concerning the secularization debate and the three meta-narratives involved in this debate (decline, transformation, rise), the following question is addressed: in modern societies, has 'religion' given way to 'spirituality' on the individual level? After

  7. Social and Abnormal Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)

  8. Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer: Psychological and Social Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic testing for breast cancer: Psychological and social impact Genetic testing to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk may prompt many emotional and psychological reactions. How will getting the news that you' ...

  9. Religion and Spirituality within Counselling/Clinical Psychology Training Programmes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing efforts to attend to religious and spiritual issues within clinical/counselling psychology. However, there is limited research demonstrating how successfully such content is integrated into existing training programmes. This investigation sought to review primary research literature related to training…

  10. Religion and Spirituality within Counselling/Clinical Psychology Training Programmes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing efforts to attend to religious and spiritual issues within clinical/counselling psychology. However, there is limited research demonstrating how successfully such content is integrated into existing training programmes. This investigation sought to review primary research literature related to training…

  11. The Difficult Way of Social Psychology in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Andreeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages and directions of the development of social psychology in USSR and Russia. The comparison of theoretical approaches of Russian and Western social psychology is carried out. Special emphasis is made on the problem of social cognition and coping, which are important in the conditions of changing reality. New professional tasks of social psychology are discussed. The necessity of finding a new paradigm in social psychological investigations in conditions of cardinal transformations and ambiguity is stated as well as vectors and tendencies of its elaboration.

  12. Social Psychology of Instability within Organizational Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takhir Yu. Bazarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since modern organizations inevitably face constant changes in internal and externalenvironment, can anything be done in order for the strategy of changesto become “proactive” and to prevent naturally determined crisis situations andrecession? Featuring empirical data, the article discusses the possibility of sociopsychologicalresearch in the situation of instability. Among other aspects, thereis suggested an answer to the question of whether social psychology can help aperson to realize his/her identity in professional and organizational environments.Moreover, a number of fixed behavioral patterns observed in situations of changesare examined specifically.

  13. Teaching Psychological and Social Gerontology to Millennial Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Brittany; Kagan, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Matters of development and generation may create barriers in teaching millennial undergraduates psychological and social gerontology. We introduce strategy to mitigate these barriers by teaching psychological and social gerontology as undergraduate honors courses, augmented with the use of social networking tools. We detail honors programming,…

  14. Teaching Psychological and Social Gerontology to Millennial Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Brittany; Kagan, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Matters of development and generation may create barriers in teaching millennial undergraduates psychological and social gerontology. We introduce strategy to mitigate these barriers by teaching psychological and social gerontology as undergraduate honors courses, augmented with the use of social networking tools. We detail honors programming,…

  15. Social Constructionist Psychology and its Application. Possibilities for a Reorientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes von Tiling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionism currently is understood as a metatheoretical alternative to positivism. It serves many social and cultural scientists as a point of reference. The possibilities to understand it as a psychological program of research that leaves space for agency and subjectivity usually are neglected. Promoting a dialogue with mainstream psychology constitutes one way of fostering social constructionist psychology. In addition, a theoretically productive conception of social constructionist psychology cannot do without reference to cultural psychology. An important advantage of such a conception lies in the increased number of possibilities for practical applications in hospitals, schools and factories. Whereas present applications of social constructionism tend to promote the postmodernization and individualization of the client, applied social constructionist psychology avoids these concomitant effects. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801446

  16. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available David E Vance1, Mark Brennan2, Comfort Enah1, Glenda L Smith1, Jaspreet Kaur31School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2New York University College of Nursing, AIDS Community Research Initiative of America, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychology and Edward R. Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided.Keywords: HIV, aging, spirituality, religion, stigma, coping, successful aging

  17. Asch's social psychology: not as social as you may think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyens, J P; Corneille, O

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses 2 commonly held ideas about Solomon Asch's work in social psychology: (a) Asch was primarily interested in social phenomena in general and in group processes in particular, and (b) Asch was a forerunner of social cognition. Asch's studies on social influence were translations of strictly perceptual experiments. For him, social stimuli had no specificity relative to physical ones provided that the perceptual context presented similar structural properties. Moreover, and contrary to Kurt Lewin (e.g., 1948) Asch focused his attention at the individual level and may have slowed down interest in social interactions or group processes. Asch's studies on impression formation presaged the social cognition approach. In his work, he foresaw the importance of online processing of information, the existence of implicit theories of personality, as well as perception based on exemplars and prototypes. However, Asch's reliance on immediate perceptual experience, on isomorphism between the properties of the external object and the phenomenal experience of this object, and his holistic and dynamic perspective clash with the main stream of social cognition research.

  18. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  19. The idea of atmosphere: Social psychology and other prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahir Navalles Gomez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of social psychology in this article differs from the standard versions. This is due to the fact that I call on contribtuons from different interlocutors, some of them from outside the discipline of social psychology. Their theorical insights provide a clue to the idea hidden in the background of social psychology –the idea of "atmosphere". I begin by setting out what official social psychology has held in contempt – its own past, its own unofficial history. I also make a case for the work of certain authors who have been ignored within social psychology, and introduce others who have cautiously developed the idea of 'atmosphere'. I trace how 'atmosphere' became the central metaphor which historically informed the discipline of social psychology, taking account of the work of historians and philosophers, as well as sociologists and philologists. 'Atmosphere' is the origin of social psychology, an idea that results in a nostalgic psychology, an historical psychology and a collective psychology.

  20. How Social and Refractory Is the Social Psychological Refractory Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Heuer, Herbert

    2017-07-01

    The social psychological refractory period (PRP) effect refers to an increase in RT to the second of two successive stimuli when another person responds to the first stimulus (shared dual-task condition) rather than when a single person responds to both stimuli (individual dual-task condition). We investigated (a) whether a social PRP effect would occur without explicit instruction concerning task priority and (b) whether there are crosstalk effects in the shared dual-task situation. We observed a strong PRP effect together with a small crosstalk effect in the individual dual-task condition, but in the shared dual-task condition both effects were absent. These findings suggest that the explicit instruction to perform responses in a fixed order is necessary to obtain the social PRP effect. In the individual dual-task condition, sequential processing can be seen as a means to reduce or prevent crosstalk effects, which is not necessary in the shared dual-task condition.

  1. Perceived Social Support and Assertiveness as a Predictor of Candidates Psychological Counselors' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…

  2. Politicized collective identity. A social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B; Klandermans, B

    2001-04-01

    This article develops a social psychological model of politicized collective identity that revolves around 3 conceptual triads. The 1st triad consists of collective identity, the struggle between groups for power, and the wider societal context. It is proposed that people evince politicized collective identity to the extent that they engage as self-conscious group members in a power struggle on behalf of their group knowing that it is the more inclusive societal context in which this struggle has to be fought out. Next, 3 antecedent stages leading to politicized collective identity are distinguished: awareness of shared grievances, adversarial attributions, and involvement of society at large. This sequence culminates in the final triad because the intergroup power struggle is eventually triangulated by involving society at large or representatives thereof. Consequences of politicized collective identity are discussed.

  3. Danmark. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    1991-01-01

    Danmarks kirkehistorie fra begyndelsen til nyere tid. Kirkehistorie, historie, folkekirke, religion......Danmarks kirkehistorie fra begyndelsen til nyere tid. Kirkehistorie, historie, folkekirke, religion...

  4. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EATING FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL, SOCIAL, AND APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the point of view of various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological effects on eating behavior are introduced – for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes after eating. Third...

  5. Psychology and Social Justice: Why We Do What We Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Much of psychological science and knowledge is significantly relevant to social justice, defined here as the goal to decrease human suffering and to promote human values of equality and justice. A commitment to social justice has evolved as a more important value in the last few decades for psychology, including for the American Psychological…

  6. Religion and fight for social justice in the american political thought: richard rorty, john rawls, and martin luther king, jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Voparil, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    John Rawls's "political" conception remains our most influential notion of justice designed to respect the irreducible and irreconcilable diversity of moral, philosophical, and religious doctrines characteristic of a pluralistic democratic culture. While we know from recent posthumous publications of Rawls's deep understanding of religion's ultimate importance, this conception seems to exclude a fundamental dimension of the most important struggles for social justice, like the role of the bla...

  7. Making social psychology experimental: a conceptual history, 1920-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, K

    2000-01-01

    The historical emergence of a field devoted to the experimental investigation of effects identified as "social" required a radical break with traditional conceptions of the social. Psychological experimentation was limited to the investigation of effects that were proximal, local, short-term, and decomposable. A viable accommodation to these constraints occurred in the closely related programs of Moede's experimental crowd psychology and Floyd Allport's experimental social psychology. Later, Kurt Lewin attempted to provide a different conceptual foundation for the field by drawing on certain precepts of Gestalt psychology and the philosophy of scientific experimentation developed by Ernst Cassirer. These ideas were poorly understood and were soon replaced by a methodological regime in which a new generation of statistical procedures and experimental design shaped implicit conceptions of the social in social psychological experiments through such procedures as randomization and the additive combination of variables.

  8. Insurgency, Theoretical Decolonization and Social Decolonization: Lessons From Cuban Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacerda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how Cuban Psychology is related to the longstanding process of social insurgency against colonialism in Cuba. The paper suggests that the emergence of critical ideas in Psychology does not depend only upon intellectual developments; rather, social struggles can be a driving force that catalyze the development of critical ideas in Psychology. The paper is divided in three parts. First, the text briefly touches the issue of the intrinsic ties between insurgent activity, decolonization, and critical social sciences. Second, the paper presents a general historical description of Latin America and the challenges faced during and after the Cuban Revolution. Finally, the last part the paper offers a general overview of the historical development of Cuban Psychology history in order to analyze the dialectical relations between social and theoretical decolonization. Four developments of Cuban Psychology are presented: (a how patriotism changed studies of national identity and History of Psychology; (b professional practices that developed to better address social issues; (c theoretical debates about the "new human" and the active nature of subjectivity; and (d the influence of Soviet Psychology and the turn to Latin American Critical Psychology. Concluding notes consider the dialectical relation between, on one side, struggles for socialization of power and, on the other side, theoretical production of Critical Psychologies.

  9. Social Network Methods for the Educational and Psychological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks are especially applicable in educational and psychological studies involving social interactions. A social network is defined as a specific relationship among a group of individuals. Social networks arise in a variety of situations such as friendships among children, collaboration and advice seeking among teachers, and coauthorship…

  10. Nye religioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothstein, Mikael; Hammer, Olav

    2011-01-01

    Religionshistorisk fremstilling af fænomenet "nye religioner", især euroamerikanske religioner fra de sidste 100 år.......Religionshistorisk fremstilling af fænomenet "nye religioner", især euroamerikanske religioner fra de sidste 100 år....

  11. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hardcastle, Sarah J.; Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2015-01-01

    In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and inter...

  12. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international context: a commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Valentim, Joaquim Pires

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is a commentary on the talks given by Torres and Álvaro and by Krüger regarding Brazilian Social Psychology in the international context. Starting with a brief contrast with the situation in Portugal, this commentary next approaches, in a synthetic way, questions that cut across social psychology in the international setting, namely, those related with the recurrent dichotomy individual/collective, the great advances in social neuroscience, the study of minorities, the scarc...

  13. Three failures of social psychology, and a phenomenological way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Ramírez, Juan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article finds fault with three practices in social psychology. The first, interpretative condescension, is visible in social psychology's use of the “person” as a term, concept, notion, and so on. Generally, “persons” are taken to be “cultural dopes”, for no compelling reason or justification. The second questionable practice, the absence of culture in psychology is the failure, in various kinds of social psychology research, to acknowledge the role or indeed the existence of ‘culture’. The third, the absence of phenomenological spirit, is another critical absence, but I use it as a point of departure in search of new ways of building social psychological knowledge.

  14. Counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-04-01

    Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances empirical perspectives on social justice by testing the external validity of M. J. Miller et al.'s (2009) social-cognitive model of social justice interest and commitment in a sample of 229 doctoral trainees in counseling psychology. Present findings support the ability of the model to explain, in part, counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment. In addition, the present study provides novel findings that demonstrate the direct and indirect ways in which program training environment and personal moral imperative relate to social justice interest and commitment. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for training are discussed.

  15. It's Not "All in Your Head": Understanding Religion From an Embodied Cognition Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Tamer M; Johnson, Kathryn A; Song, Hyunjin

    2015-11-01

    Theorists and researchers in the psychology of religion have often focused on the mind as the locus of religion. In this article, we suggest an embodied cognition perspective as a new dimension in studies of religion as a complement to previous research and theorizing. In contrast to the Cartesian view of the mind operating distinctly from the body, an embodied cognition framework posits religion as being grounded in an integrated and dynamic sensorimotor complex (which includes the brain). We review relevant but disparate literature in cognitive and social psychology to demonstrate that embodied cognition shapes the way that people represent the divine and other spiritual beings, guides people's moral intuitions, and facilitates bonding within religious groups. Moreover, commitments to a religious worldview are sometimes manifested in the body. We suggest several promising future directions in the study of religion from an embodied cognition perspective.

  16. Psychological and Social Psychological Factors Influencing Second-Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews major findings on the relationship of attitudes and motives to second language learning, proposes a framework within which other psychological variables may be considered, and urges the consideration of nonverbal variables involved in cross-cultural communication. (Author/AM)

  17. Reinvigorating the concept of situation in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T

    2008-11-01

    The concept of situation has a long and venerable history in social psychology. The author argues that recent approaches to the concept of situation have confused certain important elements. Herein, the author proposes that attention to three of these elements will reinvigorate the concept of situation in social psychology: (a) that the analysis of situations should begin with their objective features; (b) that situations should be conceptualized as affordances; and (c) that the interpersonal core of situations, in particular the extent to which they are influenced by relationships, is the proper and most profitable focus for social psychology. These elements are consistent with recent developments in the study of situated social cognition and may help better define social psychology's position within the sciences.

  18. [Social psychological and sexological aspects of oral contraception (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keep, P A

    1976-01-01

    An inventory is made on the hindrances to the acceptance of contraception in general and oral contraception in particular. They are grouped as hindrances related to the social and psychological significance of "making children", hindrances related to the social and psychological significance of "having children" hindrances, related to the method of oral contraception itself, to be divided in social hindrances, psychological hindrances and medical hindrances and finally hindrances related to the provision of the pill to the individual user. Each of these is amply discussed, the author expresses the hope that by identification of these hindrances, lessons may be learned for the future, when other methods of contreception become available.

  19. Social Climate Science: A New Vista for Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology.

  20. The Intersectionality of Religion and Social Welfare: Historical Development of Richmond’s Nonprofit Health and Human Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ellen Netting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the intersectionality of religion and social welfare in Richmond, Virginia requires going back to the beginning of the Virginia colony. In the crucible of the colony, the religious and social welfare functions of a parish community were one and the same. However, after the Revolutionary War it was just a matter of time before the entire system was disassembled. The process of disentanglement of church and state created an identity crisis in Virginia. In the late 1700s, the emergence of charitable efforts began with leading men of Richmond who tried to address the temporary needs of travelers, followed by groups of women who discovered new roles they could play through charitable works. The new “system” became a potpourri of societies, congregations, associations, and county units attempting to provide for the social welfare of the populous. The intersectionality of religion and social welfare continued as a diverse landscape of small and large organizations and congregations performing the social welfare functions in Richmond and throughout the Commonwealth emerged. Today, to attempt to separate the church from the state in this conglomerate of agencies is neither possible nor desirable. However, understanding its’ historical complexity is essential if one is to engage in contemporary practice within Richmond’s health and human service system.

  1. Reducing the racial achievement gap: a social-psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Geoffrey L; Garcia, Julio; Apfel, Nancy; Master, Allison

    2006-09-01

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could be lessened by having students reaffirm their sense of personal adequacy or "self-integrity." The intervention, a brief in-class writing assignment, significantly improved the grades of African American students and reduced the racial achievement gap by 40%. These results suggest that the racial achievement gap, a major social concern in the United States, could be ameliorated by the use of timely and targeted social-psychological interventions.

  2. Counseling Psychology Trainees' Social Justice Interest and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-01-01

    Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances…

  3. A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

  4. Introduction to the Social and Psychological Dynamics of Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Iyer, Aarti

    2009-01-01

    Collective action is one of the core mechanisms of social change, and thus of major importance to social scientists, practitioners, and policy-makers. Our goal in editing this issue is to bring together recent advances on the social and psychological dynamics of collective action among members of di

  5. Bridging history and social psychology: what, how and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glăveanu, Vlad; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-12-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other's work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can "test" these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special issue amply demonstrate, psychology's "historical turn" has the potential to shed a new light on striking, yet underexplored, similarities between contemporary public spheres and their pre-modern counterparts. This issue thereby calls into question the dichotomy between traditional and de-traditionalized societies-a distinction that lies at the heart of many social psychology accounts of the world we live in. The present editorial will introduce and consider this act of bridging history and social psychology by focusing on three main questions: What is the bridge made of? How can the two disciplines be bridged? and Why we cross this interdisciplinary bridge? In the end a reflection on the future of this collaboration will be offered.

  6. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  7. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  8. Evolutionary Theory's Increasing Role in Personality and Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.

  9. Effective Application of Psychological Motivators for Social Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severn, Jessica

    Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…

  10. Multicultural Competence, Social Justice, and Counseling Psychology: Expanding Our Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Speight, Suzette L.

    2003-01-01

    The construct of multicultural competence has gained much currency in the counseling psychology literature. This article provides a critique of the multicultural counseling competencies and argues that counseling psychology's operationalization of multicultural competence must be grounded in a commitment to social justice. Such a commitment…

  11. Culture and Career Psychology: A Social Constructionist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Graham B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reflects on the need to re-examine cultural and cross-cultural psychology with a view to re-invigorating them and placing them at the center of discourse in career psychology. One perspective that can be employed to achieve these goals is social constructionism in that it questions the centrality of post-positivism in cultural and…

  12. Social capital and change in psychological health over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Giuseppe Nicola; Lindström, Martin

    2011-04-01

    The positive association between social capital and general health outcomes has been extensively researched over the past decade; however, studies investigating social capital and psychological health show less consistent results. Despite this, policy-makers worldwide still employ elements of social capital to promote and improve psychological health. This United Kingdom study investigates the association between changes in psychological health over time and three different individual-level proxies of social capital, measures of socio-economic status, social support and the confounders age and gender. All data are derived from the British Household Panel Survey data, with the same individuals (N = 7994) providing responses from 2000-2007. The data were split according to baseline psychological health status ('Good' or 'Poor' psychological health - the dependent variable). Using Generalised Estimating Equations, two separate models were built to investigate the association between changes from baseline psychological health over time and considered variables. An autoregressive working correlation structure was employed to derive the true influence of explanatory variables on psychological health outcomes over time. We found that generalised trust was the only social capital variable to maintain a positive and highly significant association with psychological health in multivariable models. All measures of socioeconomic status and social support were rendered insignificant, bar one. We therefore argue that the breakdown of the traditional family unit (and subsequent reduction in family capital investment), along with psychosocial pathways, demonstrate plausible mechanisms by which a decrease in generalised trust could lead to an increasing trend of worse psychological health in youth over successive birth cohorts. Policy makers, while providing welfare solutions in response to breakdown in traditional family structure, must also consider perverse incentives they

  13. A Pilot Study of Core Topics in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences in the topics and references in selected chapters of eight introductory social psychology textbooks and six developmental psychology textbooks. We wanted to determine the extent to which there were core concepts and references presented in these chapters. We found a relatively small set of core…

  14. A Pilot Study of Core Topics in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences in the topics and references in selected chapters of eight introductory social psychology textbooks and six developmental psychology textbooks. We wanted to determine the extent to which there were core concepts and references presented in these chapters. We found a relatively small set of core…

  15. Destructive ideological and socially-psychological aspects of Consumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Doroshina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In article some ideological and socially psychological aspects of concepts of a society of mass consumption, connected with a modern Russian masscult and process of globalization are considered. Problems of crisis of values and alienations are mentioned.

  16. Psicologia social, comunidade e contemporaneidade Social psychology, community and contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald João Jacques Arendt

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo abordar algumas conseqüências conceituais não óbvias quando da aceitação inocente das terminologias comunitárias. Partindo das conclusões do sociólogo pós-moderno Michel Maffesoli, o artigo procura avaliar as contribuições do antropólogo Marc Augé e dos filósofos Jacques Rancière e Michel Serres sobre a contemporaneidade, a sensibilidade ecológica e sua relação com a temática comunitária, sugerindo incluir tais análises na psicologia social, sem que se caia num pensamento conservador.The purpose of this paper is to discuss some unexpected cosequences of naive acceptance of community terminologies. Starting from post-modern sociologist Michel Maffesoli conclusions, the paper attempts to evaluate the contributions of anthropologist Marc Augé and philosophers Jacques Rancière and Michel Serres about contemporaneity and ecological sensibility and its relations to the community subject, and it suggests that those analysis should be incorporated in social psychology , avoiding, at the same time, th engagement in conservative thinking.

