Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael
In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…
Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation ... Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 5 Physical and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria ...
Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...
Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia
Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions
Ruiz Garrós, MC
Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.
Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L
Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.
Mackenzie, Lynette; Coppola, Susan; Alvarez, Liliana; Cibule, Lolita; Maltsev, Sergey; Loh, Siew Yim; Mlambo, Tecla; Ikiugu, Moses N; Pihlar, Zdenka; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Baptiste, Sue; Ledgerd, Richard
Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally.
Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L
The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists.
Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social
Reese, C C
Willard and Spackman's Occupational Therapy does not create an awareness and understanding of the role of women in the field of occupational therapy. Nor does the text include general policy statements or reflections on how gender bias affects our work. What is our true consciousness as women therapists? Maria Mies (1983) wrote that women consent to their own oppression or subordination through silence. "Only when there is a rupture in the 'normal' life of a woman, a divorce, an end of a relationship, is there a chance for her to become conscious of her true condition which had been unconsciously submerged in a patriarchal system" (p. 125). True consciousness occurs in occupational therapy when practitioners avoid the use of activities or occupation in therapy. This is our "rupture". I believe the profession needs to develop a policy statement discussing gender concerns in our theory and practice linked to the progress made by women scientists in anthropology, psychology, sociology, history, and literature. It is critical to good treatment that the gender role factor be included in our research on the generic impact of activity on the individual and small group. As female occupational therapists we have the opportunity to make a significant imprint on a gender-based understanding of the health value of activities in our daily lives.
Full Text Available Spirituality is recognized as an important concept in the study and practice of medicine, including occupational therapy. This aligns with occupational therapy’s core value of treating people holistically—mind, body, and spirit. Currently, the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospital Organizations ( JCAHO requires that a spiritual assessment be given to patients on admission. To conduct effective spiritual assessments, occupational therapists must distinguish between religion and spirituality. They also must be aware of their own spiritual beliefs and practices and how those might influence their clinical interactions. This article presents spiritual assessment tools that occupational therapists can use in clinical practice; they range from history taking, to questionnaires, to observation scales. Guidelines are presented for selecting among several spiritual assessments. A case study is presented in which a patient’s faith tradition is being challenged, which could affect the outcome of therapy. Finally, treatment and intervention planning and ethical considerations are discussed.
... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... Occupational therapists might: help kids work on fine motor skills so they ... maintain positive behaviors in all environments (e.g., instead of hitting ...
Black, Roxie M
As the demographics of the United States continue to change and we become a more pluralistic society, the increased diversity of the occupational therapy workforce and our consumers calls for an examination of the profession's stance on multiculturalism and diversity. Using the metaphor of dance, this article identifies the dance partners as the organization's leaders and its members. A historical review of the profession from the 1940s to the present traces the partners' steps to determine which led the dance of diversity during the profession's development. In this review, I discovered that the period when the profession most effectively and productively explored issues of diversity was during the early- to mid-1990s--a time when the organization and its members worked in harmony. At that time, occupational therapy's dance with diversity flowed with rhythm and synchronicity.
Gura, Shira Taylor
ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of mindfulness and its role in occupational therapy education. The plethora of research on mindfulness-based stress reduction programs has shown consistent and positive results to enhance quality of life in clinical and nonclinical populations. Offering students the opportunities to learn and experience mindfulness could lead to enhanced self-awareness and care, focus and empathy, and a decrease of client judgment enhancing the success of clinical interventions.
Christensen, O.M.; Kunov, A.; Hansen, F.F.; Christiansen, T.C.; Krasheninnikoff, M.
In this randomized trial, we enrolled 30 patients treated for a distal radius Colles' type fracture. The fractures were reduced if necessary and fixed in a below-elbow plaster cast for 5 weeks. One group consisting of 14 patients received instructions for shoulder; elbow and finger exercise and the other group consisting of 16 patients had occupational therapy. At 5 weeks, 3 and 9 months we measured the functional scores. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups ...
The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...
Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes da Silva
Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide phenomenon that affects both the rich and poor populations. It results from the action of environmental factors, dietary habits, physical activity and psychological conditions on individuals genetically predisposed to present excess adipose tissue. The impact of obesity can be measured by its influence on the quality of life. Occupational therapy has developed a significant role within the interdisciplinary treatment of obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe the experience of the work of occupational therapists in an interdisciplinary group for adult and elderly people presenting overweight and obesity in an extension project of a private university in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state. The Occupational Therapy team performed weekly interdisciplinary care, assessment, planning, organization of the therapeutic setting and occupational therapy intervention. The team was composed by an occupational therapy teacher, a scholar and five volunteer undergraduate students. The service group was open to new components, caregivers, and family and community members. Playful, cognitive, bodily, physical and productive occupational therapy activities were used in the sessions. These activities favored positive outcomes in mental, emotional and social dimensions. Thus, the project enabled the visibility of Occupational Therapy at the university, as well as the growth and expansion of academic and occupational knowledge on therapeutic intervention in obesity.
Christensen, O M; Kunov, A; Hansen, F F; Christiansen, T C; Krasheninnikoff, M
In this randomized trial, we enrolled 30 patients treated for a distal radius Colles' type fracture. The fractures were reduced if necessary and fixed in a below-elbow plaster cast for 5 weeks. One group consisting of 14 patients received instructions for shoulder; elbow and finger exercise and the other group consisting of 16 patients had occupational therapy. At 5 weeks, 3 and 9 months we measured the functional scores. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at any time. It seems that for non-surgically treated patients with a distal radius fracture only instructions are necessary.
Braveman, Brent; Hunter, Elizabeth G; Nicholson, Jennifer; Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah
This Evidence Connection describes a case report of a man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent an allogenic stem cell transplant. The occupational therapy assessment and treatment processes for an outpatient rehabilitation setting are described. Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Frolek Clark, Gloria
Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…
McInerney, Dennis M.; Korpershoek, Hanke; Wang, Hui; Morin, Alexandre J.S.
Little is known about the determinants of teachers' psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. In this paper, teachers' occupational attributes (i.e. professional and personal characteristics) were investigated as determinants. Henceforth, the
Clark, Florence A
Powerful professions have the capacity to obtain leadership positions, advocate successfully in the policy arena, and secure the resources necessary to achieve their professional goals. Within the occupational therapy profession, cultivating power and confidence among our practitioners is essential to realize our full capacity for meeting society's occupational needs. Drawing from a historical analysis of the medical and nursing professions, this paper discusses the implications of power and disempowerment among health professions for their practitioners, clients, and public image. Theoretical perspectives on power from social psychology, politics, organizational management, and post-structuralism are introduced and their relevance to the profession of occupational therapy is examined. The paper concludes with recommendations for occupational therapy practitioners to analyze their individual sources of power and evaluate opportunities to develop confidence and secure power for their professional work--in venues both in and outside the workplace.
Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.
Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…
Block, Pamela; Ricafrente-Biazon, Melissa; Russo, Ann; Chu, Ke Yun; Sud, Suman; Koerner, Lori; Vittoria, Karen; Landgrover, Alyssa; Olowu, Tosin
This article is a work of collaborative ethnography about teaching and learning disability studies within the context of an occupational therapy graduate program. In spring 2004,14 occupational therapy students were introduced to disability studies by their cultural anthropologist (nonoccupational therapist) course instructor. During the one-credit course, they were expected to complete readings, watch films, attend guest lectures, and make a site visit. The occupational therapy students were required to write a journal to record personal reactions and new insights gained from these experiences. This article focuses on a thematic analysis of the students' journaled responses to the film "Dance Me to My Song," and a site visit to a local Independent Living Center. Students were expected to analyze these experiences from both disability studies and occupational therapy perspectives. The article addresses philosophical and practical differences between occupational therapy and disability studies and identifies opportunities for collaboration between occupational therapists and independent living specialists.
Background. The concept of occupational justice was derived from a social justice perspective in response to a renewed commitment by the occupational therapy profession to address the occupational needs of individuals, groups and communities who experience social injustice. Accordingly, it is acknowledged that ...
The adaptive functions of occupation during the phylogenetic history of the human species and the ontogenetic development of individual primates re examined through a review of relevant research of wild and captive nonhuman primates. This review suggests that the effectiveness of occupation as a therapeutic medium throughout life span development is fundamentally tied to humankind's phylogenetic history. It is accordingly argued that there is considerable justification to maintain occupational therapy's historical commitment to therapeutic occupation as the profession's primary treatment modality. To support this commitment, questions to guide practice and research are identified that emanate from the primate literature and that are highly germane to the therapeutic process in occupational therapy. These questions address: (a) the relationship between the press of the various environments in which occupational therapists practice and subsequent opportunities availed to patients for engagement in occupation; (b) the relationship between the extent to which patients are or are not empowered to exert real control over their use of time and their eventual development of disabling conditions; and (c) the therapeutic efficacy of occupation as compared with other treatment approaches that are not comparably holistic.
... 0720-AB36 TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech... referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and... practitioners will be allowed to issue referrals to patients for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...
Scheepers, Renée A.
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be
Spang, Lisa; Holmqvist, Kajsa
Emergency care takes place in a complex work environment that is characterized by critically ill patients, short hospital stays, and a wide variety of different healthcare professionals. Studies of occupational therapists' (OTs) experiences of working within emergency care have shown that they often experience difficulties in explaining the essence of occupational therapy and have to justify their approaches. Much effort has been made in Sweden to help OTs dispel the notion that occupational therapy is difficult to explain, and the aim of this study was to describe how Swedish OTs perceive their work in emergency care. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken, and 14 interviews were conducted with OTs working in emergency care. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The overall theme that emerged was "Feeling established through deliberate occupation-based work". The underlying categories showed different strategies used by the OTs to provide occupational therapy in an emergency care context. Deliberate strategies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of occupational therapy and its approaches to patients and other health care professionals, and this resulted in the OTs feeling both established and needed. Unlike the OTs in previous studies, the Swedish OTs experienced no difficulties in explaining occupational therapy and could make convincing arguments for their interventions. Parallel to their clinical work, the OTs worked with on-going development to find ways to improve their approaches. In summary, these Swedish OTs seem to have been provided with a professional language and the knowledge required to establish themselves in an emergency care setting.
Lori E. Breeden
Photography can be an effective addition for education-based telehealth services delivered by an occupational therapist. In this study, photography was used as antecedent to telehealth sessions delivered by an occupational therapist focused on narrative learning about home safety. After taking photographs of past home safety challenges, six participants experienced three web-based occupational therapy sessions each. Sessions were recorded and transcribed. Data were examined using content ...
Full Text Available This article reports on the evidence for mental health occupational therapy in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013. Descriptive and inductive methods were used to address this question, with evidence from CINAHL, OTDBase, PSYCInfo, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar® included. Many articles (n = 1,747 were found that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 47 different methods were used to develop evidence for mental health occupational therapy, and evidence appeared in 300 separate peer-reviewed journals. It takes on average 7 months for an article to progress from submission to acceptance, and a further 7 months to progress from acceptance to publication. More than 95% of articles published between 2000 and 2002 were cited at least once in the following decade, and around 70% of these citations were recorded in non-occupational therapy journals. The current evidence base for mental health occupational therapy is both substantial and diverse.
The article's aim is to reflect on and contribute to developing occupational therapy as a profession. I propose an ethical interpretation of health and helping professions in general and occupational therapy in particular. According to this ethical interpretation, the essential function and mission...... principles and guidelines; it contributes to building up and preserving a shared professional identity; it puts emphasis on a client-centred perspective on professional work; and it provides a constructive framework for inter-professional co-operation....
Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Fong, Kenneth N K
Bibliometrics involves the statistical analysis of the publications in a specific discipline or subject area. A bibliometric analysis of the occupational therapy refereed literature is needed. A bibliometric analysis was completed of the occupational therapy literature from 1991-2014, indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded or the Social Sciences Citation Index. Publications were searched by title, abstract, keywords, and KeyWords Plus. Total number of article citations, citations per journal, and contributions per country, individual authors, and institution were calculated. 5,315 occupational therapy articles were published in 821 journals. It appears that there is a citation window of an approximate 10-year period between the time of publication and the peak number of citations an article receives. The top three most highly cited articles were published in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, JAMA, and Lancet. AJOT, BJOT and AOTJ published the largest number of occupational therapy articles with the United States, Australia, and Canada producing the highest number of publications. McMaster University, the University of Queensland, and the University of Toronto were the institutions that published the largest number of occupational therapy journal articles. The occupational therapy literature is growing and the frequency of article citation is increasing.
This article provides insight into the impact that exposure to an occupational therapist, in personal capacity or via a professional interaction, has on the decision to enter an occupational therapy undergraduate programme. A quantitative survey was completed by 139 occupational therapy students. The survey tool focussed on the students' exposure to a range of allied health professions (e.g. occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology) and investigated how exposure to occupational therapy had influenced their decision to enter the programme. The results indicated that over 70% of respondents had personal professional exposure to occupational therapy prior to making a career decision. Exposure most frequently involved occupational therapy intervention of a friend or family member. The majority of students who had professional exposure to occupational therapy (e.g. family, self, friend received occupational therapy) identified that it was the most influential factor in their career choice. Forty per cent of the occupational therapy students did not enter the programme straight from school and the influence of 'working with an occupational therapist' was noteworthy for mature aged students. Occupational therapists need to consider that every interaction they have with the community provides valuable information regarding the profession and gives insight into occupational therapy as a potential career path for other people. Additionally, the current research identifies there were differences in the impact, type and number of exposures for different student groups, and this potentially offers some insight into ways in which occupational therapy could target specific groups within the community to increase future diversity in the profession. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Price, Pollie; Miner, Stephanie
The current literature offers no cohesive definition of occupation-based practice. Current definitions emphasize intervention forms and contexts, which do not reflect the complexity of practice. This article demonstrates that the therapeutic relationship and the meanings that are created in the therapy process are central aspects of occupation-based practice. Occupation, as an idea that emerges in the therapeutic process, has aspects of both doing and becoming. The authors conducted observation sessions and interviews with an occupational therapist, Nancy, who used multiple therapeutic strategies with one child, Hannah, as they worked toward Hannah's goals of going to preschool and becoming a friend. Strategies include changing therapeutic conditions, using cognitive strategies, bridging the person-task-social context, pushing participation, and engaging in narrative micronegotiations. Occupation emerged in the therapeutic processes as the occupational therapist and client co-created meaning about the client moving toward or away from who she wanted to become.
Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah
We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…
Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809
Skubik-Peplaski, Camille Louise; Howell, Dana; Hunter, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the environment influenced the intervention choices occupational therapists made for patients recovering from a stroke in an inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Three occupational therapists were observed providing intervention for six patients over a 16-month period. Treatment spaces included a therapy gym, gym with kitchen combination, and a home-like space. Furniture was added to the therapy gym to be more home-like midway through the study. Observations included therapist selection of treatment location and interventions, and observational data of the environment and interactions among therapists and patients. This study found that inpatient rehabilitation environments did influence interventions. The occupational therapists provided therapy in the standard therapy gym environment most often, whether it was enhanced to be more home-like or not, and predominately used preparatory methods.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the concept and use of the instrument named ‘activities’ in occupational therapy, sustained by the propositions of the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method (DOTM. Initially, we present general aspects related to the activities in the DOTM such as the option for the name ‘activities’, its conceptual definition, use as a tool, and active participation in the dynamic of triadic relationship. Further, it approaches the character of activities: therapeutic, educational and social qualities, which distinguish this peculiar occupational therapy. Moreover, the paper highlights the use of activities as a tool, both as a central element of the processes that should underpin clinical reasoning (observation, information, association, setting up space of historicity, and construction of narrative, and as an element belonging to diagnostic procedures, to the course of clinical process, and to evaluation. Finally, we present our understanding of what we call resources in DOTM, and its intrinsic connection with the possibility of performing ‘activities’. For the creation of DOTM, occupational therapy, as a practice focused on the uniqueness of the case, was made the object of study in order to promote knowledge construction. The conceptual and instrumental framework presented in this work held this effort. We hope that this study could be useful for initial and continuing training in Occupational Therapy as well as for enriching the debate on the use of ‘activities’ in our profession.
BREEDEN, LORI E.
Photography can be an effective addition for education-based telehealth services delivered by an occupational therapist. In this study, photography was used as antecedent to telehealth sessions delivered by an occupational therapist focused on narrative learning about home safety. After taking photographs of past home safety challenges, six participants experienced three web-based occupational therapy sessions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed. Data were examined using content analysis. The content analysis identified the following themes: the value of photos to support learning; the value of narrative learning related to home safety education; and abstract versus concrete learners. Procedural findings are included to support future endeavors. Findings indicate that within a wellness context, home safety education for older adults can be delivered effectively via telehealth when using photography as a part of an occupational therapy intervention. PMID:27563389
Yontef, Gary M.
When adequately elaborated, the basic method of Gestalt therapy can be traced to the phenomenological field theory of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt therapy differs from Gestalt psychology not because of a difference in philosophy or method, but because of different contexts; the clinical context has different demands than those of basic research.…
Benson, Jeryl DiSanti
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…
Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M
Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.
Kautzmann, L N; Kautzmann, F N; Navarro, F H
Understanding marketing techniques is one of the skills needed by successful entre renews. Target marketing is an effective method for occupational therapy entrepreneurs to use in determining when and where to enter the marketplace. The two components of target marketing, market segmentation and the development of marketing mix strategies for each identified market segment, are described. The Profife of Attitudes Toward Health Care (PATH) method of psychographic market segmentation of health care consumers is presented. Occupational therapy marketing mix strategies for each PATH consumer group are delineated and compatible groupings of market segments are suggested.
Maroney, Pamela; Potter, Marianne; Thacore, Vinod Rai
With a steady increase of refugees arriving in Australia from Afghanistan coupled with reports that prevalence of mental illness amongst Afghan refugees in South-East Melbourne is particularly high, mental health providers will need to acquire cultural competence to provide effective treatment. There is a dearth of literature on the subject of rehabilitation of Afghan psychiatric clients in the Australian context, providing the impetus for this article. To illustrate the impact of Afghan socio-cultural beliefs and attitudes on the implementation of occupational therapy and rehabilitation programmes in a mental health facility and adaptations to accommodate the needs of the clients and their families. Two case vignettes of Afghan clients are presented to illustrate the variance in goals and expectations of the clients and their families to that of the occupational therapy and rehabilitation programmes offered. Family expectations and involvement, culture-specific factors and religion play significant roles in the presentation and treatment of clients from the Muslim culture and require modification in implementation of rehabilitation programmes. A need for developing family or community-based services is proposed coupled with culturally responsive practices. Culture sensitive models of occupational therapy will need to be developed as younger generations of refugee families acculturate and need psychological help to deal with conflicts with parents and elders who hold values different from those adopted by their children born and brought up in the Australian socio-cultural environment. These and other issues mentioned above provide fertile fields for research in this evolving area of occupational therapy. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Vicki C. Mason
Full Text Available Background: The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS patient satisfaction survey, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative in the Affordable Care Act (ACA are affecting expectations of professionalism in health care. These initiatives and shifts in expectations are especially concerning for occupational therapists whose services historically have not been well understood. Method: Eighteen supervisory and managerial occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed regarding perceptions of professionalism in occupational therapy employees. The semi-structured interview guide explored professionalism in occupational therapists’ interactions with patients and co-workers and in an employer’s organization. Results: The participants identified three categories: patient or client-centeredness; collaboration and teamwork; and respect for the profession, department, and company. Conclusion: Data indicate that occupational therapy employers desire therapists who can effectively explain and demonstrate the value of OT, advocate for a patient, and understand the importance of communication and respect in interactions with patients, families, and co-workers. Investigating employers’ perceptions can yield a more complete picture of the specific behaviors associated with professionalism; enhance the process and product of professional development education; and contribute to the goals of patient-centered care, quality, patient safety, and improved reimbursement under the ACA’s value-based purchasing.
Radder, D.L.M.; Sturkenboom, I.H.W.M.; Nimwegen, M. van; Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Vries, N.M. de
Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in
Seyedeh Negar Assadi
Full Text Available Environmental exposures of workplace may affect employees' health including the nervous and psychological systems. Aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational factors on psychological and neurological systems in workplaces. This is historical cohort study on employees in low and high exposure groups. The study's tool was flexible interview, questionnaire and occupational factors measurement. Sick employees were followed until the end of treatment. Headache was higher in employees with high level of lighting. The relative risk was 1.45 (1.04-2.02. Dizziness was significantly more in the working hours in offices. The risk ratio for dizziness was 2.25 (1.80-2.33. Employees with high exposure to occupational factors were at higher risk for headache and dizziness. There is relationship between loss of concentration and age. The risk ratio was 1.63 (1.13-2.36. The results of this study indicated that people who exposed to occupational and environmental pollutants occupational might be a risk for some psychological and neurological symptoms such as headache and dizziness and impaired concentration would be increased by aging.
This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Ingwersen, Kate; Lyons, Nikki; Hitch, Danielle
There are few studies in occupational therapy that compare the perceptions of supervisors and students regarding quality clinical placement programmes, and those that exist indicate substantial differences in the perceptions held by each group. This pilot study was conducted using a cross-sectional descriptive design, with a single questionnaire distributed to occupational therapy students and clinical supervisors. A total of 40 questionnaires were returned: 17 from students and 23 from clinical supervisors. Differences were found between the perceptions of occupational therapy students and clinical supervisors in response to four topics: preparation from the university for their placements; consistency across placement sites; instances of supervisors seeking feedback from students; and the burden associated with the placement-related workload for clinicians. Differences were found between the perceptions of occupational therapy students and clinical supervisors in response to four topics DISCUSSION: Different perceptions around preparation from universities and consistency across placement sites relate to the existing roles of each group: students are more aware of university preparation and clinical supervisors are more aware of organisational inconsistencies in their respective usual work environments. The discrepancy in the perceived seeking of feedback from students has also been reported in student debriefing sessions. The burdens perceived by clinical supervisors appear to be influenced by a belief that clinical education is an additional duty rather than a core role. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background. Ethics training strives to facilitate critical thinking, objective analysis and clinical reasoning skills to equip students with the ability to make an impartial and unbiased decision in different contexts and diverse client populations. This enhances students' learning experiences. Occupational therapy (OT) students ...
Andreasen, Gena; Stella, Tiffany; Wilkison, Megan; Szczech Moser, Christy; Hoelzel, Allison; Hendricks, Laura
The use of animals for therapeutic purposes has been documented in the literature for centuries. This review will highlight evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted therapy as well as provide a plethora of resources for therapists interested in learning more about how animals can provide restorative benefits for their clients.
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie
Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors' ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Larsen, Stina Meyer; Petersen, Anne Karin
Describe and demonstrate Occupational Therapy (OT) intervention for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).......Describe and demonstrate Occupational Therapy (OT) intervention for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)....
Chronic pain is a significant health-care problem. This review aims to critically analyse occupational therapy services for people with chronic pain and identify significant factors influencing the future development of occupational therapy services for people with chronic pain.
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient occupational therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.59 Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions. (a) Basic rule... occupational therapy services only if they are furnished by an individual meeting the qualifications in part...
Occupational therapy in hospital based care in the Netherlands: a comparison of occupational therapy in general care (nursing homes, rehabilitation centres and general hospitals) and psychiatric care.
Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Zee, J. van der; Lankhorst, G.
The case of a 26-year old woman with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is presented. Multidimensional assessment showing severe debilitating fatigue and considerable psychological, social and occupational impairment confirmed the diagnosis. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was based on a tested causal
Lori E. Breeden
Full Text Available Photography can be an effective addition for education-based telehealth services delivered by an occupational therapist. In this study, photography was used as antecedent to telehealth sessions delivered by an occupational therapist focused on narrative learning about home safety. After taking photographs of past home safety challenges, six participants experienced three web-based occupational therapy sessions each. Sessions were recorded and transcribed. Data were examined using content analysis. A content analysis identified the following themes as well as an understanding of the learning process. Analyses yielded themes of: the value of photos to support learning, the value of narrative learning related to home safety education, abstract versus concrete learners. Procedural findings are included to support future endeavors. Findings indicate that within a wellness context, home safety education for older adults can be delivered effectively via telehealth when using photography as a part of an occupational therapy intervention.
Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen
Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…
Weinreich, Mark; Herman, Jennifer; Dickason, Stephanie; Mayo, Helen
This paper is a synthesis of the available literature on occupational therapy interventions performed in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). The databases of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and CINAHL databases were systematically searched from inception through August 2016 for studies of adults who received occupational therapy interventions in the ICU. Of 1,938 citations reviewed, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Only one study explicitly discussed occupational therapy interventions performed and only one study specifically tested the efficacy of occupational therapy. Future research is needed to clarify the specific interventions and role of occupational therapy in the ICU and the efficacy of these interventions.
Bonsaksen, Tore; Kvarsnes, Hildegunn; Dahl, Mona
Research on occupational therapy students has often been concerned with quite narrow topics. However, the basic characteristics of this group are yet to be examined in more depth. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic, education-related, and work-related characteristics of occupational therapy students. A sample of 160 occupational therapy students in Norway participated. Differences between cohorts of students were examined with one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables and with chi-square tests for categorical variables. The sample had a mean age of 24 years and was predominantly female (79%). More than one -third of the students had one or both parents in an occupation requiring health education, whereas two-thirds of the students had one or both parents in an occupation requiring higher education. At entry, 57% of the participants had occupational therapy as their preferred choice of education and 43% had previous higher education experience. The few significant differences between the study cohorts were negligible. In the education programmes, specific attention may be considered for students with characteristics associated with increased risk of poorer study performance or other problems. This may concern male students and students with no previous higher education experience.
Schneider, H; Wall, H
Long-term effects of occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) on psychic performance and on well-being have hardly been described in the literature to date. However, they cannot be excluded, since numerous findings exist on impairments of performance and of well-being in experimentally conditioned short-term effects. Within the framework of comprehensive clearing-up diagnostics in occupational health, 20 male subjects with many years of occupational exposure to WBV were investigated according to a standardized psychodiagnostic programme of methods. The highest rate of pathological findings resulted in the areas of visual perception speed and subtle motory speed of movements. Furthermore, the results are evidence for an interrelation between the duration of exposure and disturbances in the areas of attention, as well as of sensomotory selection responses. As a whole, the results essentially affect the same psychological variables as the results of the short-term studies, but are to be evaluated with reservations on methodological grounds.
Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie
More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie
Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors’ ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473
Tsing-Yee (Emily Chai
Full Text Available The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life. The demand for occupational therapists in Canada is expected to grow sharply at an annual growth rate of 3.2%, compared to 0.7% for all occupations. At the same time, it is believed by occupational therapists in Canada that the Canadian public does not understand the role of occupational therapy. Occupational science is an emerging basic science field that supports the practice of occupational therapy. Given that newspapers are one source the public uses to obtain information and that newspapers are seen to shape public opinions, the purpose of this study is to investigate how “occupational therapy” is covered in Canadian newspapers from the term’s first appearance in 1917 until 2016 and how “occupational science” is covered from the term’s first appearance in 1989 to 2016. We interrogated the findings through the lens of three non-newspaper sources—two academic journals: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT and Journal of Occupational Science (JOS; and one Canadian magazine: Occupational Therapy Now (OTN. We found that medical terms were prevalent in the newspaper articles covering occupational therapy similar to the presence of medical terms in the CJOT and OTN. However, the newspapers missed contemporary shifts in occupational therapy as evident in the CJOT, OTN and JOS—such as the increased engagement with enablement, occupational justice and other occupational concepts. The newspapers also failed to portray the societal issues that occupational therapy engages with on behalf of and with their clients, and the newspapers did not cover many of the client groups of occupational therapy. Occupational science was only mentioned in n = 26 articles of the nearly 300 Canadian newspapers covered with no concrete content linked to occupational science. The scope of occupational therapy presented in Canadian
Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan
To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P occupational psychological stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P 0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3.126 times those in the people with mild stress exposure. There were significant differences in the detection rates of abdominal obesity, high TG
Sainburg, Robert L; Liew, Sook-Lei; Frey, Scott H; Clark, Florence
Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors. Given both fields' mutual interest in the study of movement as it relates to health and disease, the authors posit that combining OS and OT theories and principles with the theories and methods in movement science may lead to new, impactful, and clinically relevant knowledge. The first step is to ensure that individuals with OS or OT backgrounds are academically prepared to pursue advanced study in movement science. In this article, the authors propose 2 strategies to address this need.
Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha
Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.
Sleight, Alix G; Duker, Leah I Stein
Supportive care in oncology helps people cope with cancer and its psychological, physical, and emotional side effects. However, cancer survivors report dissatisfaction with supportive care and a need for more psychosocial and self-management services. Occupational therapy practitioners represent an integral part of the supportive care team because their scope of practice emphasizes function. Through a focus on function, practitioners address the full spectrum of physical and psychosocial care. Currently, conceptualizations of occupational therapy for cancer survivors often focus solely on physical interventions and, therefore, do not represent the unique involvement of the profession in supportive oncology care. We advocate for a focused framework for occupational therapy practitioners in oncology as experts in function and providers of both physical and psychosocial treatments. Barriers to a focus on function are identified, and strategies are suggested for expanding involvement for the profession in supportive oncology care. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.
Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nyman, Anneli
Occupation has been the focus in occupational therapy practice to greater or lesser degrees from a historical viewpoint. This evokes a need to discuss whether concepts that are added to our field will enhance or blur our focus on occupation. To explore how the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is related to the concept of occupation by reviewing and comparing its use in three models of practice within occupational therapy. The aim was also to generate discussion on possibilities and challenges concerning the relationship of participation and occupation. The models reviewed were The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM). The concept of participation was related to occupation in different ways in these models. Based on the review some challenges and considerations for occupational therapy were generated. Relating the concept of participation from the ICF to the concept of occupation in models of practice can be challenging. At the same time, relating the concepts can be a resource to develop occupational therapy and the understanding of occupational issues in society.
Pereira, Robert B
Occupation is a human right and a social determinant of health. It is also taken for granted. Having access to, and participating in, occupation, is intricately linked to positive health and wellbeing. Despite theory and evidence to support the link between occupation, health and wellbeing, occupational therapists can struggle with applying an occupation focus in practice and knowing how to use occupational frameworks to enable occupation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Capabilities, Opportunities, Resources and Environments (CORE) approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice. It provides occupational therapists with a means of operationalising occupational enablement and facilitating social inclusion. The CORE approach is introduced by linking its main ideas to Economist and Nobel Prize Laureate Amartya Sen's capabilities approach, as well as findings from the author's doctoral research into entrenched disadvantage and social inclusion. Practical questions guided by the CORE approach's acronym are given to explore how the approach can be utilised alongside other occupational models and frameworks to encourage strategies for effective enablement through occupation for social inclusion. As experts in enabling occupation, occupational therapists can use the CORE approach to design occupation-focused interventions and promote inclusive occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Persson, Dennis; Nygren, Carita
therapy intervention related to the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within stroke rehabilitation. Design: Systematic searches of research studies published in English during 2000-2007 in peer-reviewed journals were undertaken. Thirty-nine articles and one Cochrane review were...... after rehabilitation. There is also considerable evidence for the use of everyday life occupations in occupational therapy. Occupational therapy was evaluated as an important aspect of stroke rehabilitation improving outcomes in everyday life occupations including activities of daily living (ADL...
Full Text Available Mobile app-based device utilization, including smartphones and handheld tablets, suggests a need to evaluate evidence to guide selection and implementation of these devices in the occupational therapy process. The purpose of the research was to explore the current body of evidence in relation to mobile app-based devices and to identify factors in the use of these devices throughout the occupational therapy process. Following review of available occupational therapy profession guidelines, assistive technology literature, and available mobile device research, practitioners using mobile app-based devices in occupational therapy should consider three areas: client needs, practitioner competence, and device factors. The purpose of this guideline is to identify factors in the selection and use of mobile app-based devices throughout the occupational therapy process based on available evidence. Considerations for mobile device implementation during the occupational therapy process is addressed, including evaluating outcomes needs, matching device with the client, and identifying support needs of the client.
Mroz, Tracy M.; Fogelberg, Donald J.; Leland, Natalie E.
As our health care system continues to change, so do the opportunities for occupational therapy. This article provides an update to a 2012 Health Policy Perspectives on this topic. We identify new initiatives and opportunities in primary care, explore common challenges to integrating occupational therapy in primary care environments, and highlight international works that can support our efforts. We conclude by discussing next steps for occupational therapy practitioners in order to continue to progress our efforts in primary care. PMID:29689169
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Williams, Grant R.; Campbell, Claudine; Munoz, Lauro A.; Muss, Hyman B.
Adults with cancer may be at risk for limitations in functional status and quality of life (QOL). Occupational therapy is a supportive service with the specific mission to help people functionally engage in life as safely and independently as possible with the primary goal of improving QOL. Unfortunately, for people with cancer, occupational therapy remains underused. The overall purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of what occupational therapy is and its relevance to patient...
Andreisi Carbone Anversa
Full Text Available Introduction: The organization of Primary Health Care through the family health strategy calls for comprehensive and continuous attention of the residents on their area of expertise. Objective: To reflect on Occupational Therapy practice next to a Family Health Strategy (FHS, aiming to raise and expand the profession inclusion in this area and discuss the challenges and field potentials. Method: This is a report of professional and academic experiences that describes training and services activities. The practical activities were developed in partnership with FHS in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The group, composed by 10 interns, conducted household interventions, all accompanied by supervisors. On 27 cases assisted, each individual received the Occupational Therapy service once a week, during one hour. Results: It was exciting to know, in fact, the subjects reality, their social context, daily life, organizational mode - allowing a series of interventions which would not be appropriate in a clinical environment. In addition, the home care provided a closer relationship among health professionals with patients and their families. Conclusion: Through mistakes, successes, obstacles and learning, a process of maturation and experiences with unique subjects, various diseases, illness and care, resulted in a unique moment that made possible to suggest how important it is, for both trainees and society, to make real this link between academia and health facilities, seeking services qualification.
Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan
Bibliometrics refers to the collection and measurement of publishing and citation data configurations with the goal of quantifying the influence of scholarly activities. Advantages of bibliometrics include the generation of quantitative indicators of impact, productivity, quality and collaboration. Those parties who benefit from the results of bibliometric analysis include researchers, educators, journal publishers, employers and research funding bodies. A bibliometric analysis was completed of peer-reviewed literature from 1991 to 2015, written by Australian occupational therapists (who were able to be identified as such), and indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) or the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. "Occupational therapy" and "occupational therapist(s)" were used as keywords to search journal articles' publication title, abstract, author details, keywords and KeyWord Plus. Between 1991 and 2015, 752 peer-reviewed journal articles were published by Australian occupational therapy authors. On average, those articles had 3.7 authors, 35 references, and were nine pages in length. The top four journals in which Australian occupational therapists published were Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, American Journal of Occupational Therapy, and Physical and Occupational Therapy in Paediatrics. The four Australian institutions that generated the largest number of occupational therapy articles were the University of Queensland, University of Sydney, La Trobe University, and Monash University. The top four countries with whom Australian authors collaborated in manuscript writing were the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Sweden. The volume of occupational therapy peer-reviewed literature has grown over the last two decades. Australian authors have and continue to make significant contributions to the occupational therapy body of knowledge nationally and internationally. © 2018
... tendonitis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, and carpal tunnel syndrome also are treated by occupational therapy practitioners specializing in hand rehabilitation. Practitioners who treat ...
Royeen, C B
To prepare practitioners and researchers who are well equipped to deal with the inevitable myriad changes in health care and in society coming in the 21st century, a new focus is needed in occupational therapy education. In addition to proficiency in clinical skills and technical knowledge, occupational therapy graduates will need outcome competencies underlying the skills of critical reflection. In this article, the author presents (a) the rationale for the need for change in occupational therapy education, (b) key concepts of clinical reasoning and critical reflection pertaining to the outcome such change in occupational therapy education should address, (c) problem-based learning as a process and educational method to prepare occupational therapists in these competencies, and (d) the experience of the Program in Occupational Therapy at Shenandoah University in Winchester, Virginia, in implementing a problem-based learning curriculum.