  17. Social psychology of education as a branch of scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Е. Sachkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the emergence of a new scientific field – social psychology of education. Most of the key phenomena that contemporary social psychology examines, cannot influence training and education success of an individual. Therefore, in addition to traditional general psychological, psycho-pedagogic, developmental, psychophysical and other approaches solving the problems of the education system; the possibility is considered of increasing the efficiency of the educational process by means of a rapidly growing social psychology. The prospects of this approach is evidenced by the results of numerous Russian and international research, including those performed in Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. The article discusses ways to develop the concept of the social psychology of education, approaches to the definition of its subject, goals and objectives, as well as new methods of the discipline. The possibilities of further use of the potential of social psychology are analyzed to address the efficiency of the educational process and the full personal development of students.

  18. Social and psychological challenges of poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Kyle

    2010-09-01

    Poker is a competitive, social game of skill and luck, which presents players with numerous challenging strategic and interpersonal decisions. The adaptation of poker into a game played over the internet provides the unprecedented opportunity to quantitatively analyze extremely large numbers of hands and players. This paper analyzes roughly twenty-seven million hands played online in small-stakes, medium-stakes and high-stakes games. Using PokerTracker software, statistics are generated to (a) gauge the types of strategies utilized by players (i.e. the 'strategic demography') at each level and (b) examine the various payoffs associated with different strategies at varying levels of play. The results show that competitive edges attenuate as one moves up levels, and tight-aggressive strategies--which tend to be the most remunerative--become more prevalent. Further, payoffs for different combinations of cards, varies between levels, showing how strategic payoffs are derived from competitive interactions. Smaller-stakes players also have more difficulty appropriately weighting incentive structures with frequent small gains and occasional large losses. Consequently, the relationship between winning a large proportion of hands and profitability is negative, and is strongest in small-stakes games. These variations reveal a meta-game of rationality and psychology which underlies the card game. Adopting risk-neutrality to maximize expected value, aggression and appropriate mental accounting, are cognitive burdens on players, and underpin the rationality work--reconfiguring of personal preferences and goals--players engage into be competitive, and maximize their winning and profit chances.

  19. Kali Argyriadis, Stefania Capone (Dir.), La religion des orisha. Un champ social transnational en pleine recomposition

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, né sous la direction de deux chercheuses spécialistes des études afro-américaines – Stefania Capone, dont les recherches portent sur la transnationalisation et la réinvention de l’africanité (on rappelle Les Yoruba du Nouveau Monde : religion, ethnicité et nationalisme noir aux États-Unis, Paris, Karthala, 2005) et Kali Argyriadis, qui a étudié longtemps la santería cubaine et notamment publié La religion à La Havane. Actualité des représentations et des pratiques cultuelles hava...

  20. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  1. Sport psychology group consultation using social networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Frederick; Shipherd, Amber M; Gershgoren, Lael; Filho, Edson Medeiros; Basevitch, Itay

    2012-08-01

    A social networking Web site, Facebook, was used to deliver long-term sport psychology consultation services to student-athletes (i.e., soccer players) in 30- to 60-min weekly sessions. Additional short-term team building, group cohesion, communication, anger management, injury rehabilitation, mental toughness, commitment, and leadership workshops were provided. Cohesion and overall relationships between both the student-athletes and the sport psychology consultants benefited from this process. Social networking Web sites offer a practical way of providing sport psychology consulting services that does not require use of major resources. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  3. On the history of political diversity in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Kevin R; Sears, David O

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the history of political diversity in social psychology may be better characterized by stability than by a large shift toward liberalism. The branch of social psychology that focuses on political issues has defined social problems from a liberal perspective since at least the 1930s. Although a lack of ideological diversity within the discipline can pose many of the problems noted by Duarte et al., we suggest that these problems (a) are less apparent when the insights of social psychology are pitted against the insights from other social science disciplines, and (b) are less pressing than the need for other types of diversity in the field, especially ethnic and racial diversity.

  4. Social Psychology of Facts, Processes and Projects. Object and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil, Adriana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A dimension that must be considered, in the reflection that social sciences offer to society, is temporality. I would like to highlight the implicit idea of temporality within the different forms of psychosocial knowledge. In this article I propose that the different types of social psychology orientations can be situated on an axis of temporality which makes a distinction between those orientations that assume that the object of social knowledge is a fact (that is an object without temporality, being change a mere succession of independent facts, and those orientations that assume that their object is a process (that is an object in movement or perpetual change. Finally, I propose a potential social psychology of projects as an essential part of my own concept of what social psychology is

  5. Psychology and social justice: why we do what we do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Melba J T

    2012-01-01

    Much of psychological science and knowledge is significantly relevant to social justice, defined here as the goal to decrease human suffering and to promote human values of equality and justice. A commitment to social justice has evolved as a more important value in the last few decades for psychology, including for the American Psychological Association (APA). The mission, vision, goals, Ethics Code, and strategic plan of APA all provide a rationale for psychologists' involvement in systematic and visible ways of applying our knowledge to social issues. Although psychology has not been immune to the application of psychological knowledge in destructive ways, overall, psychology, many psychologists, and APA have demonstrated a commitment to social justice. This article provides a brief review of the key proponents, debates, and controversies involved in applying psychological science and knowledge to complex societal problems. Psychologists often find themselves in conflict and honest disagreement when the association addresses complex and controversial issues. An important goal is that we continue to find ways to agree or disagree in a respectful manner regardless of where each of us stands on the various positions that APA takes.

  6. Seventy Years of Social Psychology: A Cultural and Personal Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Jahoda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces some salient aspects of my research career, focusing largely on work in West Africa. From this lessons are drawn about the shortcomings of social psychology, especially in its laboratory version. It tends to tacitly ignore the effects of cultural influences, assuming that its findings are universally valid. Studies are mainly conducted with adults, generally college students, who are unrepresentative even of the general population of the United States where the bulk of social psychological studies are concentrated. This is justified in terms an alleged ‘psychic unity’. Social psychology pays little attention to the processes whereby children become socialized into particular cultures, which then governs their social behaviour. Methods are usually formal, and observational ones are eschewed, so that research takes place in artificial setting. This brings me to the almost complete absence of links with cognate disciplines, notably anthropology, which could greatly enrich social psychology. Suggestions are made for more wide-ranging approaches which would overcome the aridity of a great deal of current experimental social psychological research.

  7. Kinesisk Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Nielsen, Klaus Bo

    Bogen Kinesisk Religion omhandler kongfuzianisme, daoisme, buddhisme, maoisme, folkereligion og nye religioner i ind- og udland. Den indeholder klassiske myter og magiske ritualer, historiske milepæle og moderne udfordringer, politisk religion og levende folkereligiøsitet. Bogen henvender sig...

  8. Coverage of Milgram's Obedience Experiments in Social Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…

  9. The need for psychological needs: a role for social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L; Flanagan, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    Van de Vliert embraces a "supply side" model of human needs, underplaying a "demand" model whereby individuals, motivated by psychological needs, develop coping strategies that help them meet their personal goals and collectively exert an influence on social and economic systems. Undesirable climates may inflate the value of financial capital, but they also boost the value of social capital.

  10. Nietzsche – Psychologist of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Ávila Crespo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the following article is to fight some common misconceptions with respect to Nietzsche’s views on religion, and to show that these views are considerbly complex. Starting from the close relation between the human experience of suffering and the need for religion, as pointed out by Eliade, Freud and Schopenhauer, this essay focuses on the continuity between psychology and genealogy in Nietzsche’s analyses of religion and morality, it then responds to the questions about the essence, kinds and limits of the fact of religion, and ends by pointing out the different ontological status of Nietzsche’s principal philosophical positions.

  11. Islamist Suicide Terrorism and Erich Fromm’s Social Psychology of Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad El-Din Aysha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream social science has struggled to explain the appeal of suicide terrorism to so many Muslim youths, relying as it does on standard socio-economic indicators and research meant to identify suicidal tendencies. The existential emphasis is missing. This commentary is inspired by the work of clinical psychologist Erich Fromm (1900-1980 and his investigation of the social psychology of modernity, as well as how this intermingles with existential fears related to mortality (death-related fears and the passage of time (the end of the world or apocalypse. Modernity, explained Fromm, makes one feel small, insignificant and isolated in the larger scheme of things. This demands a violent response, often involving self-sacrifice, to reassert the balance, which allows Islamists to take advantage of death-related anxieties and exaggerate the sense of confrontation with the world through apocalyptic prophecies. Current psychological research on death and studies of terrorism and religious extremism both confirm many of Fromm’s findings and expand on them. In this commentary I argue that the religion of Islam, far from being a source of suicide terrorism, has historically restrained both suicidal tendencies and political violence directed at civilians, but it is the slow yet sure encroachment of modernity that has eroded these theological and communitarian defences. Other problems, such as household politics, gender roles, and theological teachings concerning death likewise feed this process, as documented by Arabic researchers in contexts other than political violence.

  12. Social-Psychological Aspects of Professional Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov D.O.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a theoretical review of both Russian (T.O. Gordeeva A.G. Bugrimenko, O.A. Tchadenkova etc. and foreign (R. Rayan, and E. Dasy, A. Elliot and H. Makgregor, etc approaches, classifications and researches of motivation of educational-professional activity, and special attention is paid to the socially-psychological features of this motivation: external conditionality of structural components, including achievement motivation, the mechanism of its formation in changing conditions of social environment, as well as nature of correlation of socially-psychological features of personality, in particular, processes of its socially-psychological adaptation, with characteristics of its motivational sphere. The article considers researches of external educational environment, (M. Bokarts, etc. and inner personality settings (К. Dvak, А. Bandura on becoming and development of motivation training are considered. Also there are researches of dynamics of motivation of educational-professional activity on various phases of educational process are described.

  13. Toward a Psychology of Social Change: A Typology of Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC.

  14. Toward a Psychology of Social Change: A Typology of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC. PMID:28400739

  15. Students' Attitudes toward Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of the study of religion in the system of secular education hinges on the "reproduction of religiousness" in the secular school and, more broadly, in Russian society space, via the process of mass education. It is the prospect of expanded reproduction of religious consciousness, of religious psychology and practices as a…

  16. Social Networks and Parental Behavior in the Intergenerational Transmission of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the intergenerational transmission of the strength of religion focusing on the interplay between family and peer effects. We develop a theoretical model suggesting that both peer quality and parental effort are of importance for the religious behavior of the children. We then bring the model to the data by using a very detailed dataset of adolescent friendship networks in the United States. We find that, for religious parents, the higher is the fraction of religious peers, the more...

  17. On the routes of Social Psychology in Brazil Sobre os rumos da Psicologia Social no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pereira de Sá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the different paths of knowledge production that Social psychologists have run in Brazil, the text makes a distinction between a stricto sensu Social Psychology and the lato sensu one. The stricto sensu Social Psychologycomprises the trends found in the historical development of the discipline and in scientific modernity: the mainstream "psychological" Social Psychology; the European "sociological" Social Psychology; the "micro-sociological" perspectives, since Mead. The lato sensu Social Psychology comprises the trends that emerged aside the subject's history or very recently, following other epistemological guidelines: the Marxist Social Psychology, institutional analysis, socio-historical Psychology, socio-constructionism, and the philosophical Social Psychology. The eight trends listed are then submitted to evaluations regarding the two basic dimensions of Social Psychology: societal and psychological. A comparative picture of those evaluations discloses differences between the stricto and lato sensu sets of Social Psychology, as well as between the several trends in the scope of each set.Considerando os variados rumos de produção de conhecimento trilhados no Brasil pelos psicólogos sociais, o texto faz distinção entre uma Psicologia Social stricto sensu e outra lato sensu. À Psicologia Social stricto sensu correspondem as correntes que se situam no desenvolvimento histórico da disciplina e na modernidade científica: a Psicologia Social "psicológica" mainstream; a Psicologia Social "sociológica" europeia; as perspectivas "microssociológicas", desde Mead. À Psicologia Social lato sensu correspondem as correntes surgidas à margem da história da disciplina ou muito recentemente, com outras diretrizes epistemológicas: Psicologia Social marxista, análise institucional, Psicologia sócio-histórica, sócio-construcionismo e Psicologia Social filosófica. As oito correntes listadas são em seguida submetidas a avalia

  18. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  19. A philosophical approach to the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomilova Nonka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the philosophical aspects of the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis. The main directions of the study are as follows: 1. Both on the individual and social plan, the orientation of the transcending universalizing power of religion could vary depending on the macro-social movements a community /or an individual/ is involved in. For the individual as for the community, religion could be a cultural position transcending ego and ethno-centrism, mono-cultural tendencies; in situations of internal differentiation and disintegration of these entities, the universalizing binding role of religion is partialized and determined by various social groups, who are often in opposition to each other due to their economic political, ethnic, psychological features; 2. This process is usually related to the invalidation of universally uniting religious-moral bonds and values and intensification of differences: power, property, doctrinal differences to a shift of the weight center from internal spiritual movements /particularly typical of mysticism, asceticism, priesthood/ on to practical social action - reformist heresies, the various practical theologies of revolution, liberation, the religious-motivated wars; 3. When reduced to an ethnic, political, or state emblem, religious affiliation to Judaism, Islam Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism has become and still remain a tool for the sacralization of military and political conflicts. In religion-motivated conflict situations, opposing parties de-sacralize their Sacred Books as their acts contradict the books' moral content; 4. The power of historical mythologies is in reverse proportion to the capacity of a nation to periodically renew its social life world - its psychological attitudes labour relations, political stereotypes; 5. In this type of situation religion is usually reduced to 'belonging', as G. Davie put it, at the expense of 'believing' and a corresponding moral behavior. The

  20. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  2. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  3. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Krok

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for...

  4. Reducing Racial Health Care Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians’ perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatm...

  5. Two faces of social-psychological realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicholas Hoover; Huang, Julie Y

    2017-01-01

    This commentary places Jussim (2012) in dialogue with sociological perspectives on social reality and the political-academic nature of scientific paradigms. Specifically, we highlight how institutions, observers, and what is being observed intersect, and discuss the implications of this intersection on measurement within the social world. We then identify similarities between Jussim's specific narrative regarding social perception research, with noted patterns of scientific change.

  6. Religion in der Padagogik? = Religion in Pedagogics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipkow, Karl Ernst

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the scant attention that education has paid to religion historically. Suggests perceiving Christianity in its historical development as ecclesiastical, social, and personal. Observes that religious education is independent of both theology and pedagogics. Demonstrates that the discourse between pedagogics and theology must be based on…

  7. Some notes about the relations between Social Psychology and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasio Ovejero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to show the value that the study of the relationship between Social Psychology and Literature would have to improve our psychosocial knowledge of the human being. On one hand, the psychosocial analysis of the novel would provide us with the wide and deep knowledge that is contained in the classic literary works. On the other hand, it is also useful to analyze how these literary works have been reflecting both their own time as well as the social changes in the last centuries and, furthermore, its effect on the readers, their mentality, their behaviour and even the way they relate each other. This approach would be of great value for a Social Psychology that pretends to look beyond a positivist perspective, a perspective that is pervasive in Psychology for the last century. 

  8. Social and psychological creativity in gay male midlife identity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    This study utilizes a qualitative thematic analysis methodology and a social identity theory framework to explore ways in which early midlife gay men report enhancing their social identities through social and psychological creativity. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty early midlife gay men (aged 40-53) in four US cities. Men discussed the collective and individual essences of their age and gay identities, including attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours that they embraced to self-enhance at midlife. These discussions emphasized differences from the younger gay outgroup, often in the context of intergenerational interaction. Identified were three strategies (and seven substrategies) that summarized the ways that interviewees constructed their identities in the interest of self-enhancement, specifically in the context of intergenerational comparisons with younger gay men. These strategies may be considered as extensions to social creativity strategies presented in Tajfel and Turner's (Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson, 1986: 7) social identity theory.

  9. Social action theory for a public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, C K

    1991-09-01

    Many illnesses can be prevented or limited by altering personal behavior, and public health planners have turned to psychology for guidance in fostering self-protective activity. A social theory of personal action provides an integrative framework for applying psychology to public health, disclosing gaps in our current understanding of self-regulation, and generating guidelines for improving health promotion at the population level. A social action view emphasizes social interdependence and interaction in personal control of health-endangering behavior and proposes mechanisms by which environmental structures influence cognitive action schemas, self-goals, and problem-solving activities critical to sustained behavioral change. Social action theory clarifies relationships between social and personal empowerment and helps explain stages of self-change.

  10. Socially desirable responding by bariatric surgery candidates during psychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Boeka, Abbe G; Brown, Joshua D; Byrne, T Karl; Budak, Amanda R; Sarwer, David B; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Morey, Leslie C; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Most bariatric surgery programs in the United States require preoperative psychological evaluations for candidates for surgery. Among those who perform these evaluations is concern that many patients engage in "impression management" or minimizing the symptoms of distress to receive a recommendation to proceed with surgery from the mental health professional. We sought to assess the prevalence of socially desirable responding and its associations with measures of psychological functioning among bariatric surgery candidates at 2 academic medical centers in the United States. The participants were male (n = 66) and female (n = 293) bariatric surgery candidates who presented for psychological evaluation. The participants completed 2 measures of socially desirable response styles (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale) and standardized measures of anxiety, depression, and alcohol-related problems. The participants exhibited elevated scores on the social desirability indicators, with 33.3-39.8% scoring above the recommended cut-score on the Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale and 62.3-67% scoring 1 standard deviation above the standardization mean on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale correlated inversely with the clinical measures of anxiety and depression, and the high/low scorers on the social desirability indices exhibited significant differences in anxiety and depression. Thus, elevated scores on the social desirability indices were associated with underreporting of certain clinical symptoms. A substantial proportion of bariatric surgery candidates appear to present themselves in an overly favorable light during the psychological evaluation. This response style is associated with less reporting of psychological

  11. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  12. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2015-10-01

    In this Special Issue, entitled "Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective", three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling.The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some "types" of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibitiona nd less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level.

  13. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Hardcastle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1 social and environmental influences on food choice; (2 psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3 eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some “types” of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibition and less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level.

  14. Doing psychology, doing inequality: rethinking the role of psychology in creating and maintaining social inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi-Nakar, Merav

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between psychological disciplines and inequality has been a subject of great scholarly interest in the last several decades. Most works on the subject analyze macro features of psychological disciplines (mainly their evaluative tools, theoretical assumptions, and disciplinary power) and criticize them as biased against minorities. This paper re-examines the relationship between psychology and inequality from a micro, face-to-face standpoint. Drawing on close observations of 33 placement committees in which professionals from various psychological fields (psychology, social work, school counseling, etc.) discuss children’s eligibility for special education services, it portrays the actual doing of psychology as an inconsistent and malleable endeavor. In contrast to the macro-oriented research on the relationship between psychology and inequality, it shows that in actual face-to-face interactions, professionals use different types of folk concerns that often exchange formal evaluative criteria, theoretical assumptions or professional authority in final placement decisions. By revealing the different folk considerations professionals use to sort and analyze working- versus middle-class parents, this project adds an essential layer to scholarly understanding of the relationship between psychological practice and inequality.

  15. Situations matter: teaching the Lewinian link between social psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S

    2011-11-01

    A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes of behavior and concomitant interpretation of social problems. Teachers can explore reasons why, despite the fields' having a shared theoretical perspective and topics of common interest (e.g., attitudes, prejudice, discrimination), little scholarly intradisciplinary contact currently occurs between them.

  16. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  17. The Social Side of School: Why Teachers Need Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and learning are fundamentally social enterprises. In attempting to understand, explain, and predict social behavior, social psychologists have amassed scores of empirically grounded, fundamental principles. Yet, many such principles have yet to be applied to classrooms despite the social nature of these settings. This article illustrates…

  18. The social psychology of class and classism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-11-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent-divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a discussion of classism, which contributes to diminished opportunities for low-income families.