Full Text Available Purpose - Play occupation has been identified as an essential part of children’s lives, and it subsequently features in paediatric occupational therapy. However, few studies address the current place of play and play occupation in occupational therapy practice. This study aims to address this gap in knowledge by exploring paediatric occupational therapists’ perspectives on the place of play and play occupation in occupational therapy practice in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach - A cross-sectional online survey was conducted to gather data about the current use of play in the occupational therapy for children under 12 years. Convenience sampling and snowball recruitment techniques were used to recruit paediatric occupational therapists. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Findings - In total, 65 therapists responded to the survey (estimated response rate, 32%. Results are organised into four sections: demographics and practice context, play assessment practices, use of play in practice and perceived barriers to play-centred practice. Respondents reported that they valued play as a childhood occupation. However, the survey findings identified that the primary focus was on play as a means to an end. Lack of education on play (research, theory and interventions and pressures in the workplace have been identified as barriers to play-centred practice. Research limitations/implications - Findings indicate that there is a mismatch between therapists valuing play as an occupation and how play is used in occupational therapy practice. Unless clarifications are made about play occupation as being different to skills acquisition in childhood, play occupation will continue to get overlooked as an authentic concern of occupation-centred practice. Thus, play as occupation deserves further attention from educators, researchers and practitioners as a means of strengthening occupation-centred practice, in
Tetrick, Lois E
Measurement of occupational health psychology constructs is the cornerstone to developing our understanding of occupational health and safety. It also is critical in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions to improve employees and organizations well-being. The purpose of this article is a brief review of the current state of measurement theory and practice in occupational health psychology. Also included are a discussion of development of newer measurement models and methods, which are in use in other disciplines of psychology, but have not been incorporated into the occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
C. Sackley; M. Walker; E. Steultjens; M. Feltham; J. Fletcher-Smith
In this systematic review we aim to measure the effects of occupational therapy interventions (provided directly by an occupational therapist or under the supervision of an occupational therapist) targeted at improving, restoring and maintaining independence in ADL (to include both self-care and
Crawford, Emma; Aplin, Tammy; Rodger, Sylvia
Education on human rights will place occupational therapists in a strong position to address societal inequities that limit occupational engagement for many client groups. The imminent changes to the Minimum Standard for the Education of Occupational Therapists engender efforts towards social change and will require university-level human rights education. This education might enhance the profession's influence on disadvantaging social structures in order to effect social change. To contribute to the evidence base for social change education in occupational therapy, this research aims to understand the knowledge, skills, confidence and learning experiences of occupational therapy students who completed a human rights course. Final year occupational therapy students responded to questionnaires which included listing human rights, a human rights scale measuring knowledge and confidence for working towards human rights, and open questions. Numbers of rights listed, knowledge scores and confidence scores were calculated. Responses to the open questions were thematically analysed. After completing a human rights course, students had good knowledge and moderate confidence to work with human rights. Three themes were identified including 'learning about human rights', 'learning about structural, societal and global perspectives on occupational engagement' and 'learning how occupational therapists can work with groups, communities and populations: becoming articulate and empowered'. Human rights education fosters the development of occupational therapists who are skilled, knowledgeable, confident and empowered to address occupational injustices, according to these research findings. To develop a more occupationally just global society, education that considers iniquitous social structures and human rights is necessary. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Occupational therapy practice is grounded in the delivery of occupation-centered, patient-driven treatments that engage clients in the process of doing to improve health. As emerging technologies, such as medical imaging, find their way into rehabilitation practice, it is imperative that occupational therapy practitioners assess whether and how these tools can be incorporated into treatment regimens that are dually responsive to the medical model of health care and to the profession’s foundation in occupation. Most medical imaging modalities have a discrete place in occupation-based intervention as outcome measures or for patient education; however, sonographic imaging has the potential to blend multiple occupational therapy practice forms to document treatment outcomes, inform clinical reasoning, and facilitate improved functional performance when used as an accessory tool in direct intervention. Use of medical imaging is discussed as it relates to occupational foundations and the professional role within the context of providing efficient, effective patient-centered rehabilitative care. PMID:25871607
Full Text Available Background. Occupational therapists sometimes find it challenging to integrate client-centered and occupational therapy specific assessments in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the use of occupational therapy specific assessments such as the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS among occupational therapists in Sweden and Japan. Methods. Interviews and qualitative thematic analyses were utilized. Findings. Four themes are reported: (1 use it or lose it, (2 simply no space until after hours, (3 biggest barriers can be colleagues, and (4 being more specific: communication. Conclusion. In keeping with previous studies, occupational therapists often find it challenging to implement client-centered and occupation-based assessment tools into practice. However, more work is needed to understand how best practices can be incorporated into a changing occupational therapy daily practice.
Cramm, Heidi A; Krupa, Terry M; Missiuna, Cheryl A; Lysaght, Rosemary M; Parker, Kevin H
Increasingly recognized as an important factor in the performance of complex, goal-directed tasks, executive functioning is understood in different ways across disciplines. The aim was to explore the ways in which executive functioning is conceptualized, discussed, described, and implied in the occupational therapy literature. A scoping review of the occupational therapy literature was conducted following Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien's (2010) recommended methodology. Executive functioning is described both as a set of performance component skills or processes and as the executive occupational performance inherent in complex occupations. Executive functioning is implicit in occupational performance and engagement, and some health conditions seem to be commonly associated with impaired executive functioning. Assessing executive functioning requires dynamic occupation- and performance-based assessment. Interventions targeting executive functioning are grounded in metacognitive approaches. Executive functioning is a complex construct that is conceptualized with considerable variance within the occupational therapy literature, creating barriers to effective service delivery.
Araujo, A.M.C. de
In Brazil, the highest incidence of cancer in females is in the uterine cervix, in which Bracytherapy treatment plays a very important role. The majority of our Clinics use 226 Ra or 137 Cs tubes to perform this therapy. As many of these Clinics do not use the afterloading technique, we investigated the occupational exposure for the staffs belonging to two big Hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, where the working conditions are very different. For this, besides the normal film badge, placed in the upper part of the trunk, each person has been provided with seven additional thermoluminescent dosimeters (chips - 7 LiF) placed at: left ring finger, right ring finger, forehead (between the eyes), over the thyroid, in the midle of the back and the front of the trunk, and over the gonadal region. In Hospital A, where the staff is composed of 1 medical doctor and 1 nurse, they treat about 13 patients per month. In Hospital B, the staff was composed of 12 medical doctors, 2 technicians and 7 murses, and about 20 patients are treated monthly. The occupational exposures have been investigated separately for each step of the 226 Ra routine. From these results we could easily identify that: the nurses working in the infermary do not use the lateral lead protection of beds to clean the patients; in Hospital B, where there are perfect conditions for storage and manipulation of the radioactive sources, the technician in charge of these tasks, together with the transport of the applicator, except in his hands, suffers no exposure at all. Besides that, we could also see that in Hospital A, where the nurse plays also the role of that technician, and the local protection conditions are not correct, the estimated annual exposures are still below the annual limits according to ICRP N 0 . 26/1977. This analysis has been completed with measures of occupational exposures in Clinics using the after loading technique. (author) [pt
Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary
The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…
Taylor, A; Andriuk, M L; Langlois, P; Provost, E
Occupational therapy departments of tertiary care hospitals can provide staff with opportunities to gain diverse clinical experience if they rotate through the various services such as surgery, medicine, geriatrics, plastic surgery and orthopaedics. The system of rotation offers both advantages and disadvantages for the staff and the institution. The Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, a large university teaching hospital, had traditionally offered staff the opportunity to rotate. Changes in staffing and their needs however, resulted in rotation becoming an important issue within the department. This article presents the pros and the cons of rotation and non-rotation systems as identified by therapists and administrators across Canada. Staff rotation was found to have an effect on job satisfaction and a therapist's career orientation. Given these findings, administrators may want to reconsider the role of the generalist and specialist in their facilities.
Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Anne; Julien, Marjorie; Hui, Caroline
This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about occupational therapy in preschools (for 3-6 year olds) in order to provide a better understanding of this field of practice and to guide the implementation or programming of this service. In the literature, occupational therapy in preschools has been documented mainly in the USA. Results…
Benson, Jeryl D.; Elkin, Kathleen; Wechsler, Julie; Byrd, Lindsey
This study aims to explore the perceptions of parents of children receiving occupational therapy in educational settings, understand the importance of the parent/occupational therapist relationship and its impact on the outcomes of therapy. In addition, this study aims to reveal best practices when providing services within the school system in…
Murphy, Lynne; Wilson, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Stacey
Equine-assisted occupational therapy (EAOT) employs horse and human cooperation in activities that facilitate social, emotional, and cognitive development. The potential benefits of equine-assisted activities for students may influence the development of these types of skills in professional occupational therapy practice. This study explored the…
The concept of independence is common in occupational therapy theory and practice but has rarely been clearly defined or conceptualized within in occupational therapy literature and there seems to be no standard definition. This can result in ambiguity, which potentially jeopardizes client-centred practice. This paper proposes an occupational therapy independence framework (OTIF) that synthesizes the range of characterizations of independence in a practically useful and occupation-centred manner. A review of literature, clinical experience, doctoral research and conversations with occupational therapists and disabled people, in particular those involved in a disability activism group and people with physical disabilities, has led to the development of the OTIF. Independence and interdependence, as characterized in the OTIF, occur when an individual exerts choice over occupational performance and can engage in occupations in a manner acceptable to the individual. Interdependence results when occupations are performed with another person whereas independence involves solitary occupational performance. Dependence typically results from inability to choose occupations or a mismatch between performance capacity and environmental factors. The OTIF has the potential to clarify the conceptualization of independence within occupational therapy theory and practice. This initial proposal is presented to stimulate debate and discussion.
Cowlishaw, Sean; Merkouris, Stephanie; Dowling, Nicki; Anderson, Christopher; Jackson, Alun; Thomas, Shane
Various psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling have been evaluated in randomised trials. A synthesis of best-quality evidence is required. The objective was to synthesise evidence from randomised trials of psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling (cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing therapy, integrative therapy, other psychological therapy), in order to indicate the efficacy of therapies and durability of therapy effects, relative to control conditions. We conducted a search of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (all years), EMBASE (1974 -), MEDLINE (1950 -) and PsycINFO (1967 -). We also carried out complementary searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and CENTRAL for studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. We examined the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov and also conducted manual searches of selected journals and reference lists of included studies. Included studies were clinical trials using random allocation to groups, considering pathological or problem gamblers, and evaluating a psychological therapy for pathological or problem gambling. Control conditions included 'no treatment' controls, referral to Gamblers Anonymous and non-specific treatment component controls. We systematically extracted data on the characteristics and results of studies. Primary outcomes were measures of gambling symptom severity, financial loss from gambling and frequency of gambling. Secondary outcomes were occurrence of pathological gambling diagnoses and depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment effects were defined by comparisons between therapy and control conditions at post-treatment assessments (conducted from 0 to 3 months
Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Jensen, Lou; Lieberman, Deborah; Arbesman, Marian
Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice Project. In this Evidence Connection article, we describe a case report of a person with Alzheimer's disease. The occupational therapy assessment and intervention process in the home setting is described. Findings from the systematic reviews on this topic were published in the November/December 2017 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and in AOTA's Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders. Each article in this series summarizes the evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case. Evidence Connection articles illustrate how the research evidence from the reviews can be used to inform and guide clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Pat J. Precin
Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via surveymonkey.com. Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.
McCombie, Randy P; Antanavage, Meredith E
This research examined the transition from occupational therapy student to practicing occupational therapist over the course of one's first year of professional employment, as recalled by a sample of occupational therapists. Surveys were mailed to 500 occupational therapists randomly selected from membership in the American Occupational Therapy Association resulting in 202 returned surveys. Median year of graduation was 1998, ranging from 1967 to 2014. In general, respondents indicated the transition was positive. Having a mentor was related to high job satisfaction and good clinical fit, while supervising an occupational therapy assistant and low self-confidence were viewed as negative impact factors. Recent graduates presented with lower ratings of a positive transition and higher ratings of likelihood of experiencing burnout and initial job stress than earlier graduates. Recommendations for improving the transition experience are presented.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Where applicable, licensed by the State. (b) Occupational therapy. (1) Occupational therapy means...
Spencer, Janet E; Emery, Lynnda J; Schneck, Colleen M
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of special education directors on the current role of occupational therapy in high school transition programs for adolescent students with disabilities. Additionally, barriers to providing occupational therapy services and perceptions about new occupational therapy services were examined. A mailed questionnaire was administered to all special education directors in a rural state in the United States. One hundred and four (57.5%) responses were received. Descriptive statistics were generated with an emphasis on percentages to examine current occupational therapy services in high school transition programs and barriers to service delivery. In this study, occupational therapists provided less than one fifth of transition services in high schools for students with disabilities. They provided more assistive technology consults (30.3%), task or environmental modification (25.8%), and Individualized Education Plan (IEP) and Individualized Transition Plan (ITP) planning (20%) than other providers. Barriers to occupational therapy use included funding, lack of inter-agency planning, and lack of parent participation. About 35% of special education directors suggested that additional occupational therapy services were needed for adolescents with cognitive disabilities and for job performance and related work skills programming. Occupational therapists in this study provided ancillary services to high school students with disabilities with greater emphasis on technology, task or environmental modification, and IEP or ITP planning, as perceived by special evaluation directors.
Charlotte l. Royeen
Full Text Available The core tenets of occupational therapy date to ancient Greece. Philosophers and physicians alike promulgated that quality of life, or “eudemonia,” is at the center of both ethical and medical concern and can be attained through healthful engagement in meaningful occupation. In more recent times, there has been a strong call to return to the powerful implementation of the eudemonic moral philosophy in health care practice, especially in occupational therapy. Searches of recent occupational therapy research show that integration of wellness initiatives into rehabilitative treatment sessions can have a profound impact on the physical and emotional healthfulness of people with a wide variety of ailments. Accordingly, we put forth three self-reflection questions and 10 client-centered questions to use in occupational therapy assessment to promote eudemonic care.
Fortune, Tracy; Kennedy-Jones, Mary
We introduce the educational framework of 'threshold concepts' and discuss its utility in understanding the fundamental difficulties learners have in understanding ways of thinking and practising as occupational therapists. We propose that the relationship between occupation and health is a threshold concept for occupational therapy because of students' trouble in achieving lasting conceptual change in relation to their understanding of it. The authors present and discuss key ideas drawn from educational writings on threshold concepts, review the emerging literature on threshold concepts in occupational therapy, and pose a series of questions in order to prompt consideration of the pedagogical issues requiring action by academic and fieldwork educators. Threshold concepts in occupational therapy have been considered in a primarily cross-disciplinary sense, that is, the understandings that occupational therapy learners grapple with are relevant to learners in other disciplines. In contrast, we present a more narrowly defined conception that emphasises the 'bounded-ness' of the concept to the discipline. A threshold concept that captures the essential nature of occupational therapy is likely to be (highly) troublesome in terms of a learner's acquisition of it. Rather than simplifying these learning 'jewels' educators are encouraged to sit with the discomfort that they and the learner may experience as the learner struggles to grasp them. Moreover, they should reshape their curricula to provoke such struggles if transformative learning is to be the outcome. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Duker, Leah I. Stein
Supportive care in oncology helps people cope with cancer and its psychological, physical, and emotional side effects. However, cancer survivors report dissatisfaction with supportive care and a need for more psychosocial and self-management services. Occupational therapy practitioners represent an integral part of the supportive care team because their scope of practice emphasizes function. Through a focus on function, practitioners address the full spectrum of physical and psychosocial care. Currently, conceptualizations of occupational therapy for cancer survivors often focus solely on physical interventions and, therefore, do not represent the unique involvement of the profession in supportive oncology care. We advocate for a focused framework for occupational therapy practitioners in oncology as experts in function and providers of both physical and psychosocial treatments. Barriers to a focus on function are identified, and strategies are suggested for expanding involvement for the profession in supportive oncology care. PMID:27295001
Park, Priscilla; Hashmi, Mahjabeen
Occupational therapy is a health profession concerned with promoting health and well-being through occupation. A diagnosis of head and neck cancer (HNC) often invokes fear and anxiety because of the potential negative impact of the diagnosis and/or treatment on lifestyle and well-being. Occupational therapists perform a unique and important role in addressing quality of life concerns for HNC patients through applied expertise in lifestyle management, facilitating the use of positive coping strategies and daily routine management. Occupational therapy concurrently assists HNC patients to effectively manage the debilitating stress and anxiety associated with HNC diagnosis, treatment, and recovery while facilitating a return to prior or adapted daily routines.
Full Text Available Dr. Lori Reynolds has an interest in therapeutic gardens and the creation of living spaces that promote wellbeing for older adults. Dr. Reynolds educates various stakeholders on the benefits of occupational therapy, including landscape architects and senior living administrators. Her advocacy to expand occupational therapy beyond its mainstream roles is infectious. She speaks passionately about her work in helping to create therapeutic gardens and how her role as an occupational therapist offers great perspective in this process. She appreciates the environmental impact on an individual’s health and well-being and practices from a personenvironment-occupation theory
Hordichuk, Chelsea J; Robinson, Allison J; Sullivan, Theresa M
The term professionalism is embedded within curriculum and occupational therapy documents, yet, explicit discussion of the concept is lacking in the literature. This paper strives for a greater understanding of how professionalism is currently conceptualised within Western occupational therapy literature. A broad literature search was conducted and included international peer-reviewed and grey literature from Western cultures including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. To enrich understanding, some documents from medicine were also included. Professionalism is widely upheld as a core construct of occupational therapy. However, an evidence-based consensus of the specific elements of professionalism guiding occupational therapy practice is lacking. Currently, understanding of professionalism is largely based on multiple, isolated concepts presented in Western professional association documents. Acknowledging the multifaceted and multicultural nature of professionalism is essential to begin systematically delineating and conceptualising elements of professionalism specific to occupational therapy. This review has been conducted from a solely Western cultural lens. Additional work to highlight differences specific to international contexts, cultures, and societal influences is needed to enrich the understanding of professionalism in occupational therapy practice. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Rens, Lezahn; Joosten, Annette
A collaborative approach with teachers is required when providing community-based occupational therapy to educationally at risk children. Collaborators share common goals and interact and support each other but challenges arise in providing collaborative occupational therapy in settings outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to capture experiences of teachers and occupational therapists working within a school-based occupational therapy program to determine if their experiences could inform collaborative practice. In this pilot study, participant responses to questionnaires (n = 32) about their experiences formed the basis for focus groups and individual interviews. Two focus group were conducted, one with teachers (n = 11) and one with occupational therapy participants (n = 6). Individual interviews were conducted with the supervising occupational therapist, school principal and two leading teachers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data from closed questions, and thematic analysis using a constant comparison approach was used to analyse open ended questions, focus groups and interviews. Three main themes emerged: (i) the need for occupational therapists to spend time in the school, to explain their role, build relationships, understand classroom routines and the teacher role; (ii) occupational therapists need to not see themselves as the expert but develop equal partnerships to set collaborative goals and (iii) occupational therapists advocating for all parties to be informed throughout the occupational therapy process. The pilot study findings identified teacher and therapist experiences within the school setting that could inform improved collaborative practice with teachers and community-based occupational therapists and these findings warrant further investigation. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Williams, Grant R; Campbell, Claudine; Munoz, Lauro A; Muss, Hyman B
Adults with cancer may be at risk for limitations in functional status and quality of life (QOL). Occupational therapy is a supportive service with the specific mission to help people functionally engage in life as safely and independently as possible with the primary goal of improving QOL. Unfortunately, for people with cancer, occupational therapy remains underused. The overall purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of what occupational therapy is and its relevance to patients with cancer, highlight the reasons to refer, and, last, provide general advice on how to access services. ©AlphaMed Press.
McCombie, Randy P.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) on their attitudes toward a possible move to the entry-level doctorate as the mandated singular point of entry into the profession for OTs. Method: The study surveyed a random sample of 600 OTs and 600 OTAs from two…
significant effects of work-stress, frustration and depression on ... psychological attributes such as emotional labour, psychological ... explosions, oil spills, accidents and bomb attack can also contribute to ..... indicating a positive overall effect of frustration on psychological ..... symptoms within a country police force. Occup.
...; (b) disability evaluation, vocational rehabilitation, forensic vocational assessment, and physical or occupational therapy; (c) occupational or physical rehabilitation medicine, psychiatry, or psychology; and (d...
Babulal, Ganesh M; Foster, Erin R; Wolf, Timothy J
In Occupational Therapy (OT) practice, practitioners assume that the skills and strategies taught to clients during rehabilitation will transfer to performance and participation in everyday life. Despite transfer serving as a practice foundation, outcome studies conclude that this assumption of transfer is not occurring and it often results in decreased efficacy of rehabilitation. This paper investigated key aspects of transfer and found concepts in the psychology literature that can support transfer of skills and strategies in OT. Six key principles proposed from educational psychology can serve as a guide for practitioners to better train for transfer. In this paper, we discuss the six principles and apply concepts from psychology. Each principle is supported with examples of how they may be incorporated OT practice. If occupational therapists understand these principles and implement them in treatment, the efficacy of treatment may improve for many populations.
Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley
Ongoing changes to health-care funding Australia wide continue to influence how occupational therapists practise in acute hospitals. This study describes the practice challenges experienced by Western Australian acute care occupational therapists. Then, it explores if and how acute care occupational therapists are modifying their practice in response to these practice changes. This study used a qualitative grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 13 purposively selected acute care occupational therapists from four Western Australian metropolitan hospitals. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method to provide detailed descriptions of acute care occupational therapy practice and to generate theory. Five conceptual categories were developed. The first two addressed practice challenges: pragmatic organisational influences on client care and establishing a professional identity within the multidisciplinary team. Three categories related to therapist responses are as follows: becoming the client advocate, being the facilitator and applying clinical reasoning. Finally, modified practice was identified as the core category which explains the process whereby acute care occupational therapists are ensuring they remain relevant and authentic in the acute care context. Western Australian acute care occupational therapists are practising in a highly complex health context that presents many challenges. They are responding by using a modified form of practice that ensures occupational therapy skills remain relevant within the narrow confines of this health setting. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika
Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…
Sakellariou, Dikaios; Pollard, Nick
As one of the allied health professions, occupational therapy has adopted a primarily clinical focus on human occupation (or the process of daily life) and this is reflected in education, which has until recently tended to overlook contextual social factors such as poverty, marginalisation, exclusion, unemployment, incarceration and immigration.…
Schindler, Victoria P
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a client-centred, occupation-based occupational therapy programme for individuals with psychiatric diagnoses. The study took place in a college campus. A pre-test/post-test design was used. There were 38 participants which included college students and community members who desired to attend college, work and/or address life skill goals. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used as a pre- and post-test measure. Goals were based on problems identified in the COPM, reflected academic, vocational, life skill, and leisure goals, and were systematically addressed weekly through activities developed by the participant and a graduate occupational therapy student who acted as a mentor. The Participant Overall Satisfaction Scale was completed by each participant. A case study was used to describe the programme in more depth. The results support that the client-centred, occupation-based occupational therapy programme increased client scores on satisfaction and performance of occupational performance problems identified on the COPM. Further research is recommended to explore how client-centred occupational therapy programmes can be effective in improving academic, vocational and life skill goals. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie
A retrospective cohort study of 27,131 older adults diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2007 found that survivors who used occupational therapy after diagnosis also had the highest levels of comorbidities.
Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann
Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: Quality of life has recently been recognized as an important goal of health care in psychiatry. In this study quality of life of chronic psychiatric patients was evaluated after psychosocial occupational therapy interventions. Materials & Methods: This study is interventional and quasi experimental. Twoenty four chronic mental patients who had refered to SINA Daily Center as intervention group and fifty chronic mental patients as control group were selected by simle and convenient sampling. The instrument was Wisconsin Quality of Life Client Questionnaire that included 8 subscales. Occupational therapy services consisting group therapy, activity therapy and art therapy, according to center’ plane, were performed during 3 months (2 times in week, 90 minutes in each session for intervention group. Independent T test & Paired T test were used for data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in parts of QOL before intervention, but after intervention, significant differences were observed in mean scores of satisfaction level, occupational activities, psychological well–being, physical health and total quality o life (P<0.001, also social relation (P=0.005 and economic situation (P=0.003.There was no significant difference between two group in symptoms (P=0.277 and activity of daily living (P=0.020 after intervention. Conclusion: Psychosocial occupational therapy services are effective on satisfaction level and quality of life of chronic psychiatric patients.
This paper explores theoretical and practical views of mindfulness and phenomena of presence moments. The potential for altering life and enabling change through lived experience of mindful presence moments has relevance for occupational therapy practice. To suggest ways for occupational therapists to become mindfully present during practice. Based on theoretical perspectives drawn from the fields of psychology, philosophy, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and education, a four-fold approach will be outlined for occupational therapists to practice mindfully and experience presence moments. This approach emphasizes key concepts of awareness, non-judgment, reflection, curiosity, and commitment to practice. A clinical scenario is used to illustrate the approach. The ideas raised in this paper need to be incorporated into daily practice by occupational therapists so that a culture of mindful practice can be cultivated. Suggestions are provided throughout the paper for an agenda of potential research studies to address aspects of mindfulness and presence moments more fully.
Reed, Kathlyn L
The creation of a new profession in the early 20th century, such as occupational therapy, required a commitment to certain ideas and a willingness to accept certain challenges. This study examines the commitment to the idea of therapeutic and health supporting occupation by the early leaders and proponents of the profession and the challenges they faced in gaining acceptance of occupational therapy as a profession capable of delivering a valued health care service to society. Six challenges are reviewed as they occurred in the history of the profession and as they continue to challenge the profession into the present era.
Colles' fracture is a frequently occurring injury, particularly in the older population, and well-known to most occupational therapists working in the area of physical dysfunction. The residual deficits associated with this fracture cause major functional problems for the patient and may be avoided by early referral to occupational therapy. Stages of fracture healing will be discussed with recommendations for timely therapeutic intervention. The importance of developing an automatic, early referral system between physicians and occupational therapy departments is stressed, in order to provide thoughtful, preventive, effective treatment to patients with this potentially disabling fracture.
Ramamoorthy, Ananthalakshmi; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiya Jeeva; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeddy, Nadeem; Vasan, Srikaanth Aranmanai; Raja, Arundayanadhi; Ikram, Parvez
The therapeutic potential of yoga are often considered complementary to various forms of medical practice. Very few studies have evaluated the effects of yoga in the treatment of occupational hazards among dentists. Hence, this cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the adoption of yoga techinques as an alternative therapy in treatment of physical and psychological occupational hazards among dental general practitioners in Chennai, India. A validated closed-ended questionnaire was circulated to 500 dental general practitioners in Chennai, India and we received 394 completed questionnaires. The questionnaire documented demographic data, occupational hazards and the type of treatment taken for the hazards. Musculoskeletal pain with stress (47%) was the most common occupational hazard reported, followed by only stress (27.4%), and only musculoskeletal pain (25.6%). Only 9.6% of practitioners adopted yoga as an alternative treatment for these occupational hazards. Interestingly, majority (46.4%) of them did exercise, gym, massage, walking and heard music. Surprisingly, 43.9% did not take any measures to treat these occupational hazards. However 53.3% of the dentists who did not consider yoga as an alternative therapy, stated lack of time as a reason for not practicing yoga while 17.6% of them don't believe yoga as a therapy. Despite musculoskeletal pain and stress being the most common occupational hazard prevalent among dentists, over 50% of the subjects surveyed didn't seek any measure to treat these occupational hazards and only 10% of them practiced yoga as the alternative therapy.
Carstensen, Tove; Bonsaksen, Tore
The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM) is a new model of the therapeutic relationship in occupational therapy practice. Two previous studies have focused on therapist communication style, or 'mode' use, but to date no group comparisons have been reported. To explore differences between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students with regard to their therapeutic mode use. The study had a cross-sectional design, and convenience samples consisting of occupational therapists (n = 109) and of second-year occupational therapy students (n = 96) were recruited. The Self-Assessment of Modes Questionnaire was the main data collection tool. Group differences were analysed with independent t-tests. The occupational therapists responded more within the collaborative and empathizing modes than the students did. The students responded more within the advocating and instructing modes than the occupational therapists did. There may be systematic differences between occupational therapists and students concerning their therapeutic mode use. Some modes, such as the collaborating and empathizing modes, may be viewed as requiring more experience, whereas other modes, such as the advocating mode may be related to more recent rehabilitation ideologies. These factors may contribute to explaining several of the group differences observed.
Bonsaksen, Tore; Ellingham, Brian; Carstensen, Tove
Background: Research into occupational therapy education and its outcomes for students is growing. More research is needed to determine the factors of importance for occupational therapy students’ academic outcomes. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with academic performance among second-year undergraduate occupational therapy students in Norway. Methods: Occupational therapy students (n = 111) from two education programs completed questionnaires asking for sociodemograph...
Rajecki, D. W.
A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…
..., occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. 418.72 Section 418.72 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. Physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, and speech-language pathology services must be available, and when provided, offered in...
..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. (a) A... providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling services...
Fitzgerald, Louise F.
This study examines the relationship of androgyny to occupational membership. It was hypothesized that: (1) persons in stereotypically masculine occupations would be characterized by high levels of masculininity; (2) workers in a typically feminine occupation would rate themselves as highly feminine; and (3) androgynous individuals would be…
Hooper, Barb; Wood, Wendy
The history of occupational therapy may be understood as a continual transaction between two cultural discourses: pragmatism and structuralism. Pragmatism is a way of thinking that presupposes humans are agentic by nature and knowledge is tentative and created within particular contexts. Structuralism is a way of thinking that assumes humans are composites of recurring general frameworks and that knowledge is objective and can be generalized to multiple contexts. Early in the field's history, both pragmatist and structuralist assumptions about the human and knowledge produced different readings, or interpretations, of what constituted the appropriate tools, methods, and outcomes for occupational therapy. Consequently, occupational therapy adopted an interesting mix of pragmatist language regarding the human and structuralist approaches to knowledge, resulting in professional identity problems still experienced today. However, recent developments offer an opportunity for occupational therapists to correct old identity problems through critically evaluating incompatible assumptions and carefully reading the prevailing cultural ethos.
Conclusion: The relevance of the work of occupational therapists in the adult ICU is evident since it brings benefits such as reduced stay and functional improvement of patients at discharge, which are clearly defined in different research works worldwide.
Full Text Available Background. This study examines how and why occupational therapy practitioners across practice areas use gardening as an intervention. Respondents’ interpretation of the best and least desirable aspects of their facility’s garden and whether they contributed to its design was also examined. Method. A description and link to a 15-question online survey about gardening as an occupational therapy intervention was emailed to Western Michigan University Occupational Therapy alumni and posted on four OT Connections groups and the AOTA LinkedIn site. Results. Gardening as an occupational therapy intervention is meaningful and purposeful (93.66%, n = 56, motivating (80%, n = 48, fun 61.67% (n = 37, and client-centered (31.67%, n =19. Frequency of gardening as a therapeutic intervention and practitioner involvement in designing the garden was significant (p = .007, suggesting that for respondents, environmental context supports engagement and heightens the meaningfulness and purposefulness of gardening. Conclusion. Based on results of this study, a suggested next step is evidence-based translational and intervention research to validate the efficacy of gardening as an occupational therapy intervention and occupational therapy practitioners’ professional value as implementers of such intervention. Assessing the effectiveness of the role of occupational therapy practitioners in facility garden design is also important to consider.
Drolet, Marie-Josée; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie
Recently, there has been increasing interest in the values of occupational therapy and the values held by occupational therapists. A wide range of values has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, despite the fact that values are an important part of professional identity, empirical studies have demonstrated that several occupational therapists possess an ambiguous professional identity. This study was undertaken to explore the values of Canadian occupational therapists, specifically French-speaking occupational therapists in Quebec. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 occupational therapists. Their narratives were subject to hermeneutic analysis, a method of textual analysis common in philosophical research. A total of 16 values were identified in the discourses of the occupational therapists interviewed: autonomy; human dignity; occupational participation; social justice and equity; professionalism; holism; partnership, environment, or ecological approach; quality of life; solicitude; honesty; integrity; health; creativity; professional autonomy; effectiveness; and spirituality. The results of this study are, in general, consistent with those reported in the few other empirical studies that have documented the values perceptions of occupational therapists. Finally, the explanation of the values of occupational therapists may reinforce their professional identity and favour best, or at least desirable, professional practices related to ethics and culture.
Scheepers, Renée A
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.
Bates, Angela C.
This case report describes occupational therapy (OT) intervention in an outpatient setting and outcomes for a child diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) from 4 to 28 months of age. There is little information on therapy intervention and outcomes of children who have survived. The patient is a white male, born at 35 weeks gestation…
Bennett, Sally; Rodger, Sylvia; Fitzgerald, Cate; Gibson, Libby
Simulated learning experiences are increasingly being used in health-care education to enhance student engagement and provide experiences that reflect clinical practice; however, simulation has not been widely investigated in occupational therapy curricula. The aim of this paper was to: (i) describe the existing research about the use and evaluation of simulation over the last three decades in occupational therapy curricula and (ii) consider how simulation has been used to develop competence in students. A literature review was undertaken with searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL and ERIC to locate articles that described or evaluated the use of simulation in occupational therapy curricula. Fifty-seven papers were identified. Occupational therapy educators have used the full scope of simulation modalities, including written case studies (22), standardised patients (13), video case studies (15), computer-based and virtual reality cases (7), role-play (8) and mannequins and part-task trainers (4). Ten studies used combinations of these modalities and two papers compared modalities. Most papers described the use of simulation for foundational courses, as for preparation for fieldwork, and to address competencies necessary for newly graduating therapists. The majority of studies were descriptive, used pre-post design, or were student's perceptions of the value of simulation. Simulation-based education has been used for a wide range of purposes in occupational therapy curricula and appears to be well received. Randomised controlled trials are needed to more accurately understand the effects of simulation not just for occupational therapy students but for longer term outcomes in clinical practice. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Moll, Sandra E; Tryssenaar, Joyce; Good, Colleen R; Detwiler, Lisa M
Psychotherapy can be an important part of psychosocial occupational therapy practice; however, it requires specialized training to achieve and maintain competence. Regulation varies by province, and in Ontario, occupational therapists were recently authorized to perform psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychotherapy practice, training, and support needs of Ontario occupational therapists. An online survey was sent to occupational therapists who had clients with mental health or chronic pain issues, asking about their expertise and support needs in relation to nine psychotherapy approaches. Of the 331 therapists who responded, there were variations in the nature and frequency of psychotherapy practice. Experienced therapists in outpatient settings were more likely to practice psychotherapy, and cognitive-behaviour therapy, motivational interviewing, and mindfulness were the most common approaches. Supervision and training varied, with many therapists interested in occupational therapy-specific training. Recommendations for a framework of support include education about the nature of psychotherapy, training and supervision guidelines, and advocacy for occupational therapy and psychotherapy.
Clark Patrick Heard D.OT Reg. (Ont.
Full Text Available Leadership is vital to the success and sustainability of any group, organization, or profession. Using a qualitative phenomenological methodology, consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examines why occupational therapists choose the path of leadership. Data was collected through the completion of semistructured interviews with 10 occupational therapy leaders in Ontario, Canada. This collected data was transcribed verbatim and coded for themes by multiple coders. Several methods were employed to establish trustworthiness. Results identify that a desire to influence the profession or care delivery, a need for personal or career development, and a need for change motivate those occupational therapists who might choose the path of leadership. Recommendations for supporting new or developing leaders include a focus on linking occupational therapy practice and leadership theory at the curriculum and professional levels. Moreover, application of novel approaches to mentorship for new and developing leaders, such as supportive communities of practice, are also considered.
This article defines and compares several narrative methods used to describe and interpret patients' lives. The biographical methods presented are case histories, life-charts, life histories, life stories, assisted autobiography, hermeneutic case reconstruction, therapeutic employment, volitional narratives, and occupational storytelling and story making. Emphasis is placed the clinician as a collaborator and interpreter of the patient's life through ongoing interactions and dialogue.
Background. The South African (SA) health system is characterised by limited resources, high bed turnover rates and a high therapist-to-patient ratio. Patients with neurological dysfunction form a large majority of the caseload of occupational therapists. Feedback from stakeholders alluded to some discrepancies between ...
Dennis, Carole W; Dorsey, Julie A; Gitlow, Lynn
The ability of the earth to sustain health among humans and in the natural world is under threat from overpopulation, environmental degradation, and climate change. These global threats are anticipated to harm health and human occupation in many direct and indirect ways. Strategies are needed to mitigate the effects of these threats and to build individual and community capacities to foster resilience. This paper links issues of sustainability with occupational therapy philosophy and discusses how employing a sustainability lens with professional reasoning can help practitioners integrate sustainability into their practice. Human occupation is inseparable from the environments in which people live. Human occupation has caused the current environmental crisis, and targeted human action is required to safeguard future health and well-being. Occupational therapists have an ethical obligation to use professional reasoning strategies that, taken collectively, can help to build a sustainable and resilient future.
Polichino, Jean E.
Handwriting has historically played a significant role in the services provided by occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants working in schools. Reflecting on nearly three decades of school practice, an occupational therapy administrator considers how this niche developed and how it positions occupational therapy practitioners to…
Debra Lindstrom-Hazel; Nicole VanderVlies Veenstra
Background: Occupational therapy ethics require that therapists use current assessment tools that provide useful comparison data. When an assessment only has normative data that is more than 40 years old, it cannot be considered current. The purpose of this study was to examine the past and current use of the Purdue Pegboard Test by occupational therapists and other professionals and to determine if it is beneficial to conduct a large normative study on the Purdue Pegboard Assembl...
Baxter, Mary Frances; Newman, Robin; Longpré, Sheila M; Polo, Katie M
Improved medical care has resulted in a documented increase in cancer survivors in the United States. Cancer survivors face challenges in participation across all facets of life as a result of the cancer and subsequent cancer treatments. Long-term and late-term sequelae can result in impairments in neurological systems, decreased stamina, loss of range of motion, and changes in sensation and cognition. These impairments are often long lasting, which categorizes cancer survivorship as a chronic condition. This categorization presents treatment challenges, especially in creating rehabilitation and habilitation service options that support cancer survivors. Occupational therapy provides a unique focus that can benefit cancer survivors as they face limitations in participation in all aspects of daily living. Research, advocacy, and education efforts are needed to focus on the specific rehabilitation and habilitation needs of cancer survivors to increase access to occupational therapy's distinct value. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Krusen, Nancy E
ABSTRACT As health care environments become increasingly complex, practitioners must develop new adaptive skills to master practice. The idea of using theatrical improvisation (improv) in health care is relatively new. Occupational therapy students were taught a module of improvisational techniques as part of an academic seminar, learning improvisation rules, and enacting solutions to typical daily professional challenges. The purpose of this article is to recommend improvisational techniques as an adaptive skill to effectively blend art and science for occupational therapy practice in fast-paced and unpredictable health care environments.
Full Text Available Susan Burwash, Ph.D., OTR/L, an occupational therapy professor and artist based in Washington State, provided the cover art for the Winter 2017 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. The featured piece contains Professor Burwash’s signature fauxpals, lampwork glass beads made from molten glass and pure silver foil. Art creates balance between traditional medicine and personal medicine, those meaningful activities that give life purpose. Professor Burwash’s personal medicine is making beautiful things that can be given away.
Louis F. Dmytryk
Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE requires programs to instruct entrylevel occupational therapy (OT and occupational therapy assistant (OTA students in technology that may include electronic documentation systems, distance communication, virtual environments, and telehealth (standard B1.8. At this time, there are no publications describing if and how electronic health record (EHR instruction is implemented in entry-level OT and OTA programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate awareness and use of EHRs in entry-level OT and OTA curricula. Respondents from 76 nationally accredited entry-level programs (two OT doctoral, 24 OT masters, two OT combined bachelors/masters, and 48 OTA completed a survey. The findings showed inconsistent and incomplete EHR instruction in entry-level OT and OTA education. This study provides a baseline for investigating best practices in EHR education for entrylevel OT and OTA students
Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Watling, Renee
Occupational therapy has much to offer to families of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, people outside the profession may be unaware of occupational therapy's breadth and scope. It is our responsibility and our duty to express the full range of occupational therapy services through research, clinical practice, advocacy, and consumer education. This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, with its focus on autism, embarks on this endeavor by highlighting research and theoretical articles that address the various aspects of occupational therapy practice that can help to fully meet the needs of people with ASD and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Luzianne Feijó Alexandre Paiva
Full Text Available In this study, we report the experiences of occupational therapist during the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Family and Community Health in Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil. With the creation of the Support Center for Family Health – NASF, occupational therapists began to participate more effectively in the Family Health Strategy of the Brazilian National Health System. Given this rocess, the category, which historically has trained its professionals following the biomedical model, is faced with the challenge to build a new field of knowledge. Objective: To analyze the inclusion of occupational therapy in the Family Health Strategy within the scope of Multidisciplinary Residency. Methodology: This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach, which was based on the experience of four occupational therapy resident students, performed through the documental analysis of field diaries, scientific papers, and case studies produced between 2009 and 2011. Results: The occupational therapists as well as the other NASF professionals operated the logic of Matrix Support to the Family Health teams, sharing their knowledge and assisting in resolving complex cases of the families, groups, and communities served. In this context, we found people with different relationships with their doings and a reduced repertoire of activities. The occupational therapists invested in the creation or consolidation of groups in the Family Health Centers and in the territory, which also stood as living and socializing spaces, focusing on prevention and health promotion.
Nielsen, Tove Lise; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
critically appraised 13 of 995 detected papers. Extracted data were presented and summarised descriptively. Results Eight high-quality papers showed that occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy using cognitive, behavioural and environmental strategies may significantly improve......Abstract Title What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults’ occupational performance? A systematic review Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home......-based occupational therapy for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. Aim This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy for older adults at home. Material and methods Peer...
Any Carolina Cardoso Guimarães Vasconcelos
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the profile of Brazilian PhD researchers in occupational therapy based on data obtained from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq. Two hundred forty curricula of occupational therapists were individually analyzed, 102 of them from PhD researchers. The curricula were analyzed with respect to gender; completion time of undergraduate studies; institution; time spent for obtaining the doctorate; professional activities; geographical distribution, scientific, and editorial composition; and guidance of undergraduate research, specialization, and master, doctorate and post-doctorate courses. The data showed that 94% of the researchers were women. With regard to professional practice, 73% of the doctors were affiliated to public universities and 84% were located in the southeast region. A total of 1361 papers were produced, at an average of 13.3 articles per researcher, with 25% on the theme of functional health (cognitive, neuromotor, musculoskeletal occupational performance and assistive technology. The PhD researchers in occupational therapy also published 90 books and 488 book chapters. Additionally, 59% of the researchers collaborated as reviewers for scientific periodicals. The results of the analysis will allow the academic community to gain a perspective of the occupational therapy scenario in Brazil, assisting in the establishment of future priorities for improving knowledge and professional practice.
Alnaser, Musaed Z
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x(2)(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.
Coutinho, M J; Hunter, D L
Working as an occupational therapist in publicly funded schools requires a variety of skills. These skills include assessing the needs of children, serving as a member of the multidisciplinary team, developing individualized education program (IEP) goals and objectives in conjunction with other team members, providing services, and coordinating efforts with parents, teachers, and administrators. To fulfill these responsibilities, occupational therapists must have a comprehensive understanding of the complex federal and state laws that mandate the provision of special education and related services. Therefore, the purposes of this article are (a) to describe the legal framework within which decisions are made to provide occupational therapy to students in publicly funded school programs and (b) to highlight the knowledge and skills occupational therapists need to work effectively in schools with teachers, administrators, and parents.
Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all integrative therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different integrative therapy models (IPT, CAT, psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy, CBASP, counselling) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the e...
Durocher, Evelyne; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; McCorquodale, Lisa; Phelan, Shanon
Ethical tensions arise daily in health care practice and are frequently related to health care system structures or policies. Collective case study methodology was adopted to examine ethical tensions reported by occupational therapists practicing in different settings in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Inductive analysis involving multiple layers of coding was conducted. This article focuses on tensions related to systemic constraints. Participants reported ethical tensions related to balancing client priorities with those of health care services. Four themes related to systemic constraints were identified including imposed practices, ineffective processes, resource limitations, and lack of services. Therapists' aims could be seen to align with an "ethic of care" and were seen to be in tension in light of systemic constraints. The findings raise issues related to occupational justice, particularly related to occupational alienation in occupational therapy practice, and open conversations related to neoliberalist health care agendas. © The Author(s) 2016.
...-language pathology. 409.23 Section 409.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... § 409.23 Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language pathology. Medicare pays for... therapy or speech-language pathology services must be furnished— (1) By qualified physical therapists...
Gustavo Artur Monzeli
Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease-PD has affected an increasing number of individuals, compromising their functional skills progressively and irreversibly, requiring preventive and rehabilitative actions. Objective: To present and discuss the effect of occupational therapy intervention with a 70-year old patient diagnosed with PD. Method: This is an experience report with a single subject. An intervention plan including an exercise program for extra-care activities and home visits for observation of possible difficulties and risk of falls in the environment has been prepared. The measurement of independence was performed using the Functional Independence Measure-FIM. The intervention occurred during six months. Results: It was identified improvement in eating and writing activities. There was one score of improvement documented in FIM. Conclusion: The importance of the intervention of occupational therapy is enforced, which in this context improved the occupational performance of this subject in the daily life activities, contributing for maintaining functional performance.
Al Busaidy, Najat Saif Mohammed; Borthwick, Alan
Occupational therapy theory and philosophy are broadly considered to be based on Western cultural values. In contrast, the application of theory and practice in the Sultanate of Oman, historically based on traditional Middle Eastern and Islamic cultural values, provides a case exemplar, which highlights both paradigmatic differences and cultural dissonance. Drawing on the experiences of occupational therapists working in Oman, this study found that the application of therapeutic goals aimed at patient independence and autonomy were difficult to achieve in an environment where family duty and responsibility for care were highly prized. Dressing and cooking assessments were challenging, and issues related to gender proved problematic. Therapists found the need to adapt practice to acknowledge these differences, and to adopt pragmatic problem-solving strategies, without resolving the underpinning philosophical contradictions. Occupational therapy in Oman is under-researched; further work is needed to confirm the cross-cultural validity of specific assessments and practice models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... then help clients relearn how to do these activities (remediate) or determine new ways of accomplishing them (compensatory strategies). Through guided, graded instruction within the context of the client’s community, occupational therapy practitioners may work with individuals in real life ...
Fitinghoff, Helene; Lindqvist, Birgitta; Nygard, Louise; Ekholm, Jan; Schult, Marie-Louise
Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of hand rehabilitation programmes and have linked the outcomes to the concept of ICF but not to specific ICF category codes. The objective of this study was to gain experience using ICF concepts to describe occupational therapy interventions during postsurgery hand rehabilitation, and to describe…
Background. Fieldwork practice forms a vital part of occupational therapy (OT) education and contributes significantly to competent practice and students' clinical reasoning. Students' learning is positively or negatively influenced by their fieldwork experience. Objective. To explore the views and experiences of final-year OT ...
Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; van de Nes, J.C.M.; Cup, E.H.C.; van den Ende, C.H.M.
Background and Purpose - Occupational therapy (OT) is an important aspect of stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to determine from the available literature whether OT interventions improve outcome for stroke patients. Methods - An extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED,
Schofield, Katherine Anne
Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…
Two major ethical theories, the teleological and the deontological, are defined and briefly discussed. A subsequent discussion explores how the ethical principles of informed consent and patient autonomy operate in medical decisions. The application to occupational therapy is left for the reader's judgment.
Hooper, Barb; Krishnagiri, Sheama; Price, Pollie; Taff, Steven D; Bilics, Andrea
This study's objective was to describe curriculum-level strategies used to convey occupation to occupational therapy students. The study used a descriptive qualitative research design. Fifteen occupational therapy and 10 occupational therapy assistant programs participated in interviews, submitted curriculum artifacts such as syllabi and assignments, and recorded teaching sessions. Data were coded both inductively and deductively and then categorized into themes. Occupational therapy programs designed strategies on two levels of the curriculum, infrastructure and implementation, to convey knowledge of occupation to students. The degree to which strategies explicitly highlighted occupation and steered instruction fluctuated depending on how differentiated occupation was from other concepts and skills. Two arguments are presented about the degree to which occupation needs to be infused in all curricular elements. To guide curriculum design, it is critical for educators to discuss beliefs about how ubiquitous occupation is in a curriculum and whether curricular elements portray occupation to the extent preferred. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Gilbertson, Barbara Carol Hooper
Developing cultural awareness and effectiveness is critical to meaningful and successful occupational therapy practice and of concern to occupational therapists worldwide (World Federation of Occupational Therapists, 2010). Occupational therapy graduates, not fully representative of the demographics of the populations they will meet clinically,…
Eum, Yeongcheol; Yim, Jongeun
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and long-term disability worldwide, and post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious psychiatric complication of stroke. PSD makes patients have more severe deficits in activities of daily living, a worse functional outcome, more severe cognitive deficits and increased mortality as compared to stroke patients without depression. Therefore, to reduce or prevent mental problems of stroke patients, psychological treatment should be recommended. Literature and art therapy are highly effective psychological treatment for stroke patients. Literature therapy divided into poetry and story therapy is an assistive tool that treats neurosis as well as emotional or behavioral disorders. Poetry can add impression to the lethargic life of a patient with PSD, thereby acting as a natural treatment. Story therapy can change the gloomy psychological state of patients into a bright and healthy story, and therefore can help stroke patients to overcome their emotional disabilities. Art therapy is one form of psychological therapy that can treat depression and anxiety in stroke patients. Stroke patients can express their internal conflicts, emotions, and psychological status through art works or processes and it would be a healing process of mental problems. Music therapy can relieve the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others. In conclusion, literature and art therapy can identify the emotional status of patients and serve as a useful auxiliary tool to help stroke patients in their rehabilitation process.
Nicola-Richmond, Kelli M; Pépin, Geneviève; Larkin, Helen
Understanding and facilitating the transformation from occupational therapy student to practitioner is central to the development of competent and work-ready graduates. However, the pivotal concepts and capabilities that need to be taught and learnt in occupational therapy are not necessarily explicit. The threshold concepts theory of teaching and learning proposes that every discipline has a set of transformational concepts that students must acquire in order to progress. As students acquire the threshold concepts, they develop a transformed way of understanding content related to their course of study which contributes to their developing expertise. The aim of this study was to identify the threshold concepts of occupational therapy. The Delphi technique, a data collection method that aims to demonstrate consensus in relation to important questions, was used with three groups comprising final year occupational therapy students (n = 11), occupational therapy clinicians (n = 21) and academics teaching occupational therapy (n = 10) in Victoria, Australia. Participants reached consensus regarding 10 threshold concepts for the occupational therapy discipline. These are: understanding and applying the models and theories of occupational therapy; occupation; evidence-based practice; clinical reasoning; discipline specific skills and knowledge; practising in context; a client-centred approach; the occupational therapist role; reflective practice and; a holistic approach. The threshold concepts identified provide valuable information for the discipline. They can potentially inform the development of competencies for occupational therapy and provide guidance for teaching and learning activities to facilitate the transformation to competent practitioner. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Tupe, Debra Ann; Kern, Stephen B; Salvant, Sabrina; Talero, Pamela
Occupational therapy practitioners frequently identify opportunities for international practice. The World Health Organization and the World Federation of Occupational Therapists have encouraged occupational therapists to address transnational issues, social inclusion, and equal access to opportunities grounded in meaningful occupation (WFOT, 2012). This case study describes a partnership between two U.S. schools of occupational therapy and a Cuban community based pediatric clinic. It examines the dynamics that have sustained the partnership despite political, economic, and logistical barriers. The literature is scrutinized to show how this case study fits into other accounts of collaborative international partnerships. Particularly, it investigates structural and institutional conditions that shape international sustainable partnerships. In doing so, we answer the following questions: (1) Under which circumstances do international partnerships emerge and flourish? (2) What structural and institutional conditions shape international sustainable partnerships? And (3) How do partners perceive and experience the bilateral international partnership? It also discusses and illustrates the foundations and development of international partnerships that succeed. Through the use of a case study we illustrate the development of this partnership. Finally, we consider the next steps of this particular sustainable and collaborative international partnership. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Harms, S; Law, M
There is an increasing number of occupational therapists in Canada who are involved in bidding for contracts to deliver occupational therapy services. Occupational therapists working in an institutional or community-based setting may not have had the responsibility of developing a proposal or a marketing plan for bidding purposes. However, the responsibility of developing a bid to compete for a service delivery contract often rests on occupational therapists who are sole practitioners in a private practice setting. The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues in the literature such as service delivery plans, marketing strategies and costing of services that can assist the occupational therapist in the development of a contractual bid. A specific clinical example, school therapy services, has been used to illustrate how these strategies can be applied to practice. Success in contractual bids appears to be primarily influenced by cost of the service, the expertise of the service provider, ability to provide coordinated care, ease of access for clients, and inclusion of methods to measure client outcome.
Seifert, Anna M; Stotz, Nicole; Metz, Alexia E
To gather information on occupational therapy practitioners' use and opinions of apps, an online survey was distributed to occupational therapy practitioners licensed in the state of Ohio. The survey sought information regarding clinical populations and skill areas for which apps are used, potential barriers to use of apps and preferred apps/app features. OTs working in medical and education-based settings and with clients of all ages responded to the survey. Over half (53%) reported not using apps in therapy, with "not having access to the technology at work" being the leading reason endorsed. Of practitioners who did report using apps, the majority used them with ≤25% of their case load and primarily used tablets to do so. Clinicians indicated that they use apps for a wide variety of reasons, including to promote skill building and to support the therapeutic process. Preferred features included the ability to grade difficulty up/down, multiple uses and accurate feedback. Recommendations from peers were the most commonly reported way respondents found new apps. The results suggest that occupational therapy practitioners employ clinical reasoning when implementing apps in therapy. Possible ways to improve access to apps for therapists who would like to implement them are discussed. Implications for Rehabilitation Many occupational therapy practitioners are using apps with at least a portion of their caseloads. Therapists select apps based on peer recommendations, most commonly selecting those which promote skill building and support the therapeutic process. More therapists might make use of apps if potential barriers were reduced or eliminated, including availability of technology in the clinical practice setting, therapist training and education, therapist input into app development and an enhanced evidence base.
Kraeger, M M; Walker, K F
At a time when there is growing concern about the person-power shortages in occupational therapy, there is a need to address reasons why therapists leave the job market. Two job-related reasons for attrition are burnout and job dissatisfaction. The burnout phenomenon occurs as a result of personnel shortages, high-stress demands on therapists, the severity and complexity of client's problems, and the therapist's own ''worker personality.'' Bureaucratic constraints, limited advancement, issues related to a profession which is made up predominantly of women, lack of autonomy, and type of management and supervision are factors that contribute to job dissatisfaction. Occupational therapy managers can consider the causes of burnout and job dissatisfaction and initiate resources to retain therapists. Managers can increase the job benefits, such as flexible working hours, take steps to reduce stress in the workplace, offer career laddering opportunities, and promote staff development. By identifying the causes for attrition and by addressing those causes, the threat of losing therapists from the work force may be averted. Respondents (n = 106) to a survey of occupational therapy managers indicated that job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition of registered occupational therapists were not major problems in their settings. They reported a variety of strategies to reduce job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition. When these problems were present, managers cited bureaucratic red tape, lack of opportunity for advancement, and increasing role demands as contributing factors.
Tatiana Barbieri Bombarda
Full Text Available Considering the importance of records in the professional practice of occupational therapy, it is necessary to instill a more insightful look at the effectiveness of practitioners’ notes, as well as encourage the development of research–oriented documentary practice. The preparation of records arises from the need to have information from the service as a means of guidance and oversight of the service provided and on the adopted technical responsibility, as well as from the fact that the notes are a valuable data providing resource for research. The present study sought to identify and characterize occupational therapists in the state of Sao Paulo who work in inclusive education and how the records of their interventional practices are performed. A structured questionnaire as a tool available on the website for specific predetermined time was used as the study instrument, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Participants were 55 occupational therapists working in the inclusive education process registered in the 3rd region of the Regional Council of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy. The results demonstrated that free narrative was the most commonly used registration model and that information related to the process of custody of notes was fragmented. These data showed weakness in the systematization of records, which is believed to result in improvement of the profession, a factor that demonstrates the necessity and temporality of the scientific production on this issue.
Full Text Available Background: Today’s occupational therapy models emphasize that a person’s choice of, satisfaction with, and performance in occupations are markedly influenced by the context. For students undergoing a group-based study module, the group is an important context factor. Until recently, there has been a lack of instruments available for the assessment of functioning and participation at the group level. This mixed methods pilot study aimed to examine occupational therapy students’ perceptions of their group’s level of functioning and course of development during one study module. Methods: The students’ perceptions of their group’s functioning were assessed in two ways: by examining their scores on the Social Profile (SP, a new instrument, and by examining their qualitative descriptions of the groups and how the groups developed over time. The sample consisted of four occupational therapy students. Results: Two students perceived their group functioning as stable over time. One student’s scores indicated an increase in group functioning over time, whereas one student’s showed a decrease. The interview statements showed varying degrees of connectedness with the SP items. Conclusions: Descriptions of stability and change corresponded very well with the students’ SP trajectories, indicating content validity of the assessment as a whole.
Two occupational therapy departments were amalgamated into a corporate whole and charged with the development of a workable, corporate structure. The departmental model which was developed served to enhance the concepts of quality of working life, employee autonomy, management team and quality circle theory. This paper provides a background from business and organizational literature, and outlines the development of the departmental model, in concert with the adoption of the client-centred model of occupational performance as a department basis for practice. This development was taking place concurrently with larger, institutional changes into a decentralized clinical programme management model. Discussion highlights the level of staff satisfaction with the changes, areas of concern during the development of the system and plans for the future growth. During this period of massive and critical change in the delivery of health care services, there has been a trend in restructuring health care institutions towards decentralized models. This paper will describe the experience of one occupational therapy department in developing an innovative departmental structure involving participatory management amalgamation. It is believed that the experience of the past occupational therapy work units with one viable option for a renewed management model. Staff skill sets can be maximized and optimal potential realized while faced with inevitable resource shrinkage and service reorganization.
Ordinetz, Sue Ann
Occupational therapy educators have been encouraged to engage in the scholarship of teaching as a form of best practice in education. Despite professional documents and encouragement by leaders in the field of occupational therapy, there is very little known about occupational therapy educators' perceptions, attitudes, and engagement in the…
Occupational therapy interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require a sound evidence-base. In the context of emerging evidence on coaching interventions in paediatric occupational therapy practice, a review of the occupational therapy literature was conducted to investigate the use of coaching interventions for children and adolescents…
Stumpf, A; Schut, C; Schneider, G
Besides biological factors, which cause or influence chronic pruritus, more and more attention has recently also been paid to psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors which uphold the symptom. This review article gives an overview of the state of research regarding psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors and the resulting therapeutic options. The article is based on a literature search in the PubMed database. Under experimental conditions, pruritus can be induced by verbal instructions and modulated by placebo and nocebo effects. Stressful life events can also induce pruritus or its exacerbation. This can also be demonstrated on a cellular level. The knowledge that pruritus intensity is modulated by cognitions, behavioral factors, and stress is important for the development and application of psychological interventions. More research should be done regarding psychological interventions in the treatment of chronic itch and they should be applied clinically more often.
Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I
The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention.
Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna
Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events
Gee, Joanna; Bertrand-Godfrey, Betty
The psychological therapies are widely considered within the forensic literature as holding a useful role in the prison system, however, despite this, very little research into the psychological therapies has taken place. Further, where research is carried out, it is often associated with the need for evidence-based practice (EBP), involving quantification and randomization. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This paper will initially introduce the importance of research into the psychological therapies in prison, followed by a consideration of EBP which can be thought of as the current movement governing research in the psychological therapies in the UK. However, in providing a focused critique of EBP, particularly within prisons, this paper will attempt to pave the way for a consideration of alternative research methodologies and resultant methods in researching the psychological therapies in prisons in the UK. Through this it is argued that research within the prison setting should act not to promote interventions and create an evidence-based as such, but to provide an accessible body of knowledge for the psychological therapists working in prisons in the UK.
The therapeutic relationship is an important factor for good therapy outcomes. The primary mediator of a beneficial therapy relationship is clinician-client interaction. However, few studies identify the observable interactional attributes of good quality relational interactions, e.g. offering the client positive feedback. The present paper aims to expand current understanding of relational interaction by analyzing the real-time interactional practices therapists use for offering positive feedback, an important value in occupational therapy. The analysis is based on the conversation analysis of 15 video-recorded occupational therapy encounters in psychiatric outpatient clinics. Two types of positive feedback were identified. In aligning feedback, therapists encouraged and complimented clients' positive perspectives on their own achievements in adopting certain behaviour, encouraging and supporting their progress. In redirecting feedback, therapists shifted the perspective from clients' negative experiences to their positive experiences. This shift was interactionally successful if they laid the foundation for the shift in perspective and attuned their expressions to the clients' emotional states. Occupational therapists routinely provide their clients with positive feedback. Awareness of the interactional attributes related to positive feedback is critically important for successful relational interaction.
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
The percentage of individuals with dementia worldwide is increasing with the continued trend toward global trend overall. As options for the medical treatment of dementia remain limited, combined, non-pharmacological interventions are necessary to maintain and slow the degeneration of functional capabilities. Additionally, there is a need to help caregivers develop better patterns of care and methods to reduce the burden of care. Therefore, occupational therapists play an important role in the dementia care team. This article introduces how occupational therapists help dementia patient maintain their functional capabilities and delay degeneration and help caregivers reduce their burden of care. Both activities are based on the concept of occupational therapy, which includes three important components: people, activities, and the environment.
In this case study, a young women who has chronic verbal, emotional, and physical abuse and was exposed to repetitive adult acts of abuse as a child initially presented with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) marked by constriction and disconnection, which resulted in her feeling passive and tortured. As part of her occupational therapy intervention, based on the occupational adaptation, psychoanalytic, and recovery frames of reference, she was able to use her skills as a musician and lyricist to work through her trauma by performing heavy metal music. She used work to express emotions and tell and retell her story to audiences eager to hear her. Work helped her develop an identity that allowed her to be active in the world and reach out to others through her music. This case study focuses on the intervention - how music and occupation functioned as a foundation for relieving her PTSD.
Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia
As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…
Ikei, Harumi; Koizumi, Haruka; Song, Chorong; Kouzuki, Mitsunori; Teratani, Seiichiro; Sakuma, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi
To examine the psychological effects of forest therapy program on workers. The subjective symptoms index, a shortened version of the profile of mood states (POMS), and a semantic differential (SD) method were used to measure the psychological effects. The evaluations were performed 3 days before, during, and 1, 3, and 5 days after the forest therapy. The following results were obtained: (1) the subjective symptoms improved before breakfast and continued for 5 days; (2) the mood evaluated using POMS improved before breakfast and continued for 3 days; and (3) “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” feelings evaluated using the SD method were enhanced before breakfast, lunch, and dinner during forest therapy. These results provided scientific evidence of the psychological effects of forest therapy program on workers.
de Almeida, Pedro Henrique Tavares Queiroz; Pontes, Tatiana Barcelos; Matheus, João Paulo Chieregato; Muniz, Luciana Feitosa; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique
Interventions focusing on education and self-management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the patient improves adherence and effectiveness of early treatment. The combination of pharmacologic and rehabilitation treatment aims to maximize the possibilities of intervention, delaying the appearance of new symptoms, reducing disability and minimizing sequelae, decreasing the impact of symptoms on patient's functionality. Occupational therapy is a health profession that aims to improve the performance of daily activities by the patient, providing means for the prevention of functional limitations, adaptation to lifestyle changes and maintenance or improvement of psychosocial health. Due to the systemic nature of RA, multidisciplinary follow-up is necessary for the proper management of the impact of the disease on various aspects of life. As a member of the health team, occupational therapists objective to improve and maintaining functional capacity of the patient, preventing the progression of deformities, assisting the process of understanding and coping with the disease and providing means for carrying out the activities required for the engagement of the individual in meaningful occupations, favoring autonomy and independence in self-care activities, employment, educational, social and leisure. The objective of this review is to familiarize the rheumatologist with the tools used for assessment and intervention in occupational therapy, focusing on the application of these principles to the treatment of patients with RA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Chui, Adora L Y; Wong, Chantal Isabelle; Maraj, Sara A; Fry, Danielle; Jecker, Justine; Jung, Bonny
Although occupational therapists have been practicing in forensic settings for many years, there is a paucity of literature regarding the nature of this practice in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the practices of Canadian occupational therapists in forensic mental health. An online survey was designed based on the Canadian Practice Process Framework. Following purposive and snowball sampling, responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Twenty-seven clinicians responded (56% response rate). Respondents indicated commonalities in workplaces, client caseloads and practice challenges. The outstanding need in Canada to demonstrate client outcomes through the use of evaluation instruments reflects those practice gaps identified internationally. Education, advocacy and research are critical areas for the development of Canadian forensic occupational therapy. Although findings heavily reflect one provincial context and may not be generalizable to nonhospital settings, a number of priority areas were identified. Future efforts should clarify the role of forensic occupational therapy to stakeholders, and validate their contributions through research that evaluates intervention efficacy and meaningful outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Palisano, Robert J.; Begnoche, Denise M.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Chang, Hui-Ju
The aims of this study were to describe physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) services for a cohort of 399 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 2-6 years old, residing in the United States and Canada. Parents completed a services questionnaire by telephone interview. Therapists classified children's Gross Motor Function Classification…
...-language pathology services. 409.17 Section 409.17 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES..., and speech-language pathology services. (a) General rules. (1) Except as specified in this section, physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by...
Isgör, Isa Yücel; Haspolat, Namik Kemal
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and psychological well-being levels of different occupational employees (education, security, health, justice, worker, engineer, and religious official) carrying on their duties in different institutions and organizations in a mid-scale provincial center of…
Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia; Zhan, Chenglie; Zhao, Xiaoguo
To study the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health state among oil workers. 1,230 oil workers in 122 work types of oil industry were selected and written occupational stress questionary(OSQ) and symptom check list (SCL-90). Petroleum workers' psychological health states were poor with increasing occupational stress degree. The scores in physical symptoms(1.87 +/- 0.80, 1.72 +/- 0.70), depression(1.74 +/- 0.76, 1.62 +/- 0.67), horror(1.48 +/- 0.65, 1.39 +/- 0.55) in the high and medium stress group were obviously higher than those in low stress group(1.55 +/- 0.61, 1.43 +/- 0.54, 1.28 +/- 0.46, respectively, P < 0.05). The score of mood state in the high and medium stress group was obviously higher than that in low stress group(P < 0.05). Psychological health states and mood state in the petroleum workers with short service length are significantly poorer than that with long service length(P < 0.01). Occupational stress should affect psychological health state of petroleum workers.
Principles of occupational therapy practice make the profession an important potential partner in health promotion initiatives for immigrant groups. Health promotion embodies the principles of self-definition of health needs by target groups, and working with a community in initiating and supporting programmes. This paper discusses the implications of an exploratory study of the daily activities of immigrant Indo-Canadian mothers for translating health promotion principles into practice. The research process and an analysis of interviews conducted with the women suggest factors to consider in using a health promotion framework with immigrants who have experienced social and economic dislocation through the immigration process. Discussion of household structure, divisions of labour, childcare strategies, and parenting concerns raises issues requiring particular attention in sharing occupational therapy skills and knowledge with ethnocultural communities.
The aim of this thesis is to approach the issue of cancer patients and to present occupational therapy intervention in oncology. The theoretical part of the thesis is an overview of the most important concepts from the field of oncology. It outlines different types of treatments in oncology, including their side effects. There are also the most frequent cancer diagnoses in the Czech Republic and abroad. Furthermore, the work describes the general possibilities of rehabilitation for people wit...
Tamara Pereira de Oliveira
Full Text Available Unilateral Neglect Syndrome is one of the consequences of cerebral vascular accident (CVA generally following right parietal lobe lesion, leading to the impairment of perceptive visual, spatial and attention functions. The patient affected does not realize the environmental stimuli on the contralesional hemibody. Occupational therapy plays an important role in caring for this patient, seeking the recovery of perception, attention and social engagement. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the results of occupational therapy intervention and treatment in a single Unilateral Neglect Syndrome post CVA patient. Data were obtained from a survey of the patient’s medical records and interviews of his therapist and caretaker. The analysis of the patient’s medical records and his therapist’s report showed that the patient responded satisfactorily to treatment, presenting a decrease of the left unilateral neglect at the end of the study period. The favorable outcome of the patient outlined the relevance of evaluating the effects of Occupational Therapy interventions for clinical unilateral neglect syndrome.
Ghysels, R; Vanroye, E; Westhovens, M; Spooren, A
In order to enhance occupational therapy reasoning in clinical practice, different elements such as client-centred approach, evidence-based care and interdisciplinary work should be taken into account, but is a challenge. To describe the development of the digital Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP © ) that enhances occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective. A participative qualitative design was used to create the H-OPP © in an iterative way in which occupational therapy lectures, ICF experts, students and occupational therapists in the field were involved. After linking occupational therapy terminology to the ICF, different stages of the H-OPP were identified and elaborated with main features: generating an occupational performance profile based on inventarization of problems and possibilities, formulating an occupational performance diagnosis and enabling to create an intervention plan. In all stages, both the perspectives of the client and the occupational therapist were taken into account. To increase practical use, the tool was further elaborated and digitalized. The H-OPP © is a digital coach that guides and facilitates professional reasoning in (novice) occupational therapists. It augments involvement of the client system. Furthermore, it enhances interdisciplinary communication and evidence-based care.
Full Text Available Objective. To assess whether acute stroke patients in rural hospitals receive less occupational therapy and physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. Design. Retrospective case-control study of health data in patients ≤10 days after stroke. Setting. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy services in four rural hospitals and one metropolitan hospital. Participants. Acute stroke patients admitted in one health district. Main Outcome Measures. Frequency and duration of face-to-face and indirect therapy sessions. Results. Rural hospitals admitted 363 patients and metropolitan hospital admitted 378 patients. Mean age was 73 years. Those in rural hospitals received more face-to-face (p>0.0014 and indirect (p=0.001 occupational therapy when compared to those in the metropolitan hospital. Face-to-face sessions lasted longer (p=0.001. Patients admitted to the metropolitan hospital received more face-to-face (p>0.000 and indirect (p>0.000 physiotherapy when compared to those admitted to rural hospitals. Face-to-face sessions were shorter (p>0.000. Almost all were seen within 24 hours of referral. Conclusions. Acute stroke patients in Australian rural hospital may receive more occupational therapy and less physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. The dose of therapy was lower than recommended, and the referral process may unnecessarily delay the time from admission to a patient’s first therapy session.
Nystul, Michael S.
Nystulian Play Therapy is based on Adlerian strategies. Encouragement of and respect for the child are emphasized. Teacher and parent education are important parts of a comprehensive approach to affective positive change in the child. (JAC)
Wesam Barakat Darawsheh
Full Text Available Knowledge and awareness about occupational therapy (OT are essential for the delivery of quality care to all clients and for occupational therapists’ (OTRs job satisfaction. OT has been a poorly understood profession in Jordan. The current study reports on the assessment of Jordanians’ awareness and knowledge of occupational therapy. Convenience sampling was used. There were 829 participants (474 males, 355 females, with mean age of 32 ± 11.6 yrs. They were recruited from the three main geographical areas of Jordan (northern, central, and southern and from all educational levels. The sample included 222 (26.8% healthcare personnel, 146 (17.6% clients, and 461 (55.6% lay persons. Participants completed questionnaires, and the results revealed that 48% of the sample had poor or no knowledge about OT, while 28.3% were unaware of it. Also, OT was commonly (50% perceived to be exclusively targeting people with disabilities (PWDs and neurological and physical conditions (58% and 53%, resp. in addition to exclusively providing services for the rehabilitation of the upper extremity (48%. Common misconceptions associated with OT were that OTRs prescribe medication (43% and OTRs are physiotherapists (44%. These preliminary findings suggest that efforts need to be directed by OTRs, the Jordanian Society of Occupational Therapy (JSOT, and the Ministry of Health to preserve the OT identity and value and promote knowledge about OT in the public and among members of interdisciplinary teams. More interprofessional learning needs to be incorporated within the curricula and placements of all healthcare personnels.
Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J
Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur
Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Methods: Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, H...
Cassio Batista Alves
Full Text Available In Brazil, Occupational Therapy (OT was legislated in 1969, and was introduced into the Primary Health Care (PHC in the 90s. At this level of care, the OT serves various stages of human development, including aging, in a perspective of care and active aging line, seeks to optimize opportunities for health, participation and safety, using clinical reasoning in order to plan, guide, conduct and reflect their actions in producing the line of care. This career considers human activities as part of the construction of the man himself as an expertise area and seeks to understand the relationships that the active human establishes in its life and health. This study aimed to verify the actions and identify the occupational therapy line of care with the elderly in APS. This is a qualitative study that used a semi-structured interview applied during April to May 2013 with six occupational therapists that cared for older people in the APS at Uberaba-MG. The data was analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique. We observed that the OT actions to produce line of care for the elderly happen according to the general public care, whether individual or group, with the team during case discussions, referrals or work management and the territory during the territorial diagnosis and networks formation, all permeated by the principles of fairness, integrity, intersectoriality and clinical reasoning in OT.
Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas
Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.
Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Greenberg, Neil
The psychological impact of disasters has been well-documented; less attention has been paid to factors affecting the wellbeing of those exposed to disasters as occupational groups. To conduct a systematic literature review identifying social and occupational factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster-exposed employees; to use these factors to identify recommendations for potential interventions. Four electronic literature databases were searched; reference lists of relevant papers were hand-searched. A total of 18 005 papers were found, 571 full texts were read and 36 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on employees was associated with pre-disaster factors (experience/training; income; life events/health; job satisfaction), peri-disaster factors (exposure; peri-traumatic experiences; perceptions of safety; injury), social factors (organisational support; social support generally) and post-disaster factors (impact on life). It is important to build a resilient workforce outside of a crisis. Pre-disaster training in recognising signs of distress, understanding vulnerability factors such as those described above, which may put certain employees at greater risk of distress and how to support colleagues may be useful. Further research into the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions is needed.
Full Text Available Background: Occupational therapy ethics require that therapists use current assessment tools that provide useful comparison data. When an assessment only has normative data that is more than 40 years old, it cannot be considered current. The purpose of this study was to examine the past and current use of the Purdue Pegboard Test by occupational therapists and other professionals and to determine if it is beneficial to conduct a large normative study on the Purdue Pegboard Assembly Task (PPAT in order to bring the test up to date. Method: This was a psychometric study of inter-rater reliability and a small normative study of the PPAT with 150 healthy working adults from MI. Descriptive statistics were used for normative means, standard deviations, and standard errors of measurement. Results: Inter-rater reliability was measured using the intra-class correlation coefficient for the mean of all student-rating teams of seven occupational therapy students. The result of the psychometric study determined the ICC was above .99. During the normative study, 150 participants performed the PPAT for three trials. Norms for gender and ages 18-49 and 50-62 are presented. Conclusion: The result of the inter-rater reliability test determined that OT students can be reliable raters for the PPAT. The normative study collected current norms for healthy working adults in MI, but validity testing and a larger normative study is needed to bring the psychometrics of the PPAT up to date to be generalized for current use by occupational therapists.
Gillies, Donna; Maiocchi, Licia; Bhandari, Abhishta P; Taylor, Fiona; Gray, Carl; O'Brien, Louise
Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group's Specialised Register to 29 May 2015. This register contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also checked reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. We did not restrict the searches by date, language or publication status. All randomised controlled trials of psychological therapies compared with a control such as treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, pharmacological therapy or other treatments in children or adolescents who had undergone a traumatic event. Two members of the review group independently extracted data. We calculated odds ratios for binary outcomes and standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes using a random-effects model. We analysed data as short-term (up to and including one month after therapy), medium-term (one month to one year after therapy) and long-term (one year or longer). Investigators included 6201 participants in the 51 included trials. Twenty studies included only children, two included only preschool children and ten only adolescents; all others included both children and adolescents. Participants were exposed to sexual abuse in 12 trials, to war or community violence in ten, to physical trauma and natural disaster in six each and to
Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…
The report describes the intake interviewing exercise in a family therapy training unit developed for postgraduates in clinical psychology. The teaching method includes pre-class reading, video modelling, and simulated practice with live feedback. The academic material and other similar practice exercises are contained in the core textbook for this unit.
Meseron therapy is a psychological treatment approach of African origin that consists of a direct and holistic counter-attack on undesirable conditions. It derives from an African custom of rejecting the negative while accepting the positive circumstances of life. Based on the philosophy of “I can”, and the concept of man as a ...
Gómez Gallego, M; Gómez García, J
Music therapy is one of the types of active ageing programmes which are offered to elderly people. The usefulness of this programme in the field of dementia is beginning to be recognised by the scientific community, since studies have reported physical, cognitive, and psychological benefits. Further studies detailing the changes resulting from the use of music therapy with Alzheimer patients are needed. Determine the clinical improvement profile of Alzheimer patients who have undergone music therapy. Forty-two patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease underwent music therapy for 6 weeks. The changes in results on the Mini-mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Barthel Index scores were studied. We also analysed whether or not these changes were influenced by the degree of dementia severity. Significant improvement was observed in memory, orientation, depression and anxiety (HAD scale) in both mild and moderate cases; in anxiety (NPI scale) in mild cases; and in delirium, hallucinations, agitation, irritability, and language disorders in the group with moderate Alzheimer disease. The effect on cognitive measures was appreciable after only 4 music therapy sessions. In the sample studied, music therapy improved some cognitive, psychological, and behavioural alterations in patients with Alzheimer disease. Combining music therapy with dance therapy to improve motor and functional impairment would be an interesting line of research. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lisa J. Knecht-Sabres DHS, OTR/L
Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of a unique amalgam of adult learning methodologies near the end of the occupational therapy (OT students’ didactic education as a means to enhance readiness for clinical practice. Results of quantitative and qualitative data analysis indicated that the use of standardized patients, in combination with a sequential, semistructured, and progressively challenging series of client cases, in an OT adult practice (intervention course, improved the students’ self-perception of their level of comfort and skill on various foundational, yet essential, OT-related competencies.