  19. Imagine: towards an integrated and applied social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jackie; Walton, Chris

    2010-12-01

    This commentary does not aim to engage with the epistemological and ontological technicalities of the discursive psychology maintained by epistemological constructionism and discursive psychology reliant on ontological constructionism approaches that form the basis of the two papers under discussion; other commentators, both in this issue and in the future, are likely to do that. Instead, this commentary aims to situate both papers within a broader frame of contemporary, primarily British social psychology, to ponder the circumstances that gave rise to them and their implications for social psychologists, discursive and non-discursive, alike. We have organized this commentary into two parts. The first part considers two simple questions. First, why does Corcoran critique DPEC for failing to do things that other discursive approaches provide for? And, second, why does Corcoran take DPEC research to task for having too little potential for or made too little contribution to improving the lives and subjectivities of people in general? These two questions are not unrelated, but for clarity's sake we will try to answer them separately. The second part of this commentary will consider the influence of discursive psychology on social psychology more generally.

  20. Psychobiology and social psychology: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntson, G G; Cacioppo, J T

    2000-01-01

    Social psychology and psychobiology have a rich historical connection, although over the last half century these two disciplines have seemingly become estranged. To a significant extent, that alienation arose from an archaic and nonviable model of behavioral biology that retarded the development of both disciplines. With the emergence of modern biological perspectives, this impediment no longer limits fruitful collaborations among social psychologists and psychobiologists. Indeed, some of the most exciting contemporary developments are emerging from the areas of social neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral neuroscience. We review the history of links between social psychology and psychobiology, the factors that led to the segregation of these subdisciplines, and the modern biological perspectives that provide the basis for reintegration of these disciplines.

  1. Social networking sites: an adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Indu S; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Thennarasu, K

    2014-07-01

    Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

  2. Toward an alternative evolutionary theory of religion: looking past computational evolutionary psychology to a wider field of possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Nathaniel F

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive science of the last half-century has been dominated by the computational theory of mind and its picture of thought as information processing. Taking this picture for granted, the most prominent evolutionary theories of religion of the last fifteen years have sought to understand human religiosity as the product or by-product of universal information processing mechanisms that were adaptive in our ancestral environment. The rigidity of such explanations is at odds with the highly context-sensitive nature of historical studies of religion, and thus contributes to the apparent tug-of-war between scientific and humanistic perspectives. This essay argues that this antagonism stems in part from a deep flaw of computational theory, namely its notion of information as pre-given and context-free. In contrast, non-computational theories that picture mind as an adaptive, interactive process in which information is jointly constructed by organism and environment offer an alternative approach to an evolutionary understanding of human religiosity, one that is compatible with historical studies and amenable to a wide range of inquiries, including some limited kinds of theological inquiry.

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Ante

    2016-01-01

    The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward-specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology.

  4. Wundt, Völkerpsychologie, and experimental social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, John D

    2003-02-01

    Wilhelm Wundt distinguished between "experimental psychology" and Volkerpsychologie. It is often claimed that Wundt maintained that social psychological phenomena, the subject matter of Völkerpsychologie, could not be investigated experimentally but must be explored via comparative-historical methods. In this article it is argued that it is doubtful if many of the passages usually cited as evidence that Wundt held such a view actually such such a view. It is also argued that if Wundt did hold such a view, it was inconsistent with his own general theoretical position and methodological practice. It is suggested that it is anachronistic to attribute such a view to Wundt, because he appears to have had little interest in the experimental analysis of the synchronic social dynamics of psychological processes. Most of Wundt's arguments about the inappropriateness of experimentation were directed against the introspective analysis of diachronic historical processes.

  5. Appropriating religion: understanding religion as an object of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wiebe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author focuses on the study of religion as a scientific project, for it is the scientific interest in religion which has constituted the grounds for admitting the study of religion into the curriculum of the modern Western university. Despite that academic legitimation, however, the study of religion in the setting of the modern research university is not held in high esteem relative to the other sciences. It if the scientific study of religion is to be legitimately ensconced in the modern research university, the notion of religion will have to be wholly appropriated by science; only then will we be able to establish a conceptual foundation from which to make valid knowledge claims about religion on a level commensurate with the pronouncements of the natural and social sciences. Indeed, to go one step further, given the hold on the concept of religion by those committed to the humanistic study of religion, we might need to talk here not of the appropriation but of expropriation of religion by science—that is, of wresting ownership of the concept from the humanists by using it solely as a taxonomic device to differentiate and explain a peculiar range of human behaviour demonstrated in religious practices.

  6. Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Graaf, de R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Older meta-analyses of the effects of psychological treatments of social anxiety disorder have found that these treatments have moderate to large effects. However, these earlier meta-analyses also included non-randomized studies, and there are many featured studies in this area w

  7. Applications of Social Psychology in Police-Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Neil

    Many techniques can be utilized to improve citizen attitude toward police. Research in social psychology provides considerable information concerning attitude change processes. This paper explores interpersonal attraction (attitudes toward individuals) and helping behavior (assisting others) within the broader context of attitude change.…

  8. New Directions in Social Psychological Interventions to Improve Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…

  9. Coverage of Research Ethics in Introductory and Social Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A content analysis of college-level introductory and social psychology textbooks showed that many texts do not discuss ethics at all and, if they do, it is usually in one or two pages. Things that classroom teachers can do to fill this important gap are discussed. (RM)

  10. Social and Psychological Aspects of Applied Human Genetics: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, James R., Comp.

    This bibliography is a selective compilation of books and articles which focus on the psychological and social issues of applied human genetics. It is centered in particular around problems, issues, and discussions of genetic counseling, the primary mechanism by which human genetics has been applied to date. It includes those entries which, on the…

  11. Partner Status, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied partner status, social support, and psychological adjustment of pregnant women. Administered Brief Symptom Inventory to predominantly minority and lower-income pregnant women (N=157) categorized as married, single/partnered, or single/unpartnered. Found single/partnered women were at least risk for emotional disequilibrium and suggested…

  12. Teachers' Views on Organizational Deviance, Psychological Ownership and Social Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify Bolu central district secondary school teachers' views on organizational deviance, psychological ownership and social innovation and to determine whether these views were related. The universe of the study conducted with relational screening model was composed of 360 teachers employed in Bolu central district secondary…

  13. Confronting Bias through Teaching: Insights from Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittle, Chelsea; Maddox, Keith B.

    2017-01-01

    Research in social psychology has the potential to address real-world issues involving racial stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Literature on confrontation suggests that addressing racism can be seen as a persuasive act that will allow for more effective interpersonal interactions. In this article, we explore the persuasive…

  14. Psychological, Contextual, and Social Determinants of Safe Sex Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Iscoe, Ira; Holahan, Charles J.

    This paper reports on a study that developed a model of sexual risk-taking behavior that included psychological measures, as well as social or demographic factors, and contextual variables. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge based used when designing health promotion or disease prevention programs that promote safer sexual practices…

  15. 42 CFR 456.370 - Medical, psychological, and social evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychological, and social evaluations. 456.370 Section 456.370 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Intermediate Care Facilities Medical,...

  16. Fiktionsbaseret religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Jediismen er en ny religion, der bygger på George Lucas' Star Wars-film. Kernen i jediismen er medlemmernes identifikation med jedi-ridderne fra Star Wars, troen på, at Kraften eksisterer uden for det fiktive univers, samt rituel interaktion med Kraften. På baggrund af en analyse af syv jediistiske...... gruppers hjemmesider skitserer artiklen jediismens selvforståelse med fokus på selv-identifikation, læren om Kraften, praksis og etik samt forhandlingen af forholdet til Star Wars. Endvidere argumenteres for, hvorfor jediismen må fortolkes som en religion og ikke blot som et fanfænomen. Endelig foreslås...... kategorien 'fiktionsbaseret religion' introduceret i religionsvidenskaben som betegnelse for en række nye religioner baseret på 'fiktive religioner' indlejret i fiktionstekster....

  17. The mediatisation of religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2011-01-01

    and experiences become moulded according to the demands of popular media genres. As a cultural and social environment, the media have taken over many of the cultural and social functions of the institutionalised religions and provide spiritual guidance, moral orientation, ritual passages and a sense of community......Drawing on recent advances in mediatisation theory, the article presents a theoretical framework for understanding the increased interplay between religion and media. The media have become an important, if not primary, source of information about religious issues, and religious information...

  18. Social Psychological Face Perception: Why Appearance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Montepare, Joann M.

    2009-01-01

    We form first impressions from faces despite warnings not to do so. Moreover, there is considerable agreement in our impressions, which carry significant social outcomes. Appearance matters because some facial qualities are so useful in guiding adaptive behavior that even a trace of those qualities can create an impression. Specifically, the qualities revealed by facial cues that characterize low fitness, babies, emotion, and identity are overgeneralized to people whose facial appearance resembles the unfit (anomalous face overgeneralization), babies (babyface overgeneralization), a particular emotion (emotion face overgeneralization), or a particular identity (familiar face overgeneralization). We review studies that support the overgeneralization hypotheses and recommend research that incorporates additional tenets of the ecological theory from which these hypotheses are derived: the contribution of dynamic and multi-modal stimulus information to face perception; bidirectional relationships between behavior and face perception; perceptual learning mechanisms and social goals that sensitize perceivers to particular information in faces. PMID:20107613

  19. The cultural evolution of prosocial religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Shariff, Azim F; Gervais, Will M; Willard, Aiyana K; McNamara, Rita A; Slingerland, Edward; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10-12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate.

  20. Physiological, Psychological, and Social Effects of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryter, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.

  1. Job Insecurity as a Social Psychological Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuykova T.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a relatively new phenomenon of job insecurity. It provides an analysis of the various interpretations of the phenomenon given by Russian and foreign researchers, focuses on its social economical determinants and consequences for individuals and organizations. The paper concludes with an outline of some possible ways of overcoming the negative consequences of job insecurity — as for individuals, as for organizations, as for the society as a whole.

  2. Religion and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality.

  3. Differences in Beliefs about Psychological Services in the Relationship between Sociorace and One's Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…

  4. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  5. Common sense, intuition, and theory in personality and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical work in personality and social psychology benefits from a well-developed understanding of the prior empirical and theoretical work on a problem and from informed intuitions. Intuitions develop about a subject matter through years of study, investigation, and problem solving, just as chess masters develop a sophisticated set of cognitive structures that change the very appearance of the chess board. In part because the subject matter is so personal, students new to personality and social psychology arrive with many intuitions, prior beliefs, and naive theories about social processes and behavior based on unsystematic experiences and observations. These intuitions can hinder or foster theoretical progress. The role of mentors, critiques, and empirical tests in minimizing the deleterious effects of these entry biases is discussed. Refined scientific intuitions are also subject to error, however, so means of minimizing these errors are also discussed.

  6. Solomon Asch – Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif: two social psychologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Bečaj

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available There is almost no current textbook of social psychology, in which the chapter of conformism would not start with the description of the Asch's experiment with line-length and Sherif's experiment with auto kinetic effect. Social norm is the bonding topic of the two. Sherif is supposed to have shown the shaping of social norms, whereas Asch is supposed to have demonstrated how they are maintained through the pressure on the subject to conform. Both authors are usually cited together and because they are connected with the same phenomenon, one can get the impression that they are talking about two dimensions of the same socio-psychological topic, discussed from similar theoretical standpoints. But detailed analysis of both experiments and comparison of the cognitive models of the authors that led to these experiments suggest that such an impression could be wrong. In fact, two different theoretical models are in question, which have barely anything in common.

  7. Social Network Dynamics and Psychological Adjustment among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Fukukawa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the social network structure in a university class and how it changed over time. In addition, student rankings of social status in the class based on different network centrality measures were compared, and associations between students’ social status and psychological adjustment were evaluated. One university seminar class in which ten juniors and ten seniors were enrolled was followed for six months. Although the class network consisted of some disconnected subgroups at baseline, it became a single group at followup. In addition to these structural changes, measures of network integration (density and transitivity also increased from baseline to follow-up. Comparisons of centrality measures indicated that the information centrality measure best captured the network infrastructure compared to the betweenness, closeness, and degree centrality measures. Furthermore, among the centrality measures, information centrality had the most stable positive association with psychological adjustment. Theoretical and practical implications of these peer network dynamics and adjustment issues are discussed.

  8. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.

  9. Promoting a culture of innovation: BJSP and the emergence of new paradigms in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, Stephen

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I start by describing the role played by British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) in nurturing two important new paradigms in social psychology - the social identity approach and discourse psychology. I then consider the forces in contemporary academia, in general, and psychology, in particular, that militate against innovation. I conclude by suggesting some ways in which individual social psychologists and our journals, particularly BJSP, can contribute to the development of an innovative and intellectually dynamic discipline.

  10. Mischaracterizing social psychology to support the laudable goal of increasing its political diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.

  11. What social psychology can do for prevention of illness and adaptation to illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie

    The progress in fundamental social psychological research has become smaller and because of this, our society increasingly pushes scientific social psychology, and other sciences, into the direction of utility and valorisation. At the same time there is a painful short of use of social psychological

  12. Psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Villosio, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify the main psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes. It is well recognized that athlete disposition and attitude towards doping is one of the factors responsible for doping behavior. Less is known, however, about the factors that sustain the level of athletes' attitudes towards doping. The main psychological (i.e., perfectionism, sport motivation, self-confidence and life satisfaction) and social correlates (i.e., social network and contact with people who use sports drugs) of attitudes towards doping among Italian athletes are examined in this paper. Differences are hypothesized regarding the type of sport (resistance sport vs. non-resistance sport) and athlete participation in competitive sport (i.e., agonistics) or in non-competitive sport (i.e., amateurs) on the level of attitude towards doping. The research hypothesis is that each of these constructs affects the level of athletes' attitudes toward doping. Data were collected from a sample of athletes (N=109), aged from 15 to 45 (M=31.5; SD=13.78) recruited in a Sports Medicine Center. Socio-demographic information, attitude towards doping, psychological and social variables were assessed through self-report questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that both psychological (i.e., extrinsic motivation, perfectionism) and social variables (i.e., athletes' contact with doping users) were associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping. The results highlighted that athletes with excessive perfectionism, extrinsically motivated and who have contact with doping users have a positive attitude toward doping. Athletes who exhibit these characteristics should be considered at risk and monitored to prevent possible future sports drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships and the social brain: integrating psychological and evolutionary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Alistair; Dunbar, Robin; Binder, Jens; Arrow, Holly

    2012-05-01

    Psychological studies of relationships tend to focus on specific types of close personal relationships (romantic, parent-offspring, friendship) and examine characteristics of both the individuals and the dyad. This paper looks more broadly at the wider range of relationships that constitute an individual's personal social world. Recent work on the composition of personal social networks suggests that they consist of a series of layers that differ in the quality and quantity of relationships involved. Each layer increases relationship numbers by an approximate multiple of 3 (5-15-50-150) but decreasing levels of intimacy (strong, medium, and weak ties) and frequency of interaction. To account for these regularities, we draw on both social and evolutionary psychology to argue that relationships at different layers serve different functions and have different cost-benefit profiles. At each layer, the benefits are asymptotic but the costs of maintaining a relationship at that level (most obviously, the time that has to be invested in servicing it) are roughly linear with the number of relationships. The trade-off between costs and benefits at a given level, and across the different types of demands and resources typical of different levels, gives rise to a distribution of social effort that generates and maintains a hierarchy of layered sets of relationships within social networks. We suggest that, psychologically, these trade-offs are related to the level of trust in a relationship, and that this is itself a function of the time invested in the relationship. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders and religion in contemporary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, K

    2007-10-01

    After a retrospect on former viewpoints about the relationship between psychiatry and religion, especially concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders (S. Freud; "Ekklesiogenic Neurosis") a contemporary perspective shows: religion is hardly mentioned in German-speaking psychiatry textbooks. Pathogenic interaction between religion and psychological disorders is discussed in plurifactorial perspective. Religious views can be distorted by psychic disorders and adapted to the disorders. Starting from an anthropological definition of religion (C. Geertz), the paper presents three functions of religion and explains the relationship of Christian faith and obsessions/compulsions. Teaching programs for students and psychiatrists seem indicated for a better understanding of religion (and its absence) in the context of psychological disorders.

  15. Computing Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... and its targeted empirical space and 2.) a new kind of data which allows the researcher to observe abstract constructs, estimate likely outcomes, and optimize empirical designs. Because sophisticated mulitilevel research is a collaborative project we also seek to introduce to scholars of religion some...

  16. Media, Religion and Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe FALCĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between religion and politics are complex and paradoxical. Both strive to achieve and maintain power. Both politics and religion involve control over social relations and emphasiye social integration (politics in its concern for order in society, and religion in its concern for observance of order and obligations within the congregation. But they differ in respect of specific goals, the values ​​that ascribe to power and differences in their conceptions of the nature and source of power. In the modern world, power, embodied in political institutions, is secular; in the past, its association with religion created a transcendental relationship, causing the possession of power to be of different quality, to come from another world. But, while politics is focused on interpersonal relationships, religion is more oriented towards relations between humans and gods or other spiritual forces.

  17. Publication patterns in developmental psychology: Trends and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobermann, Darja; Hamilton, Ian S

    2017-08-01

    Interest in publication patterns has been steady. Journals have instituted policies in an effort to curb bias and provide globally representative research. This study aimed to examine if publication patterns were present in two developmental psychology journals. It also explored the social networks of prominent authors and the prevalence of informal author-editor relationships, searching for any potential power groups. Data were taken from empirical articles published between 2005 and 2014 in Child Development (CD) and The International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC) data points were geographical authorship affiliation, informal author relationships as established by co-publishing, and connections to journal editors via identical affiliation. Results confirmed the previously established North American dominance in published research. In CD a strongly interlinked social network was identified between authors over the 10 years, with 15 chief influentialists binding groups of authors together. Results suggest that patterns are still present in published research in the realm of developmental psychology. To conclude, the potential implications of these patterns within developmental psychology are presented. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2008-03-01

    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  19. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients

  20. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  1. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants' motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants' actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual's level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Barbera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Developing a Reporting Guideline for Social and Psychological Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sean; Montgomery, Paul; Hopewell, Sally; Macdonald, Geraldine; Moher, David; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2013-11-01

    Social and psychological interventions are often complex. Understanding randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of these complex interventions requires a detailed description of the interventions tested and the methods used to evaluate them; however, RCT reports often omit, or inadequately report, this information. Incomplete and inaccurate reporting hinders the optimal use of research, wastes resources, and fails to meet ethical obligations to research participants and consumers. In this article, we explain how reporting guidelines have improved the quality of reports in medicine and describe the ongoing development of a new reporting guideline for RCTs: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials-SPI (an extension for social and psychological interventions). We invite readers to participate in the project by visiting our website, in order to help us reach the best-informed consensus on these guidelines (http://tinyurl.com/CONSORT-study).

  4. What kinds of conservatives does social psychology lack, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Although Duarte et al.'s claims about the potential benefits of greater political diversity in the ranks of social psychology are apt, their discussion of the decline in such diversity, the role played by self-selection, and the specific domains they cite in discussing an anti-conservative bias raise issues that merit closer examination. The claim that sound research and analysis challenging liberal orthodoxies fails to receive a fair hearing in our journals and professional discourse is also disputed.

  5. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Oppong

    2014-01-01

    In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents) or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST). Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interd...

  6. The winds of change: some challenges in reconfiguring social psychology for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    In this short article, I celebrate the plurality and eclecticism of the British Journal of Social Psychology. I argue that this approach offers the best hope for an uncertain future. The powerful narrative on which social psychology was once based is fragmenting in part due to Research Assessment Exercise (RAE/REF) pressures. Social psychological topics and research are migrating outside institutional Psychology, and the BJSP needs to follow. Examples of recent social research on affect and emotion are used to illustrate the new spreading and reach of social psychological topics and issues.

  7. On Social and Organisational Psychology: Interview with Alex Haslam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Glăveanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this interview Prof. Alex Haslam discusses his past and present work in social and organisational psychology and the multiple ways in which these two fields are inter-connected. He considers the guiding threads within his scientific activity from the famous BBC Prison Study to more recent work on leadership. Covering both theoretical to applied considerations, this interview addresses important questions for psychologists working in organisations and elsewhere in society. It offers a glimpse into the fascinating world of humans as social beings capable of forming groups and sharing identities, of including but also excluding, of both following and leading.