Sinclair, Robert R; Cheung, Janelle H
Money is arguably the most important resource derived from work and the most important source of stress for contemporary employees. A substantial body of research supports the relationship between access to financial resources and health and well-being, both at individual and aggregated (e.g. national) levels of analysis. Yet, surprisingly little occupational health psychology research has paid attention to financial issues experienced specifically by those in the labour force. With these issues in mind, the overarching goal of the present paper was to address conceptual and measurement issues in the study of objective and subjective aspects of financial stress and review several assessment options available to occupational health psychology researchers for both aspects of financial stress. Where appropriate, we offer guidance to researchers about choices among various financial stress measures and identify issues that require further research attention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Daniels, J; Turner-Cobb, J M
Consideration of psychological distress in long-term endocrine conditions is of vital importance given the prevalence of anxiety and depression in such disorders. Poor mental health can lead to compromised self-care, higher utilization of health services, lower rates of adherence, reduced quality of life and ultimately poorer outcomes. Adjuvant psychological therapy offers an effective resource to reduce distress in endocrine conditions. While the vast majority of work in this area has focused on psychological screening and intervention in diabetes, identification and recognition of psychological distress are equally important in other endocrinological conditions, with supportive evidence in polycystic ovary syndrome and Addison's disease. Referral pathways and recommendations set out by UK guidelines and the Department of Health mandate requires greater attention across a wider range of long-term endocrine conditions to facilitate improved quality of life and health outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maricutoiu, Laurentiu P.
Full Text Available The present paper discusses the status of evidence-based practice in Occupational Health Psychology (OHP. After several searches on large online databases, we have found that OHP papers that discuss interventions are less than 10% of the overall literature. Furthermore, quantitative reviews research that reports interventions on major OHP topics are generally absent. In the last part of the paper, we formulate some reccomendations for increasing the number of papers relevant for evidence-based practice in OHP.
Chen, Chih-Hung; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Fung, Chin-Ping; Doong, Ji-Liang; Chuang, Tien-Yow
Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined. To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation. An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment. Hospital laboratory. 30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury. A designed rehabilitation therapy. Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension. A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.
Dorsey, Julie; Bradshaw, Michelle
Lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can have a major impact on the ability to carry out daily activities. The effectiveness of interventions must be examined to enable occupational therapy practitioners to deliver the most appropriate services. This systematic review examined the literature published between 1995 and July 2014 that investigated the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for LE MSDs. Forty-three articles met the criteria and were reviewed. Occupational therapy interventions varied on the basis of population subgroup: hip fracture, LE joint replacement, LE amputation or limb loss, and nonsurgical osteoarthritis and pain. The results indicate an overall strong role for occupational therapy in treating clients with LE MSDs. Activity pacing is an effective intervention for nonsurgical LE MSDs, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation is effective for LE joint replacement and amputation. Further research on specific occupational therapy interventions in this important area is needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Wuthrich, Viviana M; Frei, Jacqueline
Older adults with mental health disorders underutilize mental health services more than other adults. While there are well known general barriers to help seeking across the population, specific barriers for older adults include difficulties with transportation, beliefs that it is normal to be anxious and depressed in old age, and beliefs by referrers that psychological therapy is less likely to be effective. This study examined barriers related to identifying the need for help, seeking help and participating in therapy in a clinical population of older adults. Sixty older adults (aged 60-79 years) with comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders completed barriers to treatment questionnaires before and after psychological group treatment, as well as measures of cognitive ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life at baseline. The greatest barriers to help seeking related to difficulties identifying the need for help, with 50% of the sample reporting their belief that their symptoms were normal as a major barrier. Other major barriers identified were related to: self-reliance, cost of treatment, and fear of medication replicating previous findings. The main barriers reported for difficulties in continuing therapy included not finding therapy helpful, cost of treatment, and thinking that the therapist did not understand their issues. The main barriers identified related to issues with identifying the need to seek help. More attention is needed to educate older adults and professionals about the need for, and effectiveness of, psychological therapies for older adults with anxiety and depression to reduce this barrier to help seeking.
Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J.; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M.; León-Frade, Irene; Aldea-Poyo, Patricia; Alonso-Rodríguez, Marina; Pedrero-Aguilar, Jara; Morales-Alonso, Sara
Background The LOTCA (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment) battery is a cognitive screening test which is widely used in occupational health. However, no work has been found that explores its use in addiction treatment. Objectives of Study To explore the convergent validity of LOTCA with neuropsychological tests that assess related cerebral functional areas. Methods The LOTCA, along with a battery of neuropsychological tests, was administered to a sample of 48 subjects who start a treatment by substance or gambling addictions. Findings A correlational pattern was observed of a considerable magnitude between the effects of the LOTCA scales and those of some neuropsychological tests, but not with others. There is barely any convergence in measures with memory and executive function tests. Relevance to Clinical Practice There is a lack of research applying test of occupational assessment to populations of patients treated by addictive behaviors. The LOTCA seems to be a reliable and valid test for preliminary screening of function in certain cognitive areas, easy, and quick to use (around 30 minutes). However, it must be supplemented with other tests for a full and ecological assessment of patients. Limitations An incident, small-size sample. Recommendations for Further Research New studies are needed to explore the applicability, diagnostic validity, and whole psychometric quality of the test in addiction-related treatment. PMID:29097963
Full Text Available Background. The LOTCA (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment battery is a cognitive screening test which is widely used in occupational health. However, no work has been found that explores its use in addiction treatment. Objectives of Study. To explore the convergent validity of LOTCA with neuropsychological tests that assess related cerebral functional areas. Methods. The LOTCA, along with a battery of neuropsychological tests, was administered to a sample of 48 subjects who start a treatment by substance or gambling addictions. Findings. A correlational pattern was observed of a considerable magnitude between the effects of the LOTCA scales and those of some neuropsychological tests, but not with others. There is barely any convergence in measures with memory and executive function tests. Relevance to Clinical Practice. There is a lack of research applying test of occupational assessment to populations of patients treated by addictive behaviors. The LOTCA seems to be a reliable and valid test for preliminary screening of function in certain cognitive areas, easy, and quick to use (around 30 minutes. However, it must be supplemented with other tests for a full and ecological assessment of patients. Limitations. An incident, small-size sample. Recommendations for Further Research. New studies are needed to explore the applicability, diagnostic validity, and whole psychometric quality of the test in addiction-related treatment.
Quinn, P.; Morris, Karen
The purpose of this research was to integrate and extend knowledge of two contemporary areas of occupational therapy practice, those of role emerging practice and ‘green care’ horticultural activities (Fieldhouse & Sempik, 2014). The context was a new role emerging placement, in a horticultural community with no previous occupational therapy input. The study evaluated the effects of occupational therapy on one individual’s recovery and the wider contribution to the mental health facility. A q...
Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap
Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National
Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy: Suggested Readings [and] Physical Therapy: Supply/Demand--Some Facts [and] Occupational Therapy: Supply and Demand--Some Facts. Information on Personnel Supply and Demand.
National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education, Reston, VA.
Brought together are two fact sheets on the supply of and demand for physical therapists and occupational therapists. The fact sheets cite statistical data from the National Easter Seal Society, the American Physical Therapy Association, and the American Occupational Therapy Association. The cited facts focus on the need to recruit and retain…
Ikiugu, Moses N; Nissen, Ranelle M; Bellar, Cali; Maassen, Alexya; Van Peursem, Katlin
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of theory-based occupational therapy interventions in improving occupational performance and well-being among people with a mental health diagnosis. The meta-analysis included 11 randomized controlled trials with a total of 520 adult participants with a mental health diagnosis. Outcomes were occupational performance, well-being, or both. We conducted meta-analyses using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 3.0) with occupational performance and well-being as the dependent variables. Results indicated a medium effect of intervention on improving occupational performance (mean Hedge's g = 0.50, Z = 4.05, p occupational therapy interventions may be effective in improving occupational performance and well-being among people with a mental health diagnosis and should be an integral part of rehabilitation services in mental health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Theresa M. Sullivan
Full Text Available Background: Professionalism is a dynamic, socially constructed idea, rendering it difficult to comprehend. Though characterized by the demonstration of values and behaviors, its meaning has not been fully explored and remains tacit. To explore how first- and second-year master’s of occupational therapy students conceptualize professionalism. Method: This qualitative pilot study evolved from an interpretivist theoretical perspective. Convenience sampling yielded four first-year and seven second-year students from one entry-level master’s program to participate in two separate focus groups. Line-by-line constant comparison methods were used to analyze the data and identify categories. An audit trail, peer debriefing, and member checking were employed. Results: Data analysis of the first-year focus group generated three categories: Searching for explicit examples, Responsibility to the profession, and Building and fulfilling societal responsibility. Analysis of the second-year focus group yielded two categories: Professional values and behaviors and Professionalism as socially constructed. Conclusion: Professionalism is a dynamic concept requiring nuanced understandings specific to context. Students should be encouraged to develop reflective abilities allowing them to analyze and act in a way that is most appropriate for the situation. Understanding students’ conceptualizations of professionalism may better allow occupational therapy regulators, managers, and academic and fieldwork educators to identify teaching and research priorities.
Gilmore, Paula E; Spaulding, Sandi J; Vandervoort, Anthony A
Hemiplegic shoulder pain is common after stroke causing hemiplegia. It adversely affects the recovery of arm function and independence in activities of daily living. Subluxation, abnormal tone and limited range of motion or capsular constrictions have been reported as potential causes. Other factors such as rotator cuff tears, brachial plexus injury, shoulder-hand syndrome and other pre-existing pathological conditions may also be associated with hemiplegic shoulder pain. The etiology remains unclear, but hemiplegic shoulder pain may result from a combination of the above factors. This literature review examines the possible causes of hemiplegic shoulder pain and discusses the implications for occupational therapy treatment. Occupational therapy interventions include proper positioning, facilitation of movement through purposeful therapeutic activities, increasing passive range of motion, implementation of external supports and treatment of shoulder-hand syndrome. Understanding the processes involved will assist with effective assessment, treatment and prevention of hemiplegic shoulder pain. This will facilitate clients' participation in rehabilitation programs and move them towards attainment of optimal function.
Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes
Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041
Morris, Douglas; Henegar, J; Khanin, S; Oberle, G; Thacker, S
Instrumental touch is identified as having purposeful physical contact in order to complete a task. Expressive touch is identified as warm, friendly physical contact and is not solely for performing a task. Expressive touch has been associated with improved client status, increased rapport and greater gains made during therapy. The purpose of the study was to observe the frequency of expressive and instrumental touch utilized by an occupational therapist during an occupational therapy session. Thirty-three occupational therapy professionals, including occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants, employed at skilled nursing facilities in southwest Florida were observed. Data were collected on the Occupational Therapy Interaction Assessment. The results of the data analysis showed a positive relationship between the gender of the therapist and the frequency of expressive touch. The data also showed that a large majority of touches were instrumental touch and pertained to functional mobility. The results of the study can contribute to a better understanding of the holistic aspects of occupational therapy. By the use of more expressive touch, occupational therapy practitioners may have a positive, beneficial effect on both the client and the therapy process as a whole. Further research is needed to determine the effect an occupational therapy setting has on the frequency of instrumental and expressive touch. A larger sample size and a distinction between evaluation and treatment sessions would benefit future studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Phillips, M E
The occupational therapy literature was reviewed to determine how drama was used as a clinical modality in the 1920s and 1930s. It appears that the emergence of the Little Theater Movement in the early 1900s, which enabled amateurs to perform publicly, provided the impetus for occupational therapists to use drama as purposeful activity. The theatrical modes most frequently used were pageantry, puppetry, and comedic plays. Additionally, the collective nature of drama facilitated group-centered treatment. Noble, a psychiatrist at Sheppard and Enoch Pratt in Maryland, used drama for insight-oriented therapy and recommended that occupational therapists use drama for treatment of persons with mental illness. Drama in occupational therapy still exists in some psychiatric settings, although a new discipline known as drama therapy, which is a division of the creative arts therapies, has arisen. Although drama therapy addresses psychodynamic goals, drama also can be used in occupational therapy to promote competence, enhance self-concept, and improve socialization.
Teraoka, Mutsumi; Kyougoku, Makoto
activities, and work relationships (p occupational dysfunction had good fit on the stress response (RMSEA = 0.061, CFI = 0.947, and TLI = 0.943), burnout syndrome (RMSEA = 0.076, CFI = 0.919, and TLI = 0.913), and depression (RMSEA = 0.060, CFI = 0.922, TLI = 0.917). Moreover, the detected covariates include opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships on occupational dysfunction. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that psychological problems are associated with occupational dysfunction in healthcare workers. Reduction of occupational dysfunction might be a strategy of better preventive occupational therapies for healthcare workers with psychological problems. However, longitudinal studies will be needed to determine a causal relationship.
activities, and work relationships (p < 0.01. The hypothesis model results suggest that the classification of occupational dysfunction had good fit on the stress response (RMSEA = 0.061, CFI = 0.947, and TLI = 0.943, burnout syndrome (RMSEA = 0.076, CFI = 0.919, and TLI = 0.913, and depression (RMSEA = 0.060, CFI = 0.922, TLI = 0.917. Moreover, the detected covariates include opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships on occupational dysfunction.Conclusion. Our findings indicate that psychological problems are associated with occupational dysfunction in healthcare workers. Reduction of occupational dysfunction might be a strategy of better preventive occupational therapies for healthcare workers with psychological problems. However, longitudinal studies will be needed to determine a causal relationship.
Full Text Available Occupational therapy is presented as the core knowledge involved in the remodeling and strengthening of Primary Health Care in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS. In this study, we aimed to describe the interventions in the process of occupational therapy in supervised family care in a primary health care service in the municipality of Várzea Paulista, São Paulo state. In this case study, the moments of care were described and analyzed in light of narratives on the supervised practice of occupational therapy with a family. The results showed forms of intervention that characterize the process of occupational therapy focused on family health needs in favor of creativity and the role for changes in health practices in everyday life. Through the accomplishment of occupational activities directed to self-care, Occupational Therapy can aid families to cope with daily life adversity.
Weber, A; Karch, D; Thyen, U; Rommel, A; Schlack, R; Hölling, H; von Kries, R
A population-based analysis on use of occupational therapy by child's parentally reported health restrictions and socio-demographic determinants is missing. The basis KiGGS survey (2003 to 2006) reports on health in 17 641 children aged 0 to 17 years. The use of occupational therapy in the last 12 months could be ticked as other therapies with a free text field to name occupational therapy or others. Health restrictions potentially relevant for the use of occupational therapy and sociodemographic factors were assessed. The proportion of use of occupational therapy explained by the health restrictions was estimated by the population attributable risk fraction. The average use of occupational therapy for 3 to 13-year-olds was 2.4%. There was no association with the socioeconomic status; Children with immigration background used occupational therapy less often (e. g. age group 3 to 6 years: ORadjusted 0.2 [95-% KI: 0.1-1.0]). The proportion of occupational therapy explainable by the health restrictions considered ranged from 45% (3 to 6 years) to 65% (11 to 13 years). The lower use of occupational therapy in the KiGGS survey compared to health insurance reports may be explained by the ascertainment method. A lower use of occupational therapy related to immigration background matches lower use for physician visits. The causes for the low proportion of explained occupational therapy in young children and the lower use in children with immigration background warrant further research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mitchison, Deborah; Jakes, Simon; Kelly, Siobhan; Rhodes, John
Psychotic clients may be difficult to engage in psychological therapy, and many potential participants decline to participate in controlled trials of cognitive behavioural therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotic patients' perspectives regarding therapy. The design was qualitative and used thematic analysis to investigate emerging themes. Methods A total of 46 inpatients with psychosis were interviewed about their views on therapy. Interview summaries were submitted to thematic analysis. A total of 41% of participants were rated as interested, 36% were rated as not interested and 23% appeared ambivalent, or their interest in therapy was unable to be assessed. Themes related to interest in therapy included the desire to build skills, to address (usually non-psychotic) symptoms and for a therapeutic relationship. Themes related to not wanting therapy included a denial of psychological problems, distrust in the healthcare system and psychologists and low perceived efficacy in therapy. A large minority of psychotic patients may be interested in therapy, although mostly not to address psychotic symptoms. Future research on pre-treatment approaches to disconfirm negative perceptions and increase interest in therapy is warranted. The reasons why some patients with psychosis are not interested in receiving psychological therapy may relate to past negative experiences with psychologists, negative perceptions of psychologists as a group and low perceived efficacy of therapy. These barriers may be addressed through interactions with psychotic patients during an admission to a hospital that disconfirms these perceptions and provides a positive alternative experience with a psychologist. Patients who are hospitalized with psychosis may be interested in receiving psychological therapy; however, the reason for this likely will not be to address psychotic symptoms. Rather, the therapist should be willing to work with the patient on a range of other presenting
Full Text Available Background. Twenty-three years into democracy, concern is deepening regarding the slow progress of Occupational Therapy (OT in South Africa, especially with regard to diversity and inclusion within OT. Methods. This study explores authentic leadership development primarily among Black OT students attending a pilot Occupational Therapy Association of South Africa (OTASA National Student Leadership Camp. It seeks to ascertain their perceptions on leadership and leadership development. This descriptive pilot study employs in-depth interviews and subsequent content analysis, with 12 OT students from six university OT programs in South Africa. Findings. Four categories of participant perceptions on authentic leadership development emerged from the analysis: (1 perceptions about oneself as a leader based on personal narrative, self-awareness, self-control, and psychological capital; (2 perceptions about others, specifically current leaders, with regard to their moral crisis, including continuing inequality, insincerity, greed, and selfishness; (3 goals and aspirations for leadership development via student camps; and (4 effects of leadership on the system. Conclusions. Recommendations for future practice include promotion of storytelling as a means of personal reflection for authentic leadership development and focused investment in camps for developing student leadership skills and building authentic leadership knowledge.
Hendricks, Fatima; Toth-Cohen, Susan
Twenty-three years into democracy, concern is deepening regarding the slow progress of Occupational Therapy (OT) in South Africa, especially with regard to diversity and inclusion within OT. This study explores authentic leadership development primarily among Black OT students attending a pilot Occupational Therapy Association of South Africa (OTASA) National Student Leadership Camp. It seeks to ascertain their perceptions on leadership and leadership development. This descriptive pilot study employs in-depth interviews and subsequent content analysis, with 12 OT students from six university OT programs in South Africa. Four categories of participant perceptions on authentic leadership development emerged from the analysis: (1) perceptions about oneself as a leader based on personal narrative, self-awareness, self-control, and psychological capital; (2) perceptions about others, specifically current leaders, with regard to their moral crisis, including continuing inequality, insincerity, greed, and selfishness; (3) goals and aspirations for leadership development via student camps; and (4) effects of leadership on the system. Recommendations for future practice include promotion of storytelling as a means of personal reflection for authentic leadership development and focused investment in camps for developing student leadership skills and building authentic leadership knowledge.
Hamasaki, Tokiko; Pelletier, René; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Harris, Patrick; Choinière, Manon
Literature review. Pain is a subjective experience that results from the modulation of nociception conveyed to the brain via the nervous system. Perception of pain takes place when potential or actual noxious stimuli are appraised as threats of injury. This appraisal is influenced by one's cognitions and emotions based on her/his pain-related experiences, which are processed in the forebrain and limbic areas of the brain. Unarguably, patients' psychological factors such as cognitions (eg, pain catastrophizing), emotions (eg, depression), and pain-related behaviors (eg, avoidance) can influence perceived pain intensity, disability, and treatment outcomes. Therefore, hand therapists should address the patient pain experience using a biopsychosocial approach. However, in hand therapy, a biomedical perspective predominates in pain management by focusing solely on tissue healing. This review aims to raise awareness among hand therapists of the impact of pain-related psychological factors. This literature review allowed to describe (1) how the neurophysiological mechanisms of pain can be influenced by various psychological factors, (2) several evidence-based interventions that can be integrated into hand therapy to address these psychological issues, and (3) some approaches of psychotherapy for patients with maladaptive pain experiences. Restoration of sensory and motor functions as well as alleviating pain is at the core of hand therapy. Numerous psychological factors including patients' beliefs, cognitions, and emotions alter their pain experience and may impact on their outcomes. Decoding the biopsychosocial components of the patients' pain is thus essential for hand therapists. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley
Increased accountability and growing fiscal limitations in global health care continue to challenge how occupational therapy practices are undertaken. Little is known about how these changes affect current practice in acute hospital settings. This article reviews the relevant literature to further understanding of occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings. A scoping review of five electronic databases was completed using the keywords Occupational therapy, acute hospital settings/acute physical hospital settings, acute care setting/acute care hospital setting, general medicine/general medical wards, occupational therapy service provision/teaching hospitals/tertiary care hospitals. Criteria were applied to determine suitability for inclusion and the articles were analysed to uncover key themes. In total 34 publications were included in the review. Analysis of the publications revealed four themes: (1) Comparisons between the practice of novice and experienced occupational therapists in acute care (2) Occupational therapists and the discharge planning process (3) Role of occupation in the acute care setting and (4) Personal skills needed and organisation factors affecting acute care practice. The current literature has highlighted the challenges occupational therapists face in practicing within an acute setting. Findings from this review enhance understanding of how occupational therapy department managers and educators can best support staff that practise in acute hospital settings. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Dunn, W; Cada, E
This article reports some of the findings from a national study of occupational therapy practice conducted by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy (NBCOT) as part of its fiduciary responsibility to ensure that its entry-level certification examination is formulated on the basis of current practice. The NBCOT developed a survey with input from approximately 200 occupational therapy leaders and then used it to solicit information about current practice from 4,000 occupational therapists and 3,000 occupational therapy assistants. The sample included geographical location, experience level, and practice area distributions. Approximately 50% of the sample responded to the survey. Data indicate similarities and differences in occupational therapist and occupational therapy assistant practice (e.g., occupational therapists spend more time conducting evaluations, planning interventions, and supervising, whereas occupational therapy assistants spend more time providing interventions), an increased emphasis on population-based services (e.g., serving a business or industry rather than an individual worker), and an emphasis on occupation as a core knowledge base for practice. From a continuing competency perspective, the data can be useful to the profession; we can plan continuing education to address topics that practitioners have indicated are critical to their practice. The findings will be useful for revising the entry-level certification examination and may guide thinking about the parameters of continuing competence because the responses represent a cross-section of the profession.
Sebastián Sánchez, Beatriz; Gil Roales-Nieto, Jesús; Ferreira, Nuno Bravo; Gil Luciano, Bárbara; Sebastián Domingo, Juan José
The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than placebo attention control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.
Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with multiple sclerosis can have a normal life despite of their real or possible disability and of the progressive nature of it. Scope. Patients who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy will have an increased quality of life and a greater functional independence.Methods. The randomized study was made on 7 patients with multiple sclerosis, from Oradea Day Centre, 3 times/week, ages between 35 – 55 years, functional level between mild and sever. Assessment and rehabilitation methods: inspection, BARTHEL Index. Frenkel method, brething exercises, weights exercises, gait exercises, writind exercises and games were used in the rehabilitation process. Group therapies: sociotherapy, arttherapy, music therapy. Results analysis consisted of the comparison of baseline and final means.Results. By analizing baseline and final means for Barthel Index for each functon separately, it was shown a mild improvement of functional independence for almost assessed functions, with at least 1-1,5 points.Conclusions. Persons with multiple sclerosis who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy presents a better functional independence after the treatment.
Theed, Rachael; Eccles, Fiona J R; Simpson, Jane
This study sought to investigate how people who had tested positive for the Huntington's disease (HD) gene mutation understood and experienced psychological distress and their expectations of psychological therapy. A qualitative methodology was adopted involving semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A total of nine participants (five women and four men) who had opted to engage in psychological therapy were recruited and interviewed prior to the start of this particular psychological therapeutic intervention. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using IPA whereby themes were analysed within and across transcripts and classified into superordinate themes. Three superordinate themes were developed: Attributing psychological distress to HD: 'you're blaming everything on that now'; Changes in attributions of distress over time: 'in the past you'd just get on with it'; and Approaching therapy with an open mind, commitment, and hope: 'a light at the end of the tunnel'. Understandings of psychological distress in HD included biological and psychological explanations, with both often being accepted simultaneously by the same individual but with biomedical accounts generally dominating. Individual experience seemed to reflect a dynamic process whereby people's understanding and experience of their distress changed over time. Psychological therapy was accepted as a positive alternative to medication, providing people with HD with hope that their psychological well-being could be enhanced. People with the Huntington's disease gene mutation have largely biomedical understandings of their psychological distress. This largely biomedical understanding does not, however, preclude them for being interested in the potential gains resulting from psychological therapy. The mechanisms of psychological therapy should be explained in detail before therapy and explored along with current attributions of distress. © 2017 The British
Jane C. OBrien PhD, MS.MEdL, OTR/L
Full Text Available Medical educators must examine the ability of teaching methodologies to prepare students for clinical practice. Two types of assessment methods commonly used in medical education include the Short Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI. The use of these methods in occupational therapy (OT education is less understood. With the increasing number of students enrolled in programs, faculty face challenges to examine how clinical competence is established using data to determine teaching effectiveness. This study examines two educational methodologies used in OT curriculum: the long written case study (IPPI and short performance-based OSCE. The authors describe the effectiveness of each examination as it relates to student performance in clinical practice (as measured by the Fieldwork Performance Evaluation [FWPE]. The findings obtained from separate focus group sessions with faculty and students further provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of the educational methodologies.
Morgan-Daniel, Jane; Preston, Hugh
This article summarises a case study on the information needs of Masters level Occupational Therapy 5 (OT) students at one English university. A mixed methods questionnaire was used to explore motivators for information-seeking, preferred information resources and barriers inhibiting the satisfaction of information needs. Thirteen recommendations for practice were formulated, focusing on how information professionals can best facilitate OT students' learning and evidence-based research skills in preparation for clinical practice. The study was completed by Jane Morgan-Daniel, who received a Distinction for her work from Aberystwyth University, where she graduated with an MSC in Information and Library Studies in December 2016. She has written this article together with her dissertation supervisor, Hugh Preston. A. M. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
Moruno Miralles, P
of the Emperor.Diego, who is not easily cheated by words—in this case, because he could not read the explanatory labels: T.O.R (on the puzzles and the dominoes, gerontogymnastics (near the rings and the balls, and especially a label over the entry door reading: Occupational Therapy. As I said, the child could not read nor perceive more than the bare reality: a kind of school.At that moment I better understood why the relative we were visiting repeatedly refused to go to Occupational Therapy; why he did not listen to my reccomendations, and why he liked better chatting with his friends at the garden, drinking a coffee or, when the pain and the sick feeling permitting, playing dominoes or going to the nearest park to play pétanque.I am afraid the story I am telling you is not an isolated fact in the practise of our profession. Furthermore, I would dare to say, without concrete data and relying on my experience (limited as everyone's, that it is more a standard than an exception.If what I suppose is true—and I hope it isn't so!—I think It is necessary to wonder: would you like to go to a similar place when being elder?; how would you feel colouring sheets with little ducks or throwing a red ball while repeating your name?; what can mean seeing yourself doing these things? and what about being watched by the rest of the people meanwhile?; Does a label give more sense to it?; what's its use?We can also wonder some other questions, these ones for experienced therapists. For instance: what kind of occupation is done there?; which is their personal, cultural or social meaning?; does stringing counting balls or mounting plastic cubes have any purpose?; Wouldn't be better playing dominoes or chess, even simplifying the game instead of playing with a children game to recover we don't know which capacities that the passage of time or the age tends to damage irremediably?. And what is more: Does the fact of improving coordination, attention or memory necessarily implies
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Lavery, Jessica; Reeve, Bryce B; Dusetzina, Stacie B
This article describes the cost of occupational therapy by provider, insurance status, and geographic region and the number of visits allowed and out-of-pocket costs under proposed therapy caps. This retrospective, population-based study used Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data for occupational therapists billing in 2012 and 2013 (Ns = 3,662 and 3,820, respectively). We examined variations in outpatient occupational therapy services with descriptive statistics and the impact of therapy caps on occupational therapy visits and patient out-of-pocket costs. Differences in cost between occupational and physical therapists were minimal. The most frequently billed service was therapeutic exercises. Wisconsin had the most inflated outpatient costs in both years. Under the proposed therapy cap, patients could receive an evaluation plus 12-14 visits. . Wide variation exists in potential patient out-of-pocket costs for occupational therapy services on the basis of insurance coverage and state. Patients without insurance pay a premium. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Walsh, Wendy E
Using a phenomenological approach, this study investigated visibility and perception of the profession of occupational therapy in three media outlets. Content analysis occurred on LexisNexis Academic (LNA), Google Images, and Twitter platforms. Analysis of LNA identified the prevalence of articles about occupational therapy in domestic newspapers and similar media avenues, MaxQDA qualitative software coded Google Images from a search on occupational therapy, and AnalyzeWords evaluated Twitter feeds of four health care professions for presence and tone in a social media context. Results indicate that although occupational therapy is 100 years old, its presence in news and online platforms could be stronger. This study suggests that a clear professional identity for occupational therapy practitioners must be strategically communicated through academic and social platforms. Such advocacy promotes the profession, meets the next iteration of occupational therapy's professional vision, and allows occupational therapy to remain a prominent and formidable stakeholder in today's health care marketplace. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Muhlenhaupt, Mary; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Schefkind, Sandra; Chandler, Barbara; Harvison, Neil
Occupational therapy provides a unique contribution in early intervention programs for families and their children from birth to 3 years old who are at risk for, or who have, identified disabilities. This article describes occupational therapy's distinct value and presents the profession's perspective on services to enhance families' caregiving…
Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly
This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…
Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine
Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…
Knecht-Sabres, Lisa Jean
This mixed method study examined the effectiveness of experiential learning opportunities near the end of the occupational therapy students' didactic education. A pretest/posttest design with a gain score approach was used to determine whether there was a significant improvement in the occupational therapy students' self-perception of their…
Lancaster, Stephanie; Zachry, Anne; Duck, Ashleigh; Harris, Alexandria; Page, Ellen; Sanders, Jordan
The Wilbarger Therapressure Program is a commonly used treatment approach utilized by occupational therapy professionals for the treatment of sensory defensiveness. The purpose of the current study was to investigate occupational therapy practitioners' sources of training in the administration of Wilbarger Therapressure Program, the uniformity of…
Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe
Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…
Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel
Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…
Voigt-Radloff, S; Ruf, G.; Vogel, A.; van Nes, F.; Hüll, M.
OBJECTIVE: Previous systematic reviews on occupational therapy for elderly included studies until 2003. The present evidence mapping summarizes recent evidence for the efficacy of occupational therapy with older persons based on randomised controlled trials from 2004-2012. METHOD: An electronic
Background For over two decades occupational therapists have been encouraged to enhance their roles within primary care and focus on health promotion and prevention activities. While there is a clear fit between occupational therapy and primary care, there have been few practice examples, despite a growing body of evidence to support the role. In 2010, the province of Ontario, Canada provided funding to include occupational therapists as members of Family Health Teams, an interprofessional model of primary care. The integration of occupational therapists into this model of primary care is one of the first large scale initiatives of its kind in North America. The objective of the study was to examine how occupational therapy services are being integrated into primary care teams and understand the structures supporting the integration. Methods A multiple case study design was used to provide an in-depth description of the integration of occupational therapy. Four Family Health Teams with occupational therapists as part of the team were identified. Data collection included in-depth interviews, document analyses, and questionnaires. Results Each Family Health Team had a unique organizational structure that contributed to the integration of occupational therapy. Communication, trust and understanding of occupational therapy were key elements in the integration of occupational therapy into Family Health Teams, and were supported by a number of strategies including co-location, electronic medical records and team meetings. An understanding of occupational therapy was critical for integration into the team and physicians were less likely to understand the occupational therapy role than other health providers. Conclusion With an increased emphasis on interprofessional primary care, new professions will be integrated into primary healthcare teams. The study found that explicit strategies and structures are required to facilitate the integration of a new professional group
This following thesis is focused on painful shoulder syndrome and possible treatments through occupational therapy. It serves as a summary of possible occupational therapy interventions for patients with painful shoulder syndrome. The main aim was to create a treatment method that occupational therapist can provide as part of a multidisciplinary team. The theoretical part includes anatomy and insights into kinesiology, causes, symptoms, testing and treatment options for painful shoulder syndr...
Hébert, Michèle L J; Kehayia, Eva; Prelock, Patricia; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Snider, Laurie
This study investigates occupational therapy for early communication in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research explored the role of occupational therapists in supporting children with ASD to become better communicators by considering their inter-professional collaboration with speech-language pathologists. Convenience samples of 21 clinical occupational therapists and speech-language pathologists were recruited to participate in semi-structured audio-recorded focus groups, using a qualitative design. Distinct views included a child-centred focus from speech-language pathologists, whereas occupational therapists spoke of the child through societal viewpoints, which later pointed to occupational therapists' proficiency in enabling skill generalization in ASD. An equal partnership was consistently reported between these clinicians, who identified the same objectives, shared strategies, joint treatments, and ongoing collaboration as the four main facilitators to inter-professional collaboration when treating children with ASD. Three unique roles of occupational therapy comprised developing non-verbal and verbal communication pre-requisites, adapting the setting, educating-partnering-advocating for the child, and providing occupation-based intervention. These three themes meshed with the discipline-specific occupational therapy domains represented in the Person-Environment-Occupation framework. When working in inter-professional collaboration, speech-language pathologists and occupational therapists agree that occupational therapy is indispensable to early intervention in enabling communication in ASD.
Jette, A M; Becker, M C
Directors of undergraduate programs in nursing, physical therapy, and occupational therapy in the United States and Canada were surveyed to determine the amount and perceived adequacy of the current degree of classroom and clinical exposure to the rheumatic diseases. One hundred ninety-one (73%) of the 262 mailed questionnaires were returned. Results indicate that regardless of the actual degree of rheumatologic classroom exposure, directors in all three disciplines view current amounts as adequate. A larger proportion views levels of clinical exposure as inadequate. In general, the Canadian programs had a greater emphasis on rheumatology than their United States counterparts.
Full Text Available Occupational Health Psychology (OHP in Romania is now emerging, in the practitioner’s and educational field. The risk management paradigm provides a framework for this paper. The analysis focus is on presenting the perception of current national approach related to stressors and processes that threat employee’s and organizational health. Further, we compare the employees’ and managers’ perspective on OHP issues looking, in Romania and other European countries. Finally we conclude and address OHP challenges and opportunities in Romania.
Johansson, Ann; Björklund, Anita
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a four-month occupational based health-promoting programme for older persons living in community dwellings could maintain/improve their general health and well-being. Further, the aim was to explore whether the programme facilitated the older persons' occupational adaptation. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with a non-equivalent control group combined with semi-structured interviews. The intervention group comprised 22 participants, and the control group 18. Outcomes were measured using the Short Form 36, Life Satisfaction Index-Z and Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment. Content analysis, based on concepts from the Model of Occupational Adaptation, was used to analyse the interviews. The intervention group showed statistically significant improvements in general health variables such as vitality and mental health, and positive trends for psychological well-being. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group, but the groups were not fully matched. The qualitative analysis based on Occupational Adaptation pointed out social aspects as a compliment to the overall results. Participating in meaningful, challenging activities in different environments stimulates the occupational adaptation process; this is something occupational therapists could use to empower older persons to find their optimal occupational lives.
Brown, Ted; Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Mu, Keli; Wells, Joe
Internationally, occupational therapy education has gone through several paradigm shifts during the last few decades, moving from certificate to diploma to bachelors to masters and now in some instances to clinical doctorate as the entry-level professional credential to practice. In the United States there is a recommendation under consideration by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) that by 2025, all occupational therapy university programs will move to the clinical doctorate level. It should be noted, however, that the AOTA Board can only make recommendations and it is the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) who has regulatory authority to approve such a change. What are the potential implications for the profession, our clients, and funders of occupational therapy services? What are the primary drivers for the move towards the clinical doctorate being the educational entry point? Is the next step in the evolution of occupational therapy education globally a shift to the entry-level clinical doctorate? This article reviews current literature and discusses issues about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate. The published evidence available about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate is summarized and the perceived or frequently cited pros and cons of moving to the clinical doctorate as the singular entry point to occupational therapy practice are considered. The potential impacts of the introduction of the clinical doctorate as the entry-to-practice qualification across the United States on the occupational therapy community internationally will be briefly discussed. If the United States moves toward the entry-level clinical doctorate as the only educational starting point for the profession, will other jurisdictions follow suit? Further discourse and investigation of this issue both inside and outside of the United States is needed so that informed decisions can be made.
Alotaibi, Naser; Shayea, Abdulaziz; Nadar, Mohammed; Abu Tariah, Hashem
To investigate the level of awareness of the occupational therapy profession among final-year health sciences students at Kuwait University. This study utilized a survey targeting final-year students in the Health Sciences Center at Kuwait University schools of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and allied health sciences. The survey addressed awareness of occupational therapy, its scope of practice, work environments, and preference for learning more about the profession. Of the 244 surveys distributed, 132 were returned, for a 54% response rate. The proportion of those who knew about occupational therapy ranged from 94% (radiologic science) to a low of 17% (medicine). Most respondents learned about occupational therapy from colleagues (77.1%), rather than from their academic programs (28.1%). RESULTS indicated that about one fifth of students (21.4%) were unsure about the role of occupational therapists as members of the health care team. Preferences for learning more about the profession were consistent with interprofessional opportunities, such as observing an occupational therapy session (64.5%) and attending a workshop (63.6%) or presentation (59.8%). Although most respondents had some awareness of occupational therapy, specifics about its scope of practice and relevance to the health care team were lacking. Preferences for learning more about occupational therapy were consistent with the current trend for interprofessional education in health care. Implications for interprofessional education are presented.