  8. Notas para uma genealogia da Psicologia Social Notes for a genealogy of Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Neves da Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma "desnaturalização" do conceito de social, pretende-se situar as condições de possibilidade para a invenção da psicologia social. Utilizando uma estratégia genealógica, nosso objetivo é mostrar que, no lugar da psicologia explicar o social, é o próprio social que deve explicar o surgimento da psicologia moderna. Para tanto, é preciso deixar de considerar o social como sinônimo da noção de sociabilidade e passar a considerá-lo como algo essencialmente construído a partir de determinadas práticas humanas. Tal problematização permite entender como se produzem, no final do século XIX, as primeiras aproximações da psicologia moderna em direção ao social a partir das questões relacionadas ao fenômeno das multidões.The "denaturalization" of the concept "social" allow us to situate the conditions to the invention of social psychology. Using the genealogy strategy, our goal is to show that it is not psychology that explains the "social" but it is the "social" itself that explains the emergence of modern psychology. In order to attain our goal it is necessary to abandon the use of social as a synonym of sociability and to consider the "social" as a product essentially constructed by determinate human practices. This strategy allows us to understand how, at the end of the XIX century, modern psychology's firsts theoretical approaches towards the "social" were produced from matters related to the phenomena of the masses.

  9. Television: The New State Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the special characteristics of television that make it a formula-bound, ritualistic, repetitive, and nonselectively used system; concludes that television's social symbolic functions resemble preindustrial religions more than they do the media that preceded it. (GT)

  10. Writing social psychology: fictional things and unpopulated texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the author's position on the question how to write social psychology. It reflects the author's long-term interest in rhetoric and his more recent concerns about the writing of social scientists. The author argues that social psychologists tend to produce unpopulated texts, writing about 'fictional things' rather than people. Social psychologists assume that their technical terms are more precise than ordinary language terms. The author contests this assumption. He suggests that when it comes to describing human actions, ordinary language on the whole tends to be more precise. The paper analyses why this should be the case, drawing on ideas from linguistics and Vaihinger's notion of fictions. The author presents examples to show how psychological writers, by using passives and nominals, can omit information about the agents of action and the nature of the actions that they are performing. Although their texts may appear impressively technical, they can, in fact, be highly imprecise. Moreover, social psychologists, by using this nominal style of writing, tend to write about processes as if they were things and then attribute actions to these things. In so doing, they create 'fictional things', which they treat as if they were real things. The author offers six recommendations for writing in simpler, clearer ways.

  11. Developing teachers' social and emotional competence: a humanistic psychology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Palomero Fernández

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The social and emotional competences of teachers have a notable influence on the type of teaching that is carried out and on the type of relationships that are built in the classroom. Training teachers in personal aspects is a current urging need. Since the end of the last century there have a great deal of enriching research, courses and publications on teachers' emotional and social intelligence. From the point of view of training, this article presents some limitations of certain emerging proposals. Next, an alternative is proposed, based on the principles of humanistic psychology and promoting the development of five attitudes directly related to the teacher's emotional and social competence: phenomenological disposition, autonomy, responsibility, criteria independence and cooperative disposition. Finally, some the possible shortcomings and negative aspects of the proposed model are discussed, highlighting the need to further investigate the efficiency and relevance of training proposals such as the one presented here in order to increase their social impact.

  12. Components of social capital and socio-psychological factors that worsen the perceived health of Japanese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Hiroko; Yoshino, Ryozo; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2008-10-01

    Social capital refers to the quantity and quality of social relationships, such as formal and informal social connections as well as norms of reciprocity and trust that exist in a place or a community. This article analyzed the data from Japan 2004 B Survey in order to elucidate the effects of social capital and socio-psychological factors on the health of Japanese males and females. The Survey was a part of a nationwide random study on Japanese national character, which has been conducted by the Institute of Statistical Mathematics since 1953. A total of 785 (372 males and 413 females) valid data from 1,200 adult samples were used. Logistic regression analysis showed that the self-reported symptoms were increased by negative attitude to generalized trust in males, and by negative attitude to norm of reciprocity in females. Moreover, in females, health dissatisfaction was enhanced by low perceptions of support. In both genders, self-reported symptoms and health dissatisfaction were worsened by anxiety. The self-reported symptoms were increased by an adherence to religion and spirituality in males, whereas in females, the health dissatisfaction increased with low income and a concern about superstitions. Thus, from a viewpoint of social capital, perceived health is susceptible to personal relationships in females and to distrust in males. Anxiety seems a key factor affecting perceived health. In addition, females are influenced by economic status and superstitions, whereas males are more concerned about religion or the mind in relation to health. These findings are useful in developing health policies for Japanese.

  13. Psicologia social de la adolescencia (Social Psychology of the Adolescent).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…

  14. Connections between Marxism and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régio Bento

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research we shall verify the influence of Nicaraguan experience on breaking the paradigm under which religion and religious actors would be more associated to status quo preservation rather than its rupture. According to our work hypothesis, in Nicaragua religion was not the opium of the people, used for its social anesthesia, but the promoter of social changes, and through international diffusion of this experience, mainly in the context of socialist countries, the alliance between laic and Christian socialists in Nicaragua promoted also a shift in the traditional hermeneutic paradigm which reduced religion to the permanent condition of opium of the people.

  15. Obadia L., La religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Servais

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Comment casser quelques idées reçues sur la religion et, ce faisant, initier le com­mun des lecteurs à diverses problématiques relevant de la sociologie des religions, c’est ce double objectif que s’assigne implicitement l’ouvrage.Le livre est, dans cette perspective, élaboré autour de 21 questions que l’auteur se propose de discuter sur la base d’éléments des sciences humaines et sociales. Sont ain­si abordés pêle-mêle : l’origine, l’unité et la diversité des religions, les fonctions, for­me...

  16. Religion and cancer: examining the possible connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Jacquelyn N

    2009-01-01

    Numerous sound scientific studies (cross-sectional and longitudinal) have found a positive correlation between religion and physical and mental health. In particular, there is evidence that demonstrates that religion helps cancer patients better adjust to and cope with their disease, at least psychologically. However, some research suggests that mediating factors associated with religion may explain the positive effects of religion on health. This article argues that even if this is the case, there is still intrinsic value to religion in that the mediators themselves are strongly connected to religion, and therefore religion is important to the patient in terms of coping, support, hope, and meaning. This has possible important implications for clinical practice.

  17. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  18. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Psicologia social comunitária profissional Community social psychology and professional preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto aborda questões relativas à construção da psicologia social comunitária no Brasil e as interfaces deste processo histórico com a formação profissional. Para tanto, apóia-se em dados sobre o contexto histórico e social brasileiro no decorrer da efetivação das práticas psicológicas em comunidades. Finalmente, o estudo propõe reflexões quanto ao descompasso entre a formação e os fenômenos sociais contemporâneos.The following paper approaches issues related to the Community Social Psychology's construction in Brazil and the interactions of this historical process with the professional preparation. For this purpose, the Brazilian historical and social context is taken into consideration in order to reach effective psychological practices in communities. In addition, it associates Community Social Psychology's characteristics with the professional preparation and the Psychology's construction. Finally, this paper considers reflections about the professional preparation and contemporaries social phenomena.

  1. University-Community Partnership: Teaching Applied Social Psychology to Foster Engagement in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Richard J.; Bridges, K. Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we present a novel way to integrate psychological theories and research methods in an applied social psychology course as a means to foster engagement in a university-community partnership. We taught an advanced course on the application of social psychological theories and research methods to junior and senior undergraduates. Our…

  2. "If you want to understand something, try to change it": Social-psychological interventions to cultivate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Walton, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    We argue that social psychology has unique potential for advancing understanding of resilience. An exciting development that illustrates this is the emergence of social-psychological interventions - brief, stealthy, and psychologically precise interventions - that can yield broad and lasting benefit

  3. "If you want to understand something, try to change it": Social-psychological interventions to cultivate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Walton, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    We argue that social psychology has unique potential for advancing understanding of resilience. An exciting development that illustrates this is the emergence of social-psychological interventions - brief, stealthy, and psychologically precise interventions - that can yield broad and lasting

  4. The psychological costs of social support imbalance: Variation across relationship context and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Diana; Gruenewald, Tara

    2017-02-01

    Psychological well-being benefits of receiving social support are well-established. Growing evidence also suggests parallel benefits of giving support. However, much less attention has been given to understanding the psychological correlates of imbalance in giving and receiving social support. We examined associations between social support (given, received, and imbalance) and psychological well-being in multiple relationship types (friends, family, and spouse). Greater levels of both receiving and giving social support were independently associated with more favorable psychological well-being, while imbalance in the ratio of support given and received was associated with poorer psychological well-being. Findings varied between relationship types and across age.

  5. The Evaluation of Significant Figures in the History of Social Psychology: A Class Exercise in the Teaching of Introductory Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, John Michael; Chambers, Timothy Peter

    2017-01-01

    In teaching social psychology, the process of identifying a particular theorist can lead to an enhanced understanding of the theories associated with that individual. Employing this process into a summative assessment, this article outlines an exercise that facilitated the teaching of introductory social psychology to 147 undergraduate students.…

  6. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.

  7. Collision of Epistemological Frameworks: Religion and Social Science's Unshared Understanding of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Religious scholars and social science experts frequently differ and sometimes clash when writing and discussing issues of ethics. Sometimes unshared understandings on fundamental world-view issues is the etiology for these differences. Differences in defining truth, whether philosophically or empirically, often is at the root etiology in these…

  8. Religion is natural, atheism is not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.; Markússon, Gudmundur Ingi

    2010-01-01

    accounts of atheism offered by cognitive scientists of religion as being based on unfounded assumptions about the psychology of atheists, and object to the notion that the natural aspects of religion by corollary make atheism unnatural. By considering human cognition in a semiotic framework and emphasizing...

  9. Analysis of college students' religion belief from perspective of psychology%心理学视阈下大学生信仰宗教的原因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立青; 李琦; 章建明; 罗斌华

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing from the psychological perspective,we find that some college students believe in a specific religion because that the mystery of religion tallies with the college students' curiosity,that the humanity of religion agrees with their yearn for affection,that the solidarity of religion meets their needs for a sense of belonging,and that the comfort of religion helps them to let out their emotion and ease their mental pressure.To guide the college students in their religion belief,the colleges and universities should introduce the college students' proper religious knowledge so as to eliminate them the mysterious sense of religion,construct a harmonious campus culture and create a harmonious atmosphere on campus,and enhance their psychological education so as to improve the students' adaptability to the society.%从心理学层面分析,大学生信仰宗教的原因是宗教的神秘性契合了大学生的好奇心理,宗教的"仁爱"性契合了大学生释放爱的心理需求,宗教的团契性契合了大学生社会支持和归属感的心理需求,宗教的慰籍性契合了大学生情感宣泄、缓解压力的心理需求。因此,为有效解决大学生信仰宗教的问题,高校应适当正面介绍宗教知识,消除大学生对宗教的神秘认识;应加强和谐校园文化建设,营造人文关怀的和谐校园氛围;应加强心理健康教育和思想政治理论课教育,提高大学生的社会适应能力。

  10. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  11. Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-05-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children's social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation.

  12. Social Psychological Conditions of Psychological Well-Being in Individuals Who Have Experienced Critical Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergamenshchik L.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of maintaining psychological well-being in individuals who have experienced critical events. The research presented in this paper was carried out within the paradigm of salutogenesis, according to which the most crucial factors in preserving one’s mental and physical health are the realization of the inner potential, cognitive and physical activity, orientation towards healthy life goals, and self-actualization, and not only the absence of illness and disabilities. The authors describe a procedure of methodological triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data that enabled them to outline the social psychological conditions necessary for the positive functioning of individuals who have experienced critical events.

  13. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  14. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 5, No 2 (2000) ... Influence of locus of control on conformity to authority in a multicultural ... Psychology and the increasing crime rate in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  15. Indigenous religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  16. Whence Religion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Bidraget undersøger hvordan, hvornår og hvorfor religion er opstået. Med udgangspunkt i nyere neurologi, arkæologi og kognitiv religionsvidenskab kapitlet begrunder sin hypotese om at vi er intelligente aber som er meget følelsesladet, nemt forskrækket, meget overtroisk og ekstremt sensitiv til...

  17. Predicting Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the influence of liberal ideas on the capacity for Religious Education (RE) to consider religions critically in a climate of increasing government intervention in education. It finds that criticality in some areas of RE is absent or limited but that in key areas criticality is evident if not always deeply embedded. It…

  18. Predicting Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the influence of liberal ideas on the capacity for Religious Education (RE) to consider religions critically in a climate of increasing government intervention in education. It finds that criticality in some areas of RE is absent or limited but that in key areas criticality is evident if not always deeply embedded. It…

  19. Notas de pesquisa de campo em psicologia social Field research notes on social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Narita

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute questões teóricas e metodológicas referentes à pesquisa de campo em Psicologia Social. Procura trazer contribuições à pesquisa qualitativa, enfocando especialmente a situação de entrevista e o tratamento dos dados. Utiliza o conceito de habitus de classe de Pierre Bourdieu para debater a relação indivíduo-grupo-sociedade, problema teórico-metodológico de fundo, e tema, fundamental para a Psicologia Social.This article discusses theoretical and methodological issues related to field research on Social Psychology. Its objective is to contribute to qualitative research, focusing mainly on interview situations and data handling. It relies on Pierre Bourdieu's class habitus concept to discuss the individual-group-society relationship, a background theoretical-methodological problem, and a fundamental subject to Social Psychology.

  20. Influence of family, religion, and social conformity on client participation in sexual reorientation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccio, Elaine M

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the likelihood of participating in sexual reorientation therapy (SRT) based on actual or expected family reactions to the disclosure of one's same-sex sexuality, religious fundamentalism, social conformity, and several demographic variables. A sample of 52 SRT participants and 211 SRT nonparticipants who had ever identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual completed a survey either online or in hardcopy format. Actual or expected negative family reactions, high religious fundamentalism, and identifying as spiritual significantly increased one's odds of participating in SRT. The findings are essential for preparing practitioners in any clinical practice setting to work with clients struggling with their sexuality.

  1. Religion, body satisfaction and dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karen Hye-Cheon

    2006-05-01

    Western societal pressures of thinness have assigned worth to the ideal body, contributing to body dissatisfaction and increased dieting. A social factor that may serve as an alternative avenue of worth than the body is religion. Survey data from a community sample (n=546) was collected to examine religion's relationships with body satisfaction and dieting. Religion was significantly related to greater body satisfaction and less dieting, and specifically negative aspects of religion were related to lower body satisfaction and greater dieting. Those utilizing more negative religious coping had lower body satisfaction (women: r=-0.47; men: r=-0.58). Self-esteem was a mediator in these relationships. In women, those reporting higher negative congregational social support were more likely to diet than those reporting lower levels (CI: 2.0; 1.2, 3.5). Overall, religion was related to body satisfaction and dieting, with specifically negative aspects of religion having more consistent and stronger relationships than other components of religion.

  2. Public Participation and Institutional Fit: A Social-Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public participation plays a role in the development and long-term maintenance of environmental institutions that are well-matched to local social-ecological conditions. However, the means by which public participation impacts such institutional fit remains unclear. We argue that one major reason for this lack of clarity is that analysts have not clearly outlined how humankind's sense of agency, or self-determination, influences institutional outcomes. Moreover, the concept of institutional fit is ambiguous as to what constitutes a good fit and how such fit could be diagnosed or improved. This is especially true for "social fit," or how well institutions match human expectations and local behavioral patterns. We develop an interdisciplinary framework based on principles of human agency and institutional analysis from social psychology to address these problems. Using the concept of "institutional acceptance" as an indicator of social fit, we show how analysts can define, diagnose, and improve social fit of participatory programs. We also show how such fit emerges and is sustained over time. This interdisciplinary perspective on fit and participation has important implications for participatory approaches to environmental management and the scientific study of institutional evolution.

  3. Natural Resource Management at Four Social Scales: Psychological Type Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales—local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  4. Natural resource management at four social scales: psychological type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales-local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  5. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Louise Kinsella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (N = 189 freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others. In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (N = 249 rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (N = 242, participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4a (N = 38 and 4b (N = 102, participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modelling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.

  6. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Elaine L; Ritchie, Timothy D; Igou, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.

  7. Social psychology: new directions in computer-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Allinson

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps surprisingly, psychology has been a discipline eager to capitalize on the application of computers for teaching. Traditionally, this has been for statistical calculations, and the presentation of experimental stimuli and the automatic collection of timed events (e.g., reaction times, choice-decision times. Here, the traditional capabilities of computers are being exploited - namely, their accurate temporal sequencing, graphical performance, and, above all, their number crunching. As such, they have been powerful and essential tools for those involved in the more psychophysical or cognitive areas of psychology. Computer-based learning (CBL remains very much a preserve of these more formal domains. The arrival of hypermedia has opened the way for CBL to be exploited within the less formal domains of psychology; but the level of interactivity is usually very restricted, and the constrained presentational styles means that even this technological progression fails to meet the contextual richness needed in the teaching of much of the behavioural sciences. The advent of multimedia has for the first time provided the potential to explore, within the normal undergraduate learning environment, real behaviour using the observational techniques that form the basic methodology of the practising social psychologist.

  8. Bibliography of Journal Articles in Social Psychology: First Half of 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Deborah R.; Hendrick, Clyde

    The present bibliography updates three previous manuscripts which Hendrick helped develop. Articles from five journals are arranged alphabetically by heading and by author under 31 subject headings. The journals are Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Journal…

  9. Psychological Sense of Community and University Mission as Predictors of Student Social Justice Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Diaz, Elissa; Schamberger, Antú; Carollo, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Psychological sense of community (PSOC) is a construct that may facilitate social action in university students. Similarly, a social justice-focused university mission statement might also facilitate social action and interest. The current study investigated whether psychological sense of community, agreeing with the mission statement, and taking…

  10. Applying the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model to Older Sport Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary

    2011-01-01

    According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…

  11. NEW AND EMERGING PROFESSIONALS: Does Race Moderate Social Support and Psychological Distress Among Rural Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Adriana V; Wayde, Ernest N; Crowther, Martha R; Scogin, Forrest R

    Greater social support is associated with decreased psychological distress among older adults. Researchers have found racial differences in psychological distress. Might race moderate social support and psychological distress? The authors hypothesized African American collectivistic values could increase the importance of social support. Participants were rural adults aged 60 and older (N = 100). Multiple regression analyses controlled for health, income, education, and sex. Race moderated satisfaction with social support and psychological distress. However, greater satisfaction predicted less psychological distress among Caucasians while it was not associated with African Americans' distress in this sample. Achieving satisfaction with social support may be particularly important for Caucasians receiving therapy. Interventions may also address strategies to improve physical health, emotional support, and quality of social support, which significantly predicted psychological distress for both groups.

  12. Psychological resilience moderates the impact of social support on loneliness of "left-behind" children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hongshan; Hu, Junmin

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the moderator effect of psychological resilience on the relationship between social support and loneliness of the "left-behind" children. A total of 200 left-behind girls and 214 left-behind boys completed the measures of psychological resilience, social support, and loneliness. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that psychological resilience moderated the association between social support and loneliness. When left-behind children reported a low level of psychological resilience, those with high social support reported lower scores in loneliness than those with low social support. However, the impact of social support on loneliness was much smaller in the high psychological resilience group, compared with that in low psychological resilience group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Restarting TMI unit one: social and psychological impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Bolin, R.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.

    1983-12-01

    A technical background is provided for preparing an environmental assessment of the social and psychological impacts of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI). Its purpose is to define the factors that may cause impacts, to define what those impacts might be, and to make a preliminary assessment of how impacts could be mitigated. It does not attempt to predict or project the magnitude of impacts. Four major research activities were undertaken: a literature review, focus-group discussions, community profiling, and community surveys. As much as possible, impacts of the accident at Unit 2 were differentiated from the possible impacts of restarting Unit 1. It is concluded that restart will generate social conflict in the TMI vicinity which could lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, between 30 and 50 percent of the population possess characteristics which are associated with vulnerability to experiencing negative impacts. Adverse effects, however, can be reduced with a community-based mitigation strategy.

  14. Simulating market dynamics: interactions between consumer psychology and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marco A; Jager, Wander

    2003-01-01

    Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. In a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation model. The main results indicated that the behavioral rules dominating the artificial consumer's decision making determine the resulting market dynamics, such as fashions, lock-in, and unstable renewal. Results also show the importance of psychological variables like social networks, preferences, and the need for identity to explain the dynamics of markets. In this article we extend this work in two directions. First, we will focus on a more systematic investigation of the effects of different network structures. The previous article was based on Watts and Strogatz's approach, which describes the small-world and clustering characteristics in networks. More recent research demonstrated that many large networks display a scale-free power-law distribution for node connectivity. In terms of market dynamics this may imply that a small proportion of consumers may have an exceptional influence on the consumptive behavior of others (hubs, or early adapters). We show that market dynamics is a self-organized property depending on the interaction between the agents' decision-making process (heuristics), the product characteristics (degree of satisfaction of unit of consumption, visibility), and the structure of interactions between agents (size of network and hubs in a social network).