Is there an occupational therapy employment crisis within Australia? An investigation into two consecutive cohorts of occupational therapy graduates from a single Victorian University identifying trends in employment.
Fay, Pearse; Adamson, Lynne
Within the context of growing concerns about a potential oversupply of occupational therapist, this research examines when, where and how long new graduates take to gain employment and identifies influences upon the health and university systems. A mixed method research design, using an online survey was adopted to investigate the topic. Two consecutive cohorts of graduates from a single university program were invited to participate. Seventy-five (58%) responses were received, with 63 (84%) currently employed in an occupational therapy role. Of the 12 (16%) not employed, only 3 (4%) described themselves as actively seeking employment in an occupational therapy role. A wide spread of employment settings and scope of practice areas was reported. Findings suggest that occupational therapy graduates are gaining employment in a range of settings and practice areas, relatively quickly. This research adds evidence to the conversation around graduate employment within a region of Australia. The Australian population, health system and university changes are possible factors influencing employment. The research reveals the difficulties in understanding the current situation with limitations in data collected, varied terminology and an ever changing job seeking environment. The research provides a starting point for the occupational therapy profession to further understand the directions the profession is taking. University programs may also benefit by using the research to tailor course content to assist graduates in gaining employment or to present students with the prospects of new employment opportunities. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Miller, Tracy; Deary, Vincent; Patterson, Jo
The improving access to psychological therapies initiative has highlighted the importance of managing mental health problems effectively, and research has shown excellent outcomes from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions. Patients presenting with functional dysphonia will often also describe psychological distress including anxiety, depression and reduced general well-being, and it is felt that effective voice therapy needs to include the management of psychological well-being. The evidence for the use of CBT enhanced voice therapy is limited to date. Recent research has only started to identify the benefits of this approach and questions regarding how to achieve and maintain competence are essential. Voice therapy outcomes are positive and patients receiving CBT with voice therapy have shown more improvement in their general well-being and distress. CBT is a very well evidenced therapy and recommended by The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as the treatment of choice for mental health difficulties and medically unexplained symptoms. Allied health professionals are increasingly being trained to use CBT skills in the management of a number of symptoms/illnesses, and this should be considered for the management of functional dysphonia. However, there is a need for more research and detailed consideration of how therapists should be trained and supervised and how cost-effective this approach may be.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of occupational stress, psychological stress as well as job burnout on women’s employee performance in city of Karaj, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among all female employees who worked for Bank Maskan in this city. In our survey, employee performance consists of three parts of interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire, all components were within acceptable levels, and the implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were not normally distributed. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as regression techniques, the study has determined that while psychological stress influenced significantly on all three components of employee performance including interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance, the effect on job performance was greater than the other components. In addition, occupational stress only influences on organizational as well as interpersonal performance. Finally, employee burnout has no impact on any components of employee performance.
Islam, Md Shofiqul; Habib, Md Monjurul; Hafez, Md Abdul; Nahar, Nazmun; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur
Physiotherapy and occupational therapy professionals are at high risk of developing occupational musculoskeletal injuries globally. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common problem. To determine the extent of discomfort that physiotherapy and occupational therapy health professionals report while working at a physical rehabilitation centre. Physiotherapy and occupational therapy professionals which include both graduate and diploma physiotherapists and occupational therapists as well as physiotherapy and occupational therapy assistants. A self administered questionnaire (survey) was conducted on a convenient sample of 101 physiotherapy and occupational therapy personnel. The mean age of the 101 participants was 27.8 (± 4.5) years and most of the participants (62%) had less than 5 years of work experience. Ninety-five percent of the participants complained of work related pain. Most of the participants reported pain in the lower back (n=84) followed by upper back (n=71) and neck (n=66). Significant associations were found for pain in ankles/feet with age (p=0.05) and pain in neck with gender (p=0.01). Physiotherapy and occupational therapy professionals suffer from pain in relation to the work they do as therapists which may be due to non-practice of appropriate body mechanics. Mechanism to assess level of practice during dealing with patients may be introduced to enable corrective measures. Incentives should be considered for appropriate practice.
Bourke, Cate; Sanders, Bronwyn; Allchin, Becca; Lentin, Primrose; Lang, Shannon
Current policy frameworks call for the participation of consumers and carers in all levels of mental health service delivery in Australia. Such inclusion leads to better outcomes for all, however, it is recognised that carers have needs and occupations beyond their carer role. The aim of this article is to describe an innovative carer peer support program developed by a group of occupational therapists. The article describes the rationale, phases of development and the role that occupational therapists played in developing and sustaining the model. This is followed by an exploration of the occupational therapy attitudes, knowledge and skills that contributed to the conceptualisation and implementation of the model. Five occupational therapists engaged in a review process involving documentation, literature review, evaluation, reflection and discussion. Four of the occupational therapists had either coordinated or managed the service described. The fifth author facilitated the process. Review of the model indicates it equips carers to perform their caring occupation and helps carers recognise the need for occupations beyond caring, for their health and wellbeing. Employing carers as paid workers values their 'real life' experience in their caring occupation. Findings also illustrate that the attitudes, knowledge, skills and competency standards of occupational therapists are well suited in enabling this emerging area of service delivery. Although this model has been developed in a clinical mental health setting, the key principles could be applied with carers or consumers across a variety of settings in which occupational therapists are employed. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
there for demands a validated Occupational Therapy Screening Assessment, that fast and easy can tell if more Occupational Therapy is needed. Aim: The aim of the study is to develop a Screening Assessment which can be used in the Occupational Therapist practice screening Hospitalized Elderly medical inpatients...... by means of the Content Validity Index (CVI) – Questionaire. Result: The result was a Screening Assessment and a Manual, which was built up using ICF and the ADL-Taxonomy as References. The Screening Instrument should be a support for the working Occupational Therapist in their Clinical Reasoning. CVI...
Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki
The academic success and degree completion of tertiary students depends on their academic performance (AP), commonly measured by the percentage grades for the units they complete. No research has examined whether occupational therapy students' approaches to study are predictive of their AP. This study investigated whether approaches to study were predictive of the AP among a group of Australian undergraduate occupational therapy students. A total of 376 undergraduate occupational therapy students completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Regression analysis was conducted using a range of demographic characteristics and the ASSIST scores as independent variables with students' self-reported by their self-reported mean percentage grade range (as a proxy indicator of their AP) as the dependent variable. The deep and the strategic approaches to study were not significantly correlated with occupational therapy students' AP. The ASSIST fear of failure subscale of the surface approach to study had a unique contribution to AP, accounting for 1.3% of its total variance. Occupational therapy students' year level of enrolment made a unique contribution to their AP, accounting for 4.2% of the total variance. Age and gender made a unique contribution to AP as well although their impact was small. Undergraduate occupational therapy students' approaches to study were predictive of their AP to a very limited degree. However, their AP was predicted by a number of demographic variables, including age, gender and year level of enrolment. Further study in this area is recommended. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Sandhu, Sharmila; Furniss, Jeremy; Metzler, Christina
As the health care system continues to evolve toward one based on quality not quantity, demonstrating the value of occupational therapy has never been more important. Providing high-quality services, achieving optimal outcomes, and identifying and promoting occupational therapy's distinct value are the responsibilities of all practitioners. In relation to the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation (IMPACT) Act of 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is implementing new functional items and related outcome performance measures across postacute care (PAC) settings. Practitioners can demonstrate the role and value of occupational therapy services through their participation in data collection and the interpretation of the resulting performance measures. In this column, we review the objectives of the IMPACT Act, introduce the new self-care and mobility items and outcome performance measures being implemented in PAC settings, and describe ways to use these new data to advocate for occupational therapy. We also discuss American Occupational Therapy Association initiatives to provide materials and guidance for occupational therapy practitioners to contribute to PAC data collection. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
Occupational therapists' are increasingly working with communities and providing services at the community level. There is, however, a lack of conceptual frameworks to guide this work. The aim of this article is to present a new conceptual framework for community-centered practice in occupational therapy. The conceptual framework was developed from qualitative multi-case research on exemplars of community participation. The first was, a network of Canadian food security programs, and the second, a rural Australian community banking initiative. Key themes were identified from across the case studies, and cross-case findings interpreted using occupational therapy and occupational science knowledge, and relevant social theory. The outcome is a four-stage, occupation-focused, community-centered practice framework. The Community-Centred Practice Framework can be used by occupational therapists to understand and apply a community-centered practice approach. The four stages are: (1) Community Identity, (2) Community Occupations, (3) Community Resources and Barriers, and (4) Participation Enablement. Further research is needed to trial and critically evaluate the framework, to assess its usefulness as a robust, occupation-focused, frame of reference to guide community-centered practice in occupational therapy. The proposed framework should assist occupational therapists to conceptualize community-centered practice, and to utilize and apply theory.
Mohammadi, Ahmad; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; Damavandi, Shahla A
Cancer is one of the four leading causes of death in children. Its courses of diagnosis and treatment can cause physiologic symptoms and psychological distress that secondarily affect children's quality of life and participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of play-based occupational therapy on pain, anxiety, and fatigue in hospitalized children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. Two hospitalized children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at least 4 months after diagnoses who received two courses of chemotherapy participated in this pilot study. Takata Play History and Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale were used to develop intervention protocol. Nine, 30-45 min play-based occupational therapy sessions took place for each child. Children filled out the Faces Pain Scale, Visual Fatigue Scale, and Faces Anxiety Scale before and after each intervention session. Pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels decreased in both participants. Furthermore, the results showed a relationship between pain, anxiety, and fatigue variables in these children. Play-based occupational therapy can be effective in improving pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels in hospitalized children with cancer receiving chemotherapy.
Full Text Available Objective: Cancer is one of the four leading causes of death in children. Its courses of diagnosis and treatment can cause physiologic symptoms and psychological distress that secondarily affect children's quality of life and participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of play-based occupational therapy on pain, anxiety, and fatigue in hospitalized children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. Methods: Two hospitalized children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at least 4 months after diagnoses who received two courses of chemotherapy participated in this pilot study. Takata Play History and Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale were used to develop intervention protocol. Nine, 30–45 min play-based occupational therapy sessions took place for each child. Children filled out the Faces Pain Scale, Visual Fatigue Scale, and Faces Anxiety Scale before and after each intervention session. Results: Pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels decreased in both participants. Furthermore, the results showed a relationship between pain, anxiety, and fatigue variables in these children. Conclusions: Play-based occupational therapy can be effective in improving pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels in hospitalized children with cancer receiving chemotherapy.
Beatriz Sebastián Sánchez
Full Text Available The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than attention placebo control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.
Bradshaw, Michelle L
The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline description of American occupational therapy educators' knowledge, attitudes, and personal use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a first step in exploring the larger issue of future occupational therapy practitioners' preparedness for meeting clients' occupational needs in today's evolving healthcare environment. Results of this cross-sectional survey highlighted limitations of occupational therapy educators' knowledge of common CAM concepts and therapies across all demographic variables, varying attitudes towards CAM in general and its inclusion in occupational therapy education, and personal use of common CAM therapies. Without increased occupational therapy educator knowledge about CAM and engagement in the current healthcare practices, occupational therapy practitioners are at risk for having a limited role in integrative healthcare.
Cynthia L. Hayden D. H. Ed., OTR/L, CHT
Full Text Available Online higher education is steadily increasing. For programs in allied health to be offered effectively in an elearning format, clinical psychomotor skills need to be addressed. The aim of this research was to design, implement, and evaluate an online safe patient transfers module for occupational therapy assistant (OTAstudents. The efficacy of teaching safe patient transfers in an e-learning environment was appraised using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The applied research project was completed at a Tennessee community college. A convenience sample of eighteen students participated in the pilot study. Twenty-five studentsparticipated in the subsequent study. The instructional design of the course was based on Mager’s CriterionReferenced Instruction model. Streaming video was used as the delivery method for course material. A pretest/posttest evaluated the students’ cognitive knowledge of safe patient transfers. A behavioral transferscompetency checklist was used to rate videotapes of students’ performance of assisted stand pivot and dependent sliding board transfers. Research findings indicated students were able to learn this psychomotor clinical skill online with beginning proficiency. A paired t-test showed marked improvement of cognitive knowledge. A student learning survey revealed the majority of students preferred at least one hands-on classroom session where instructor feedback and interaction with classmates confirmed safe and effectiveclinical technique.
Scott, P J; Justiss, M J; Schmid, A A; Fisher, T F
This paper describes a curricular model to support the production of quality research and development of occupational therapy professional students, prepared to become leaders in the production and utilization of evidence for practice. This model is designed for programs with faculty challenged by the dual mandate of program excellence and expectations for scholarly productivity needed for tenure and promotion: typically programs at research universities. The essence of the model is the paralleling of research and competencies for clinical practice where faculty and students participate as a community of scholars. It is based on the literature that addresses the tensions between achieving excellence in research and scholarly productivity, and excellence in teaching. The experience of one university with this model over a five-year period of time is shared with the student-faculty productivity outcomes. These outcomes include dissemination of 55 collaborative peer reviewed products and faculty has generated support for 25 paid graduate assistantships. The combination of student outcomes and faculty support for their research has strengthened the ability of the faculty to excel in meeting the University mandate of scholarship while providing a high quality professional educational program.
Krieger, Nancy; Kaddour, Afamia; Koenen, Karestan; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Barbeau, Elizabeth M
Few studies have simultaneously included exposure information on occupational hazards, relationship hazards (eg, intimate partner violence) and social hazards (eg, poverty and racial discrimination), especially among low-income multiracial/ethnic populations. A cross-sectional study (2003-2004) of 1202 workers employed at 14 worksites in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts investigated the independent and joint association of occupational, social and relationship hazards with psychological distress (K6 scale). Among this low-income cohort (45% were below the US poverty line), exposure to occupational, social and relationship hazards, per the 'inverse hazard law,' was high: 82% exposed to at least one occupational hazard, 79% to at least one social hazard, and 32% of men and 34% of women, respectively, stated they had been the perpetrator or target of intimate partner violence (IPV). Fully 15.4% had clinically significant psychological distress scores (K6 score ≥ 13). All three types of hazards, and also poverty, were independently associated with increased risk of psychological distress. In models including all three hazards, however, significant associations with psychological distress occurred among men and women for workplace abuse and high exposure to racial discrimination only; among men, for IPV; and among women, for high exposure to occupational hazards, poverty and smoking. Reckoning with the joint and embodied reality of diverse types of hazards involving how people live and work is necessary for understanding determinants of health status.
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.
Full Text Available Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank
Donoso Brown, Elena V; Fichter, Renae
Upper extremity hemiparesis is an impairment post-stroke that impacts quality of life. Home programs are an intervention strategy used by many occupational therapists to support continued motor recovery post-stroke, yet little is known about how these programs are designed and implemented. The purpose of this study was to describe how occupational therapy practitioners approach this task and specifically what strategies they use to support adherence and what types of technology are most commonly used. An on-line survey methodology was used. Participants were recruited through multiple sources including state associations and occupational therapy educational program directors. A total of 73 occupational therapy practitioners submitted complete surveys. It was found that majority of occupational therapy practitioners in the sample (n = 53) reported creating home programs focused on upper extremity motor recovery more than 80% of the time. Range of motion and strengthening were reported as being in the top three most commonly used interventions by more than half the sample, however incorporating clients' goals and interests were reported most often as strategies to create meaning in the home program. Respondents also reported limited incorporation of technology and strategies to support adherence. Personal motivation was reported by occupational therapy practitioners to be a key moderator of adherence to a home program. Occupational therapy practitioners often provide home programs for individuals post-stroke focusing on upper extremity function. Future research that aims to understand stakeholders' perspectives on home programs and determine effective strategies for ensuring adherence is needed.
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.
Marchand, Alain; Demers, Andrée; Durand, Pierre
This study analyses the relationship between occupation, work conditions and the experience of psychological distress within a model encompassing the stress promoted by constraints-resources embedded in macrosocial structures (occupational structure), structures of daily life (workplace, family, social networks outside the workplace) and agent personality (demography, physical health, psychological traits, life habits, stressful childhood events). Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey and comprised 6,359 workers nested in 471 occupations, followed four times between 1994-1995 and 2000-2001. Discrete time survival multilevel regressions were conducted on first and repeated episodes of psychological distress. Results showed that 42.9 per cent of workers had reported one episode of psychological distress and 18.7 per cent had done so more than once. Data supported the model and challenged the results of previous studies. The individual's position in the occupational structure plays a limited role when the structures of daily life and agent personality are accounted for. In the workplace, job insecurity and social support are important determinants, but greater decision authority increases the risk of psychological distress. Workplace constraints-resources are not moderated either by the other structures of daily life or by agent personality.
Full Text Available Background. In the treatment of chronic, especially asymptomatic pathology one of the main problem is the adherence to therapy. Patients with arterial hypertension need long-term, often lifelong medication, and how strictly they adhere to prescriptions often determines the course of the disease and the medical measures effectiveness. According to statistics, more than half of patients with hypertension are characterized by low compliance, which leads to complications of this disease. The objective of the research is to identify and analize the individual psychological factors that determine patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Methods and materials. This study was conducted during 2011-2013 at the cardiology departments of the Kyiv Alexander Hospital, polyclinics number 2 Shevchenko district in Kyiv, Desnyanskiy clinic №3 district in Kyiv, medical center "Adonis plus". We examined 203 patients with arterial hypertension (average age 53,5 ± 4,5 years. Methods: socio-demographic, clinical, clinical and psychological, psychodiagnostical, mathematical and statistical methods. Psychodiagnostical method included: 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale (Morisky D. E., 2008; self-assessment anxiety scale Charles D. Spielberger – Y.L Hanin (A.V. Batarshev, 2005; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory questionnaire (MMRI (F.B. Berezin, 1994; "The level of subjective control" (A.A. Rean, 2001; "Index of attitudes to health" (S.D. Deryabo, VA Yasvin, 2000. Results. According to the results of 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale patients were divided into 3 groups according to the level of compliance - with high (26.11%, average (24.14% and low (49.75% levels of adherence to antihypertensive therapy. The individual-psychological predictors of poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy include the following personal characteristics of patients: a low level of intensity of attitude to health, internal type of subjective control, a
Lecours, Alexandra; Therriault, Pierre-Yves
The few studies aiming to evaluate prevention interventions provided by occupational therapists in health at work were conducted in work settings. However, to intervene in primary prevention, developing occupational therapy interventions with students learning a trade is relevant. The objective is to evaluate workshops designed and set up by…
Wuang, Yee-Pay; Ho, Guang-Sheng; Su, Chwen-Yng
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a proposed occupational therapy home program (OTHP) for children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Children with ID were randomly and equally assigned to OTHP or to no OTHP groups. The primary outcome measures were Canadian Occupational Performance, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor…
Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Borg, T.; Hounsgaard, Lise
Purpose: This study investigated the facilitation of evidence-based practice with the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within occupational therapy in three settings of stroke rehabilitation. Method: The study was based on a phenomenological hermeneutical research...
Dopp, C.M.E.; Graff, M.J.L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.
BACKGROUND: A multifaceted implementation (MFI) strategy was used to implement an evidence-based occupational therapy program for people with dementia (COTiD program). This strategy was successful in increasing the number of referrals, but not in improving occupational therapists' (OTs) adherence.
Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der
The aim of this article was twofold: to describe the occurrence of treatment goals, health-care programmes and type of interventions chosen by occupational therapists; and to investigate relationships between treatment goals, health-care programmes and interventions. A survey on occupational therapy
Fontaine, P.; Boirie, G.; Dieudonne, A.; Leguludec, D.; Lebtahi, R.; Ben Reguiga, M.
Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a promising technique for solid hepatic neoplasms treatment. SIRT consists in implanting radioactive microspheres (RMS) in targeted hepatic lesions via femoral artery. Two RMS-Therapsheres [glass-microspheres/TSR] and Sir-Spheres [resin-spheres/SSR]- are marketed in the European market, both radiolabeled with Yttrium-90. The objective of this study is to assess occupational exposure for nuclear medicine, radiology and clinical staff involved in Y 90 -RMS preparation and implantation. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 20 patients treated for Hepato-Cellular Carcinoma: 10 treated with TSR and 10 with SSR. Dose rate (DR, mSv/h) or absorbed doses (mSv) measurements were made during all steps of TSR and SSR handling: sources receipt and unpacking, preparation, transport to radiology, implantation, and patient care. Measurements were made with portable ionization chamber(Babyline/Nardeux), spectrometer(FieldSpect/Aries), digital dosimeter (NED/Unfors) and operational dosimeter (Mk2/Siemens). Values were expressed as mean±SD. Results: patients received of 1.8 GBq to 3.1 GBq of TSR and 0.55 GBq to 2.4 GBq of SSR. TSR were delivered ready-to-use with the prescribed activity. For SSR only one activity was commercially available and shipped (3 GBq at calibration-time)requiring a preparation step to adjust needed activity. DR measured during RMS was 1723 ± 157 μSv/h SSR and 1189 ± 92 μSv/h for TSR. When preparing spheres in radiopharmacy, fingers and whole body doses were respectively 8326 ± 2360 μSv and 12.3 ± 5,2 μSv for Sir-Spheres vs. 33.5 ± 7.8 μSv and 1.1 ± 0.3 μSv for TSR. DR in contact with carrying case during RMS transfer to radiology were 299 ± 102 μSv/h for SSR and 5.3 ± 1.2 μSv/h for TSR. During RMS infusion, radiologist's finger doses were limited to 3.6 ± 1 μSv for SSR and 0.7± 0.3 μSv for TSR. Finally, following RMS
The purpose of this study was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the facilitators of and barriers to learning within occupational therapy fieldwork education from the perspective of both Canadian and American students. A qualitative study using an online open survey format was conducted to gather data from 29 occupational therapy students regarding their fieldwork experiences. An inductive grounded theory approach to content analysis was used. Individual, environmental, educational, and institutional facilitators of and barriers to learning within occupational therapy fieldwork education were identified. This study's findings suggest that learning within fieldwork education is a highly individual and dynamic process that is influenced by numerous factors. The new information generated by this study has the potential to positively affect the future design and implementation of fieldwork education. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Anie, Kofi A; Green, John
Sickle cell disease comprises a group of genetic blood disorders. It occurs when the sickle haemoglobin gene is inherited from both parents. The effects of the condition are: varying degrees of anaemia which, if severe, can reduce mobility; a tendency for small blood capillaries to become blocked causing pain in muscle and bone commonly known as 'crises'; damage to major organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys, and lungs; and increased vulnerability to severe infections. There are both medical and non-medical complications, and treatment is usually symptomatic and palliative in nature. Psychological interventions for individuals with sickle cell disease might complement current medical treatment, and studies of their efficacy have yielded encouraging results. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. To examine the evidence that psychological interventions improve the ability of people with sickle cell disease to cope with their condition. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and the Internet, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 17 February 2015. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing psychological interventions with no (psychological) intervention in people with sickle cell disease. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Twelve studies were identified in the searches and seven of these were eligible for inclusion in the review. Five studies, involving 260 participants, provided data for analysis. One study showed that cognitive behaviour therapy significantly reduced the affective component of pain (feelings about pain), mean difference -0.99 (95% confidence interval -1.62 to -0.36), but
Nielsen, Tove Lise; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz
Abstract Background: There is growing interest in enabling older adults’ occupational performance. We tested whether 11 weeks of intensive client-centred occupational therapy (ICC-OT) was superior to usual practice in improving the occupational performance of home-dwelling older adults. Methods...... randomised to receive either a maximum 22 sessions of occupation-based ICC-OT (N = 59) or to receive usual practice with a maximum three sessions of occupational therapy (N = 60). The primary outcome was self-rated occupational performance assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM...... significant (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 2.02), t-test: p = 0.001. Conclusions: ICC-OT improved older adults’ occupational performance more effectively than usual practice. This result may benefit older adults and support programmatic changes....
Hitch, Danielle; Lhuede, Kate
The evidence to support mental health occupational therapy has proliferated in the early years of this century, but this growth has tended to be organic rather than targeted. Previous efforts to identify research priorities in this area of practice are either out dated, or encompass discrete areas of practice. The aim of this study was to identify priority areas for research in mental health occupational therapy from clinician's perspectives. A Policy Delphi method was used to enable occupational therapists to define and differentiate their perspectives on research priorities. Forty-two occupational therapists took part in the first two rounds of this method, with 69% (n = 29) going on to complete the third and final round of data collection. A Likert scale was used to rate the importance of each priority, and descriptive quantitative analysis undertaken to identify those most consistently identified as being highly important. Four research priorities were identified as being highly important in this study: (i) working in an occupationally focussed way; (ii) consumer experience of therapy groups; (iii) identifying factors which increase consumer engagement in occupation; and (iv) engaging patients on the inpatient unit in meaningful and positive occupation. Two of the priority areas are already the subject of substantial evidence bases, but there has been far less research into consumer experiences of groups and occupational engagement in acute settings. Collaboration between research teams and greater consumer inclusion are recommended for the future. This study provides an updated indication of research priorities for mental health occupational therapy in Australia. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Logan, Alexandra; Yule, Elisa; Taylor, Michael; Imms, Christine
Australian accreditation standards for occupational therapy courses require consumer participation in the design, delivery and evaluation of programs. This study investigated whether a mental health consumer - as one of two assessors for an oral assessment in a mental health unit - impacted engagement, anxiety states and academic performance of undergraduate occupational therapy students. Students (n = 131 eligible) self-selected into two groups but were blinded to the group differences (assessor panel composition) until shortly prior to the oral assessment. Control group assessors were two occupational therapy educators, while consumer group assessors included an occupational therapy educator and a mental health consumer. Pre- and post-assessment data were successfully matched for 79 students (overall response rate = 73.1%). No evidence was found of significant differences between the two groups for engagement, anxiety or academic performance (all P values >0.05). Including mental health consumers as assessors did not negatively impact student engagement and academic performance, nor increase student anxiety beyond that typically observed in oral assessment tasks. The findings provide support for expanding the role of mental health consumers in the education and assessment of occupational therapy students. Development of methods to determine the efficacy of consumer involvement remains an area for future research. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,
This lecture presents an example of research in the genre of interpretive occupational science and demonstrates how occupational science can inform clinical practice. The innovative qualitative methodology used blended elements of the anthropological tradition of life history ethnography, ethnomethodology, the naturalistic methods used by Mattingly and Schön to study practice, and especially narrative analysis as described by Polkinghorne. The bulk of the paper is presented in the form of a narrative analysis that provides an account of a stroke survivor's personal struggle for recovery, a story that emerged from transcription, coding, and analysis of transcripts from approximately 20 hours of interview time. First, this narrative analysis provides an example of how the occupational science framework can evoke a particular kind of storytelling in which childhood occupation can be related to adult character. Storytelling of this kind is later shown to be therapeutic for the stroke survivor. Next, the narrative illustrates how rehabilitation can be experienced by the survivor as a rite of passage in which a person is moved to disability status and then abandoned. Finally, a picture is given of how occupational story making and occupational storytelling embedded in real life can nurture the human spirit to act and can become the core of clinical practice.
Martinsen, Unni; Bentzen, Hege; Holter, Morag Kelly; Nilsen, Tove; Skullerud, Hallvard; Mowinckel, Petter; Kjeken, Ingvild
Aim The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of individualized occupational therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Additionally, the authors wanted to explore the occupational problems experienced in daily life by individuals with COPD. Methods A total of 52 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (occupational therapy) or control group (treatment as usual). The primary outcome was assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and participants were assessed at baseline and after four and 12 months. Results There were no treatment effects on occupational performance or satisfaction with performance, as measured by the COPM. However, we found a significant effect in favour of the intervention group at exertion when performing an individually chosen activity, and in the activity dimension of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. A total of 595 occupational problems were reported, most frequently within mobility, active recreation, and household management. Conclusions The results show that, compared with the usual care, individualized occupational therapy did not improve occupational performance or satisfaction with performance. Small but significant changes in activity performance in favour of the intervention group were found in some of the secondary outcomes.
Mahaffey, Lisa; Burson, Kathrine A; Januszewski, Celeste; Pitts, Deborah B; Preissner, Katharine
Occupational therapists must be aware of professional and policy trends. More importantly, occupational therapists must be involved in efforts to influence policy both for the profession and for the people they serve (Bonder, 1987). Using the state of Illinois as an example, this article reviews the policies and initiatives that impact service decisions for persons with psychiatric disabilities as well as the rationale for including occupational therapy in community mental health service provision. Despite challenges in building a workforce of occupational therapists in the mental health system, this article makes the argument that the current climate of emerging policy and litigation combined with the supporting evidence provides the impetus to strengthen mental health as a primary area of practice. Implications for scholarship of practice related to occupational therapy services in community mental health programs for individuals with psychiatric disability are discussed.
Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur
Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Methods: Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to measure the occupational performance and identify difficulties in daily living activities. The QoL and symptom status were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and its Prostate Cancer Module. A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention including client-centered training of daily living activities, recreational group activities, and cognitive behavioral stress management intervention were applied. Results: The COPM performance and satisfaction scores, which indicate occupational participation and QoL increased statistically in the treatment group in relation to men who were included in the home-program (p≤0.05). Conclusion: A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention was effective in improving QoL in men treated for MPC, and these changes were associated significantly with occupational performance. PMID:26219446
Gutman, Sharon A; Brown, Ted; Ho, Yuh-Shan
A bibliometric analysis was completed of peer-reviewed literature from 1991-2015, written by American occupational therapists, to examine US high impact scholarship with "occupational therapy" and "occupational therapist(s)" used as keywords to search journal articles' publication title, abstract, author details, and keywords. Results included 1,889 journal articles from 1991-2015 published by American occupational therapists as first or corresponding author. Sixty-nine articles attained a TotalCitation 2015 ≥ 50 and 151 attained a Citation 2015 ≥ 5 indicating that they were the most highly cited literature produced in this period. Although the majority (58%) of this literature was published in occupational therapy-specific journals, 41% was published in interdisciplinary journals. Results illustrate that the volume of highly cited American occupational therapy peer-reviewed literature has grown over the last two decades. There is need for the profession to strategize methods to enhance the publication metrics of occupational therapy-specific journals to reduce the loss of high quality publications to external periodicals.
Mary Isaacson ATP, Ed.D., OTR/L
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the role of occupational therapy fieldwork students in the training of service dogs. Ethnography is an approach that strives to explore and describe the point of view of people. Ethnographers view the researcher as an instrument to gain insight into the subject. This researcher utilizedher own experiences as an occupational therapist, an occupational therapy educator, and as a volunteer dog trainer of service dogs. She then validated the process through interviews with key informants. The results indicate that occupational therapists and occupational therapy students are capable of playing a significantrole in the training and placement of service dogs. During a level I experience, occupational therapy students experienced the importance that a dog can play in a person’s life as a tool of adaptation. They also learned advocacy and professionalism and applied the Person-Environment-Occupation model of practice. In addition, students recognized that barriers exist in the use of service dogs.
Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen
Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juan Pino Morán
Full Text Available The article aims to present the critical foundations underlying the Occupational Therapy practice construction in Chile and Latin America. Although the manuscript has a theoretical/conceptual development, it is the result of the tension emerging from daily practice. The results presented have the political intention of inviting occupational therapists to identify a chain of common knowledge, applicable in various fields of the discipline role. The work’s scope should be sized as a small bibliographical discussion of a much broader and deeper stream, however, it offers us various inputs for practice and theory and research in Occupational Therapy. In conclusion we can identify a number of theories, methodologies and techniques used in the practice of occupational therapy that are not clearly identified as a particular perspective from Latin America, which is the manuscript proposal, inviting to a deeper discussion .
Cohn, Ellen S; Kramer, Jessica; Schub, Jamie A; May-Benson, Teresa
PURPOSE. To describe parents' concerns and hopes for their children who would be receiving occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach. METHOD. Content analysis of 275 parental responses to three open-ended questions on developmental-sensory history intake forms. FINDINGS. Parents' descriptions of why they sought for their children were categorized into four overarching concerns about their children's challenges: self-regulation, interacting with peers, participating in skilled motor activities, and self-confidence. Parents often linked these concerns together, revealing explanatory models of how they make sense of potential relationships among their children's challenges and how these challenges affect occupational performance. Parents hoped occupational therapy would help their children develop self-understanding and frustration tolerance to self-regulate their behavior in socially acceptable ways. IMPLICATIONS. Assessment and intervention should explicitly focus on links among self-regulation, social participation, skills, and perceived competence to address parents' expectations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; Graff, Maud J; Borm, George F; Veenhuizen, Yvonne; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W
To evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial including process and potential impact of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease. Process and outcome were quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated in an exploratory multicentre, two-armed randomized controlled trial at three months. Forty-three community-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease and difficulties in daily activities, their primary caregivers and seven occupational therapists. Ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to the Dutch guidelines of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease versus no occupational therapy in the control group. Process evaluation measured accrual, drop-out, intervention delivery and protocol adherence. Primary outcome measures of patients assessed daily functioning: Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Primary outcome for caregivers was caregiver burden: Zarit Burden Inventory. Participants' perspectives of the intervention were explored using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Inclusion was 23% (43/189), drop-out 7% (3/43) and unblinding of assessors 33% (13/40). Full intervention protocol adherence was 74% (20/27), but only 60% (71/119) of baseline Canadian Occupational Performance Measure priorities were addressed in the intervention. The outcome measures revealed negligible to small effects in favour of the intervention group. Almost all patients and caregivers of the intervention group were satisfied with the results. They perceived: 'more grip on the situation' and used 'practical advices that make life easier'. Therapists were satisfied, but wished for a longer intervention period. The positive perceived impact of occupational therapy warrants a large-scale trial. Adaptations in instructions and training are needed to use the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure as primary outcome measure.
Cassel, Anneli; Humphreys, Kate
Psychogenic amnesia is widely understood to be a memory impairment of psychological origin that occurs as a response to severe stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapy approaches in the treatment of this disorder. The current article describes a single case, "Ben", who was treated with formulation-driven psychological therapy using techniques drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for psychogenic amnesia. Before treatment, Ben exhibited isolated retrograde and anterograde memory impairments. He received 12 therapy sessions that targeted experiential avoidance followed by two review sessions, six weeks and five months later. Ben's retrograde and anterograde memory impairments improved following therapy to return to within the "average" to "superior" ranges, which were maintained at follow-up. Further experimental single case study designs and larger group studies are required to advance the understanding of the effectiveness and efficacy of psychological therapy for psychogenic amnesia.
Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Huang, Yu Yun; Lim, Yoonjeong
PURPOSE. We conducted a systematic review examining the extent to which pediatric intervention research recently published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy reflects occupational therapy’s holistic occupation-based tenets. METHOD. We surveyed 10 systematic reviews and analyzed 38 single effectiveness studies for intervention approach, type, level of environmental targeting, level of occupational task and participation practice, and measures used. RESULTS. Of the 38 single effectiveness studies, 12 (32%) explicitly incorporated both environmental targets of intervention and practice of complex or in vivo occupational tasks, with steady increases during the 2009–2013 time frame. CONCLUSION. In the area of children and youth, occupational therapy is making steady gains in reflecting and demonstrating the effectiveness of the profession’s holistic, occupation-based tenets. Occupational therapy researchers must be mindful to ensure that despite the reductionist nature of intervention research, interventions reflect the profession’s holistic understanding of the interplay between the child, environment, and occupations. PMID:24581415
Thomas, K. Jackson; Denham, Bryan E.; Dinolfo, John D.
This pilot study was designed to assess the perceptions of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students regarding the use of computer-assisted pedagogy and prosection-oriented communications in the laboratory component of a human anatomy course at a comprehensive health sciences university in the southeastern United States. The…
Matilla-Mora, Rosa; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa María; Fernández Huete, Javier
A review is presented on the existing knowledge about the usefulness of the occupational therapy in the non-pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After conducting a literature search of the period 2010-2015, 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The evidence obtained showed the efficiency and effectiveness of OT in delaying the progression of various disorders, especially when structured home OT programs are used. These programs should include aerobic and strengthening, sensory stimulation, and cognitive and memory training exercises based on learning without mistakes. These have shown benefits in the performance of activities of daily living, cognitive and emotional functioning. The importance is stressed of the combined and individual household level intervention and caregiver education. Finally, the need for more studies on the effectiveness of long-term sensory stimulation is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Clarke, Carl E; Patel, Smitaa; Ives, Natalie; Rick, Caroline E; Dowling, Francis; Woolley, Rebecca; Wheatley, Keith; Walker, Marion F; Sackley, Catherine M
It is unclear whether physiotherapy and occupational therapy are clinically effective and cost-effective in Parkinson disease (PD). To perform a large pragmatic randomized clinical trial to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy and occupational therapy in PD. The PD REHAB Trial was a multicenter, open-label, parallel group, controlled efficacy trial. A total of 762 patients with mild to moderate PD were recruited from 38 sites across the United Kingdom. Recruitment took place between October 2009 and June 2012, with 15 months of follow-up. Participants with limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) were randomized to physiotherapy and occupational therapy or no therapy. The primary outcome was the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale score at 3 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (assessed by Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 and EuroQol-5D); adverse events; and caregiver quality of life. Outcomes were assessed before trial entry and then 3, 9, and 15 months after randomization. Of the 762 patients included in the study (mean [SD] age, 70 [9.1] years), 381 received physiotherapy and occupational therapy and 381 received no therapy. At 3 months, there was no difference between groups in NEADL total score (difference, 0.5 points; 95% CI, -0.7 to 1.7; P = .41) or Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 summary index (0.007 points; 95% CI, -1.5 to 1.5; P = .99). The EuroQol-5D quotient was of borderline significance in favor of therapy (-0.03; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.002; P = .04). The median therapist contact time was 4 visits of 58 minutes over 8 weeks. Repeated-measures analysis showed no difference in NEADL total score, but Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 summary index (diverging 1.6 points per annum; 95% CI, 0.47 to 2.62; P = .005) and EuroQol-5D score (0.02; 95% CI, 0.00007 to 0.03; P = .04) showed small differences in favor of therapy. There was no difference in
Dani Laura Peruzzolo
Full Text Available Introduction: Specialized care for infants considers that the sooner the intervention in risk and symptoms occurs, the greater the possibility of obtaining better results. Aims: To describe the process of early intervention provided by an extension program of graduate studies in Occupational Therapy and Hearing, Speech and Languages Science courses and also discuss the theoretical and practical paths in the care for infants and in the Occupational Therapy area. Method: Case report with convenience sample. The study was carried out through an assessment interpreted in light of psychomotor, occupational therapeutic, and speech, hearing and language contributions. The intervention was under the responsibility of an occupational therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team. It occurred once a week from August 2011 to January 2012 and from March 2012 to July 2012. Data analysis was carried out by comparing the entry assessment test and the final assessment test. Results: The boy had not developed concepts of body schema and body image that could sustain his relationship with objects, space and other persons. He presented little linguistic evolution. Considering the contributions of occupational therapy in psychomotor clinic, the boy reconstructed his family place in early intervention. The possibility of language functioning connected to the boy’s demands allowed access to symbolism. Conclusion: The proposal of early occupational therapy intervention with a single therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team was able to overcome the structural and instrumental obstacles to the boy’s development.