  15. La religione una risorsa formativa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nanni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to show how religion can contribute to the achievement of the human person. Religion, connected to the social and cultural framework, joins the individual world in its complexity. Is godlinesses a possible teaching resource? Yes, when read according to a pedagogical perspective, which support human advancement, historical and cultural being. The dialogue, good practice for any learning, it poses as a means to fight the life fragmentation in the discovery of common traces to all humanity.

  16. Marañón and historical social psychology: some theoretical questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Almagro González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology. The application of his method, as I shall try to show, can orient to us towards a social psychology concerned not only with the here and now of its object of study, but also with the way in which it has evolved through history. 

  17. Marañón and historical social psychology: some theoretical questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro González, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology. The application of his method, as I shall try to show, can orient to us towards a social psychology concerned not only with the here and now of its object of study, but also with the way in which it has evolved through history.

  18. Psychological, social and welfare interventions for psychological health and well-being of torture survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2014-11-11

    Torture is widespread, with potentially broad and long-lasting impact across physical, psychological, social and other areas of life. Its complex and diverse effects interact with ethnicity, gender, and refugee experience. Health and welfare agencies offer varied rehabilitation services, from conventional mental health treatment to eclectic or needs-based interventions. This review is needed because relatively little outcome research has been done in this field, and no previous systematic review has been conducted. Resources are scarce, and the challenges of providing services can be considerable. To assess beneficial and adverse effects of psychological, social and welfare interventions for torture survivors, and to compare these effects with those reported by active and inactive controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) all years to 11 April 2013; searches of Cochrane resources, international trial registries and the main biomedical databases were updated on 20 June 2014. We also searched the Online Library of Dignity (Danish Institute against Torture), reference lists of reviews and included studies and the most frequently cited journals, up to April 2013 but not repeated for 2014. Investigators were contacted to provide updates or details as necessary. Full publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs of psychological, social or welfare interventions for survivors of

  19. 2008 C. H. McCloy lecture. Social psychology and physical activity: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L

    2009-12-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all.

  20. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  1. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  2. Connecting Psychological Science with Climate Change: A Persuasion and Social Influence Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Behlen, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Students often have little understanding of the role psychological science plays in informing us about the impact of human behavior when addressing climate change. We designed an assignment for a social psychology course based on Frantz and Mayer's use of the decision tree model of helping behavior to identify the psychological barriers that…

  3. Lived religion: implications for nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

    2009-07-01

    This article explores how ethics and religion interface in everyday life by drawing on a study examining the negotiation of religious and spiritual plurality in health care. Employing methods of critical ethnography, namely, interviews and participant observation, data were collected from patients, health care providers, administrators and spiritual care providers. The findings revealed the degree to which 'lived religion' was intertwined with 'lived ethics' for many participants; particularly for people from the Sikh faith. For these participants, religion was woven into everyday life, making distinctions between public and private, secular and sacred spaces improbable. Individual interactions, institutional resource allocation, and social discourses are all embedded in social relationships of power that prevent religion from being a solely personal or private matter. Strategies for the reintegration of religion into nursing ethics are: adjusting professional codes and theories of ethics to reflect the influence of religion; and the contribution of critical perspectives, such as postcolonial feminism, to the understanding of lived ethics.

  4. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  5. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  6. Youth, work, unemployment and identity: An social psychological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena del Carmen Gallardo Góngora

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral thesis aims to study some of the aspects of the work of young unemployed Chileans. This was done through the analysis of their “centrality” by taking into account the influence of values and concepts they have about work, in the process of their identity construction. The research was divided into two different sections. The first one is the theoretical framework, which consists of studies and analysis from a  social  psychological perspective in relation to the phenomena that come up from the main purpose of the study. For example, youth as a psychosocial phenomenon; work as meaning, centrality and psychosocial functions; Identity under a psychosocial approach as well as psychosocial effects due to the unemployment they suffer. The second section of the research is the qualitative analysis, which considers work factors regarding to young unemployed Chileans as well as the influence of such factors in the process of their identity construction.

  7. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  8. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Earp

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The (latest crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how such replication should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. What does it mean if a replication attempt fails—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should failed replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing failed replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in purported findings.

  9. Disciplinary power and education: A foucaultian approach in Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available As a descendant of the Enlightenment, the school is still a vital modern institution, albeit in contemporary post-modern conditions. This article takes a Foucaultian perspective to analyse the power / knowledge and the regimes of truth involved. The arguments is that the power of the school comes from the inertial force of custom, which normalises  the school's disciplinary, sanctionary, instructional, and corrective practices. The modern educational project uses disciplinary methods that promote autoidiscipline and auto-regulation. Its instructional processes promote individualist learning, and its rituals turn habituation into internalisation. Consistent with the critical sentiments of a Social Psychology of Education, we propose a comprehensive approach to education and its links to acculturation, instruction, and schooling.  We use a critical radical pedagogy and post-structuralist analysis to argue for the need to rethink contemporary education.   

  10. Disciplinary power and education: A foucaultian approach in Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral Jiménez, María de la Vila

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available As a descendant of the Enlightenment, the school is still a vital modern institution, albeit in contemporary post-modern conditions. This article takes a Foucaultian perspective to analyse the power / knowledge and the regimes of truth involved. The arguments is that the power of the school comes from the inertial force of custom, which normalises the school's disciplinary, sanctionary, instructional, and corrective practices. The modern educational project uses disciplinary methods that promote autoidiscipline and auto-regulation. Its instructional processes promote individualist learning, and its rituals turn habituation into internalisation.Consistent with the critical sentiments of a Social Psychology of Education, we propose a comprehensive approach to education and its links to acculturation, instruction, and schooling. We use a critical radical pedagogy and post-structuralist analysis to argue for the need to rethink contemporary education.

  11. The social psychology of disintegrative shaming in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel H; Clarey, Amy M

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning drug education and zero tolerance policies, few have examined their combined youth impact. Comprehensive and nationally recognized mixed method evidence is drawn from 77 school districts and 118 schools in the Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Education (DATE) evaluation. For the first time it is found that the combined negative impact of traditional prevention and intervention efforts--e.g., Life Skills Training (LST) and zero tolerance policies-are so serious that they extend into the wider conditions of educational achievement. Findings are explained by the social psychological processes of "disintegrative shaming," where young people are to be shamed into abstinence and experiencing or witnessing school removal rather than help when needed. With more research needed the negative effects of traditional prevention and intervention-particularly salient among disproportionately affected urban/minority youth-suggest that related efforts be reconsidered together as well as part of mainstream education.

  12. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt "fails"-does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should "failed" replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing "failed" replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings.

  13. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D.; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt “fails”—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should “failed” replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing “failed” replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings. PMID:26042061

  14. Much ado about religion: Religiosity, resource loss, and support for political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Pedahzur, Ami; Zaidise, Eran

    2010-09-01

    The association between religion and violence has raised much interest in both academic and public circles. Yet on the individual level, existing empirical accounts are both sparse and conflicting. Based on previous research which found that religion plays a role in the support of political violence only through the mediation of objective and perceived deprivations, the authors test Conservation of Resource (COR) theory as an individual level explanation for the association of religion, socio-economic deprivations, and support for political violence. COR theory predicts that when individuals' personal, social or economic resources are threatened, a response mechanism may include violence. Utilizing two distinct datasets, and relying on structural equation models analysis, the latter two stages of a three-stage study are reported here. In a follow-up to their previous article, the authors refine the use of socio-economic variables in examining the effects of deprivation as mediating between religion and political violence. Then, they analyze an independent sample of 545 Muslims and Jews, collected during August and September 2004, to test a psychological-based explanation based on COR theory. This study replaces measures of deprivation used in the previous stages with measures of economic and psychological resource loss. Findings show that the relationship between religion and support of political violence only holds true when mediated by deprivations and psychological resource loss. They also suggest that the typical tendency to focus on economic resource loss is over-simplistic as psychological, not economic, resources seem to mediate between religion and support of violence.

  15. What neuroimaging and brain localization can do, cannot do and should not do for social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T; Dunn, Elizabeth W

    2003-10-01

    Interest in bridging social psychology and neuroscience has seen a significant upsurge. Much of this interest has centered on brain localization--the attempt to relate psychological events to locations of brain events. Although many articles have sought to localize brain activity that supports social behavior, scant attention has been paid to the specific methods to be used in integrating brain localization data into psychological theory. The authors describe 4 strategies psychologists can use to integrate brain localization data and psychological theory, and they consider whether social psychology presents special considerations in the use of these strategies. They conclude that brain localization offers a useful tool for some but not all problems in social psychology, and they discuss the types of problems for which it may and may not prove useful.

  16. The Public Presence of Religion in Western Europe: its social significance among religious constituencies lying between the secular and churchgoing Christians?

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Glendinning

    2014-01-01

    The study examines attitudes about public religion in the Netherlands, Britain, France and Denmark using ISSP survey data for 1998 and 2008. The context is de-privatization of religion in secular Western Europe due to Christian cultural defence. The majority of Dutch and British participants hold moderate opinions about mixing religion and politics. The majority of French and Danish participants are against public religion. Comparing 2008 to 1998, anti-public-religion attitudes are more evide...

  17. O conceito de representação social na abordagem psicossocial The concept of social representations in social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane P. Spink

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da definição de representação social como forma de conhecimento prático, este artigo procura situar a abordagem da Psicologia Social entre as demais correntes que se debruçam sobre a questão do conhecimento. Acatando a interdisciplinaridade intrínseca ao campo de estudos das representações sociais, são analisados tanto os aspectos comuns às diversas disciplinas como a contribuição específica da Psicologia Social. Na perspectiva transdisciplinar, as representações sociais emergem como um campo multidimensional que possibilita questionar, de um lado, a natureza do conhecimento e, de outro, a relação indivíduo-sociedade, inserindo este campo de estudos entre as correntes epistemológicas pós-modernas. A contribuição específica da Psicologia Social é analisada, num primeiro momento, do ponto de vista teórico, sendo enfatizada a vocação desta disciplina de trabalhar as representações simultaneamente como campos socialmente estruturados e núcleos estruturantes da realidade social. Num segundo momento é destacada a contribuição metodológica que abre espaço para a utilização de metodologias qualitativas e, mais especificamente, para o uso do caso único.Taking as a starting point the definition of social representation as a form of practical knowledge, this paper aims at situating the social psychology approach among the other disciplines which deal with the issue of knowledge. Accepting the implicit interdisciplinarity of this field of study, the paper analyzes both the common aspects of the field and the specific contribution of social psychology. In the transdisciplinary perspective, social representations emerge as a multidimensional concept which allows for a critical analysis of both the nature of knowledge and the relationship between the individual and society demonstrating its compatibility with post-modern epistemology. The specific contribution of social psychology is analyzed first from a

  18. Diffused Religion and Prayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite likely that the origins of prayer are to be found in ancient mourning and bereavement rites. Primeval ritual prayer was codified and handed down socially to become a deep-rooted feature of people’s cultural behavior, so much so, that it may surface again several years later, in the face of death, danger, need, even in the case of relapse from faith and religious practice. Modes of prayer depend on religious experience, on relations between personal prayer and political action, between prayer and forgiveness, and between prayer and approaches to religions. Various forms of prayer exist, from the covert-hidden to the overt-manifest kind. How can they be investigated? How can one, for instance, explore mental prayer? These issues regard the canon of diffused religion and, therefore, of diffused prayer.

  19. Effects of Social Psychological Phenomena on School Psychologists' Ethical Decision-Making: A Preliminary Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Lasser, Jon; Reardon, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary, exploratory study examines the impact of select social psychological phenomena on school-based ethical decision-making of school psychologists. Responses to vignettes and hypothetical statements reflecting several social psychological phenomena were collected from 106 practicing school psychologists. Participants were asked to…

  20. School Psychologists Ethical Decision Making: Implications from Selected Social Psychological Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry

    2007-01-01

    School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…

  1. Research Productivity in Top-Ranked Schools in Psychology and Social Work: Research Cultures Do Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J.; Barner, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We sought the answer to one major research question--Does psychology have a more defined culture of research than social work? Methods: Using "U.S. News and World Report" 2012 and 2013 rankings, we compared psychology faculty (N = 969) from their 25 top ranked programs with a controlled sample of social work faculty (N = 970)…

  2. A checklist to facilitate objective hypothesis testing in social psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.

  3. Introduction to Social Psychology: Administrative Manual [And] Student Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Robert E.

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in social psychology designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Social Psychology: Explorations in Understanding" (Del Mar, CA: CRM, 1974), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, and a…

  4. Social Desirability, Psychological Distress, and Consumer Satisfaction With Mental Health Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Stephane; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determined strength of relationship between social desirability, psychological distress, and consumer satisfaction with mental health treatment in 82 clients in therapy. Results indicated that both consumer satisfaction reports and psychological distress scores were contaminated by socially desirable responding. (Author/ABL)

  5. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  6. Social Networking in School Psychology Training Programs: A Survey of Faculty and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…

  7. Research Productivity in Top-Ranked Schools in Psychology and Social Work: Research Cultures Do Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J.; Barner, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We sought the answer to one major research question--Does psychology have a more defined culture of research than social work? Methods: Using "U.S. News and World Report" 2012 and 2013 rankings, we compared psychology faculty (N = 969) from their 25 top ranked programs with a controlled sample of social work faculty (N = 970)…

  8. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  9. The possibilities of performing social-psychological and ethnic mediations in Community Psychology in a Deep America perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góis, Cezar Wagner de Lima; de Oliveira, Luciane Alves; Góis, Sara Cavalcante; Silva, Alexsandra Maria Sousa

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the approximation between Community Psychology and the idea of Deep America, considering it capable of contributing through mediations and translations in the construction of knowledge and the recreation of social, ethnic, and human life as local diversity. We want to clarify the matter from Liberation and Southern epistemologies' point of views, and to present experiences that confirm this Community Psychology method. We talk about coloniality, connecting it to the Community Psychology method and emphasizing the importance of the social-psychological/ethnic mediation, of view interpretation, and the aspects that constitute mediation: dialogic, experiential, and participant. Finally, we briefly report some facilitation and research experiences performed by us in Ceará, mainly in the capital, Fortaleza, and in Sobral County.

  10. Discontinuities in the history of knowledge production in Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Neuza Guareschi; Carolina dos Reis; Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Simone Maria Hüning

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to problematize the history of knowledge production in the field of Social Psychology in Brazil. The data for analysis were the summaries of the Working Groups of Symposia of the Brazilian National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology since its beginning in 1988 until 2010, available on the official website of this association. In our analysis, we selected the statements that compose the discursive field of Social Psychology in Brazil. These discursive f...

  11. The Social Psychology of Citizenship, Participation and Social Exclusion: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Stevenson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special thematic section is to bring together recent social psychological research on the topic of citizenship with a view to discerning the emerging trends within the field and its potential contributions to the broader interdisciplinary area of citizenship studies. Eight papers spanning diverse theoretical traditions (including social identity, social representations and discursive approaches apply an array of methods to consider different aspects of citizenship across a variety of cultural and national contexts. Some focus on individuals’ perceptions and discussions of citizenship, others examine the group dynamics which flow from these understandings, and the rest examine the potential for citizenship to exclude as well as include marginalised communities. While diverse, the contributions share some core commonalities: all share a concern in trying to understand citizenship from the perspective of the citizen; all conceptualise citizenship as an active and reflective process occurring between members of a community; and all highlight the irreducibly social and collective nature of the experience and practice of citizenship in everyday life. We propose that these elements of convergence have the potential to give the social psychology of citizenship a solid basis and recognisable profile in order to contribute to the broader arena of citizenship studies.

  12. T.W. Adorno e a psicologia social T.W. Adorno and social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leon Crochík

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, ressalta-se a importância da disciplina Psicologia Social na obra de T. W. Adorno e a concepção que formula acerca dessa disciplina. Esse autor defende que há uma nova forma de configuração dos indivíduos, expressada por atitudes e comportamentos individuais padronizados e por um ego frágil, facilmente cooptado por movimentos sociais totalitários. Tais indivíduos surgem em uma sociedade caracterizada por uma forma de dominação calcada na racionalidade administrativa e tecnológica. Para esse autor, a Psicologia Social deveria estudar esse objeto para que, com o esclarecimento produzido e difundido, os indivíduos possam resistir à adesão cega a movimentos sociais irracionais, tal como o fascismo, insistindo que a determinação desses movimentos não é individual, mas social.In this assay, the importance of Social Psychology discipline in the T.W. Adorno's work and the specific conception that he formulates about it are pointed out. He defends that there is a new way of individuals' configuration, expressed by standardized attitudes and their own behaviors, such as a fragile ego, which is easily co-opted by totalitarian social movements. Such individuals appear in a society characterized by a form of domination based on administrative and technological rationality. For that author, Social Psychology would have to study this issue so that, with the enlightenment achieved and diffused, the individuals are able to resist to the blind adhesion in irrational social movements, such as the fascism. Adorno empathized that the determination of these movements is not individual, but social.

  13. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E

    2015-08-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of "the pill" there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, "hook-ups," cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided.

  14. Credibility of Deterrence Threats- A Social Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sheikh

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the prevailing ambiguities, impressionistic beliefs and perhaps distortions that shroud the contemporary deterrence theory and the various strategies of deterrence associated with it, this paper attempts to break fresh grounds, particularly in the area of threat credibility. By focusing the level of analysis somewhere between the individual personality and social structures and thus using a social psychological approach, it attempts to explain the behaviour (as related to the credibility of deterrence threats of national decision-makers, during acute international crises. After analyzing and re-evaluating the relevant literature in the field, the paper presents a functional model of threat perception involving two opponents. The model takes into account such variables as: (1 basic human needs; (2 role of reference groups; (3credibility and specificity of international threats; (4 leaders intentions and predispositions; and (5 self-perception of threats. The major conclusions of the paper are: (1 no communicative means for influencing human behaviour are uniformally effective because of the problem of distortion of perception; evidence suggests in most cases rationality under high fear is impaired because fear tends to reduce the range of clues which are available for the consideration of the threatened party.

  15. Social and Psychological Effects of the Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomidous, Marianna; Chardalias, Kostis; Magita, Adrianna; Koutonias, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulou, Paraskevi; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Over the past two decades there was an upsurge of the use of Internet in human life. With this continuous development, Internet users are able to communicate with any part of the globe, to shop online, to use it as a mean of education, to work remotely and to conduct financial transactions. Unfortunately, this rapid development of the Internet has a detrimental impact in our life, which leads to various phenomena such as cyber bullying, cyber porn, cyber suicide, Internet addiction, social isolation, cyber racism etc. The main purpose of this paper is to record and analyze all these social and psychological effects that appears to users due to the extensive use of the Internet. Materials and Methods: This review study was a thorough search of bibliography data conducted through Internet and library research studies. Key words were extracted from search engines and data bases including Google, Yahoo, Scholar Google, PubMed. Findings: The findings of this study showed that the Internet offers a quick access to information and facilitates communication however; it is quite dangerous, especially for young users. For this reason, users should be aware of it and face critically any information that is handed from the website PMID:27041814

  16. Gender Inequalities in Highly Qualified Professions: A Social Psychological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in social and political psychology contributes towards understanding the persistence of job market gender segregation prevailing in recent decades, the consequences for those involved and their reactions when having to cope with gender inequality. Within the framework of the literature on shared ideologies that justify and legitimize discrimination against women, this article focuses on Portugal and analyses the particular case of women in two highly qualified professions traditionally carried out by men – politics and medicine. Drawing on the results of quantitative and qualitative studies, our analytical approach demonstrates how while a majority of participants show awareness of the existence of gender inequality in these markedly masculine professions, meritocratic individualism and personal attributions to discrimination are the recurring explanations rather than any gender-based account. These results allow us to highlight the relevance of gender-based analysis as an ideology and furthermore to argue that ignoring this perspective not only diminishes individual responsibility for social change but also perpetuates gender asymmetries.

  17. The psychology of change: self-affirmation and social psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Geoffrey L; Sherman, David K

    2014-01-01

    People have a basic need to maintain the integrity of the self, a global sense of personal adequacy. Events that threaten self-integrity arouse stress and self-protective defenses that can hamper performance and growth. However, an intervention known as self-affirmation can curb these negative outcomes. Self-affirmation interventions typically have people write about core personal values. The interventions bring about a more expansive view of the self and its resources, weakening the implications of a threat for personal integrity. Timely affirmations have been shown to improve education, health, and relationship outcomes, with benefits that sometimes persist for months and years. Like other interventions and experiences, self-affirmations can have lasting benefits when they touch off a cycle of adaptive potential, a positive feedback loop between the self-system and the social system that propagates adaptive outcomes over time. The present review highlights both connections with other disciplines and lessons for a social psychological understanding of intervention and change.

  18. Religion and religiosity as cultural phenomena : from ontological reductionism to acknowledgment of plurality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.; Valsiner, J.; Marsico, G.; Chaudhary, N.; Sato, T.; Dazzani, V.

    2016-01-01

    After reminding some of the historical relationships between psychology and religion, this chapter explains what is usually understood by psychology of religion in a proper sense, differentiating it from neighboring fields such as ‘psychology and religion’ and ‘pastoral psychology.’ The chapter

  19. Religion and religiosity as cultural phenomena : from ontological reductionism to acknowledgment of plurality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.; Valsiner, J.; Marsico, G.; Chaudhary, N.; Sato, T.; Dazzani, V.

    2016-01-01

    After reminding some of the historical relationships between psychology and religion, this chapter explains what is usually understood by psychology of religion in a proper sense, differentiating it from neighboring fields such as ‘psychology and religion’ and ‘pastoral psychology.’ The chapter cont

  20. Essentialism goes social: belief in social determinism as a component of psychological essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Ulrike; Keller, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    Individuals tend to explain the characteristics of others with reference to an underlying essence, a tendency that has been termed psychological essentialism. Drawing on current conceptualizations of essentialism as a fundamental mode of social thinking, and on prior studies investigating belief in genetic determinism (BGD) as a component of essentialism, we argue that BGD cannot constitute the sole basis of individuals' essentialist reasoning. Accordingly, we propose belief in social determinism (BSD) as a complementary component of essentialism, which relies on the belief that a person's essential character is shaped by social factors (e.g., upbringing, social background). We developed a scale to measure this social component of essentialism. Results of five correlational studies indicate that (a) BGD and BSD are largely independent, (b) BGD and BSD are related to important correlates of essentialist thinking (e.g., dispositionism, perceived group homogeneity), (c) BGD and BSD are associated with indicators of fundamental epistemic and ideological motives, and (d) the endorsement of each lay theory is associated with vital social-cognitive consequences (particularly stereotyping and prejudice). Two experimental studies examined the idea that the relationship between BSD and prejudice is bidirectional in nature. Study 6 reveals that rendering social-deterministic explanations salient results in increased levels of ingroup favoritism in individuals who chronically endorse BSD. Results of Study 7 show that priming of prejudice enhances endorsement of social-deterministic explanations particularly in persons habitually endorsing prejudiced attitudes.

  1. Perceived Racial Discrimination, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Bowman, Marvella A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three competing models of the relations among perceived discrimination, social support, and indicators of psychological adjustment in a sample of 135 African American college students. The three competing models, social support buffering, social support mobilization, and social support deterioration, were…

  2. AIDS Exceptionalism: On the Social Psychology of HIV Prevention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2009-12-01

    The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed "AIDS Exceptionalism"- departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for "Prevention for Positives," supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven "prevention" that only served a particular political agenda.Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961).

  3. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  4. Social capital and psychological distress of elderly in Japanese rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Ito, Katsuhisa; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2011-04-01

    The growing recognition of the social determinants of health has stimulated research on social capital and mental health. We explored new empirical evidence regarding whether social capital was a determinant of psychological distress. Baseline surveys examining psychological distress were conducted in two towns in 2006–2007 (participation rates for those aged 20 or over were 27.6 per cent, 6.1 per cent). We also conducted follow-up surveys in 2008 to capture the social capital measured by trust. By linking these data and excluding the missing data, 141 males and 234 females remained as the subjects of our study. Results showed that the odds ratios of psychological distress was higher in groups with low social capital measured by trust (odds ratio 2.17; 95 per cent CI, 1.40-3.36), than those in groups with high social capital. Further, we examined the interaction effect of social capital and social support. The odds ratios of psychological distress was higher in groups with some social support/lower trust (odds ratio 2.21; 95 per cent CI, 1.36-3.58) or no social support/lower trust (odds ratio 2.07; 95 per cent CI, 1.06–4.05), than those in groups with some social support/higher trust. These findings reinforce the hypothesized discussion regarding pathways from social capital to psychological distress via supportive relationships.

  5. The sociologically acceptable definition of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author has presented several important issues regarding the sociology of religion, but primarily the issue of the sociologically acceptable definition of religion both in theoretical and empirical research. Bearing in mind the sociology of religion in former Yugoslavia the author has first discussed the possibility of a general definition of the sociology of religion, but has stated the opposite view as well. Then he has dealt with the two basic approaches towards religion and two general definitions of sociology, namely substantial and functional ones. Finally the author has tried to define the religiousness in terms of sociological empirical research of human attachment to religion and church in post-socialism.

  6. Social Change: Toward an Informed and Critical Understanding of Social Justice and the Capabilities Approach in Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology.

  7. Religion and Globalization in Laos Religion und Globalisierung in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boike Rehbein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Eurocentric sociology, modernization is supposed to make religion secular, a functional system, or a private matter. A closer analysis of the impact of contemporary globalization on religion in Laos shows that these tendencies can only be observed in certain social groups and in certain realms of religion. Some social groups preserve or reinvent religious traditions, others construct a new identity, and some do tend towards secularism or differentiation. The paper investigates these tendencies, referring to an empirical case study. It proposes to explain them within a conceptual framework adapted to societies of the global South which focuses on the concepts of social structure, division of work, socioculture, and institution. On the basis of these concepts, the paper proposes to distinguish between different religious realms, namely, belief, performance, and knowledge. In each of these three realms, different tendencies and social distributions can be observed. Der eurozentrischen Soziologie zufolge wird Religion im Zuge der Modernisierung entweder säkularisiert oder privatisiert oder in ein funktionales System verwandelt. Eine genauere Analyse des Einflusses, den die gegenwärtige Globalisierung auf die Religion in Laos ausübt, zeigt jedoch, dass diese Tendenzen auf bestimmte soziale Gruppen und Aspekte der Religion beschränkt sind. Einige soziale Gruppen bewahren oder rekonstruieren religiöse Traditionen, andere konstruieren eine neue Identität und wieder andere tendieren zu Säkularisierung oder funktionaler Differenzierung. Der Aufsatz analysiert diese Phänomene am Beispiel einer Fallstudie auf der Basis eines an den globalen Süden angepassten Begriffsapparats, der um die Begriffe Sozialstruktur, Tätigkeitsteilung, Soziokultur und Institution kreist. Der Aufsatz schlägt vor, zwischen den religiösen Sphären des Glaubens, der Performanz und des Wissens zu unterscheiden. In jeder Sphäre lassen sich unterschiedliche

  8. RELIGION IN FREUD’S APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukrimin Mukrimin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to examine the essence of religion by using Sigmund Freud’ psychoanalysis. It looks at the Freud’s theories: “the ontogenic” and “the phylogenenic”. The origins of religious and belief traditions, as Freud had mapped, are neurosis, precarious future, and religion’s masculine roots. Freud’s realist approach on religion brought a controversy on the study of religion, i.e., by associating his patients and order cultural phenomena (art, literature, and philosophy. His falsification over religion mad Freud as the most controversial man in his time. For Freud, the truth-value of religious doctrines does not lie within the scope of the present enquiry. It is enough for us, as Freud asserts that we have recognized them as being, in their psychological nature, illusions. Key Words: religion, Freud, philosophy, psycho-analysis.

  9. Congregational bonding social capital and psychological type : an empirical enquiry among Australian churchgoers

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the variation in levels of bonding social capital experienced by individual churchgoers, drawing on data generated by the Australian National Church Life Survey, and employing a five-item measure of church-related bonding social capital. Data provided by 2065 Australian churchgoers are used to test the thesis that individual differences in bonding social capital are related to a psychological model of psychological types (employing the Jungian distinctions). The data demon...

  10. Is Social Capital a Mediator between Self-Control and Psychological and Social Functioning across 34 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social capital assessed in early adulthood in linking self-control in childhood with psychological and social functioning in middle age. Data collected at ages 8, 27, and 42 years were based on the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (159 females, 177 males).…

  11. Is Social Capital a Mediator between Self-Control and Psychological and Social Functioning across 34 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social capital assessed in early adulthood in linking self-control in childhood with psychological and social functioning in middle age. Data collected at ages 8, 27, and 42 years were based on the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (159 females, 177 males).…

  12. 2008 C. H. McCloy Lecture: Social Psychology and Physical Activity--Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity." Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower bio-psycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather…

  13. 2008 C. H. McCloy Lecture: Social Psychology and Physical Activity--Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity." Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower bio-psycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the…

  14. New challenges for Social Psychology in Brazil Novos desafios para a Psicologia Social no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Doise

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analysed the variety of contemporary social psychological approaches in Brazil as part of a network and of a complex common scientific system. They mutually influence each other in different ways, according to intricate patterns of approach and avoidance, of confirming agreements in various ways and, of course, also accentuating disagreements. The paper suggests that such intervention could further a mutual discussion on the role that social psychologists could play or not in the process of societal change that characterizes the Brazilian society, and on how they eventually should or should not intervene in this change. In order to dynamize even more the social psychology community in Brazil, the idea of Summer Schools could be recommended.Neste artigo analisamos a variedade das abordagens contemporâneas da psicologia social no Brasil como parte de uma rede e de um complexo sistema científico comum. Eles se influenciam mutuamente de diferentes maneiras, de acordo com intrincados padrões de aproximação e esquiva, confirmando acordos de vários tipos e, é claro, também acentuando as divergências. O artigo sugere que tal simpósio poderia promover uma discussão sobre o papel dos psicólogos sociais no processo de mudança social que caracteriza a sociedade brasileira e, eventualmente, como eles poderiam intervir nesta mudança. A fim de dinamizar ainda mais a comunidade da Psicologia Social no Brasil, a idéia de Escolas de Verão poderia ser recomendada.

  15. On the Adaptation between Religions and Socialism in the New Era%论新时期宗教与社会主义的适应问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许珍荣

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up, China has restored the policy of religious belief freedom and the religious activities tended to be normalized. However, the development of religions is difficult to meet the needs of the religious followers. Meanwhile, a variety of negative problems emerged during the development of religions have constituted the challenge to the socialist construction. On the one hand, we have to reflect on the traditional Marxist religious view, to rebuild the theoretical basis on the policy of religious belief freedom and to drive the policy of religious belief freedom into legalization in order to promote the adaptation between religions and socialism. On the other hand, we have to strengthen the ideological and political work towards the people in religious conscience as well as common religious followers.%改革开放以来,我国恢复了宗教信仰自由政策,宗教活动趋于正常化。但是宗教的发展仍然难以适应信教群众的要求,同时宗教发展中涌现的种种负面问题对社会主义建设构成了挑战。要促进宗教与社会主义的适应就必须反思传统马克思主义宗教观以重塑宗教信仰自由政策的理论基础,推动宗教信仰自由政策法律化,同时加强对宗教界人士、信教群众的思想政治教育工作。

  16. Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been limited

  17. New religious movements and alternative religions in France: the use of digital media as a counter-strategy against social and legal exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Königstedt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet is widely used internationally by individuals and groups who otherwise perceive and experience a lack of influence and even repression by authorities and whose opinions remain invisible in or are ignored by the mass media. The new media are a frequently-used means of expression in the political struggles of social and religious movements, especially as part of attempts to increase the number of supporters and to mobilise public opinion. The extent, of the usage as well as its degree of success, does vary and because of this variety, a comparative analysis can illuminate parts of the whole conflictuous configuration as well as the chances and limits of resistance and opposition via these media channels. Organisations which were chosen to be investigated here were the so-called ‘new religious movements’, or more precisely, the many forms of alternative religion in France who face significant levels of social and legal exclusion, while most of their members are themselves usually strongly committed to democracy and their identities as equal French citizens. Therefore, they choose to perform counter-actions which are within the law and act strategically, which makes them a special case compared to revolutionary political movements which may question the social order of the state as a whole. France, with its ‘anti-cult’ policy, has come to a unique standing within the Western world in this respect. Though religious freedom and state neutrality in relation to religious issues are constitutionally granted, a differentiation is made – and partially even legally enforced – between good religions and harmful ones which attempt to manipulate their adepts mentally. The debates are held in a constant dynamic between the struggling parties of ‘anti-cult’ movements and alternative religions. The exclusion of the latter from the mass media is revealed be one central means of hindering them from gaining approval within society

  18. Racism experiences and psychological functioning in African American college freshmen: is racial socialization a buffer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students.

  19. [Social and psychological aspects of contraception in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, L

    1976-09-01

    Reasons for the high adolescent birthrate in the U.S., medical, psychological, and social repercussions of teenage pregnancy, and facts and myths about sex education and contraception for young people are discussed. About 30% of U.S. women under 20 become pregnant outside marriage, and many more are pregnant when they marry. The reasons for the high pregnancy rates in young people include recent early menarch, which accounts for 94% fertility in 17.5-year-olds, better health, and ignorance about contraception and basic facts about reproduction. Pregnant adolescents risk toxemia, anemia, puerperal morbidity, prematurity, neonatal mortality, and congenital defects such as mental retardation in the baby. They face family alienation, loss of educational and employment opportunities, forced marriage, and high suicide rates in addition to the trials of puberty. Many girls believe that their fertile period is during menses, that pills are dangerous, that they are not fertile. Studies have shown that sex education can lower repeat pregnancies 67%. Recent research has negated the belief that many young women desire pregnancy unconsciously. Current information shows that supplying contraception will not encourage young people to begin having intercourse. Most sex education courses in the U.S. are given after the average teenagers become active sexually. It is believed that contraception should be provided universally for young people, and that parental authorization of contraception would probably mend family ties, certainly better than would unwanted pregnancy.

  20. Time-use, personality psychology, and social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    The scarcity of “time” is a pressing issue for most people in the late-modern industrialized societies. A most salient feature of this issue is how one should use the time at one’s disposal – often backgrounded in lamentation of the reality of most time already being tied up with (often work....... In this paper, I will discuss how studies of persons’ time-use and their experience of everyday life can illuminate contemporary social problems. The study of what people “actually do” in their everyday lives mirrors the theoretical debate in current Personality Psychology about the importance of “behavior......” for understanding personality – and problems in the latter debate can thus shed light on how to understand the former. I will draw on empirical material from my PhD-project, where I’ve carried out a survey study, combining time-use and diary methods. The empirical material contains information about not only...

  1. The psychological and social profile of epileptic patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Vozikis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that leads to occasional epileptic seizures, affecting the quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the current psychological and social profile of epileptic patients in Greece and to identify the main differences as compared to a former similar research. Material and Methods: A sample of 91 questionnaires, from a total of 350 inpatients with epilepsy at a Public Hospital, during the years 2008 to 2009 (response rate 26%. For data analysis, we used simple descriptive statistical analysis (at significance level of α=5% and α=10% and factor analysis, using SPSS 16.0. Results: Our research showed that the quality of life of people with epilepsy in Greece seems to have improved significantly during the last decade, as their crises have been reduced by 15,7% and their employment has increased by 13% . Conclusions: All that mean that these people are no longer been placed in the margin of society and they succeed in living a normal life with the certain limitations of their disease.

  2. An Analysis on the Developed and Changed Processes of Buyi People Primitive Religion Cultural Psychology%布依族原始宗教信仰文化心理的发展变迁过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建兵; 韦磐石

    2012-01-01

    布依族信仰多神。随着历史发展过程的演进,布依族原始宗教信仰在聚落纵向变迁的同时,接纳了其他民族、其他地域文化和外来宗教的元素,经历了由感性认识到理性认识、由生存式精神需要到娱乐式精神需要、由单纯信仰本民族神灵到接纳其他民族神灵从而丰富神灵系统的过程。%Buyi people beliefed many gods.With social history deleloping, Buyi People primitive religion developed and changed not only in the settlements,but also assimilating the elements of other nations, other regional culture and foreign religions. Buyi People primitive religion experienced from perceptual knowledge to rational knowledge,from survival spirital needs to recreational spirital needs,from only beliefing its own national gods to accepting other national gods.

  3. From Utopia to Dystopia: Levels of explanation and the politics of social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Klein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the political underpinnings of the debate surrounding levels of explanation in social psychology. The development of this discipline since the late 1920s has been informed by an individualistic view of human nature inspired by political liberalism. The article first considers how social psychological research on attribution and forced compliance has questioned the validity of this view. With the latest development in social cognition and social neuroscience, this liberal view has been replaced by another variant of individualism which leaves little room to individual freedom. George Herbert Mead's view of the self and mind as outcomes of social organisation is presented as an alternative to these two forms of individualism. In conclusion, I suggest that, informed by a Meadian perspective, social psychology should address the challenge posed by the advent of neurosciences by considering how social factors may impact upon brain functioning.

  4. The Facebook Paradox: Effects of Facebooking on Individuals’ Social Relationships and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–offline social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–offline social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users’ psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users’ psychological well-being through offline social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online–offline social contexts. PMID:28197114

  5. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  6. Social integration of people with intellectual disability: insights from a social psychological research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijker, A; van Alphen, L; Bos, A; van den Borne, B; Curfs, L

    2011-09-01

    Social integration of people with intellectual disability (ID) moving into regular neighbourhoods tends to be studied and evaluated without detailed knowledge about the social psychological aspects of everyday interaction between neighbours with and without ID. The goal of the present paper is to show how the authors' social psychological research programme may contribute to this field of inquiry. The different ways in which societies respond to features and behaviours that may be perceived as deviant are theoretically analysed. Results of empirical studies are reported to clarify how social responses to people with ID are special in terms of perceptions, emotions and interaction desires of people with and without ID during a pre-contact and contact phase. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, it is concluded that regular neighbouring in modern Western society often takes the form of benevolent tolerance, rather than stigmatisation and prejudice. However, empirical studies reveal that, prior to getting people with ID as new neighbours, prospective neighbours without ID experience a specific pattern of emotions that are associated with specific desires (e.g. with respect to information supply or a caring relationship). These anticipatory reactions are dependent on the expected size of the group moving in and on the severity of ID. Furthermore, while actually engaging in neighbouring, neighbours with and without ID appear to have experiences related to behaviour of residents, staff and features of housing facilities that are perceived as (in)congruent with regular neighbouring. It is concluded that interpersonal relationships between neighbours with and without ID should not be simplified in terms of attitudes that would be primarily prejudiced/stigmatising versus entirely accepting. Rather, our studies paint a more complex picture of sometimes ambivalent thoughts, feelings and interaction needs that all should be taken into account to make social integration a

  7. The nonskeletal consequences of osteoporotic fractures. Psychologic and social outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D T

    2001-02-01

    The prevalence of osteoporosis is rising as the population of the United States and other developed countries ages. These increasing numbers of people have motivated pharmaceutical companies to develop and market several antiresorptive medications that can slow down the bone loss associated with osteoporosis. Although these are not cures for this disease, they are an important first step in a vital ongoing public health effort to prevent osteoporosis in the future and to manage osteoporosis now. We cannot expect to remediate the problems caused by this disease if we attend only to its skeletal implications. Like any other chronic disease, osteoporosis has significant psychologic and social consequences. From anxiety and depression to social withdrawal and isolation, if these problems are left unresolved, they can have a significant negative impact not only on health issues but also on overall quality of life. No quick fixes exist for the numerous ways in which osteoporosis can transform an autonomous person into a dependent and hopeless patient. In part, responsibility for helping this patient rests with the medical community. Referrals to appropriate providers can improve a patient's physical and emotional well-being. Physician specialists can help the patient manage comorbid conditions. Physical and occupational therapists can teach exercises, home safety, and safe movement. Social workers can provide a framework for coping that enables individuals to improve their interpersonal interactions and minimize stress in their lives. Nutritionists, pharmacists, nurses, and other health care professionals can make major contributions to the quality of life of people with osteoporosis and should be encouraged to do so. Unfortunately, managed care has set policies that deprive patients with osteoporosis of the kinds of care that would be most useful to them. As we have advocated for the last 15 years, a multidisciplinary approach offers patients the most positive overall

  8. Cross-sectional study of social support and psychological distress among displaced earthquake survivors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Chie; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Nagata, Satoko

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to explore the relationship between different types and sources of social support and psychological distress by age and sex among survivors living in temporary housing 10 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Self-reported questionnaires/structured interviews administered from January to March 2012 recorded demographic characteristics, damage involving participants' families, social support, and psychological distress. Data on 296 participants aged 20 years or more from nine temporary housing complexes in Otsuchi were analyzed; K6 scores indicating psychological distress averaged 5.1 (standard deviation, 5.9; range, 0-24). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated differences among types and sources of social support with regard to psychological distress by age and sex among disaster survivors. For men aged less than 65 years, social support by family was related to lower psychological distress. For women aged 65 years or more, emotional support from family, informational and instrumental support, and social companionship from friends in their own temporary housing complexes were related to less psychological distress. Differences in age and sex were related to different sources of social support in relation to psychological distress. It is necessary to pay more attention to those who lost family members in the disaster, especially men aged less than 65 years. It may also be necessary to support survivors in making friends when they relocate to temporary housing, especially women aged 65 years or more. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Understanding Social-Force Model in Psychological Principles of Collective Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual's behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physical scientists. This model has been widely accepted and mainly used in simulation of mass evacuation in the past decade. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the social-psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by social-psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We interpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress and time-pressure. The simulation result of this model actually explicates how stress could improve or impair collective performance of crowd behaviors.