Theoretical models provide a framework for describing practice and integrating evidence into systematic research. There are few models that relate specifically to the provision of assistive technology in occupational therapy practice. The Human Activity Assistive Technology model is an enduring example that has continued to develop by integrating a social model of disability, concepts from occupational therapy theory and principles of assistive technology adoption and abandonment. This study first describes the core concepts of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model and reviews its development over three successive published versions. A review of the research literature reflects application of the model to clinical practice, study design, outcome measure selection and interpretation of results, particularly among occupational therapists. An evaluative framework is used to critique the adequacy of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for practice and research, exploring attributes of clarity, simplicity, generality, accessibility and importance. Finally, recommendations are proposed for continued development of the model and research applications. Most of the existing research literature employs the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for background and study design; there is emerging evidence to support the core concepts as predictive factors. Although the concepts are generally simple, clear and applicable to occupational therapy practice and research, evolving terminology and outcomes become more complex with the conflation of integrated theories. The development of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model offers enhanced access and application for occupational therapists, but poses challenges to clarity among concepts. Suggestions are made for further development and applications of the model. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Pitonyak, Jennifer S.; Fogelberg, Donald; Leland, Natalie E.
Health reform promotes the delivery of patient-centered care. Occupational therapy’s rich history of client-centered theory and practice provides an opportunity for the profession to participate in the evolving discussion about how best to provide care that is truly patient centered. However, the growing emphasis on patient-centered care also poses challenges to occupational therapy’s perspectives on client-centered care. We compare the conceptualizations of client-centered and patient-centered care and describe the current state of measurement of client-centered and patient-centered care. We then discuss implications for occupational therapy’s research agenda, practice, and education within the context of patient-centered care, and propose next steps for the profession. PMID:26356651
Myers, Christine T; Schaefer, Nancy; Coudron, Ashley
Continuing competence activities hold the promise of improving health-care service quality, especially given concerns about system inefficiencies and fragmentation. The aim of this scoping review was to describe the assessment and maintenance of occupational therapists' continuing competence and identify knowledge gaps for future research. A secondary aim was comparing scoping review findings with those from other health-care fields and considering possible impact of varying international regulations. A series of database searches retrieved peer-reviewed and grey literature on assessment and maintenance of occupational therapy continuing competence from 1995 to 2015. Themes were developed and findings shared with stakeholders, whose comments drove a second phase: searching for reviews related to continuing competence from allied health, medicine, and nursing, and reviewing websites and documents concerning regulatory requirements for occupational therapy continuing competence in seven English-speaking nations. Twenty-seven sources from the scoping review search met inclusion criteria. Stakeholder consultation validated the themes and preliminary knowledge gaps. Research into other health-care specialties corresponded to findings from the scoping review. The website/document review of occupational therapy regulatory requirements revealed wide variation on both the state/province and national levels. This scoping review highlights gaps in research on effective methods and assessment of occupational therapy continuing competence. Findings suggest a need for research on approaches to continuing competence that incorporate the translation of evidence to practice and address the influence of external factors. Regulatory agencies may address the quality of occupational therapy services by incorporating a variety of professional development options into requirements. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Friedman, Carli; VanPuymbrouck, Laura
Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) 1915(c) waivers are the largest provider of long-term services and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). In this study, we explored how HCBS IDD waivers projected providing occupational therapy services in Fiscal Year (FY) 2015. Medicaid HCBS IDD waivers across the nation gathered from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed to determine how they projected providing occupational therapy services in terms of service expenditures and utilization. In FY 2015, $14.13 million of spending was projected for occupational therapy services of 7,500 participants. However, there was large heterogeneity across states and services in terms of total projected spending, spending per participant, and reimbursement rates. Comparisons across states strengthen the profession's ability to assert the value of its services. These findings can help identify best practices and can advocate for the refinement of state occupational therapy programs. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Walker, M F; Gladman, J R; Lincoln, N B; Siemonsma, P; Whiteley, T
Patients who have a stroke are not always admitted to hospital, and 22-60% remain in the community, frequently without coordinated rehabilitation. We aimed to assess the efficacy of an occupational therapy intervention for patients with stroke who were not admitted to hospital. In this single-blind randomised controlled trial, consecutive stroke patients on a UK community register in Nottingham and Derbyshire were allocated randomly to up to 5 months of occupational therapy at home or to no intervention (control group) 1 month after their stroke. The aim of the occupational therapy was to encourage independence in personal and instrumental activities of daily living. Patients were assessed on outcome measures at baseline (before randomisation) and at 6 months. The primary outcome measure was the score on the extended activities of daily living (EADL) scale at 6 months. Other outcome measures included the Barthel index, the general health questionnaire 28, the carer strain index, and the London handicap scale. All assessments were done by an independent assessor who was unaware of treatment allocation. The analysis included only data from completed questionnaires. 185 patients were included: 94 in the occupational therapy group and 91 in the control group. 22 patients were not assessed at 6 months. At follow-up, patients who had occupational therapy had significantly higher median scores than the controls on: the EADL scale (16 vs 12, pstroke who were not admitted to hospital.
Soraya Diniz Rosa
Full Text Available Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy is the main theme of this study. Herein we present an experience carried out in two universities in the areas of occupational therapy, pharmacy and medicine, more specifically in the field of gynecology regarding the care of climacteric woman. The first intervention occurred in 2004 with trainees of the occupational therapy course and medical school residents. However, the study was restarted in 2010 with expansion to the human resources and knowledge areas. The methodology was based on the transcripts of the remarks made after each group meeting, which was coordinated by the Occupational Therapy. Results showed that the intervention group process has helped participants in the understanding of this stage of life and has interfered in the changing of habits and attitudes, with great improvement in daily life organization. We concluded that the use of intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy and the liaison with other areas are of great importance because they enable the construction of a unique treatment plan for the group, given the contribution from each clinical area.
Desirée Nobre Salasar
Full Text Available The paper discusses the Occupational Therapist actions in a museum. Therefore, we approach issues that characterize the areas of museum environment presenting it as a possible workplace for the professionals, and will discuss which activities can be performed by professional occupational therapy in a museum, its relevance, and the achievement gap when performed by the occupational therapist and other professionals. Thus, the study’s main objective is to present a new occupational therapy work field for the highlighting the importance of public awareness activities and how these can influence the museum visitor experiences. We report two distinct activities with visually impaired awareness theme, conducted between February and March 2015, at the Batalha Community Museum in Portugal. We report the activities and analyze the results, seeking to qualitatively assess the public participation, and its response to the impact that such activities may bear in the cultural inclusion of visually impaired people.
Andreza Mourão Lopes
Full Text Available In this research, we aimed to understand the loss and grief process and the occupational therapy assistance to a hospitalized child undergoing a scalping situation. It is a case study of qualitative approach. This survey was carried out with the participation of an 8-year-old female scalping victim. Results revealed that the scalping caused many changes such as loss of hair and parts of the facial skin. The child was hospitalized, staying away from occupational activities such as studying, playing, among others. We observed the expression of feelings such as fear, shame, anxiety and sadness generated by hair loss. Thus, we believe that this research is of high relevance because it allowed contact with a theme so characteristic of northern Brazil, as well as with the perception and clarification about the importance of occupational therapy assistance in providing space for expression and reframing of the doings, giving the opportunity to this child to resume her significant occupational activities.
Bowman, Peter J
This case study describes a student occupational therapy (OT) program, the creation of a worksite assessment project as a part of a Community Connections: Partners for Learning and Service grant funded by Health Resources and Services Administration. The primary goals were to design occupation-based community learning experiences in a variety of rural community settings, so that students might benefit from participating in the community based learning and: based on the results, embed occupation-based learning into existing occupational therapy curriculum. The components of the project and the ergonomics content of the OT education program are described; details of the work assessment are presented with analysis of data from the student evaluation of this project.
Brown, Catana; Bowen, Robin E.
Occupational therapists (n=29) completed treatment plans based on case study data. Analysis indicated they often identified goals not addressed by the consumer/client. They significantly selected more simulated than real activities and more activities designed to change the person rather than the environment. (SK)
Shoemaker, Michael J; Platko, Christina M; Cleghorn, Susan M; Booth, Andrew
The purpose of this retrospective qualitative case report is to describe how a case-based, virtual patient interprofessional education (IPE) simulation activity was utilized to achieve physician assistant (PA), physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) student IPE learning outcomes. Following completion of a virtual patient case, 30 PA, 46 PT and 24 OT students were required to develop a comprehensive, written treatment plan and respond to reflective questions. A qualitative analysis of the submitted written assignment was used to determine whether IPE learning objectives were met. Student responses revealed three themes that supported the learning objectives of the IPE experience: benefits of collaborative care, role clarification and relevance of the IPE experience for future practice. A case-based, IPE simulation activity for physician assistant and rehabilitation students using a computerized virtual patient software program effectively facilitated achievement of the IPE learning objectives, including development of greater student awareness of other professions and ways in which collaborative patient care can be provided.
Prisca M. Collins
Full Text Available Lack of awareness and knowledge of the occupational therapy (OT and physical therapy (PT professions has been cited as a barrier to consideration of these professions as career options. This study examined the types of exposure to, knowledge of, and career interest in OT and PT of students from underrepresented minority (URM and non-Hispanic White and Asian American (NHW-AA populations. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 150 high school and undergraduate college students. Demographic data and student responses to questions regarding exposure to, knowledge of, and career interest in OT and PT were collected. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests of association were computed, and qualitative data were analyzed for themes. The study findings revealed limited exposure to and knowledge of the OT profession among URM and NHW-AA students. Even though participants from both groups showed better knowledge about PT, they reported limited to no interest in the professions as careers. Further research is needed to examine contextual factors that may influence student perceptions of the OT and PT professions, including how clinical encounters can best be leveraged to improve public knowledge and consideration of these professions as careers for high school and undergraduate college students.
Vogel, Kimberly A; Geelhoed, Michael; Grice, Kimatha O; Murphy, Douglas
This study evaluated whether critical thinking ability can be improved through participation in occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) curricula. The researchers compared levels of the critical thinking skills of OT and PT students at the beginning and end of their programs to determine whether changes occurred and to examine facets of the curricula that may have caused the differences. The curricula include teaching strategies of problem-based learning modules, small group discussion and problem-solving, case studies, clinical observation, and evidence-based practice assignments, as well as teaching about critical thinking as a process in itself. Fifty OT and PT students completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal at the beginning and end of 20 mos of the academic phase of their master's degree programs. Researchers analyzed the data using a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results showed no differences between OT and PT students on the pretest or post-test and no differences for PT students between the pretest and post-test. OT students' scores increased significantly from pretest to post-test. The influence of the timing of teaching critical thinking skills in the resulting differences between the two curricula, as well as the validity of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal is a valid measure of critical thinking changes in allied health students are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.
There is growing attention to participation and social participation in literature and policy reports. Occupational therapists strongly believe that creating coherence between the person's occupations and environment will facilitate participation of each individual. Nowadays, societal developments such as "health literacy and self-management", "Web 2.0 social media", "empowering communities", and "Nothing About Us Without Us" increase opportunities for people to interact on different levels of social participation. Social participation can be used as an outcome, though it can also be seen as a means to change society and to develop solutions for barriers experienced by people with chronic diseases or disabilities. Societal developments will have an impact on social participation in terms of supporting each other and contributing to society. Additionally, these changes will have a major influence on the way we educate, conduct research, and deliver occupational therapy practice.
Occupational therapy practitioners play a significant role in supporting adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders, as well as their caregivers, through all phases of the disease process. This editorial highlights the systematic reviews completed in collaboration with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project that summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for this population. Readers are encouraged to translate and integrate this updated knowledge into everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Scanlan, Justin Newton; Pépin, Geneviève; Haracz, Kirsti; Ennals, Priscilla; Webster, Jayne S; Meredith, Pamela J; Batten, Rachel; Bowman, Siann; Bonassi, Marianne; Bruce, Rosie
The effective preparation of occupational therapy students for mental health practice is critical to facilitate positive consumer outcomes, underpin optimal practice and support new graduates' professional identity. This project was established to determine a set of 'educational priorities' for occupational therapy students to prepare them for current (and future) entry-level practice in mental health, from the perspective of mental health occupational therapists in Australia and New Zealand. The study included two phases. In Phase One, participants identified what they considered to be important educational priorities for occupational therapy students to prepare them for practice in mental health. For Phase Two, an 'expert panel' was assembled to review and rank these using a Policy Delphi approach. Eighty-five participants provided educational priorities in Phase One. These were grouped into a total of 149 educational themes. In Phase Two, the expert panel (consisting of 37 occupational therapists from diverse locations and practice settings) prioritised these themes across three Delphi rounds. A final priority list was generated dividing educational themes into three prioritised categories: 29 'Essential', 25 'Important' and 44 'Optional' priorities. Highest-ranked priorities were: clinical reasoning, client-centred practice, therapeutic use of self, functional implications of mental illness, therapeutic use of occupation and mental health fieldwork experience. The priority list developed as part of this project provides additional information to support the review of occupational therapy curricula across Australia and New Zealand to ensure that new graduates are optimally prepared for mental health practice. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Swinth, Yvonne; Tomlin, George; Luthman, Marge
Through a content analysis of qualitative research published 1993-2011, we sought to determine how qualitative research can inform clinical reasoning among occupational therapy practitioners to support evidence-based, occupation-focused services for children and youth with autism and their families. A qualitative literature search of journals inside and outside occupational therapy, including international journals, yielded 125 articles. We reviewed 110 articles that met inclusion criteria, 79 of which were coded by four occupational therapists with experience working with families with a child or youth with autism. Nineteen content codes were initially derived. Three themes were identified: (1) service challenges for the family, (2) day-to-day experience of autism, and (3) reframing family. This content analysis illustrates how qualitative research may help occupational therapy practitioners make comprehensive, occupation-based intervention decisions by considering the lived experience of children and youth with autism and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Murray, Kelly; Ward, Kath
Introduction: This study explored what influences the use of social media platforms within the CPD of occupational therapy students and qualified occupational therapists. It also considered perceived barriers to its use and whether age in line with generation theory, in particular digital natives vs digital immigrants impacted on willingness to utilise social media within CPD.\\ud \\ud Method: A mixed method survey design was utilised to collect qualitative and quantitative data through an onli...
OF BACHELOR THESIS Title of bachelor thesis: Occupational therapy in patients after the brain injury with neglect syndrome This bachelor thesis is focused on summarizing the knowledge of the neglect syndrome, very interesting phenomenon accompanying brain injury. Thesis provides information about prevalence, etiopathogenesis, classification, clinical presentation and course of the disease. Special attention is devoted to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and description of occupational th...
North, Max M; Rives, Jason
The treatment for senior citizens suffering from psychological disorders seems to be different from therapeutic procedures used for other populations. This pilot study is the first known in-depth case study of the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) as a treatment for senior citizens. The fear of flying treatment was chosen for this study. The subject of the study was a 62-year-old married female, whose anxiety and avoidance behavior was interfering with her normal activities. For treatment, she was placed in the cabin of a virtual commercial aircraft environment accompanied by a virtual therapist. After a few sessions in which she spent time in a virtual airport scene, she spent four sessions in which she was flown over a simulated city. While under the virtual reality treatment, the subject experienced a number of physical and emotional anxiety-related symptoms. These symptoms included sweaty palms, loss of balance, weakness in the knees, etc. In this study, the virtual reality treatment caused a significant reduction in the anxiety symptoms in the subject and enhanced her ability to face phobic situations in the real world. Since termination of the treatment, she has taken several flights to professional conferences and reported feeling more comfortable and has fewer symptoms than those experienced prior to the VRT treatment.
Höhl, Werner; Moll, Sandra; Pfeiffer, Andreas
Life expectancy of people with severe mental illness is considerably shortened and their risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders is increased. They spend more time in solitary and less time in structured activities than the general population.Engagement in healthy patterns of activity, including active, meaningful participation in the community can, therefore, be critical to recovery from severe mental illness. Occupational therapy is a profession that focuses on time use, activity patterns and occupational engagement, and the links to health and well-being. In this study, we review research evidence regarding approaches to occupational engagement, including behavioural activation, time use, and activity promotion. We also will review studies that specifically evaluate the impact of occupational therapy interventions. There is a growing body of evidence regarding the value of interventions addressing occupational engagement of individuals with severe mental illness, including a range of activation strategies and approaches. There is a need, however, for documentation of theoretically informed approaches that are supported by fidelity measures to ensure standardization. Larger-scale studies are needed, including consistent outcome measures to document engagement and changes in activity patterns as well as health-related outcomes. High-quality randomized clinical trials are important to establish effectiveness. As occupational therapy interventions are complex and embedded within a range of multidisciplinary approaches, new models of pragmatic trials within the naturalistic context of psychiatric rehabilitation are also needed.
Lee, B; Nantais, T
This article describes an electronic music program that allows clients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to form musical bands and play songs while performing therapeutic exercise in an occupational therapy program. Clients create the music by activating upper extremity exercise devices that are connected to a synthesizer through a computer. The bands choose the songs they would like to play and meet twice a week for 1 hr to practice. The 8-week program often concludes with a public performance. The music program is intended to motivate client participation in physical rehabilitation while promoting self-esteem, emotional expression, and peer support. It is based on the model of occupational performance and the theory of purposeful activity. To date, 33 persons have taken part. Client, therapist, and public response has been positive because this program highlights the abilities of persons with SCI, thereby encouraging their reintegration into the community.
Full Text Available Introduction: Critical inquiry has been adopted by various academic disciplines. However, there is a lack of consistency and transparency in the way this complex theoretical and methodological position is applied in research. For novice researchers that ambiguity can lead to blurring the conceptual distinction between critical research and the act of criticizing. Objective: The purpose of this essay is to reflect on what it means to keep a critical perspective for novice researchers. Method: The concepts are explored through a personal narrative that allows authors to examine the details of their trajectory to embrace a critical perspective, which has the power to lead to change, both personal and social. Results: We explore the methodological foundations of the critical research and observe how the emotion is taken over or suppressed in the investigation process. Conclusion: We contextualize key concepts of critical investigation, examining its recent application both in occupational science and in occupational therapy.
Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen
Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.
Silver, Julie K; Gilchrist, Laura S
Cancer rehabilitation is an important part of survivorship as a distinct phase of treatment. Although cancer rehabilitation may involve many disciplines, this article specifically covers evidence-based treatment in physical and occupational therapy. Patients may need physical and occupational therapy services for a variety of cancer-related or cancer-treatment-related problems, including pain, fatigue, deconditioning, and difficulty with gait. They may also have problems resuming their previous level of function, which can impact on activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, return to previous home and community activity levels, and return to work. This review discusses the role of physical and occupational therapy in helping cancer patients improve pain and musculoskeletal issues, deconditioning and endurance effects, fatigue, balance and falls, and lymphedema and psychosocial problems.
Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Fogelberg, Donald; Diaz, Jesus; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence
The manualization of a complex occupational therapy intervention is a crucial step in ensuring treatment fidelity for both clinical application and research purposes. Towards this latter end, intervention manuals are essential for assuring trustworthiness and replicability of randomized controlled trials (RCT’s) that aim to provide evidence of the effectiveness of occupational therapy. In this paper, literature on the process of intervention manualization is reviewed. The prescribed steps are then illustrated through our experience in implementing the University of Southern California/Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center’s collaborative Pressure Ulcer Prevention Project (PUPP). In this research program, qualitative research provided the initial foundation for manualization of a multifaceted occupational therapy intervention designed to reduce incidence of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with SCI. PMID:22214116
Hitch, Danielle; Taylor, Michelle; Pepin, Genevieve
This aim of this study was to obtain a consensus from clinicians regarding occupational therapy for people with depression, for the assessments and practices they use that are not currently supported by research evidence directly related to functional performance. The study also aimed to discover how many of these assessments and practices were currently supported by research evidence. Following a previously reported systematic review of assessments and practices used in occupational therapy for people with depression, a modified nominal group technique was used to discover which assessments and practices occupational therapists currently utilize. Three online surveys gathered initial data on therapeutic options (survey 1), which were then ranked (survey 2) and re-ranked (survey 3) to gain the final consensus. Twelve therapists completed the first survey, whilst 10 clinicians completed both the second and third surveys. Only 30% of the assessments and practices identified by the clinicians were supported by research evidence. A consensus was obtained on a total of 35 other assessments and interventions. These included both occupational-therapy-specific and generic assessments and interventions. Principle conclusion. Very few of the assessments and interventions identified were supported by research evidence directly related to functional performance. While a large number of options were generated, the majority of these were not occupational therapy specific.
Layton, Natasha A
In this era of evidence-based practice, Australian occupational therapists largely accept scientific perspectives of the quality of evidence and 'what makes a strong study'. Yet unequal power relationships are usual between funders who set the research agenda, researchers and people who are the subjects of research. Emerging policy now mandates partnerships with consumers in any health and research projects about them. Are we person-centred in our research practices? What difference would increased consumer direction make to our research methods, scope and outcomes? This lecture describes some of the benefits and challenges of collaborative or inclusive research partnerships with consumers and outlines where this may take occupational therapy in future. The disability community's calls for inclusive research will be contrasted with mainstream research approaches and with occupational therapy's commitment to person-centredness. An example of inclusive research undertaken by the author and colleagues with disabilities which posed the question: 'What difference does assistive technology make to life for people living with impairment?' will be presented. Collaborative research is best conceptualised as a mutually productive journey, with many factors influencing how fully inclusive research principles can be realised. The possibilities and complexities of conducting research which has inclusive credentials are outlined. Inclusive research principles provide a means to enact person-centredness in research as well as practice. Following these principles challenges occupational therapy practitioners and researchers to address nexus issues: that is, intersections between and beyond research, policy and practice. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Rodger, Sylvia; Stephens, Elizabeth; Clark, Michele; Ash, Susan; Graves, Nicholas
Currently in the Australian higher education sector, the productivity benefits of occupational therapy clinical education placements are a contested issue. This article will report results of a study that developed a methodology for documenting time use during placements and investigated the productivity changes associated with occupational therapy clinical education placements in Queensland, Australia. Supervisors' and students' time use during placements and how this changed for supervisors compared to pre- and post-placement is also presented. Using a cohort survey design, participants were students from two Queensland universities, and their supervisors employed by Queensland Health. Time use was recorded in 30 minute blocks according to particular categories. There was a significant increase in supervisors' time spent in patient care activities (F = 94.011(2,12.37 df) , P increasing between pre- and during placement (P = 0.028). There was a significant decrease in supervisors' time spent in placement activities (F = 5.133(2,19.18 df) , P = 0.016) from during to post-placement. Students spent more time than supervisors in patient care activities while on placement. A novel method for reporting productivity and time-use changes during clinical education programs for occupational therapy has been applied. Supervisors spent considerable time in assessing and managing students and their clinical education role should be seen as core business in standard occupational therapy practice. This paper will contribute to future assessments of the economic impact of student placements for allied health disciplines. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Olivier, Benita; Verdonck, Michele; Casteleijn, Daleen
How have digital technologies been used in occupational therapy and physiotherapy undergraduate and postgraduate education?Specifically, the objective of this scoping review is to present an overview of research on the use of digital technologies in terms of type of digital technology used, pedagogy associated with the use of digital technology, subject/topic/area of application, experiences/perception of digital technology used, outcomes of the digital technology used and challenges to the use of digital technologies in occupational therapy and physiotherapy undergraduate and postgraduate education.
Bensen, Maria; Kolbæk, Ditte
students engagement in e-learning based professional bachelor educations such as Occupational Therapy (OT). The research questions in this study are: On the basis of the OT-students experiences, how can learning activities be supported in a synchronous, virtual learning environment as Adobe Connect? How do...... the results of this study to form the design of e-learning/blended learning in their programme in order to enhance students’ engagement. It also includes a modified, phenomenological way of using memory-work. This study is unique in its use of Adobe Connect in a practical education as Occupational Therapy...
Parmar, Suresh K.; Rathinam, Bertha A. D.
The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate the benefits of innovative teaching methodologies introduced to final year occupational and physical therapy students in Christian Medical College in India. Students' satisfactions along the long-term retention of knowledge and clinical application of the respiratory anatomy have been…
Effects of rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices among electronics technology employees in Nigeria.
Ogbuanya, Theresa Chinyere; Eseadi, Chiedu; Orji, Chibueze Tobias; Ede, Moses Onyemaechi; Ohanu, Ifeanyi Benedict; Bakare, Jimoh
Improving employees' perception of organizational climate, and coaching them to remain steadfast when managing occupational risks associated with their job, might have an important effect on their psychosocial wellbeing and occupational health. This study examined the effects of a rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices. The participants were 77 electronics technology employees in the south-east of Nigeria. The study used a pretest-posttest control group design. The rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program significantly improved perceptions of the organizational climate for the people in the treatment group compared to those in the waitlist control group at post-intervention and follow-up assessments. Occupational risk management practices of the employees in the treatment group were also significantly better than those in the waitlist control group at the same 2 assessments. Corporate application of a rational emotive behavior therapy as an occupational health therapy intervention program is essential for improving the perceptions of organizational climate and promoting the adoption of feasible occupational risk management strategies in the workplace.
Effects of rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices among electronics technology employees in Nigeria
Ogbuanya, Theresa Chinyere; Eseadi, Chiedu; Orji, Chibueze Tobias; Ede, Moses Onyemaechi; Ohanu, Ifeanyi Benedict; Bakare, Jimoh
Abstract Background: Improving employees’ perception of organizational climate, and coaching them to remain steadfast when managing occupational risks associated with their job, might have an important effect on their psychosocial wellbeing and occupational health. This study examined the effects of a rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices. Methods: The participants were 77 electronics technology employees in the south-east of Nigeria. The study used a pretest–posttest control group design. Results: The rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program significantly improved perceptions of the organizational climate for the people in the treatment group compared to those in the waitlist control group at post-intervention and follow-up assessments. Occupational risk management practices of the employees in the treatment group were also significantly better than those in the waitlist control group at the same 2 assessments. Conclusions: Corporate application of a rational emotive behavior therapy as an occupational health therapy intervention program is essential for improving the perceptions of organizational climate and promoting the adoption of feasible occupational risk management strategies in the workplace. PMID:28471971
Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie
Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Graff, Maud J; Borm, George F; Adang, Eddy M M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten
Occupational therapists may have an added value in the care of patients with Parkinson's disease whose daily functioning is compromised, as well as for their immediate caregivers. Evidence for this added value is inconclusive due to a lack of rigorous studies. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of occupational therapy in improving daily functioning of patients with Parkinson's disease. A multicenter, assessor-blinded, two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted, with evaluations at three and six months. One hundred ninety-two home-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease and with an occupational therapy indication will be assigned to the experimental group or to the control group (2:1). Patients and their caregivers in the experimental group will receive ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to recent Dutch guidelines. The intervention will be delivered by occupational therapists who have been specifically trained to treat patients according to these guidelines. Participants in the control group will not receive occupational therapy during the study period. The primary outcome for the patient is self-perceived daily functioning at three months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Secondary patient-related outcomes include: objective performance of daily activities, self-perceived satisfaction with performance in daily activities, participation, impact of fatigue, proactive coping skills, health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, health-related costs, and effectiveness at six months. All outcomes at the caregiver level will be secondary and will include self-perceived burden of care, objective burden of care, proactive coping skills, overall quality of life, and care-related costs. Effectiveness will be evaluated using a covariance analysis of the difference in outcome at three months. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will be conducted, as
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological outcome measures are evolving into measures that depict progress over time. Interval measurement during therapy has not previously been reported for a patient-generated measure in primary care. We aimed to determine the sensitivity to change throughout therapy, using 'PSYCHLOPS' (Psychological Outcome Profiles, and to determine if new problems appearing during therapy diminish overall improvement. METHODS: Responses to PSYCHLOPS, pre-, during- and post-therapy were compared. SETTING: patients offered brief cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care in Poland. RESULTS: 238 patients completed the pre-therapy questionnaire, 194 (81.5% the during-therapy questionnaire and 142 the post-therapy questionnaire (59.7%. For those completing all three questionnaires (n = 135, improvement in total scores produced an overall Effect Size of 3.1 (2.7 to 3.4. We estimated change using three methods for dealing with missing values. Single and multiple imputation did not significantly change the Effect Size; 'Last Value Carried Forward', the most conservative method, produced an overall Effect Size of 2.3 (1.9 to 2.6. New problems during therapy were reported by 81 patients (60.0%: new problem and original problem scores were of similar magnitude and change scores were not significantly different when compared to patients who did not report new problems. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of outcome data is lost when outcome measures depend upon completed end of therapy questionnaires. The use of a during-therapy measure increases data capture. Missing data still produce difficulties in interpreting overall effect sizes for change. We found no evidence that new problems appearing during therapy hampered overall recovery.
Buijs, P.C.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Evers, M.; Klink, J.J.L. van de; Anema, H.
Increasingly, workers have psychological work-related complaints, endangering their work ability and causing considerable economic losses. Many employees consult their general practitioner (GP). He, however, often pays insufficient attention to work-relatedness or to coordination with occupational
Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1,2 Kazuma Danjo,3 Hanako Furukori,4 Yasushi Sato,2,5 Tetsu Tomita,2,6 Akira Fujii,7 Taku Nakagami,2,8 Kazuyo Kitaoka,9 Norio Yasui-Furukori2 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, 3Mizoguchi Mental Hospital, Shizuoka, 4Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, 5Department of Psychiatry, Mutsu General Hospital, Mutsu, 6Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki-Aiseikai Hospital, Kitazono, Hirosaki, 7Department of Psychiatry, Seihoku-Chuoh Hospital, Goshogawara, Aomori, 8Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Akita, 9Mental Health Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan Background: Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work–family conflict (WFC in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work–Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results: The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including
Yu, Mong-lin; Brown, Ted; Etherington, Jamie
This study investigated occupational therapy students' experiences of their alternative fieldwork placement at one childcare center where there was no established occupational therapy service. A semi-structured focus group interview explored four students' placement experiences. The interview was audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…
Pascarella, Christina Bechle
This study examined play therapy training across the nation among school psychology, social work, and school counseling graduate training programs. It also compared current training to previous training among school psychology and school counseling programs. A random sample of trainers was selected from lists of graduate programs provided by…
Lieb, Klaus; von der Osten-Sacken, Jan; Stoffers-Winterling, Jutta; Reiss, Neele; Barth, Jürgen
Objective To explore conflicts of interest (COI) and their reporting in systematic reviews of psychological therapies, and to evaluate spin in the conclusions of the reviews. Methods MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for systematic reviews published between 2010 and 2013 that assessed effects of psychological therapies for anxiety, depressive or personality disorders, and included at least one randomised controlled trial. Required COI disclosure by journal, disclosed COI by review authors, and the inclusion of own primary studies by review authors were extracted. Researcher allegiance, that is, that researchers concluded favourably about the interventions they have studied, as well as spin, that is, differences between results and conclusions of the reviews, were rated by 2 independent raters. Results 936 references were retrieved, 95 reviews fulfilled eligibility criteria. 59 compared psychological therapies with other forms of psychological therapies, and 36 psychological therapies with pharmacological interventions. Financial, non-financial, and personal COI were disclosed in 22, 4 and 1 review, respectively. 2 of 86 own primary studies of review authors included in 34 reviews were disclosed by review authors. In 15 of the reviews, authors showed an allegiance effect to the evaluated psychological therapy that was never disclosed. Spin in review conclusions was found in 27 of 95 reviews. Reviews with a conclusion in favour of psychological therapies (vs pharmacological interventions) were at high risk for a spin in conclusions (OR=8.31 (1.41 to 49.05)). Spin was related in trend to the inclusion of own primary studies in the systematic review (OR=2.08 (CI 0.83 to 5.18) p=0.11) and researcher allegiance (OR=2.63 (0.84 to 8.16) p=0.16). Conclusions Non-financial COI, especially the inclusion of own primary studies into reviews and researcher allegiance, are frequently seen in systematic reviews of psychological therapies and need more transparency and
Brown, Elena Verdine Donoso; Muñoz, Jaime Phillip; Powell, Janet M
ABSTRACT This study was designed to describe multicultural training practices in occupational therapy programs. A survey was sent to occupational therapy programs in the United States to gather information on multicultural content, skills, and teaching methods as well as diversity context and challenges. The response rate was 54%. The most frequently covered multicultural content was related to cultural background and sociopolitical factors. Multicultural skills covered most often were practice oriented and interpersonal skills. Teaching methods reported as used most often differed from the methods thought by the respondents to be most effective. Programs reported multiple challenges to multicultural training including lack of time and lack of diversity in the student body, faculty, and environment. Results suggest that educators may need to expand multicultural content and skills to prepare occupational therapy students for providing care in increasingly diverse practice settings. In addition, increased use of teaching methods that focus on exposure to diverse populations and reflection may be needed to improve the effectiveness of multicultural training in occupational therapy programs.
Gergen, Theresa; Roblyer, M. D.
Though distance education formats could help address an urgent need for growth in the occupational therapy assistant (OTA) workforce, distance methods are not as accepted in these programs as they are in other professional and clinical programs. This study investigated whether beliefs and levels of experience of OTA program directors shaped their…
Rodriguez, Eva L.
The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…
This evidence-based project provided a professional development opportunity for educators to enhance the awareness of school-based occupational therapy and promote a collaborative approach when supporting student participation in daily learning tasks. Through asynchronous web-based delivery, participants viewed five narrated PowerPoint…
Fortune, Tracy; Ennals, Priscilla; Bhopti, Anoo; Neilson, Cheryl; Darzins, Susan; Bruce, Christopher
The performative context of higher education demands that practice-oriented academics shift their priorities from preparing practitioners for the profession, towards "productive" scholarship. We present narratives from occupational therapy academics at the end of a year-long journey through an action research project focussed on academic…
This quantitative, randomly controlled study sought to find relationships between occupational therapy students' participation in a virtual situated-case scenario (VSCS) and enhanced perceived self-efficacy as well as academic performance when compared to participation in a text-based case study. To determine effects of participation in a virtual…
Silverman, Fern; Kramer, Paula; Ravitch, Sharon
The purpose of this study was to use a systems approach to examine informal communications, meaning those occurring outside of scheduled meetings, among stakeholders in a preschool early intervention program. This investigation expands the discussion of how occupational therapy treatment decisions are made in educational settings by using a…
Knecht-Sabres, Lisa Jean; Egan, Brad E.; Wallingford, Minetta S.; Kovic, Mark
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an intentional blending of instructional strategies in an occupational therapy (OT) entry-level master's course. The OT Adult Practice course uses case-based instructional strategies, clinical skills labs, and standardized patient experiences in a dovetailed approach across three…
Zeldenryk, Lynne; Bradey, Scott
This study aimed to explore the flexible learning needs and preferences of occupational therapy students from a regional Australian university. Participants ("n"?=?170) were surveyed using a quantitative survey tool. Findings were analysed using SPSS to determine significant differences between variable attributes of the student cohort.…
Melchert, Belinda; Gray, Marion; Miller, Adrian
Health professionals must understand Indigenous perspectives to deliver effective health services. This study set out to determine the amount, type and effectiveness of current Indigenous content in an occupational therapy curriculum at an Australian regional university and the progress in meeting the National Aboriginal Health Strategy (NAHS)…
Bonsaksen, Tore; Brown, Ted; Lim, Hua Beng; Fong, Kenneth
Learning outcomes may be a result of several factors including the learning environment, students' predispositions, study efforts, cultural factors and approaches towards studying. This study examined the influence of demographic variables, education-related factors, and approaches to studying on occupational therapy students' Grade Point Average (GPA). Undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 712) from four countries completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Demographic background, education-related factors, and ASSIST scores were used in a hierarchical linear regression analysis to predict the students' GPA. Being older, female and more time engaged in self-study activities were associated with higher GPA among the students. In addition, five ASSIST subscales predicted higher GPA: higher scores on 'seeking meaning', 'achieving', and 'lack of purpose', and lower scores on 'time management' and 'fear of failure'. The full model accounted for 9.6% of the variance related to the occupational therapy students' GPA. To improve academic performance among occupational therapy students, it appears important to increase their personal search for meaning and motivation for achievement, and to reduce their fear of failure. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small effect sizes and a modest amount of variance explained by the regression model, and further research on predictors of academic performance is required.