  10. Discourse, action, rhetoric: from a perception to an action paradigm in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin

    2012-09-01

    This article provides a personal account of how discursive social psychology has been used to understand social and political change in South Africa and to reflect on the strengths and limitations of the approach. While celebrating the shift from the perception paradigm to the genuinely social constructionist focus on discursive interaction, the article also argues for an expanded focus on embodied action.

  11. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarko, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of

  12. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarko, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of m

  13. 马克思恩格斯关于社会主义与宗教相互关系的基本观点述要%Marx and Engles's Theory about Mutual Relation between Socialism and Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞娟

    2012-01-01

    本文挖掘和梳理了马克思恩格斯关于社会主义原则与宗教原则、社会主义运动与宗教活动、社会主义者与宗教预言家的关系以及社会主义者对待宗教信仰的基本态度等的论述。这些论述为中国共产党人进一步揭示社会主义社会与宗教的相互关系,引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应,提供了思想与理论指导。%The paper discusses Marx and Engles's theory about mutual relation between socialism principle and religion principle, socialism movement and religion activity, socialists and the followers of a religion, and socialists' attitude to the religious belief. The theory provides the instruction in ideology and theory, which can help the Socialist Party to post the relation between socialist society and religion and actively guiding religion adapting to socialist society.

  14. From an individualized to a societal social psychology: Ideology and ideological changes as reflected in language usage.

    OpenAIRE

    Nafstad, Hilde Eileen; Blakar, Rolv Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    In our article we will first briefly review developments within critical psychology in Norway in the years after we prepared a review for Annual Review of Critical Psychology (in 2006). The substantial part of the article, however, will be an analysis and critical discussion of social psychology based on the assumption that social psychology (and the other social sciences) has a moral obligation to contribute in resolving pressing problems of our time; problems representing real threats to ma...

  15. Responsible Opposition, Disruptive Voices: Science, Social Change, and the History of Feminist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Vaughn-Blount, Kelli; Ball, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Feminist psychology began as an avowedly political project with an explicit social change agenda. However, over the last two decades, a number of critics have argued that feminist psychology has become mired in an epistemological impasse where positivist commitments effectively mute its political project, rendering the field acceptable to…

  16. Towards a de-biased social psychology: The effects of ideological perspective go beyond politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable conservatives are in short supply and will not arrive to save social psychology any time soon. The field needs to save itself through de-biasing. The effects of a liberal worldview permeate and distort discussion of many topics that are not overtly political, including behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, the fundamental attribution error, and the remarkably persistent consistency controversy.

  17. The Application of Social Justice Principles to Global School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In as much as school psychology practice is based on the goals of supporting the rights, access, and treatment of children as related to their education, social justice has the potential to be a moral framework for training, research, and practice in school psychology. Accordingly, this article seeks to achieve many objectives. First, a definition…

  18. Play Therapy Training among School Psychology, Social Work, and School Counseling Graduate Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Christina Bechle

    2012-01-01

    This study examined play therapy training across the nation among school psychology, social work, and school counseling graduate training programs. It also compared current training to previous training among school psychology and school counseling programs. A random sample of trainers was selected from lists of graduate programs provided by…

  19. On Social Psychology and Human Nature: An Interview with Roy Baumeister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie Kerr

    2008-01-01

    Roy F. Baumeister currently holds the Eppes Eminent Professorship in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his PhD in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 working under Edward E. Jones. After a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at Berkeley, he spent 23 years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University,…

  20. PSYOP and Persuasion: Applying Social Psychology and Becoming an Informed Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    This project teaches students about persuasion techniques, especially as governments use them. Most project examples came from the work of the U.S. military's modern Psychological Operations division. Social psychology students (a) reviewed influence techniques; (b) examined posters, leaflets, and other persuasion tools used in World War II, the…

  1. Beware the 'Loughborough School' of Social Psychology? Interaction and the politics of intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, Elizabeth; Hepburn, Alexa; Antaki, Charles

    2012-09-01

    The authors explain the attractions of applying discursive psychology (DP) and conversation analysis (CA) by reporting three different examples of their engagement with practitioners and clients. Along the way, a case is made for separating DP/CA from other kinds of qualitative analysis in social psychology, and for deconstructing some commonly held misunderstandings and caricatures of DP/CA.

  2. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN KNOWLEDGE UTILIZATION AS APPLIED TO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHMUCK, RICHARD

    THREE PROBLEM AREAS ARE EXPLORED IN THIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION--(1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND HIS ACTIONS, AND (3) THE LACK OF CONNECTION BETWEEN…

  3. Responsible Opposition, Disruptive Voices: Science, Social Change, and the History of Feminist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Vaughn-Blount, Kelli; Ball, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Feminist psychology began as an avowedly political project with an explicit social change agenda. However, over the last two decades, a number of critics have argued that feminist psychology has become mired in an epistemological impasse where positivist commitments effectively mute its political project, rendering the field acceptable to…

  4. PSYOP and Persuasion: Applying Social Psychology and Becoming an Informed Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    This project teaches students about persuasion techniques, especially as governments use them. Most project examples came from the work of the U.S. military's modern Psychological Operations division. Social psychology students (a) reviewed influence techniques; (b) examined posters, leaflets, and other persuasion tools used in World War II, the…

  5. The construction of mind, self, and society: the social process behind G. H. Mead'S social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Mind, Self, and Society, the posthumously published volume by which George Herbert Mead is primarily known, poses acute problems of interpretation so long as scholarship does not consider the actual process of its construction. This paper utilizes extensive archival correspondence and notes in order to analyze this process in depth. The analysis demonstrates that the published form of the book is the result of a consequential interpretive process in which social actors manipulated textual documents within given practical constraints over a course of time. The paper contributes to scholarship on Mead by indicating how this process made possible certain understandings of his social psychology and by relocating the materials that make up the single published text within the disparate contexts from which they were originally drawn.

  6. Discontinuities in the history of knowledge production in Brazilian Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Guareschi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize the history of knowledge production in the field of Social Psychology in Brazil. The data for analysis were the summaries of the Working Groups of Symposia of the Brazilian National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology since its beginning in 1988 until 2010, available on the official website of this association. In our analysis, we selected the statements that compose the discursive field of Social Psychology in Brazil. These discursive formations are mainly the social movements, politics and economy. By discussing these three points, we can visualize some practices of knowledge fields concerning the object of study of Social Psychology that have been sustained and legitimized.

  7. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study con

  8. Association of social skills with psychological distress among female nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ayako; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ayako; Hirohata, Kayoko; Kosugi, Shotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2011-01-01

    Nursing is a highly stressful occupation. Because nursing work involves interaction with patients and colleagues, competence in social skills may be a key issue in stress management among nurses. However, there are very few studies among nurses focused on social skills together with social support, both of which are important aspects of job stress. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between social skills and social support with job stressors, problem-solving coping, and psychological distress among Japanese nurses. Data from a self-administered questionnaire of 1,197 female nurses who worked for 5 general hospitals in Japan were analyzed. Covariance structure analysis with structural equation modeling techniques showed that social skills and social support were positively related to each other, while they were negatively associated with psychological distress and job stressors, and positively associated with problem-solving coping. Furthermore, the direct association between social skills and psychological distress was stronger than the association between social support and psychological distress. These findings suggested that improving not only social support at work but also individual social skills is important for nurses' mental health.

  9. The Social psychology of citizenship: Engagement with citizenship studies and future research

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Clifford; Hopkins, Nick; Luyt, Russell; Dixon, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive) understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contribut...

  10. The Social Psychology of Citizenship: Engagement With Citizenship Studies and Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford Stevenson; Nick Hopkins; Russell Luyt; John Dixon

    2015-01-01

    In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive) understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contribut...

  11. Political tolerance in Eastern and Western Europe: Social and psychological roots

    OpenAIRE

    Todosijevic, Bojan; Enyedi, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    According to Sullivan et al.’s (Sullivan et al. 1979, 53-55, Sullivan et al. 1985) theory, social and psychological factors play different roles in political tolerance. Target-group selection is shaped by socio-demographic characteristics, since in this way people try to adjust themselves to their social environment. On the other side, the degree of tolerance is a function of personality and other psychological factors. The paper examines whether the causal model proposed by Sullivan and his ...

  12. Social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm for organisational psychology in the South African context

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: This article is about introducing social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective to organisational psychology, especially as these are applied in organisation development. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective for studying and practising organisational psychology in the South African context. Motivation for the study: The relevance of the par...

  13. The dominance of the individual in intergroup relations research: understanding social change requires psychological theories of collective and structural phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2012-12-01

    Dixon et al. suggest that the psychological literature on intergroup relations should shift from theorizing "prejudice reduction" to "social change." A focus on social change exposes the importance of psychological theories involving collective phenomena like social norms and institutions. Individuals' attitudes and emotions may follow, rather than cause, changes in social norms and institutional arrangements.

  14. Too paranoid to see progress: Social psychology is probably liberal, but it doesn't believe in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegard, Bo; Winegard, Benjamin; Geary, David C

    2015-01-01

    We agree with Duarte et al. that bias in social psychology is a serious problem that researchers should confront. However, we are skeptical that most social psychologists adhere to a liberal progress narrative. We suggest, instead, that most social psychologists are paranoid egalitarian meliorists (PEMs). We explain the term and suggest possible remedies to bias in social psychology.

  15. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the institution of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.

  16. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  17. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  18. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Identity, influence, and change: rediscovering John Turner's vision for social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D; Reynolds, Katherine J

    2012-06-01

    John Turner, whose pioneering work on social identity and self-categorization theories changed the face of modern social psychology, died in July 2011. This unique virtual special issue celebrates Turner's life and work by reproducing a number of key articles that were published in the British Journal of Social Psychology and the European Journal of Social Psychology over the course of his career. These articles are of three types: first, key position papers, on which Turner was the leading or sole author; second, papers that he published with collaborators (typically PhD students) that explored key theoretical propositions; third, short commentary papers, in which Turner engaged in debate around key issues within social psychology. Together, these papers map out a clear and compelling vision. This seeks to explain the distinctly social nature of the human mind by showing how all important forms of social behaviour - and in particular, the propensity for social influence and social change -are grounded in the sense of social identity that people derive from their group memberships. As we discuss in this editorial, Turner's great contribution was to formalize this understanding in terms of testable hypotheses and generative theory and then to work intensively but imaginatively with others to take this vision forward.

  20. The effect of organizational socialization on organizational commitment: Mediation role of psychological empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Ulukapı Yılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between organizational socialization and organizational commitment and the mediation role of psychological empowerment. For this aim the survey applied to 150 employees operating in the 3rd Organized Industrial Zone in Konya. SPSS 22 was used to analyze the results. According to results, it has been found that the level of organizational socialization of employees has a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment and a partially mediation role of psychological empowerment in this relationship. It was also determined that employees’ psychological empowerment perceptions has a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment.

  1. Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) Polymorphism, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Symptoms in Maltreated Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite the detrimental consequences of child maltreatment on developmental processes, some individuals show remarkable resilience, with few signs of psychopathology, while others succumb to dysfunction. Given that oxytocin has been shown to be involved in social affiliation, attachment, social support, trust, empathy, and other social or reproductive behaviors, we chose to examine the possible moderation of maltreatment effects on perceived social support and on psychological symptoms by a c...

  2. A melding of the minds: when primatology meets personality and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E; van Vugt, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Social and personality psychology and behavioral primatology both enjoy long histories of research aimed at uncovering the proximate and ultimate determinants of primate-human and nonhuman-social behavior. Although they share research themes, methodologies, and theories, and although their studied species are closely related, there is currently very little interaction between the fields. This separation means that researchers in these disciplines miss out on opportunities to advance understanding by combining insights from both fields. Social and personality psychologists also miss the opportunity for a phylogenetic analysis. The time has come to integrate perspectives on primate social psychology. Here, the authors provide a historical background and document the main similarities and differences in approaches. Next, they present some examples of research programs that may benefit from an integrated primate perspective. Finally, the authors propose a framework for developing a social psychology inclusive of all primates. Such a melding of minds promises to greatly benefit those who undertake the challenge.

  3. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger’s insight into the sociology of religion therefore plays an important role in establishing the relationship between religion and civil society as one that takes on different forms. Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil society with regard to the presence of conflict in society was further investigated in this article. The conditions under which conflict in society occurs were discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment when conflict occurs in civil society.

  4. Physical Attractiveness Research. Toward a Developmental Social Psychology of Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)

  5. Physical Attractiveness Research. Toward a Developmental Social Psychology of Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)

  6. The Relationship between Religion and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani, A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernity is the process of the thought, philosophical, scientific, industrialized, political, and social development, which occurred in the West after renascence. This phenomenon possesses special characteristics. The chief question is 'what the relationship between this western phenomenon and religion is'. Is Islam necessarily contradictory with modernity or consistent with it? Whether the challenges between religion and modernity are resolvable? In this paper, the various doctrines will be examined. Some religious studies scholars hold that they are consistent. They believe that in order to develop our country, we need to follow the enlightenment. In contrast, some maintain that religion and modernity are necessarily contradictory. Some other thinkers believe that they are inconsistent, but their inconsistency is resolvable. To resolve the inconsistency, these thinkers are divided into some groups. In this paper, the doctrine will be defended that not only modernity and religion are not necessarily antagonistic, but also today religion is alive, dynamic, and thriving in many modern metropolises.

  7. Use of Social Desirability Scales in Clinical Psychology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, Enrico; Gremigni, Paola

    2016-06-01

    There is still an open debate about the utility of social desirability indicators. This report systematically reviewed the use of social desirability scales in studies addressing social desirability in clinical psychology. A systematic review (January 2010-March 2015) was conducted, including 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals and describing quantitative findings about an association of social desirability with clinical psychology variables using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Social desirability was associated with self-reports of various clinical-psychological dimensions. Most of the included studies treated social desirability as a 1-dimensional variable and only 10 of 35 disentangled the impression management and self-deception components. Although theoretical literature does not consider social desirability a mere response bias, only 4 of the reviewed articles controlled for the possible suppressor effect of personality variables on social desirability, while the majority focused upon the stylistic (response bias) rather than the substantive (personality) nature of this construct. The present review highlighted some limitations in the use of social desirability scales in recent clinical psychology research and tried to offer a few suggestions for handling this issue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Psicologia Social como especialidade: paradoxos do mundo Psi Social Psychology as a specialty: paradoxes of the Psychologist's world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana de Barros Conde Rodrigues

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo problematiza o processo de criação de uma especialidade em Psicologia Social, campo até então considerado imune à constituição dos especialismos tão comuns em nossa área de atuação. Para tanto, recorre a conceitos da Análise Institucional - Efeito Weber, Efeito Lukács, campo de intervenção e campo de análise -, que funcionam como ferramentas na apreciação tanto da história recente da Psicologia Social no Brasil quanto da definição oficial da Psicologia Social como especialidade.The article problematizes the creation process of a specialty in Social Psychology. Unlike other fields of our professional area, Social Psychology was until recent seen as immune to the constitution of speciality. The study is based on the concepts of Institucional Analysis, such as Weber Effect, Lukács Effect, intervention field and analysis field. Such concepts are used as tools in order to appreciate the recent history of the Social Psychology in Brazil and the official definition of Social Psychology as a specialty.

  9. Social Cognition, Emotions, and the Psychology of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alice G.

    Interest in social construction has coincided with a widespread movement to situate the composing process in a social-cognitive paradigm. Because social and emotional themes overlap, writing specialists assume that the emotional components of writing have been taken care of. However, by being absorbed into social themes, the emotional experience…

  10. New Religions and Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen er en antologi af bidrag fra en konference under Research Network on New Religions (RENNER). Med bidrag fra specialister i nye religioner og globalisering fra hele verden introduceres empiriske resultater samt teoretiske og metodiske reflektioner over emnet....

  11. Psychology and the soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, O

    1996-09-01

    Otto Rank (1884-1939) wrote the present work at the height of his creative powers, betweenWill Therapy andArt and Artist. Here he presents a sweeping history of psychology-individual and social-from the animistic era to psychoanalysis. An earlier translation (by William D. Turner, 1950) was incomplete and somewhat inaccurate. Unlike Sigmund Freud, his mentor, Rank viewed religion with respect and clarifies its role in individual and communal life through this study of soul-belief through the ages. The book contains important insights on immortality, will, dreams, Judaism and Christianity, Hamlet and Don Juan, Jung and Adler, and Freud himself.

  12. Religion, ethnic groups and processes of social stratification in the United States. Mexicans and Chinese citizens’ situation from a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arriaga Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Through this article we are offering a global view of a theory that explains and contributes to the understanding of the position of ethnic groups in the United States within the social hierarchy. This research is focused toward a comparative analysis of Mexican and Chinese groups starting considering the following Weberian statements: a one that considers the influence of ideas and religious beliefs in the economic behavior of individuals, b and, another one that conceives religions as ethical vehicles liable to inhibit or stimulate the process of social stratification. In sum, this deals trying to consider the influence of diverse elements of religious culture in the makeup of certain economic behavior and context which is capable of vitalizing or hindering group dynamism in the social scale. This behavior is remarkably related to: a money in all its modalities, savings, expenses, investments, loans, etc., b work and entrepreneur business, and c family and communitarian solidarity. We also would like to emphasize on problems stemming from the practical applications of theory and method to the above mentioned phenomenon, emphasizing the productivity of concepts and analytical categories which are representative of a Methodological Individualism and Rational General Theory.

  13. Managing Stigma Effectively: What Social Psychology and Social Neuroscience Can Teach Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family, community, or workplace; (2) ameliorating internalized stigma among patients; (3) conducting effective treatment from a stigmatized position due to prejudice from medical colleagues or patients' family members; and (4) facilitating patient treatment plans when stigma precludes engagement with mental health professionals. This curriculum addresses the need for educating trainees to manage stigma in clinical settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate changes in clinical practices and patient outcomes as a result of social neuroscience-based training on managing stigma.

  14. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo José de Paiva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.

  15. A genealogy of the social identity tradition: Deleuze and Guattari and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Lunt, Peter

    2002-03-01

    This paper explores how social psychology has theorized the relationship between the individual and society. This is done through a genealogical analysis of the Social Identity Tradition (SIT). It is argued that the current state of SIT is profoundly shaped by a range of intellectual and moral strategies derived from the work of Henri Tajfel. This 'Tajfel effect' manifests itself as a way of settling theoretical, practical and moral disputes through the invocation of Tajfel as a founding figure. However, this strategy also ties SIT into a model of the subject and an understanding of society that is increasingly seen as problematic. The paper then goes on to show how a range of core concepts at the heart of SIT may be usefully reformulated by drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari. Their work offers SIT a way of thinking about individuals and groups as sites for connection and differentiation. This is illustrated using the example of Nazi social relations that was originally deployed by Tajfel. Potential issues and direction for SIT as reinvigorated by the encounter with Deleuze and Guattari are then sketched out.

  16. Religion as Belief versus Religion as Fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutch, Steven I.

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case that religions perceive their doctrines not as opinions or subjective personal preferences, but as demonstrable facts, supported by historical documentation, experience, observation, and logical inference. Asserts that when scientists deal with issues like creationism, the widespread failure to understand how religions regard their…

  17. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  18. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  19. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  20. How Guanxi Relates to Social Capital? A Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ping Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study aims to offer a discussion on social capital and guanxi, in order to illustrate the similarities and differences between these two concepts and how Chinese guanxi varies from Western preconceptions concerning social networking. Approach: The literature review and arguments were conducted to provide a systematic discussion of the guanxi and social capital relationship. Results: Both guanxi and social capital involve social relations; it is important to appreciate that guanxi does not relate exclusively to social capital, or that guanxi itself is simply another term for social capital. Conclusion: Both guanxi and social capital are similar concepts. Social capital is considered as both the attributes of individuals and organizations; thus, guanxi is distinctively about interpersonal relationships, which are often lost within the corporate environments of large organizations.

  1. Religion and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2008-01-01

    This is an introductory article in a special issue of a bulletin for researchers and teachers in religion in the USA. The article sketches the main positions and recent trends in the cognitive science of religion, and it attempts to attract scholars of religion to this field. It also profiles...

  2. Danish Regulation of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet; Vinding, Niels-Valdemar

    Presentation and analysis of current and upcoming conflicts in relations between religion and family; labour market; religion in the public sphere and state support to religion. Part of a comparative European analysis in the context of www.religareproject.eu. based on 18 Danish elite interviews...

  3. Research Learning Attributes of Graduate Students in Social Work, Psychology, and Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.; Bretzin, Antoinette; Leininger, Christine; Stauffer, Rose

    2001-01-01

    Compared the self-reported research anxiety, computer anxiety, and research orientations of 149 full-time graduate social work, psychology, and business students at a research university. Found that social work students reported more research and computer anxiety and generally believed that research was less important to their profession that…

  4. Social Justice and Counselling Psychology: Situating the Role of Graduate Student Research, Education, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Angele; Parish, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    While social justice advocacy has been a part of counselling psychology since its inception, its role in the field has been debated. Many professionals have called for increased attention to social justice awareness and advocacy to enable the profession to meet the expanding needs of clients. The present article proposes that a move toward…

  5. The Bicultural I: A Social and Cognitive Approach for Understanding the Psychology of Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the processes and challenges of creating a socially integrated, empowered immigrant identity by exploring the concepts acculturation model. The author examines the psychology of acculturation and the processes for creating a socially integrated bicultural self for immigrants who retain cultural traditions while adapting to…

  6. Psychological Distress Following Suicidality among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths: Role of Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal relations between past suicidality and subsequent changes in psychological distress at follow-up were examined among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths, as were psychosocial factors (e.g., self-esteem, social support, negative social relationships) that might mediate or moderate this relation. Past suicide attempters were found…

  7. Bridging Social Justice and Children's Rights to Enhance School Psychology Scholarship and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Desai, Poonam

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the overlap between the common goals of social justice and children's rights advocates as applied to scholarship and practice in school psychology. We argue that these frameworks overlap a great deal, with a primary distinction being the roots of each approach. Specifically, the origins of social justice movements in…

  8. Toward a Social Psychology of Childhood: From "Patterns of Child Rearing" to "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartup, Willard W.

    Using "Patterns of Childrearing," by Sears, Maccoby and Levin (1957) as a starting point, this paper touches on the schism between developmental and social psychology and attempts to assess the progress of research in social development during the past quarter century with respect to five major perspectives that are at once evolutionary,…

  9. BJSP and the changing face of the group in social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, Russell

    2011-01-01

    I reflect on the contribution that BJSP has made to the conceptualization of the group within social psychology by highlighting two cases studies from the social identity tradition published in 1990. These illustrate BJSP's distinctive strength and openness to theoretical innovation over the last de

  10. Social Identity, Health and Well-Being : An Emerging Agenda for Applied Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Jetten, Jolanda; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The social environment comprising communities, families, neighbourhoods, work teams, and various other forms of social group is not simply an external feature of the world that provides a context for individual behaviour. Instead these groups impact on the psychology of individuals through their cap

  11. BJSP and the changing face of the group in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Russell

    2011-09-01

    I reflect on the contribution that BJSP has made to the conceptualization of the group within social psychology by highlighting two cases studies from the social identity tradition published in 1990. These illustrate BJSP's distinctive strength and openness to theoretical innovation over the last decades.

  12. Connectionism, parallel constraint satisfaction processes, and gestalt principles: (re) introducing cognitive dynamics to social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, S J; Vanman, E J; Miller, L C

    1997-01-01

    We argue that recent work in connectionist modeling, in particular the parallel constraint satisfaction processes that are central to many of these models, has great importance for understanding issues of both historical and current concern for social psychologists. We first provide a brief description of connectionist modeling, with particular emphasis on parallel constraint satisfaction processes. Second, we examine the tremendous similarities between parallel constraint satisfaction processes and the Gestalt principles that were the foundation for much of modem social psychology. We propose that parallel constraint satisfaction processes provide a computational implementation of the principles of Gestalt psychology that were central to the work of such seminal social psychologists as Asch, Festinger, Heider, and Lewin. Third, we then describe how parallel constraint satisfaction processes have been applied to three areas that were key to the beginnings of modern social psychology and remain central today: impression formation and causal reasoning, cognitive consistency (balance and cognitive dissonance), and goal-directed behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of parallel constraint satisfaction principles for a number of broader issues in social psychology, such as the dynamics of social thought and the integration of social information within the narrow time frame of social interaction.

  13. Exercise and social support are associated with psychological distress outcomes in a population of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna E; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-09-01

    Exercise reduces the likelihood of psychological distress, but this may be due to incidental socializing. We gathered information on exercise, social support and three aspects of psychological distress from 583 community-dwelling older adults. Exercise and social support from friends were both associated with lower scores of depression, anxiety and perceived stress. For infrequent exercisers, having a low level of social support indicated higher levels of depression, whereas for frequent exercisers, having a low level of social support did not affect depression levels. Both exercise and social support have roles in regulating psychological well-being in older populations and exercisers are less susceptible to effects of low social support on depression.

  14. 'Irresponsible and a disservice': the integrity of social psychology turns on the free will dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, James B

    2013-06-01

    Over the last few years, a number of works have been published asserting both the putative prosocial benefits of belief in free will and the possible dangers of disclosing doubts about the existence of free will. Although concerns have been raised over the disservice of keeping such doubts from the public, this does not highlight the full danger that is presented by social psychology's newly found interest in the 'hard problem' of human free will. Almost all of the work on free will published to date by social psychologists appears methodologically flawed, misrepresents the state of academic knowledge, and risks linking social psychology with the irrational.

  15. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and self-reported global and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2004-08-01

    Social capital is often operationalised as social participation in the activities of the formal and informal networks of civil society and/or as generalised trust. Social participation and trust are two aspects of social capital that mutually affect each other, according to the literature. In recent years there has been an increased attention to the fact that generalised trust decreases for every new birth cohort that reaches adulthood in the USA, while social participation may take new forms such as ideologically much narrower single-issue movements that do not enhance trust. The phenomenon has been called "the miniaturisation of community". The effects of similar patterns in Sweden on self-reported health and self-reported psychological health are analysed. The odds ratios of bad self-reported global health are highest in the low-social capital category (low-social participation/low trust), but the miniaturisation of community and low-social participation/high-trust categories also have significantly higher odds ratios than the high-social capital category (high-social participation/high trust). The odds ratios of bad self-reported psychological health are significantly higher in both the low-social capital category and the miniaturisation of community category compared to the high-social capital category, while the low-social participation/high-trust category does not differ from the high-social capital reference group.

  16. Path analysis of relationship among personality, perceived stress, coping, social support, and psychological outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968

  17. Expressive writing promotes self-reported physical, social and psychological health among Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-03-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China.

  18. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  19. [Resilience and psychological impairment in adulthood: the impact of age and social inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, C; Petermann, F; Brähler, E; Decker, O; Schmidt, S

    2014-09-01

    In a cross-sectional study the influence of social inequality on resilience and psychological distress was investigated in a sample of N=4 142 adults. A social stratum was created, including education, financial income and job-status, as well as age (≥ 25 years). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed influences of gender, social status and age on resilience (RS-11) and psychological distress: depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-7), life satisfaction (FLZ(M)). In contrast to the most continuous influence of the social background in women across any age-group, older males (≥ 65 years) were not affected by their social background. In both sexes members of the social underclass had the lowest resilience. The results indicate the need for specific intervention as to prevention.

  20. What is Religion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    which can be analysed and compared across time and cultures, What is Religion? brings the most up-to-date scholarship to bear on humankind’s most enduring creation. The book opens with a brief history of the idea of religion, then divides the study of religion into four essential topics - types......Religious belief is one of the most pervasive and ubiquitous characteristics of human society. Religion has shadowed and illuminated human lives since primitive times, shaping the world views of cultures from isolated tribes to vast empires. Starting from the premise that religion is a concept...

  1. QTIPs: Questionable theoretical and interpretive practices in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Proulx, Travis

    2015-01-01

    One possible consequence of ideological homogeneity is the misinterpretation of data collected with otherwise solid methods. To help identify these issues outside of politically relevant research, we name and give broad descriptions to three questionable interpretive practices described by Duarte et al. and introduce three additional questionable theoretical practices that also reduce the theoretical power and paradigmatic scope of psychology.

  2. Simulating market dynamics : Interactions between consumer psychology and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MA; Jager, W

    2003-01-01

    Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. in a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation model

  3. MANIFESTATION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF THE PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Ovsyanik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are description of specific social-psychological adaptation through using of the individual peculiarities of adaptation strategies and building a repertoire of social roles. The reseach also examines aggressive behavior, which we treat as a violation of the rights of others and bringing them damage, leading to the destruction of interpersonal relationships and social problems of the individual. Aggressive behavior is one of the early signs of maladaptive personality.

  4. Community psychology contributions to the study of social inequalities,well-being and social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Psychosocial Intervention aims to contribute to the understanding ofhuman well-being as a matter of social justice. Inequities in health and well-being are closely linked tosocial inequalities and addressing them involves the improvement of the quality of life and living conditionsof communities. Although reaching a more just society requires systemic changes, actions aimed at groupsthat are at greater risk of multiple vulnerabilities must be intensified in order to reduce the slope of thesocial gradient of health and well-being. Community psychology embraces as one of its key principles toadvocate for social change through the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, such as children and youthliving in poverty, women suffering violence, people with disabilities and elderly immigrants. Thecontributions of this monograph offer courses of action for a scientific agenda whose goal is to provideopportunities for all individuals to achieve meaning and greater control over the resources they need fortheir well-being and prosperity.

  5. A Social-Cognitive Moderated Mediated Model of Psychological Safety and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Daniel V; Narayan, Anupama; Nelson, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the indirect role of psychological safety in shaping the four cognitions of psychological empowerment (i.e., meaning, competence, self-determination, impact) through three social mechanisms: authentic interactions, spiritual development, and perceived organizational voice. Data were collected from 229 congregation members of a nondenominational church. Preliminary analyses reveal psychological safety is: (a) linked to all four empowerment cognitions, (b) associated with the three proximal social mechanisms, and (c) indirectly predicts three of the four empowerment cognitions through heightened level of authentic interactions, spiritual development, and perceived organizational voice. Moreover, extraversion moderated the relationship of psychological safety with authentic interactions which, in turn, strengthened the size of the indirect effect for the meaning subcomponent of empowerment. Overall, this study suggests empowerment research can draw upon the potential, but frequently untapped, benefits of cultivating a secure space to facilitate member motivation through sincerity, personal development, and perceived voice.

  6. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik

    2016-01-01

    of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. RESULTS: We found that less...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...... psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. CONCLUSIONS: Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected...

  7. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  8. Contemporary understanding of riots: Classical crowd psychology, ideology and the social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Clifford; Drury, John

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the origins and ideology of classical crowd psychology, a body of theory reflected in contemporary popularised understandings such as of the 2011 English 'riots'. This article argues that during the nineteenth century, the crowd came to symbolise a fear of 'mass society' and that 'classical' crowd psychology was a product of these fears. Classical crowd psychology pathologised, reified and decontextualised the crowd, offering the ruling elites a perceived opportunity to control it. We contend that classical theory misrepresents crowd psychology and survives in contemporary understanding because it is ideological. We conclude by discussing how classical theory has been supplanted in academic contexts by an identity-based crowd psychology that restores the meaning to crowd action, replaces it in its social context and in so doing transforms theoretical understanding of 'riots' and the nature of the self.

  9. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international setting A Psicologia Social brasileira no cenário internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Rosas Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is still present today. We then present the results of research conducted with 150 Brazilian social psychologists concerning the definition of social psychology, the academic training perspective, and the theories used in the conduct of research. The results point to the existence of several contradictions, since, among other matters, they highlight the fact that while most participants advocate research practices tied to a more sociological perspective, the definitions given indicate a more psychological view of social psychology.O objetivo deste trabalho foi discutir a psicologia social que vem sendo desenvolvida no Brasil inserindo-a no cenário teórico-metodológico internacional. Para alcançar este objetivo, inicialmente apresentamos um breve relato histórico da fundação da Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social e da Associação Latino Americana de Psicologia Social, fornecendo subsídios para o entendimento do embate político que envolveu o surgimento dessas duas organizações e que, de certa forma, ainda está presente na atualidade. Em seguida, apresentamos os resultados da pesquisa realizada com 150 psicólogos sociais brasileiros sobre a definição de psicologia social, sobre a perspectiva de formação e sobre as teorias utilizadas na atividade de pesquisa. Os resultados indicam a existência de algumas contradições, pois, dentre outros aspectos, destaca-se o fato que, embora a maioria dos participantes advogue uma prática de

  10. Religion and the secularisation of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2009-07-01

    To assess the claim that conceptualisations of religion and spirituality should be grounded in theology, and acknowledge the global resurgence of religion. Although there is widespread agreement in the nursing literature that 'spirituality' is a broader concept than 'religion,' and should be understood generically, this approximate consensus has occasionally been challenged. A recent paper by Barbara Pesut and colleagues argues that the generic view not only empties spirituality of powerful religious symbols and narratives, but underestimates the continuing social influence of religion, and its resurgence on a global scale. Accordingly, these authors suggest three principles for conceptualising spirituality and religion in health care, one of which is that conceptualisations should be grounded in philosophical and theological thinking, and should not ignore the global resurgence of religion. Critical review. The Pesut principle privileges theology, disregarding other disciplines which theorize religion. Arguably, it privileges specifically Christian theology, the history of which suggests a politics of orthodoxy and an epistemology of authority and obedience. The global resurgence of religion is not, in fact, global, as the industrialised countries have experienced a marked shift towards secular-rational values; and the postindustrial phase of development is associated with self-expression values, which represent a challenge not merely to religious institutions (arguably an affirmation of 'spirituality') but to traditional elites and structures of all kinds. Finally, religion 'resurgent' is not an attractive model for health care, since many of its most obvious manifestations are incompatible with the ideology of health professionals. In the secular societies of Europe, if not North America, there should be no expectation that nurses provide spiritual care. It is a requirement of the great separation between civil order and religion that the health services, as a

  11. Gender Differences Among Military Combatants: Does Social Support, Ostracism, and Pain Perception Influence Psychological Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The literature on gender differences related to psychological health among in-theater service members who are deployed in a combatant role is limited. Much focuses on retrospective reports of service members who have returned from deployment. Potential key factors that contribute to gender differences in psychological health among combatants are found in literature across several topic areas, but integration of findings across disciplines is lacking. A growing body of literature on gender differences related to psychological health of postdeployment military populations suggests males and females respond differently to perceived levels of social support pre-and postdeployment. One study on service members who were deployed suggested no significant gender differences related to reported psychological health symptoms, but did appear to find significant gender differences related to reported perception of unit morale. In another related area, research explores how ostracism impacts physical and psychological health of individuals and organizations, and can result in perceptions of physical pain, although research on gender differences related to the impact of ostracism is scarce. Research has also begun to focus on sex differences in pain responses, and has identified multiple biopsychosocial, genetic, and hormonal factors that may contribute as potential underlying mechanisms. In this brief review, we focus on and begin to integrate relevant findings related to the psychological health of females in combat roles, gender differences in the impact of perception of social support on psychological health, the psychological and physical impact of ostracism on individuals and organizations, and the current literature on sex differences in pain perception. We conclude with a synthesis and discussion of research gaps identified through this review, implications for clinical practice, and potential future research directions. In conclusion, there appear to be gender

  12. Social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm for organisational psychology in the South African context : original research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geldenhuys, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: This article is about introducing social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective to organisational psychology, especially as these are applied in organisation development. Research purpose...

  13. Teaching Religion in America's Public Schools: A Necessary Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Jeff; Willox, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Religion plays an important role in social studies content and is difficult to ignore, especially because of current world events. In our global society, it is more important than ever to know about and understand the religious beliefs of others. The social studies curriculum is infused with religion, but teachers circumvent the issue, mistakenly…

  14. (De)colonizing culture in community psychology: reflections from critical social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Cruz, Mariolga; Sonn, Christopher C

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception, community psychology has been interested in cultural matters relating to issues of diversity and marginalization. However, the field has tended to understand culture as static social markers or as the background for understanding group differences. In this article the authors contend that culture is inseparable from who we are and what we do as social beings. Moreover, culture is continually shaped by socio-historical and political processes intertwined within the globalized history of power. The authors propose a decolonizing standpoint grounded in critical social science to disrupt understandings of cultural matters that marginalize others. This standpoint would move the field toward deeper critical thinking, reflexivity and emancipatory action. The authors present their work to illustrate how they integrate a decolonizing standpoint to community psychology research and teaching. They conclude that community psychology must aim towards intercultural work engaging its political nature from a place of ontological/epistemological/methodological parity.

  15. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  16. Dealing with wicked problems: conducting a causal layered analysis of complex social psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian J; Dzidic, Peta L

    2014-03-01

    Causal layered analysis (CLA) is an emerging qualitative methodology adopted in the discipline of planning as an approach to deconstruct complex social issues. With psychologists increasingly confronted with complex, and "wicked" social and community issues, we argue that the discipline of psychology would benefit from adopting CLA as an analytical method. Until now, the application of CLA for data interpretation has generally been poorly defined and overwhelming for the novice. In this paper we propose an approach to CLA that provides a method for the deconstruction and analysis of complex social psychological issues. We introduce CLA as a qualitative methodology well suited for psychology, introduce the epistemological foundations of CLA, define a space for it adoption within the discipline, and, outline the steps for conducting a CLA using an applied example.

  17. Social and psychological predictors of onset of anxiety disorders: results from a large prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The vast majority of studies investigating the association between social and psychological factors and anxiety disorders have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. The purpose of the study was to investigate in a prospective longitudinal study whether...... social and psychological factors are associated with the later risk of being admitted to a hospital and receive a diagnosis of anxiety disorders. METHOD: The study population comprised 4,497 members of The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (CPC) who in 1993 answered a mailed questionnaire containing questions...... on a range of social and psychological factors. In 2007, the study population was linked to The Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to obtain information on registration with anxiety disorders. Multiple Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the risk of anxiety...

  18. Political economy and social psychology of nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Gwang Sik

    2009-03-15

    The contents of this book are consideration on independence of nuclear safety regulations, analysis of trend in internal and external on effectualness of nuclear safety regulations, political psychology of a hard whistle, how to deal with trust and distrust on regulation institute, international trend and domestic trend of nuclear safe culture, policy for building of trust of people on nuclear safety and regulations, measurement and conception of nuclear safety and for who imposes legal controls?.

  19. Psychology of group relations: cultural and social dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J W

    2004-07-01

    Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand the development and expression of human behavior in relation to the cultural contexts in which it occurs. It adopts the perspective of "universalism," which assumes that all human beings share basic psychological processes, but which are then shaped by cultural influences. This perspective allows for the comparison of individuals from different cultures (based on the process commonality), but also accepts behavioral variability (based on the cultural shaping). In the case of behavior that takes place during interactions between individuals coming from two (or more) cultures, the task is more complex; we now need to understand at least two sets of culture-behavior phenomena, as well as a third set--those that arise at the intersection of their relationships. In cross-cultural psychology, we have adopted concepts and methods from sociology and political science to inform work on "ethnic relations," and from cultural anthropology we have been informed in our work on the process and outcomes of "acculturation." In the former domain are phenomena such as prejudice and discrimination; in the latter are the strategies people use when in daily contact with people from other cultures (such as assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization). These phenomena take place in cultural contexts, which need to be understood in terms of the core dimensions of cultural difference (such as diversity, equality, and conformity). During prolonged and intimate contact between persons of different cultural backgrounds, all these psychological concepts and processes, and cultural influences need to be taken into account when selecting, training, and monitoring individuals during their intercultural interactions.

  20. Relationship of religion and perceived social support to self-esteem and depression in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commerford, M C; Reznikoff, M

    1996-01-01

    This study is an examination of the relationship of religiosity and perceived social support to depression and self-esteem in nursing home residents. Answers to questionnaires administered to 83 nursing home residents indicated that perceived social support from family, public religious activity, and length of stay in the home were related to self-esteem and to depression. Past occupational status was also associated with self-esteem. Health status and having a choice in selecting the nursing home were negatively related to depression. Intrinsic religiosity and the resident's perceived social support from friends were not significantly related to depression or self-esteem.