Full Text Available Simulation experiences provide experiential learning opportunities during artificially produced real-life medical situations in a safe environment. Evidence supports using simulation in health care education yet limited quantitative evidence exists in occupational therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in scores on the AOTA Fieldwork Performance Evaluation for the Occupational Therapy Student of Level II occupational therapy students who received high-fidelity simulation training and students who did not. A retrospective analysis of 180 students from a private university was used. Independent samples nonparametric t tests examined mean differences between Fieldwork Performance Evaluation scores of those who did and did not receive simulation experiences in the curriculum. Mean ranks were also analyzed for subsection scores and practice settings. Results of this study found no significant difference in overall Fieldwork Performance Evaluation scores between the two groups. The students who completed simulation and had fieldwork in inpatient rehabilitation had the greatest increase in mean rank scores and increases in several subsections. The outcome measure used in this study was found to have limited discriminatory capability and may have affected the results; however, this study finds that using simulation may be a beneficial supplement to didactic coursework in occupational therapy curriculums.
Goodman, Barbara E; Ikiugu, Moses N
Recently, the Occupational Therapy Department requested a custom-designed medical physiology course for the students in the new occupational therapy doctoral program. The first author, a physiologist with extensive experience in teaching both undergraduate preprofessional and medical students in human physiology, was recruited to design and implement the course. The course was designed to be consistent with the constructivist philosophy that guides the occupational therapy curriculum. The course was offered for the first time during fall/spring 2015/2016 and included both first- and second-year occupational therapy doctoral students. A number of anonymous assessment tools were used to evaluate students' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of various pedagogies used in the course in enhancing their learning. A summative course assessment survey with comments was used at the end of the course. This paper describes the model of course design and the student feedback, which generated some suggestions for improvement of the course. This approach in designing a new course for a new disciplinary group of students should be helpful to other faculty involved in developing courses for health career programs populated by students with variable physiology backgrounds and different educational needs. The final relevant feedback from the course would be to have the students evaluate the usefulness of the course to their future careers immediately following their certification examinations in a year or two and during their subsequent clinical experiences; however, that information will likely be more difficult to obtain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Schene, Aart H.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Kikkert, Martijn J.; Swinkels, Jan A.; McCrone, Paul
BACKGROUND: Major depression has far-reaching consequences for work functioning and absenteeism. In most cases depression is treated by medication and clinical management. The addition of occupational therapy (OT) might improve outcome. We determined the cost-effectiveness of the addition of OT to
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the concept of occupational therapy handling in the children with cerebral palsy from the perspective of occupational therapy instructors and clinicians in Iran. Materials & Methods: In this qualitative study, using hybrid model to clarify the concept of handling through three phases. For the theoretical phase, attributes of handling were recognized through a review of the literature (until February 2014, and six in-depth semi - structured interviews, two observations and one panel of experts were conducted for the fieldwork to develop attributes from the data and to verify those identified from the literature review. In the third phase attributes and final analysis of handling were extracted from the first and second phase. Results: The results were classified in five main categories that were identified as: (1 care of child, (2 management of treatment, (3 manual techniques, (4 education of activities of daily living (ADL, and (5 lifting and carrying. Core attributes of handling include "control, safety, transfer and positioning". Conclusion: It seems that the results of this study may help in clarifying the concept of handling in children with CP. In addition, by identifying the process, barriers and facilitative factors, and the concept of handling, occupational therapy instructors and therapists will be able to design and run their educational activities based on scientific findings which can provide them with the necessary conditions for education, learning and proper execution of handling in occupational therapy.
Full Text Available Cri-du-Chat syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality that can result in several damages including developmental delay and intellectual disability of the affected child. This case study describes the occupational therapy intervention in a child with Cri-du-chat syndrome that was followed from two to four years old, in weekly sessions, at a school hospital in the state of São Paulo. Data from medical records, family reports, and occupational therapy sessions were used for case description. The initial assessment showed that the child was hypotonic, stood up only with support, and explored objects by taking them to the mouth. Occupational Therapy assistance aimed to stimulate sensorimotor performance skills (perceptual, neuromuscleskeletal and motor processing and cognitive integration and components (attention spectrum, sequencing, and learning, through make-believe activities and participation in the activities of daily living (ADL. Moreover, it was also necessary to intervene directly in the school context and the child’s family, advising parents to avoid overprotection. Through the jointffort of the multidisciplinary team and the child’s family, it was possible to contribute to the improvement of bodily functions, allowing an increase in activities and participation, considering the child’s personal factors and environmental conditions, with consequent discharge from ambulatory attendance of occupational therapy.
Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina
There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.
OBJECTIVE. Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) 1915(c) waivers are the largest provider of long-term services and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). In this study, we explored how HCBS IDD waivers projected providing occupational therapy services in Fiscal Year (FY) 2015. METHOD. Medicaid HCBS IDD waivers across the nation gathered from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed to determine how they projected providing occupational therapy services in terms of service expenditures and utilization. RESULTS. In FY 2015, $14.13 million of spending was projected for occupational therapy services of 7,500 participants. However, there was large heterogeneity across states and services in terms of total projected spending, spending per participant, and reimbursement rates. CONCLUSION. Comparisons across states strengthen the profession’s ability to assert the value of its services. These findings can help identify best practices and can advocate for the refinement of state occupational therapy programs. PMID:29426389
Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Leemrijse, C.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research evidence available from systematic reviews of the efficacy of occupational therapy (OT) for practitioners, researchers, purchasing organizations and policy-makers. DATA SOURCE: The search for systematic reviews was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library
Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, S.; Calnan, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.
The aim of this paper is two-fold: (i) to describe the development of a new measuring instrument for quality of care from the perspective of the users of local authority Occupational Therapy (OT) services, and (ii) to evaluate the potential of the new instrument as a standardized approach for the
Mu, Keli; Brown, Ted; Peyton, Claudia G; Rodger, Sylvia; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Chin-Yu; Watson, Callie; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Hong, Chia Swee
This international, cross-cultural study investigated the attitudes of occupational therapy students from Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. The possible impact of professional education on students' attitudes was also explored. A total of 485 students from 11 entry-level occupational therapy education programmes from Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Taiwan participated in the study. Among them, 264 were freshmen (first-year students) and 221 were seniors (final-year students). Data collected from a custom-designed questionnaire were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, the occupational therapy students reported having positive attitudes towards inclusion. Considerable differences, however, existed among the student groups from the four countries. Professional education appeared to have a significant impact on students' attitudes towards inclusion from first year to senior year. Although students were in favour of inclusion, they also cautioned that their support for inclusive practices depended on various factors such as adequate preparation, support and assistance to students with disabilities. Limitations of the study included the small, convenience sample and different degree structures of the participating programmes. Future research studies need to compare occupational therapy students' attitudes with students from other health care professions. A longitudinal study on the impact of the professional education programme on students' attitudes towards inclusive education is warranted.
Snodgrass, Jeff; Shachar, Mickey
This research study investigated the relationship between faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership and the effects of moderating demographic and institutional characteristics. Data for this study were collected utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X and the self-designed Demographic and Institution Questionnaire. The study working sample included 184 graduate occupational therapy faculty members from 98 (65%) of all accredited academic occupational therapy programs in the United States for the 2005-06 academic year. Major findings from the study indicate that, in general, transformational leadership had a significant (p leadership outcomes whereas transactional leadership had a significant (p leadership attribute (although belonging to the transactional leadership construct) was found to be a positive predictor of leadership outcomes. Demographic and institutional characteristics did not have a significant (p > 0.01) influence on perceived leadership styles and leadership outcomes. The results of this research show that the most effective occupational therapy leaders in academia have been found to be those who adopt and utilize a full range of leadership styles that combine both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership styles and suggest common effectiveness for other allied health fields.
Brown, Ted; Fong, Kenneth N K; Bonsaksen, Tore; Lan, Tan Hwei; Murdolo, Yuki; Gonzalez, Pablo Cruz; Beng, Lim Hua
Students may adopt various approaches to academic learning. Occupational therapy students' approaches to study and the impact of cultural context have not been formally investigated to date. To examine the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students from four different cultural settings. 712 undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 376 from Australia, n = 109 from Hong Kong, n = 160 from Norway and n = 67 from Singapore) completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the ASSIST subscales for the students from the four countries. Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean scores for the strategic approach were significantly different between Australia and the other three countries. The mean scores for the surface approach were significantly different between Australia and Hong Kong, and Hong Kong and Norway. There were no significant differences between the deep approach to studying between Australia, Norway, Singapore and Hong Kong. Culture and educational context do appear to impact the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students. Academic and practice educators need to be cognizant of what approaches to studying the students they work with adopt.
Dillon, T H
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the leadership of occupational therapy educator Sr. Genevieve Cummings at the College of St. Catherine in St. Paul, Minnesota, from 1960 to 1994. In-depth interviews were conducted with faculty, staff, administrators, and friends who knew her work intimately. Themes regarding her leadership were synthesized from the interview data and compared with trends in the leadership literature. The predominant themes representing the major elements of her success as a leader were enabling others, focusing on the greater good, collaborative visioning, and leadership through caring and service. The findings indicate that Sr. Genevieve led in uniquely authentic manner by serving the needs of students, faculty members, and the profession. Sr. Genevieve was an effective, authentic, and accomplished leader throughout her career. Her contributions had a significant impact on the field of occupational therapy and occupational therapy education. The legacy of her leadership serves as a model for others in occupational therapy who must balance multiple challenges, pressures, or roles and be able to work effectively with others.
Watson, Jo; Grenfell, Michael
The article reports on a study of methodological innovation involving occupational therapy (OT) students in higher education (HE). It is based on an original project which examined the experiences and outcomes of non-traditional entrants to pre-registration OT education. A feature of the original project was the application of the epistemological…
Calnan, S.; Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.
The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to describe the development of an instrument measuring quality of care from the specific perspective of the users of local authority occupational therapy services; (2) to present the results from a survey of users' views about the quality of services offered
Bryan M. Gee
Full Text Available Out of early research, Cisco Systems (1999 have built an impressive foundation that advocates for reusable learning objects (RLOs. As the need for online methods for delivering both formal and informal educational content has increased, the prospect of greater influence through carefully constructed RLOs has grown. RLOs are any digital resource that can be used and reused to enhance online learning. RLOs typically are small, discrete, self-contained digital objects that may be sequenced, combined, and used within a variety of instructional activities. RLOs have been implemented in nursing, pharmacy, and physician assistant programs. However, there is a lack of literature regarding RLOs in occupational therapy education. An attitudinal survey was administered to occupational therapy students after they had used an RLO focused on goal writing. Student preferences toward RLO content, instructional design, and eLearning were generally positive. Nearly three-quarters of the students who responded to the survey indicated that the RLO presented was beneficial. All respondents noted that they would use the RLO for future occupational therapy courses. It is argued that incorporating RLOs offers a cost-effective, efficient learning tool, and also adds credibility to the given curriculum program as being innovative with instructing occupational-therapy related concepts.
Opseth, Thea Moos; Carstensen, Tove; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Ellingham, Brian; Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus; Bonsaksen, Tore
Background: The intentional relationship model (IRM) proposes six distinct ways of relating to clients. A new instrument for measuring self-efficacy for using the therapeutic modes in occupational therapy practice was recently found to have good psychometric properties. To date, however, no research has investigated factors associated with…
Full Text Available This is a case report. In this essay, a 4years old boy with "Hydrocephalus and Autism" is presented, who referred to an occupational therapy clinic by a psychiatrist and received occupational therapy interventions. Hydrocephalus together with Autism had caused to severe cognitive, perceptual, motor, communicative and self care problems. Occupational therapy goals were facilitation of development in different areas and making adaptive behavior.finally, his difficulties and dysfunctions decreased noticeably : his eye contact was improved seriously , he could keep almost good communication with his family , hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors are decreased, he could draw simple paintings, could run and ride tricycle. By continued rehabilitation interventions, ultimately he could begin studying in one of Tehran normal state schools. The last following up showed that he could passed fifth level of elementary successfully ( with average, 17 , and now is ready to go to the guidance school. Results of this study show the importance of careful and all-around evaluation of hydrocephalus children, careful combination of therapeutic interventions, cooperation and coordination of all rehabilitation team members, continued following up clients even after discharge, and attracting active cooperation of child parents in occupational therapy successful process.
Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J
Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eva, Gail; Morgan, Deidre
Occupational therapists play an integral role in the care of people with life-limiting illnesses. However, little is known about the scope of occupational therapy service provision in palliative care across Europe and factors influencing service delivery. This study aimed to map the scope of occupational therapy palliative care interventions across Europe and to explore occupational therapists' perceptions of opportunities and challenges when delivering and developing palliative care services. A 49-item online cross-sectional survey comprised of fixed and free text responses was securely hosted via the European Association for Palliative Care website. Survey design, content and recruitment processes were reviewed and formally approved by the European Association for Palliative Care Board of Directors. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse data. Setting/respondents: Respondents were European occupational therapists whose caseload included palliative care recipients (full-time or part-time). In total, 237 valid responses were analysed. Findings demonstrated a consistency in occupational therapy practice in palliative care between European countries. Clinician time was prioritised towards indirect patient care, with limited involvement in service development, leadership and research. A need for undergraduate and postgraduate education was identified. Organisational expectations and understanding of the scope of the occupational therapy role constrain the delivery of services to support patients and carers. Further development of occupational therapy in palliative care, particularly capacity building in leadership and research activities, is warranted. There is a need for continuing education and awareness raising of the role of occupational therapy in palliative care.
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Hendriks, Jan C M; Graff, Maud J L; Adang, Eddy M M; Munneke, Marten; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Bloem, Bastiaan R
A large randomized clinical trial (the Occupational Therapy in Parkinson's Disease [OTiP] study) recently demonstrated that home-based occupational therapy improves perceived performance in daily activities of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. We performed an economic evaluation over a 6-month period for both arms of the OTiP study. Participants were 191 community-dwelling PD patients and 180 primary caregivers. The intervention group (n = 124 patients) received 10 weeks of home-based occupational therapy; the control group (n = 67 patients) received usual care (no occupational therapy). Costs were assessed from a societal perspective including healthcare use, absence from work, informal care, and intervention costs. Health utilities were evaluated using EuroQol-5d. We estimated cost differences and cost utility using linear mixed models and presented the net monetary benefit at different values for willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life-year gained. In our primary analysis, we excluded informal care hours because of substantial missing data for this item. The estimated mean total costs for the intervention group compared with controls were €125 lower for patients, €29 lower for caregivers, and €122 higher for patient-caregiver pairs (differences not significant). At a value of €40,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained (reported threshold for PD), the net monetary benefit of the intervention per patient was €305 (P = 0.74), per caregiver €866 (P = 0.01) and per patient-caregiver pair €845 (P = 0.24). In conclusion, occupational therapy did not significantly impact on total costs compared with usual care. Positive cost-effectiveness of the intervention was only significant for caregivers. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Full Text Available Objective: Visual-motor skill is a part of visual perception which can integrate visual processing skills to fine movements. Visual-motor dysfunction is often to cause problems in copying and writing. The purpose of this study is investigation of occupational therapy interventions effect on the visual-motor skill in children with learning disorders. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, 23 students with learning disorders (2nd, 3rd, 4th grade were selected and they were divided (through Randomized Block Method into two groups, 11 persons as intervention group and the others as the control group (12 people. Both groups were administered the “Test of Visual-Motor Skills- Revised” (TVMS-R. Then case group received occupational therapy interventions for 16 sessions and two groups were administered by TVMS-R again. Data was analyzed by using paired T-test and independent T-test. Results: Total mark of TVMS-R demonstrated statistically significant difference in visual-motor skills between case and control groups (P<0/001. This test has 8 categories. Total mark of 1, 3,4,6,8 categories demonstrated that occupational therapy had significant effect on visual analysis skills (P<0/005. Total mark of 2, 5, 7 categories demonstrated that occupational therapy had significant effect on visual-spatial skills (P<0/001. Conclusion: Occupational therapy interventions had significant effect on the visual-motor skills and its items (visual-spatial, visual analysis, visual-motor integration and eye fixation skills.
Unsworth, Carolyn A; Baker, Anne; Lannin, Natasha; Harries, Priscilla; Strahan, Janene; Browne, Matthew
It is difficult to determine if, or when, individuals with stroke are ready to undergo on-road fitness-to-drive assessment. The Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery was developed to determine client suitability to resume driving. The predictive validity of the Battery needs to be verified for people with stroke. Examine the predictive validity of the Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery for on-road performance among people with stroke. Off-road data were collected from 148 people post stroke on the Battery and the outcome of their on-road assessment was recorded as: fit-to-drive or not fit-to-drive. The majority of participants (76%) were able to resume driving. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis using four subtests (three cognitive and one physical) from the Battery demonstrated an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8311. Using a threshold of 0.5, the model correctly predicted 98/112 fit-to-drive (87.5%) and 26/36 people not fit-to-drive (72.2%). The three cognitive subtests from the Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery and potentially one of the physical tests have good predictive validity for client fitness-to-drive. These tests can be used to screen client suitability for proceeding to an on-road test following stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation: Following stroke, drivers should be counseled (including consideration of local legislation) concerning return to driving. The Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery can be used in the clinic to screen people for suitability to undertake on road assessment. Scores on four of the Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery subtests are predictive of resumption of driving following stroke.
Hills, Caroline; Ryan, Susan; Smith, Derek R; Warren-Forward, Helen
Many occupational therapy students can be classified as 'Generation Y', a group whose characteristics are perceived as being confident, optimistic and 'techno-savvy'. This study aimed to explore practice educator perceptions of 'Generation Y' students. A questionnaire survey was sent to all practice educators affiliated with the university. The survey contained fixed choice questions on demographics and educators' knowledge of the term 'Generation Y', followed by open-ended questions on practice educator perceptions of occupational therapy 'Generation Y' students and the educational strategies used in practice education. Anonymous responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, attribute coding and content analysis. Most educators considered that there was, in fact, a 'Generation Y student', describing them as confident with technology, over confident in their skill level and easily bored. Practice educators raised concerns regarding students' casual communication, poor professional behaviour, shallow professional reasoning and difficulty when receiving negative feedback. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 'Generation Y' students are having both a negative and a positive impact on practice education in occupational therapy. For educators, management of the overconfident student and professional reasoning development should be addressed in university practice education workshops. For students, the need for clarification of placement expectations on professional behaviour and communication was indicated. Students may also require 'listening to feedback' skill development prior to practice education. Universities and practice educators should consider the development of technological resources for practice education, including simulation, to meet the needs of the, now recognised 'Generation Y' student. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Gamble, Jane E; Lincoln, Michelle; Adamson, Barbara
Job satisfaction has been shown to affect levels of staff retention and productivity, but few studies have been conducted on the work of occupational therapy managers and their job satisfaction. This study explores the roles and responsibilities of occupational therapy managers who are clinician-managers or manager-administrators, and sources of their work satisfaction. A collective case study involved telephone interviews with 16 occupational therapy managers. Semistructured interview questions were based on an earlier discussion with a separate group of occupational therapy managers. Interview transcripts were analysed for emerging themes. There were no clear differences in the roles and responsibilities of the two types of managers (manager-administrators and clinician-managers); however, manager-administrators tended to be responsible for larger numbers of staff. Managers reported that taking a clinical caseload is often at their own discretion. A common challenge for managers is the balancing of priorities as a clinician and a manager. Managing people was a common source of joy and sometimes a source of frustration. Mediating between staff and senior management and the need for budget control and efficiencies was an important aspect of managers' work, as was their autonomy to make decisions. Occupational therapy managers assume responsibilities consistent with clinician managers across disciplines. The main sources of work satisfaction related to people management particularly when staff were working effectively as a team and there was respect from senior management. Further research will confirm whether there are no obvious differences between clinician-manager and manager-administrators, and whether there are clear differences in work-related frustration across sectors.
Aronov, D M; Karadzhaeva, O A
The study was performed of the effect of bicycle exercise and occupational therapy (embroidery, knitting, sewing, drawing, etc.) on physical and psychological status of postmyocardial infarction females at the in-hospital stage of rehabilitation. It was found that occupational therapy improved the psychological status and life quality, whereas low-intensity physical training increased performance status in relevant women.
Scott, Michael J
Improving Access to Psychological Therapies is a UK government-funded initiative to widen access to the psychological treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The author has had the opportunity to independently assess 90 Improving Access to Psychological Therapies clients, using a standardised semi-structured interview, the Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) and to listen to their account of interaction with the service. The results suggest that only the tip of the iceberg fully recovers from their disorder (9.2%) whether or not they were treated before or after a personal injury claim. There is a pressing need to re-examine the modus operandi of the service.
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Graff, Maud J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Veenhuizen, Yvonne; Munneke, Marten; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W
There is insufficient evidence to support use of occupational therapy interventions for patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy of occupational therapy in improving daily activities of patients with Parkinson's disease. We did a multicentre, assessor-masked, randomised controlled clinical trial in ten hospitals in nine Dutch regional networks of specialised health-care professionals (ParkinsonNet), with assessment at 3 months and 6 months. Patients with Parkinson's disease with self-reported difficulties in daily activities were included, along with their primary caregivers. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to the intervention or control group by a computer-generated minimisation algorithm. The intervention consisted of 10 weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to national practice guidelines; control individuals received usual care with no occupational therapy. The primary outcome was self-perceived performance in daily activities at 3 months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (score 1-10). Data were analysed using linear mixed models for repeated measures (intention-to-treat principle). Assessors monitored safety by asking patients about any unusual health events during the preceding 3 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01336127. Between April 14, 2011, and Nov 2, 2012, 191 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=124) or the control group (n=67). 117 (94%) of 124 patients in the intervention group and 63 (94%) of 67 in the control group had a participating caregiver. At baseline, the median score on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was 4·3 (IQR 3·5-5·0) in the intervention group and 4·4 (3·8-5·0) in the control group. At 3 months, these scores were 5·8 (5·0-6·4) and 4·6 (4·6-6·6), respectively. The adjusted mean difference in score between groups at 3 months was in favour of the intervention group (1·2; 95% CI 0·8-1·6
Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…
Full Text Available Background: The Model of Human Occupation describes roles as providing the person with a framework around which to organize daily occupations. Role performance and role valuation in young adults may be related to gender, but there are few research studies to date to support this view. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional design using a sample of 87 occupational therapy students in Norway. We used the Role Checklist to assess the students’ performance and valuation of roles, and a variety of statistical procedures were employed in the analysis. Results: Compared to the female participants, males performed roles in the community, social, and civic life area of participation more frequently. Otherwise, male and female participants were largely equal in current role performance. For most roles, we found associations between role performance and high valuation of the respective roles. Discussion: Gender appears to be a factor of relevance for our understanding of role performance. This study suggests that occupational therapists should consider the societal as well as the personal aspects of roles. In addition, occupational therapy interventions could aim toward improving congruence between the roles clients perform and the value these roles have for them
Paula Dayse Braga Santos
Full Text Available Although scalping is a recurrentaccident innorthern Brazil, there are still few studies on the subject. The aim of the present work was to report the occupational therapy procedure on the minimization of the occupational performance impairment of two riverside children that were victims of scalping by unprotected motor boat shaft, through the evaluation of occupational performance and exposure of the intervention performed. This is a case study with two scalped riverside girls hospitalized between April and June, 2013. The application of evaluation protocols verified changes in the areas of occupational performance, where activities of daily living (ADL such as dependence for bathing and ambulationare inserted; changesin the performance context, verified in the anxiety to be discharged from hospital; and changesin the performance component, with decreased self-esteem because of the change on their self-image. Reassessment after intervention showed improvement in the performance of ADL and self-image perceptionof both patients. Thereby it is believed that the development of the research allowed the contact with a theme that is so typical in the Braziliannorth region, stressing the importance of Occupational Therapy assistance, providing greater independence in the performance of ADL that are meaningful to each child.
Kealy, David; Sierra-Hernandez, Carlos A; Piper, William E; Joyce, Anthony S; Weideman, Rene; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Psychological mindedness is regarded as an important patient characteristic that can influence the course of psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' capacity for psychological mindedness and aspects of the group psychotherapy process as experienced and rated by therapists and other group members. Participants were 110 patients who completed two forms of short-term group therapy for the treatment of complicated grief. Psychological mindedness was assessed at pretreatment by external raters using a video-interview procedure. Group therapists assessed patients' therapeutic work and therapeutic alliance following each group therapy session. Therapists and other group members rated each patient's expression of emotion and provided appraisals of their cohesion to each patient throughout the course of therapy. Psychological mindedness was found to be positively associated with several group process variables as rated by the therapist and other group members.
Regina Célia Titotto Castanharo
Full Text Available This is an exploratory descriptive study aiming to explain how self-care has been addressed by Occupational Therapy (OT. Data collection was carried out by consulting LILACS, SciELO databases and national journals of Occupational Therapy. From 1994 to 2012, twelve articles published by occupational therapists were selected considering the following keywords on abstracts or full texts: occupational therapy, self-care, daily activities or daily life activities. The results were submitted to integrative review and thematic analysis. The categories evidenced were self-care and activities of daily life; autonomy and independence for self-care; and intervention of OT favoring self-care by the individual. The results showed different dimensions of self-care when associated with the individual and private autonomy as well as with professional interdisciplinary practices of OT. The intervention in this area is directed to human performance in the cycles of life, faced with situations of vulnerability, such as disease and social exclusion. Adaptations, modifications, assistive technology resources and/or functional rehabilitation are used to promote the independence of individuals, favoring autonomy and recovery routines. We observed similarities between the conceptions of self-care found in the scientific production of OT and in the Orem’s concepts (1971-2001. In general, health professionals can achieve benefits to the systematization of knowledge that underlie their practice when they articulate them with the knowledge systematized by other areas.
Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares
Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Clemson, Lindy; Lannin, Natasha A; Wales, Kylie; Salkeld, Glenn; Rubenstein, Laurence; Gitlin, Laura; Barris, Sarah; Mackenzie, Lynette; Cameron, Ian D
To determine whether an enhanced occupational therapy discharge planning intervention that involved pre- and postdischarge home visits, goal setting, and follow-up (the HOME program) would be superior to a usual care intervention in which an occupational therapy in-hospital consultation for planning and supporting discharge to home is provided to individuals receiving acute care. Randomized controlled trial. Acute and medical wards. Individuals aged 70 and older (N = 400). Primary outcomes: activities daily living (ADLs; Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living) and participation in life roles and activities (Late Life Disability Index (LLDI)). Occupational therapist recommendations differed significantly between groups (P occupational therapy recommendations as the in-hospital only consultation, which had a greater emphasis on equipment provision, but HOME did not demonstrate greater benefit in global measures of ADLs or participation in life tasks than in-hospital consultation alone. It is not recommended that home visits be conducted routinely as part of discharge planning for acutely hospitalized medical patients. Further work should develop guidelines for quality in-hospital consultation. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Hills, Caroline; Ryan, Susan; Smith, Derek R; Warren-Forward, Helen; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel
Technology is becoming increasingly integral to the practice of occupational therapists and part of the everyday lives of clients. 'Generation Y' are purported to be naturally technologically skilled as they have grown up in the digital age. The aim of this study was to explore one cohort of 'Generation Y' occupational therapy students' skills and confidence in the use of technologies relevant to contemporary practice. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from a cohort of 274 students enrolled in an Australian undergraduate occupational therapy programme. A total of 173 (63%) students returned the survey. Those born prior to 1982 were removed from the data. This left 155 (56%) 'Generation Y' participants. Not all participants reported to be skilled in everyday technologies although most reported to be skilled in word, Internet and mobile technologies. Many reported a lack of skills in Web 2.0 (collaboration and sharing) technologies, creating and using media and gaming, as well as a lack of confidence in technologies relevant to practice, including assistive technology, specialist devices, specialist software and gaming. Overall, the results suggested that this group of 'Generation Y' students were not universally skilled in all areas of technology relevant to practice but appear to be skilled in technologies they use regularly. Recommendations are therefore made with view to integrating social networking, gaming, media sharing and assistive technology into undergraduate programmes to ensure that graduates have the requisite skills and confidence required for current and future practice. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
As occupational therapists prepare to fulfill the vision of the profession and face the challenges of this century, asserting themselves professionally and effectively collaborating with others is of critical importance. The conflict resolution behaviors used to manage current and future practice environments have significant implications for job retention, work climate, patient care and the development of professional relationships. The literature suggests that occupational therapy students tend to use unassertive forms of conflict management. In an effort to identify potential inconsistencies between students' tendencies and professional demands, this study examined the conflict resolution behaviors that graduate, traditional, and nontraditional occupational therapy students, are likely to use (n = 145). The design of the study was descriptive and correlational. The Thomas Kilmann's MODE instrument and a Conflict Case questionnaire were used as measures of the conflict resolution styles. Results indicated that traditional students favored collaborating while nontraditional students preferred competing and avoiding. The management strategies used by the two groups differed based on the outcome focus and the power relationship between disputants. Findings are relevant for occupational therapy education and continuing professional development. Training in conflict management strategies that would strengthen students' assertiveness and interpersonal skills would be helpful in fostering the leadership needed for fulfilling the profession's vision.
Staats, Arthur W.
"A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…
Nielsen, Tove Lise; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Polatajko, Helene; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
There is growing interest in enabling older adults' occupational performance. We tested whether 11 weeks of intensive client-centred occupational therapy (ICC-OT) was superior to usual practice in improving the occupational performance of home-dwelling older adults. An assessor-masked randomized controlled trial among adults 60 + with chronic health issues, who received or applied for homecare services. Recruitment took place September 2012 to April 2014. All participants received practical and personal assistance and meal delivery as needed. In addition, they were randomized to receive either a maximum 22 sessions of occupation-based ICC-OT (N = 59) or to receive usual practice with a maximum three sessions of occupational therapy (N = 60). The primary outcome was self-rated occupational performance assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). No important adverse events occurred. ICC-OT was accepted by 46 participants (88%), usual practice by 60 (100%). After 3 months, the ICC-OT-group had improved 1.86 points on COPM performance; the Usual-Practice group had improved 0.61 points. The between-group difference was statistically significant (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 2.02), t-test: p = 0.001. ICC-OT improved older adults' occupational performance more effectively than usual practice. This result may benefit older adults and support programmatic changes.
Hwang, Eric J; Lokietz, Nicole C; Lozano, Rachel L; Parke, Megan A
This study aimed to explore functional deficits and perceived quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors. Sixty-six participants completed the Post Cancer Outcome Survey developed for the purpose of this study. The results indicated (1) modest to moderate degrees of functional deficits in 28 of the 70 items measuring areas of occupation, performance skills, body functions, and psychosocial well-being within the first year after cancer treatment; (2) significantly lower perceived QoL during the first year of survivorship compared with that before diagnosis, at present, and 5 yr hereafter (p occupational therapy during the first year posttreatment. Functional difficulties and compromised QoL identified in this study indicate the need for occupational therapy among cancer survivors. Increasing clients' awareness of occupational therapy for postcancer care is also suggested. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen
BACKGROUND: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise......-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that participants both reported and demonstrated increased effort and/or fatigue, increased use of time, need for assistance, and safety problems. However, little relationship was found between measures of self...
Fike, Lorie; Najera, Cecilia; Dougherty, David
The first pair of US Army animal-assisted therapy (AAT) dogs deployed to Iraq in December 2007 with the 85th Medical Detachment Combat and Operational Stress Control unit. As of this writing, 6 dogs have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, offering Soldiers a small reminder of home. Army occupational therapists led the way in this endeavor as primary handlers; the path has been rocky but ultimately rewarding. This article depicts how occupational therapists used AAT and animal-assisted activities to help Soldiers cope with the stressors of living in a deployed environment. Challenges and lessons-learned, including anecdotal examples, are discussed.
Grant, Nina; Hotopf, Matthew; Breen, Gerome; Cleare, Anthony; Grey, Nick; Hepgul, Nilay; King, Sinead; Moran, Paul; Pariante, Carmine M; Wingrove, Janet; Young, Allan H; Tylee, André
Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and represent a significant and well described public health burden. Whilst first line psychological treatments are effective for nearly half of attenders, there remain a substantial number of patients who do not benefit. The main objective of the present project is to establish an infrastructure platform for the identification of factors that predict lack of response to psychological treatment for depression and anxiety, in order to better target treatments as well as to support translational and experimental medicine research in mood and anxiety disorders. Predicting outcome following psychological therapy in IAPT (PROMPT) is a naturalistic observational project that began patient recruitment in January 2014. The project is currently taking place in Southwark Psychological Therapies Service, an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service currently provided by the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM). However, the aim is to roll-out the project across other IAPT services. Participants are approached before beginning treatment and offered a baseline interview whilst they are waiting for therapy to begin. This allows us to test for relationships between predictor variables and patient outcome measures. At the baseline interview, participants complete a diagnostic interview; are asked to give blood and hair samples for relevant biomarkers, and complete psychological and social questionnaire measures. Participants then complete their psychological therapy as offered by Southwark Psychological Therapies Service. Response to psychological therapy will be measured using standard IAPT outcome data, which are routinely collected at each appointment. This project addresses a need to understand treatment response rates in primary care psychological therapy services for those with depression and/or anxiety. Measurement of a range of predictor variables allows for the detection of bio
Liu, Chuan; Wang, Lie; Zhao, Qun
Psychiatry has been considered as one of the most stressful medical specialities, and psychiatrists are likely to experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, few studies are available in regard to related factors of HRQOL among psychiatrists in China. This study aims to evaluate the condition of HRQOL of psychiatrists and explore its predictive factors, especially the effects of occupational stress and psychological capital. A cross-sectional, multicenter survey was conducted among psychiatrists from different regions of Liaoning province, China, during August 2013-April 2014. Self-administrated questionnaires including the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Chinese version Psychological Capital Questionnaire, effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) scale and participants' basic characteristics were distributed to 500 psychiatrists from 10 psychiatric hospitals of 8 major cities in Liaoning province. Overall, 373 psychiatrists became our final research objects. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the predictors of psychiatrists' HRQOL. The mean (SD) scores of PCS and MCS among psychiatrists were 79.78 (16.55) and 71.50 (19.24) respectively. The mean (SD) of ERR were 0.777 (0.493), and 89 (23.9%) had ERR scores above 1 (ERR > 1). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that, psychiatrists' basic characteristics that significant correlated with PCS and MCS were educational level, turnover intention, and exercise; age, weekly working hours were associated with MCS; psychiatrists' experienced occupational stress (both ERR and overcommitment), and PsyCap were significant predictors for PCS and MCS. Chinese psychiatrists experienced relatively good physical QOL but impaired mental QOL, and they experienced high level of occupational stress. For the sake of psychiatrists' HRQOL, the reduction of occupational stress should be implemented. The enhancement of PsyCap could be a new intervention
Morris, Meg E; Perry, Alison; Bilney, Belinda; Curran, Andrea; Dodd, Karen; Wittwer, Joanne E; Dalton, Gregory W
This article describes a systematic review and critical evaluation of the international literature on the effects of physical therapy, speech pathology, and occupational therapy for people with motor neuron disease (PwMND). The results were interpreted using the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. This enabled us to summarize therapy outcomes at the level of body structure and function, activity limitations, participation restrictions, and quality of life. Databases searched included MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL, PSYCInfo, Data base of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), The Physiotherapy Evidence data base (PEDro), Evidence Based Medicine Reviews (EMBASE), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Evidence was graded according to the Harbour and Miller classification. Most of the evidence was found to be at the level of "clinical opinion" rather than of controlled clinical trials. Several nonrandomized small group and "observational studies" provided low-level evidence to support physical therapy for improving muscle strength and pulmonary function. There was also some evidence to support the effectiveness of speech pathology interventions for dysarthria. The search identified a small number of studies on occupational therapy for PwMND, which were small, noncontrolled pre-post-designs or clinical reports.
Park, Bum-Jin; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Morikawa, Takeshi; Kagawa, Takahide; Lee, Juyoung; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi
To provide scientific evidence of the physiological and psychological effects of forest and urban environments on 47 young male adults undergoing stay-in forest therapy. Field experiments were conducted at four sites in Japan. At each site, 12 subjects participated in the experiment. The experiments were conducted in forest and urban environments, and the subjects' physiological and psychological responses to these environments were compared. On the first day, six subjects were sent to a forest area, and the other six were sent to an urban area as controls. The groups were switched the next day. Heart rate variability and heart rate were measured to assess physiological responses. The semantic differential method for assessing emotions, the reports of "refreshed" feeling, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to assess psychological responses. The physiological and psychological responses of each subject were recorded during and after walking, and the differences in indices were compared between the two environments. The forest environment was associated with a higher parasympathetic nervous activity, a lower sympathetic nervous activity, and a lower heart rate than the urban environment. The subjective evaluation scores were generally in accordance with the physiological reactions and were significantly higher in the forest environment than in the urban environment. POMS measurements showed that the forest environment was psychologically relaxing and enhanced psychological vigor. This study provided clear scientific evidence of the physiological effects of forest therapy. The results will contribute to the development of forest therapy research and support the inclusion of forest therapy in preventive medicine.
JACOBS, KAREN; CASON, JANA; MCCULLOUGH, ANN
The World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) consists of 84 member organizations representing over 420,000 occupational therapists internationally (WFOT, 2014). In 2014, WFOT published the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement on the use of telehealth in occupational therapy. The process for the formulation of the official document involved reviewing WFOT member organizations’ telehealth position statements and data collected from a survey sent to member organizations’ delegates in April 2014. Qualitative data from 39 countries yielded factors to consider in five key areas: licensure/registration requirements, the cost of technology, privacy and security, reimbursement/payment models, and other issues (e.g., need for collaboration/transfer of knowledge, client selection, provider competencies, standard of care). The WFOT Telehealth Position Statement addressed each of these areas. The collaborative effort resulting in the development of the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement serves as a model for other international organizations. PMID:27563380
There is growing attention to participation and social participation in literature and policy reports. Occupational therapists strongly believe that creating coherence between the person's occupations and environment will facilitate participation of each individual. Nowadays, societal developments such as "health literacy and self-management", "Web 2.0 social media", "empowering communities", and "Nothing About Us Without Us" increase opportunities for people to interact on different levels of social participation. Social participation can be used as an outcome, though it can also be seen as a means to change society and to develop solutions for barriers experienced by people with chronic diseases or disabilities. Societal developments will have an impact on social participation in terms of supporting each other and contributing to society. Additionally, these changes will have a major influence on the way we educate, conduct research, and deliver occupational therapy practice.
Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Rogowski, Marek; Moskal, Diana; Dakowicz, Agnieszka; Falkowski, Dawid; Kasperuk, Joanna
Hyperfunctional dysphonia is the most frequent type of occupational functional dysphonia. Pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of occupational dysphonia. Vibratory massages of the regions of the larynx relax the external muscles of neck, which have an indirect impact on the tension of the vocal folds. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of vibratory stimulation therapy on voice quality in patients with hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia treated pharmacologically. Forty patients with hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia treated phoniatrically in the Phoniatric Outpatient Clinic were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 20 patients treated pharmacologically. In group II, including 20 patients, apart from pharmacotherapy the vibratory stimulation therapy by the device of VR type (CyberBioMed LLC) was used. In the analysis of voice quality the evaluation of the vocal folds vibration using videolaryngostroboscopy and acoustic assessment of voice were conducted. The perceptual assessment of voice, the visualization of the vocal folds vibration in stroboscopic examination of the larynx and the acoustic assessment of voice enable the appropriate diagnostics of the clinical type and voice quality in hyperfunctional dysphonia. The tension of superficial and deep muscles of neck has the impact on the phonatory function of the larynx. Pharmacological treatment improves the voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia. Pharmacological treatment combines with the relaxation of muscles of neck using the device of VR type significantly improve voice quality in hyperfunctional occupational dysphonia. Copyright © 2012 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Susanne; Strawbridge, Rebecca; Vives, Andres Herane; Cleare, Anthony J
Many patients with depressive disorders demonstrate resistance to psychological therapy. A frequent finding is hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations. As cortisol is known to modulate cognitive processes, those patients may be less likely to profit from psychological therapy. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on cortisol as a predictor of psychological therapy response. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched. Records were included if they looked at patients with any depressive disorder engaging in psychological therapy, with a pre-treatment cortisol and a post-treatment symptom measure. Eight articles satisfied our selection criteria. The higher the cortisol levels before starting psychological therapy, the more symptoms patients with depression experienced at the end of treatment and/or the smaller their symptom change. Our findings suggest that patients with depression with elevated HPA functioning are less responsive to psychological therapy. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
The study explores the experiences of volunteer community care workers working with HIV-affected families, participating in laughter therapy. Laughter therapy is being used as an intervention to positively influence individuals experiencing various forms of emotional distress. Community care workers play a vital role in the ...
Buckland, Nicole; Mackenzie, Lynette
With increasing rates of cancer survival in Australia, more people are living with long-term side effects of cancer and its treatment, and cancer survivorship is now considered a distinct phase of cancer care. While occupational therapists play an integral role in multidisciplinary care for people with chronic conditions, there is little evidence documenting the occupational therapy role for people living with chronic cancer-related conditions. This study aimed to explore the views of Australian occupational therapists about current practice and what constitutes best practice for cancer survivors. A cross-sectional online survey was developed and distributed via emailed invitations to the Occupational Therapy Australia membership to collect responses from occupational therapists in a range of locations and practice settings around Australia. A total of 204 completed surveys were returned (response rate of 4%). More than 70% (n = 143) of respondents worked with people with cancer at least sometimes and most worked in acute (13.8%, n = 28) or community (11.2%, n = 23) settings. Participants rated equipment provision as the most common intervention (94%, n = 192), followed by energy conservation (91%, n = 185) and pressure care (78%, n = 160). Lack of funding for occupational therapy positions and a lack of recognition of the role of occupational therapy by health professionals and consumers were identified as key barriers to survivorship care. Research is needed to provide evidence supporting the role and practice of occupational therapy with cancer survivors. Collaborative work with multidisciplinary teams is needed to develop long-term routine treatment pathways that include occupational therapy interventions. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M
In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison; Burdett, Mark
This study explores whether improvements, as measured by the CORE-OM/10, as a result of psychological therapy were related to length of treatment in weeks, number of treatment sessions, or treatment intensity, as well as any effect of diagnostic group. Pre- and post-therapy CORE-OM/10 scores were extracted from the clinical records of all secondary care adult psychological therapy team patients who undertook psychological therapy between 2010 and 2013 in one mental health trust. Of the 4,877 patients identified, 925 had complete records. Length of therapy was divided by the number of sessions to create 'treatment intensity' (sessions per week). Nonparametric analyses were used, initial score was controlled for, and diagnostic group was explored. No relationship was found between change in score and the number of sessions, therapy length, or treatment intensity; however, change in score was positively correlated with first-session score. Patients with higher initial scores had longer therapies; however, treatment intensity was similar for patients with lower pre-therapy distress. There were differences in treatment length (weeks) between diagnostic groups. Demographic differences were found between patients with and without complete records, prompting caution in terms of generalizability. These findings are consistent with the responsive regulation model (Barkham et al., 1996) which proposes that patients vary in their response to treatment, resulting in no associations between session numbers or treatment intensity and therapeutic gain with aggregated scores. Patients with higher CORE scores at the outset of psychological therapy had longer not more intensive therapy. There was variation in treatment intensity between diagnostic clusters. Number of sessions, length of therapy (in weeks), and treatment intensity (the number of sessions per week between the first and last therapy sessions) were not related to therapeutic gains. These results fit with a responsive
Luciana Ramos Baleotti
Full Text Available The way one conceives disabled people seems to influence the actions directed toward them. Occupational therapists constitute a part of health professionals that direct their actions based on a comprehensive view of disability. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the conception of disability from the standpoint of occupational therapists. Fifteen university teachers of Occupational Therapy undergraduate courses participated in this study: seven from public universities and eight from private institutions, located in mid-sized municipalities in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected by means of a scale denominated “Escala de Avaliação da Concepção de Deficiência” (Rating Scale for Conception of Disability. The results show that the subjects tend to follow interactional, social conceptions of disability. This study yields contributions to understand the conception of disability held by teachers of Occupational Therapy. This conception certainly guides their teaching performance and affects the training of future professionals.
Roseli Esquerdo Lopesa
Full Text Available The METUIA team from the Occupational Therapy Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos – UFSCar has been elaborating procedures and resources, which have produced contributions to the action of occupational therapy based on a local and communal dimension, aiming at a locally rooted technical contribution and directed to face the challenges of the social field. The territory notion adopted presupposes historical, economic, social and cultural dimensions that contextualize a given geographical area where the therapeutic and occupational action is developed. We have been dealing with questions related to the poor urban youth and working in the production of social technologies (understood as products, techniques or replicable methodologies developed in interaction with the community, and that represent alternatives for social transformation, which have been able to foster new possibilities of action, integrating and articulating actions of macro and micro social scope. This article presents discussions on Workshops of Dynamics, Activities and Projects; Individual and Territorial Follow-up; Articulation of Resources in the Social Field; and Dynamization of the Social Care Network. We support a continuous and critical reflection on the labor process, assuming the technical, ethical and political dimensions that comprise the professional qualification of occupational therapists. We also advocate that the practical and conceptual existence of these technologies promotes actions associated with the social question of the lives of these young individuals, seeking the expansion of equality, recognition of differences, and their space in the public sphere, so that more participation can be produced with more freedom, autonomy and solidarity.
The aim of the study was to elucidate selection criteria for need of rehabilitation/occupational therapy, and to state criteria for participation in occupational therapy, among persons with long-term and/or recurrent pain causing activity limitations or restricting participation in daily life. The study involved 914 persons aged 18-58 years who answered a postal questionnaire concerning demography, pain, occupations in daily life, work, treatments and health care staff visited. The direct method in logistic regression analysis was used to test two models: (1) need of rehabilitation/occupational therapy and (2) participation in occupational therapy. The results for the first model revealed the selection criteria (1) 'feelings of irresolution', (2) 'gnawing/searing pain' and (3) 'use of technical aids'. The odds for need of rehabilitation/occupational therapy were higher for women than for men. The criteria derived from the second model, participation in occupational therapy, were whether (1) the participants had 'used tricks and/or compensated ways to perform tasks', (2) the participants had 'pain in shoulders' and (3) 'changes had been made at work due to health conditions'.
Beck, Alison; Burdett, Mark; Lewis, Helen
To investigate the impact of waiting for psychological therapy on client well-being as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) global distress (GD) score. Global distress scores were retrieved for all clients referred for psychological therapy in a secondary care mental health service between November 2006 and May 2013 and who had completed a CORE-OM at assessment and first session. GD scores for a subgroup of 103 clients who had completed a CORE-OM during the last therapy session were also reviewed. The study sample experienced a median wait of 41.14 weeks between assessment and first session. The relationship between wait time from referral acceptance to assessment, and assessment GD score was not significant. During the period between assessment and first session no significant difference in GD score was observed. Nevertheless 29.1% of the sample experienced reliable change; 16.0% of clients reliably improved and 13.1% reliably deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy. Demographic factors were not found to have a significant effect on the change in GD score between assessment and first session. Waiting time was associated with post-therapy outcomes but not to a degree which was meaningful. The majority of individuals (54.4%), regardless of whether they improved or deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy, showed reliable improvement at end of therapy as measured by the CORE-OM. The majority of GD scores remained stable while waiting for therapy; however, 29.1% of secondary care clients experienced either reliable improvement or deterioration. Irrespective of whether they improved, deteriorated or remained unchanged whilst waiting for therapy, most individuals who had a complete end of therapy assessment showed reliable improvements following therapy. There was no significant difference in GD score between assessment and first session recordings. A proportion of clients (29.1%) showed reliable change, either improvement or
Fogelberg, Donald J.; Halle, Ashley D.; Mroz, Tracy M.
One in four individuals living in the United States has multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), and the already high prevalence of MCCs continues to grow. This population has high rates of health care utilization yet poor outcomes, leading to elevated concerns about fragmented, low-quality care provided within the current health care system. Several national initiatives endeavor to improve care for the population with MCCs, and occupational therapy is uniquely positioned to contribute to these efforts for more efficient, effective, client-centered management of care. By integrating findings from the literature with current policy and practice, we aim to highlight the potential role for occupational therapy in managing MCCs within the evolving health care system. PMID:28027031
Horowitz, Beverly P; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen
Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional higher education with structured active learning experiences. This article reports on one intergenerational service learning program spanning 3 years. It was designed to facilitate community dialogue on fall prevention and active aging, and to provide intergenerational educational community-based experiences in occupational therapy professional education. The program additionally sought to promote students' understanding of aging and issues related to aging in place, students' professional development and civic engagement, and to encourage students to consider pursuing a career in occupational therapy gerontology practice.
MacNeil, Cheryl; Hand, Theresa
This article discusses a 1-yr evaluation study of a master of science in occupational therapy program to examine curriculum content and pedagogical practices as a way to gauge program preparedness to move to a clinical doctorate. Faculty members participated in a multitiered qualitative study that included curriculum mapping, semistructured individual interviewing, and iterative group analysis. Findings indicate that curriculum mapping and authentic dialogue helped the program formulate a more streamlined and integrated curriculum with increased faculty collaboration. Curriculum mapping and collaborative pedagogical reflection are valuable evaluation strategies for examining preparedness to offer a clinical doctorate, enhancing a self-study process, and providing information for ongoing formative curriculum review. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Daniel Ferreira Dahdah
Full Text Available There is a consensus in the literature that the company of a family member during the hospitalization period increases patient recovery. However, this can have some negative effects on the caregiver’s health. With the purpose of reducing these negatives effects, it is useful to let family members express themselves. The State Hospital of Ribeirão Preto created a Group of Family Companions coordinated by the Occupational Therapy and Social Service. This study focuses on the assistance offered in a general hospital to families that undergo the whole illness and hospitalization process of their family member, suffering the impacts of this process in their daily lives, and on the intervention of Occupational Therapy in these cases.
Beagan, Brenda L
The 2007 position statement on diversity for the Canadian occupational therapy profession argued discussion was needed to determine the implications of approaches to working with cultural differences and other forms of diversity. In 2014, a new position statement on diversity was published, emphasizing the importance of social power relations and power relations between client and therapist, and supporting two particular approaches: cultural safety and cultural humility with critical reflexivity This paper reviews and critically synthesizes the literature concerning culture and diversity published in occupational therapy between 2007 and 2014, tracing the major discourses and mapping the implications of four differing approaches: cultural competence, cultural relevance, cultural safety, and cultural humility. Approaches differ in where they situate the "problem," how they envision change, the end goal, and the application to a range of types of diversity. The latter two are preferred approaches for their attention to power relations and potential to encompass a range of types of social and cultural diversity. © CAOT 2015.
-operate towards appropriate solutions. The groups suggest and present preventive and health promotion solutions and strategies especially designed for this particular situation. The groups are supervised by an interdisciplinary team of occupational therapy and physiotherapy lecturers. In addition......PURPOSE: The purpose is to provide physiotherapy and occupational therapy students at the University College Cvu vita in Holstebro, Denmark, the opportunity to develop competences for interdisciplinary working situations concerning promotion of population health. RELEVANCE: The Danish Ministry...... of the Interior and Health participates in co-operation within the European Union on health areas, which focuses on efforts with respect to public health (Article 152 of the Treaty on EU). The curricula for both educations underline the importance of preparing the students for interdisciplinary co...
Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie
Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.
Bryan M. Gee
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the type of instructional technology (IT master’s degree level occupational therapy educational programs routinely use as a part of their lecture- and laboratory-based instruction. Surveying the administrators of 121 graduate occupational therapy programs in the United States, we found that the majority of the respondents identified their program as using IT in some form for lecturebased courses, with less inclusion of IT for laboratory-based courses. Hybrid instruction, with the majority of the content being delivered face-to-face and the remainder via online, were the trends among the respondents. The findings also indicated that the respondents’ programs avoid certain IT, including synchronous online chat rooms or instant messaging, digital image collections, blogs or online journaling, Wikis, and audio/video podcasting. Few of the respondents said their programs had made a significant leap into implementing a larger online presence with instructional technology
Kirchman, M M
In this study, a methodology was developed and tested for assessing the quality of care in occupational therapy between educational and noneducational clinical settings, as measured by process and outcome. An instrument was constructed for an external audit of the hospital record. Standards drafted by the investigator were established as normative by a panel of experts for use in judging the programs. Hospital records of 84 patients with residual hemiparesis or hemiplegia in three noneducational settings and of 100 patients with similar diagnoses in two educational clinical settings from selected Michigan facilities were chosen by proportionate stratified random sampling. The process study showed that occupational therapy was of significantly higher quality in the educational settings. The outcome study did not show significant differences between types of settings. Implications for education and practice are discussed.
Gutman, Sharon A; Gregory, Kristin A; Sadlier-Brown, Megan M; Schlissel, Marcy A; Schubert, Allison M; Westover, Lee Ann; Miller, Richard C
Although sleep intervention is within the domain of occupational therapy, few studies exist supporting practice. Effectiveness of three sleep interventions was compared: Dreampad Pillow®, iRest® meditation, and sleep hygiene. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to the Dreampad Pillow® ( n = 10), iRest® meditation ( n = 9), and sleep hygiene ( n = 10) groups. In Phase 1, all participants used a 7-day sleep hygiene regimen to reduce poor sleep habits. In Phase 2 (14 days), 10 participants used the Dreampad Pillow® and sleep hygiene, nine used the iRest meditation and sleep hygiene, and 10 continued sleep hygiene only. At intervention-end, the iRest meditation group experienced statistically greater time asleep than both the Dreampad Pillow® ( p meditation ( p occupational therapy's domain.
Reid, Denise T
How mindfulness can be learned by occupational therapy students to manage their own self-care processes has not been fully examined as yet. This article describes an online curriculum approach for teaching a general introductory mindfulness course and examines outcomes with master's entry-level occupational therapy students. Fifteen students participated in an 8-week online mindfulness curriculum and completed a pre- and post-training survey. The Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness. Demographic, MAAS-scored mindfulness, and clinical utility data were collected. Results showed a statistically significant change (t = -4.82, p = 0.002) in MAAS mindfulness scores from the program start to end. Informal practice exercises and guided meditations were perceived by participants as being more helpful ways for developing an understanding and approach to mindfulness than were readings about mindfulness. This study suggests that mindfulness can be taught using an online approach.
Melanie Joy Criss
Full Text Available This article discusses the use of telerehabilitation technologies in occupational therapy for school-based practice. Telerehabilitation, for the purpose of this program, included the implementation of occupational therapy services via two-way interactive videoconferencing technology. The subjects included in this pilot program were children, ages 6 to 11 years, who attended an online charter school and had difficulties in the areas of fine motor and/or visual motor skills which impacted success with handwriting. Each participant completed a virtual evaluation and six 30-minute intervention sessions. The Print Tool™ Assessment was used to determine progress pre- and post-program. A learning coach/student satisfaction survey was given at the end of the program to determine participant satisfaction. Outcomes revealed improvements in handwriting performance for most students who participated in the program and high satisfaction rates reported by all participants.
Bensen, Maria; Kolbæk, Ditte
as Adobe Connect? How do the Occupational Therapy e-learning students experience their engagement in learning activities in Adobe Connect? Findings Students find that the sense of belonging to both their fellow students and the education is crucial to their engagement in activities in Adobe Connect......-learning student in an OT-education. On the basis of the interviews, a modified memory-work was conducted on two students from another semester, writing down a memory from an activity in Adobe Connect. Value This paper is the first to investigate the lessons learnt from the e-learning students in OT...... in its use of Adobe Connect in a practical education as Occupational Therapy and in the use of memory-work as a phenomenological approach. Furthermore the findings are interesting, as the students experience how a meaningful and helpful online learning-environment is based on self-regulated engagement....
Sandra Maria Galheigo
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a participatory action research with occupational therapists in a community of practice which purpose was to discuss the care production provided by occupational therapy to hospitalized children and adolescents. The participants were nine occupational therapists from hospitals of the city of São Paulo. Ten face-to-face meetings were conducted and a Web-mediated environment was created for conducting virtual activities. The face meetings were recorded and tapped. This article aims to present the evaluation made by the participants and researchers about the process experienced in the community. Through content analysis, seventeen reporting units were identified and grouped into four main themes: the dialogic process; theoretical and practical implications; reflective process; participatory process and its barriers. The process evaluation showed that dialogue during the meetings contributed to a sense of belonging, integration, and awareness/group cohesion and made possible discussing and reflecting on topics relevant to the practice of occupational therapist. Direct communication proved to be the main form of exchange among the professionals in the group. The participants working conditions, the computers and virtual environments access issues, the surplus work generated by meetings and the displacement in urban centers were complicating factors for the participant’s greater adhesion. Evaluation showed that this strategy favored the construction of shared knowledge, and its implementation can foster reflection, research development and knowledge production, as well as contribute to the occupational therapist professional practice improvement.
Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Fredman, Steffany J; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M
A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in "one" partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner's psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners' mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners' psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuda, Yoko; Tsukahara, Teruomi; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Kawakami, Norito; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
To investigate the association of workplace occupational mental health (OMH) and related activities with psychological distress of workers in Japan. A total of 121 workplaces and their 3540 workers were surveyed using questionnaires assessing selected workplace OMH activities, demographic characteristics, psychological distress, and psychosocial work environment of the workers. A multilevel analysis was conducted. Promotion of communication correlated significantly and negatively with psychological distress among workers after adjusting for the covariates (P health activities correlated marginally significantly and negatively with psychological distress (P = 0.06). Their moderating effect for the worker-level association between psychosocial work environment and psychological distress was not significant. The findings suggest that promotion of communication in the workplace is associated with reduced psychological distress among workers. In addition, OMH activities may also be useful in reducing psychological distress.
Wooster, Donna; Lemcool, Kathy
SUMMARY WebQuests are an innovative teaching activity that promotes students to actively engage in their learning and work cooperatively in small groups. WebQuests have been widely used in K-12 environments in a variety of subjects and are gaining respect in universities. This paper will briefly describe the basic concept of a WebQuest and provide two examples of WebQuests developed for use in an occupational therapy curriculum.
De Coninck, Leen; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Bouckaert, Leen; Declercq, Anja; Graff, Maud J L; Aertgeerts, Bert
The objective is to assess the effectiveness of occupational therapy to improve performance in daily living activities in community-dwelling physically frail older people. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included randomized controlled trials reporting on occupational therapy as intervention, or as part of a multidisciplinary approach. This systematic review was carried out in accordance with the Cochrane methods of systematic reviews of interventions. Meta-analyses were performed to pool results across studies using the standardized mean difference. The primary outcome measures were mobility, functioning in daily living activities, and social participation. Secondary outcome measures were fear of falling, cognition, disability, and number of falling persons. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the studies were of reasonable quality with low risk of bias. There was a significant increase in all primary outcomes. The pooled result for functioning in daily living activities was a standardized mean difference of -0.30 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.11; P = .002), for social participation -0.44 (95% CI -0.69, -0.19; P = .0007) and for mobility -0.45 (95% CI -0.78 to -0.12; P = .007). All secondary outcomes showed positive trends, with fear of falling being significant. No adverse effects of occupational therapy were found. There is strong evidence that occupational therapy improves functioning in community-dwelling physically frail older people. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen
Abstract International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions...... comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize...
Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi
The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.
Legg, Lynn A; Lewis, Sharon R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Drummond, Avril; Langhorne, Peter
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Activities of daily living (ADL) are daily home-based activities that people carry out to maintain health and well-being. ADLs include the ability to: eat and drink unassisted, move, go to the toilet, carry out personal hygiene tasks, dress unassisted, and groom. Stroke causes impairment-related functional limitations that may result in difficulties participating in ADLs independent of supervision, direction, or physical assistance.For adults with stroke, the goal of occupational therapy is to improve their ability to carry out activities of daily living. Strategies used by occupational therapists include assessment, treatment, adaptive techniques, assistive technology, and environmental adaptations. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2006. To assess the effects of occupational therapy interventions on the functional ability of adults with stroke in the domain of activities of daily living, compared with no intervention or standard care/practice. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 30 January 2017), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, January 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 5 January 2017), Embase (1974 to 5 January 2017), CINAHL (1937 to January 2017), PsycINFO (1806 to 2 November 2016), AMED (1985 to 1 November 2016), and Web of Science (1900 to 6 January 2017). We also searched grey literature and clinical trials registers. We identified randomised controlled trials of an occupational therapy intervention (compared with no intervention or standard care/practice) where people with stroke practiced activities of daily living, or where performance in activities of daily living was the focus of the occupational therapy intervention. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data for prespecified outcomes. The primary outcomes were the proportion of
Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.
Nov 23, 2017 ... Laughter therapy is being used as an intervention to positively influence individuals experiencing various forms of .... to facilitate healing or coping, whether physical, emotional, cognitive, social or ...... Geriatrics & Geron-.
Roberta Pereira Casagrande
Full Text Available The Psychiatric Reform, through the deinstitutionalization process and the creation of substitutive services to the hospitalocentric model, invited families to share part of the responsibility in the care for people with mental disorders. With this change, family members have become essential to the social reintegration of individuals with mental disorders, but without receiving any type of training or orientation on it. Objectives: To investigate the contribution of Occupational Therapy regarding the support and assistance to relatives of people with mental disorders in the context of the Psychiatric Reform and Deinstitutionalization. Methodological Procedures: The discussion presented is based on a non-systematic national and international scientific literature review of book chapters and papers published in the databases Bireme and Medline between 2001 and 2011. Results: It was possible to observe that when the family receives support to deal with the difficulties inherent to the family member with mental disorder, their emotional charge is relieved. It was also found that Occupational Therapy presents a very meaningful theoretical framework concerning this type of assistance, derived from a consistent practice that seems little explored. Conclusions: There is a gap in the services related to the development of programs to attend family necessities, because the burden placed on families of individuals with mental disorder cannot be denied, especially after the Psychiatric Reform, and Occupational Therapy can meaningfully contribute to this work through its practice.
Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A
Journals are currently assessed and ranked using a number of different quantitative performance metrics. To compare and correlate the publication metrics of English-language occupational therapy journals published in 2015. Bibliometric data was sourced for 14 English-language occupational therapy journals including the Journal Citations Report (JCR) 2-year impact factor (IF), Eigenfactor Score (EFS), Article Influence Score (AIS), Scopus Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP), Scopus Citescore, and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) score. The JCR, Scopus, and SJR 2015 bibliometric data were correlated. The top six English-language occupational therapy journals in relation to JCR IF, EFS, AIS, SNIP, Citescore, SJR score, and SJR IIF were AJOT, AOTJ, POPT, CJOT, SJOT, and BJOT. JCR IF, EFS, JCR AIS, SNIP, Citescore, SJR score and SJR IIF were all significantly correlated with coefficients ranging from 0.751 to 0.961 (p article rankings rather than the singular use of IF scores that currently and frequently occurs in many jurisdictions.
Full Text Available Objectives: Dyscalculia is specific learning disabilities affecting the acquisition of mathematic skills in an otherwise normal child. The aim of this study was investigation of occupational therapy interventions effect on mathematical problems in students with special learning disorders. Methods: 40 students with dyscalculia (2-5 grades were selected and divided through randomized permuted blocks method into two groups 20 persons as intervention group and the others as the control group. Initially both of groups were administered by the "Iran Key math Test". Then intervention group received occupational therapy interventions for 20 sessions individually and two groups were administered by the Test again. Data was analyzed by using Paired and Independent t-tests. Results: By the paired sample t-test the mean of total marks of Iran Key math Test demonstrated statistically significant difference in both of groups (P<0.05, but the measure of difference in intervention group was more than control group. The mean of marks of Basic Concepts, Operations and Applications demonstrated statistically significant difference at intervention group. Discussion: Occupational therapy interventions had clinical effect on mathematical problems in students with special learning disorders.
de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Tejerina Arreal, Maria C.; Parry, Glenys; Dent-Brown, Kim; Kendrick, Tony
Background Referral to psychological therapies is recommended for people with common mental health problems (CMHP) however its impact on healthcare utilisation in people with long term conditions (LTCs) is not known. Method Routinely collected primary care, psychological therapy clinic and hospital data were extracted for the registered population of 20 practices (N = 121199). These data were linked using the SAPREL (Secure and Private Record Linkage) method. We linked the 1118 people referred to psychological therapies with 6711 controls, matched for age, gender and practice. We compared utilisation of healthcare resources by people with LTCs, 6 months before and after referral, and conducted a controlled before and after study to compare health utilisation with controls. We made the assumption that collection of a greater number of repeat prescriptions for antidepressants was associated with greater adherence. Results Overall 21.8% of people with an LTC had CMHP vs. 18.8% without (p < 0.001). People with LTCs before referral were more likely to use health care resources (2-tailed t-test p < 0.001). Cases with LTCs showed referral to the psychological therapies clinic was associated with increased antidepressant medication prescribing (mean differences 0.62, p < 0.001) and less use of emergency department than controls (mean difference −0.21, p = 0.003). Conclusions Referral to improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) services appears of value to people with LTC. It is associated with the issue of a greater number of prescriptions for anti-depressant medicines and less use of emergency services. Further studies are needed to explore bed occupancy and outpatient attendance. PMID:23639304
Lattanzi, Jill B; Giuliano, Susan; Meehan, Caitlin; Sander, Beth; Wootten, Rachel; Zimmerman, Amanda
Evidence points to the efficacy of physical and occupational therapy intervention for the management of impairments and functional limitations related to the treatment of breast cancer. However, few studies give voice to the women participating in the physical rehabilitation programs intended to ameliorate their deficits. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore the experience of physical rehabilitation as well as to identify recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of the client undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments. A phenomenological design was chosen and included a purposive sample of women (n = 10) undergoing physical rehabilitation for impairments related to breast cancer treatment. Data included semistructured interviews and artifact examination. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted at a setting of the participants' choice. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. Data analysis was cyclical and ongoing and involved all six researchers in analyzing and triangulating all pieces of data. Member checks and a peer review were conducted to confirm relevance and validity. Five themes emerged: 1) challenges with obtaining referrals, 2) challenges with patient education, 3) improvements in functional impairments, 4) emotional support, and 5) benefits of a specialized clinic environment. Consideration of the five themes led to four recommendations for physical and occupational therapist practice from the perspective of the client: 1) advocate for presurgical therapy consultations, 2) be competent in the management of all impairments and functional limitations associated with breast cancer treatment, 3) be aware of the emotional support the therapist has the capacity to provide or not provide, and 4) as much as possible, create an inviting, nonclinical environment.
Occupational mental health promotion: a prevention agenda based on education and treatment. The American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Promotion Panel, 1990 Work and Well-Being Conference.
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW. Psychological disorders are one of the 10 leading work-related diseases and injuries in the United States according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. This article addresses occupational metal health and preventive stress management in the workplace. The individual and organizational costs are briefly considered with concern for reducing the burden of suffering associated with these problems. SEARCH METHOD. As an American Psychological Association interdisciplinary panel, we searched the psychological, medical, public health, and organizational literature. We selected articles relevant to the problem of psychological disorders in the workplace and to enhancing occupational mental health and preventive stress management. IMPORTANT FINDINGS. The panel proposed a national agenda of education and treatment, combined with a program of evaluation research, for addressing these issues. Target populations are identified, and the need for collaboration among a variety of national constituencies is considered. Advancing occupational mental health and promoting skills in preventive stress management is considered in the context of comprehensive health promotion. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS. The panel concluded that there is a pressing need to: 1) set a 'gold' standard concerning the current state of knowledge in the domains of occupational mental health and stress management; 2) identify Diagnostically Related Groups (DRGs) which are stress-related; 3) establish assessment standards for stress and mental health; 4) set guidelines for reasonable interventions; and 5) establish acceptable post-outcome criteria.
Beck, Christine E; Gonzales, Florie; Sells, Carol Haertlein; Jones, Cynthia; Reer, Theresa; Zhu, Yao Yao
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has gained much attention in civilian and military health care. Evidence supports its benefits with varied populations with diseases and disabilities, but no research has been done with injured or ill service members. This pretest, posttest nonrandomized control group study evaluated the effects of AAT on Warriors in transition (N=24) attending an Occupational Therapy Life Skills program with the long-term goal of improving their successful reintegration. Although significant differences were not found between the groups on most measures, anecdotal reports by participants and observers indicate that participants eagerly anticipated being with the therapy dogs, expressed pleasure and satisfaction with the experience, and regretted seeing it end. There were significant correlations between mood, stress, resilience, fatigue, and function at various measurement points. This is the first study to formally assess the benefits of AAT with wounded service members in garrison. Suggestions for future research are provided.
Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der
A substantial proportion of the patients treated by occupational therapists have a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to describe the outlines of occupational therapy treatment for three specific groups of chronic diseases: progressive neurological diseases, cerebrovascular accident and
Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning
PURPOSE: To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A double......-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT). RESULTS: Both groups improved...... with the sham group, from baseline to post-assessment (p = 0.158). CONCLUSIONS: Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor...
Hunter, Elizabeth G; Gibson, Robert W; Arbesman, Marian; D'Amico, Mariana
This article is the first part of a systematic review of evidence for the effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that address the activity and participation needs of adult cancer survivors. This article focuses on the importance of physical activity and symptom management. Strong evidence supports the use of exercise for cancer-related fatigue and indicates that lymphedema is not exacerbated by exercise. Moderate evidence supports the use of yoga to relieve anxiety and depression and indicates that exercise as a whole may contribute to a return to precancer levels of sexual activity. The results of this review support inclusion of occupational therapy in cancer rehabilitation and reveal a significant need for more research to explore ways occupational therapy can positively influence the outcomes of cancer survivors. Part 2 of the review also appears in this issue. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Cogan, Alison M
More than 2 million U.S. military servicemembers have deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq since September 11, 2001. Unlike during prior conflicts, many servicemembers leave spouses and children behind. Long, multiple deployments cause strain on family at home, with new challenges arising when servicemembers return from combat and reintegrate into family and civilian life. In World Wars I and II, occupational therapy practitioners played a significant role in supporting servicemember reintegration. However, their presence in program delivery in this practice area is limited. Occupational therapy researchers and practitioners can make a valuable contribution by helping families tailor daily activities and routines to address challenges and optimize health and wellness. However, barriers such as reimbursement for services, workforce availability, and access to military families have limited the profession's full engagement. Advocacy is needed to help establish occupational therapy as a key component of the mental and preventive health care teams serving military servicemembers. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Witchger Hansen, Anne Marie
The World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) and the American Occupational Therapy Association promote a globally connected profession that responds to the needs of our diverse societies. Global partnerships are grounded on the principle that cross-cultural experiences are enriching and provide mutual benefits. The purpose of this study was to uncover how occupational therapy educators and scholars perceive and experience (1) developing and sustaining global partnerships and (2) lessons learned. In this qualitative study, 30 occupational therapy educators and researchers completed an online survey. Eight participated in an interview. Results found major themes that help develop and sustain partnerships: building relationship of trust and respect, communicating effectively, cultivating cultural competence, sharing power and resources with collaborators and creating a context for reciprocal learning. Lessons learned include a call to walking humbly, building relationships of trust and respect, establishing open and honest communication, supporting local solutions to local problems, ensuring equality of resources and learning from their global partners. The findings suggest that global partnerships have the potential to transform both partners if the partners engage with mutual understanding and respect. Limitations of this study include a small sample size and participant's pool limited to occupational therapists from United States. Recommendations for future research include qualitative studies to identify model occupational therapy programmes that sustain global partnerships using a diverse sample of international occupational therapy educators and researchers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Maria Daniela Corrêa de Macedo
Full Text Available This article is the result of a reflection process on the issue of occupational therapy and culture through analysis of practical experiences of a extension project. It aimed to increase knowledge and reflections of occupational therapy and its technical actions in cultural contexts from the perspective of ethnicity issues. It is a documental and qualitative research was aiming to report the experience of students and an occupational therapist, obtained through their written reports between 2012 and 2014. Data were analyzed using the categorizations proposed by Bardin. The categories of analysis found are related to technical activities in occupational therapy, namely: cultural and ethnic action. The results showed that, in the experiences with the Guarani community, there are already significant and consolidated actions of occupational therapy in cultural contexts. The technical actions already performed confirm the relevance of the occupational therapist role in the cultural context and in the ethnicity context. These practices are, in turn, relevant for the production of knowledge, the theoretical and methodological scope and professional training in social and cultural contexts of occupational therapy. It is emphasized that technical procedures coherent with the ethnicity issues in a joint relationship, articulated by cultural mediation, can strengthen human doings and identity claims.
Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081
Full Text Available The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1 decrease in pulse rate, (2 decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3 increase in positive feelings, and (4 decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.
van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; de Haan, Else; Derkx, H. H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits
The effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain leaves room for improvement. We studied which factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy relate most strongly to the physical and psychological functioning of children with functional abdominal pain and
Bachelor thesis deals with meaning and effects of Dance therapy in frame of medical therapy of clients with psychical disease. Theoretical part defines words like dance, movement and Dance therapy. This part also describes history of dance, meaning and aims of Dance therapy, its school, aims and divisions. Mensioned are person of dance therapist, personalities connected with dance and Dance therapy, target groups of clients suitable for Dance therapy, importance of Dance therapy for clients w...
Lidman, Git; Nachemson, Ann; Peny-Dahlstrand, Marie; Himmelmann, Kate
To investigate the effects of repeated botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections combined with occupational therapy, including a splint, compared with occupational therapy alone on hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP), in all International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains. This was a randomized controlled study, population-based and evaluator-blinded for primary outcome (October 2004 to September 2010). Twenty children (14 males; median age 3y 1mo) with USCP, recruited at a rehabilitation centre in Sweden, were assigned to one of two parallel groups using concealed allocation. In the course of one year, 10 children received occupational therapy, while 10 received repeated BoNT-A plus occupational therapy (BoNT-A/OT). Primary outcome (Assisting Hand Assessment [AHA]), and secondary outcome measures (range of movement [ROM], and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure), were measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. AHA revealed a superior effect in the BoNT-A/OT group at 12 months: 6 out of 10 improved compared with 1 out of 10 in the occupational therapy group (poccupational therapy alone for bimanual performance in young children with USCP. Active ROM and goal performance improved in both groups. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Gökmen, Muhammed Fatih; Yıldırım, Sibel; Dursun, Gürsel
The aim of this study was to define the clinical features of psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) and explore the treatment efficiency of voice therapy and psychological evaluation. Fifty-eight patients who received treatment following the PVD diagnosis and had no organic or other functional voice disorders were assessed retrospectively based on laryngoscopic examinations and subjective and objective assessments. Epidemiological characteristics, accompanying organic and psychological disorders, preferred methods of treatment, and previous treatment outcomes were examined for each patient. A comparison was made based on voice disorders and responses to treatment between patients who received psychotherapy and patients who did not. Participants in this study comprised 58 patients, 10 male and 48 female. Voice therapy was applied in all patients, 54 (93.1%) of whom had improvement in their voice. Although all patients were advised to undergo psychological assessment, only 60.3% (35/58) of them underwent psychological assessment. No statistically significant difference was found between patients who did receive psychological support concerning their treatment responses and patients who did not. Relapse occurred in 14.7% (5/34) of the patients who applied for psychological assessment and in 50% (10/20) of those who did not. There was a statistically significant difference in relapse rates, which was higher among patients who did not receive psychological support (P therapy is an efficient treatment method for PVD. However, in the long-term follow-up, relapse of the disease is observed to be higher among patients who failed to follow up on the recommendation for psychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Price, Jennifer L.
The current study examined expectations and preferences of psychotherapy approach in 225 college students. Psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques were generally favored over cognitive-behavioral (CB) techniques both in expectations of what is characteristic of a typical therapy session and perceived helpfulness. There was no difference in…
Brooks, Samantha Kelly; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, Gideon James; Greenberg, Neil
To conduct a systematic literature review to identify social and occupational factors affecting the psychological wellbeing of healthcare workers involved in the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crisis. Four literature databases were searched and data extracted from relevant papers. Eighteen thousand five papers were found and 22 included in the review. The psychological impact of SARS on employees appeared to be associated with occupational role; training/preparedness; high-risk work environments; quarantine; role-related stressors; perceived risk; social support; social rejection/isolation; and impact of SARS on personal or professional life. To minimize the psychological impact of future outbreaks of infectious diseases, healthcare workers should be prepared for the potential psychological impact; employers should encourage a supportive environment in the workplace and ensure that support is in place for those most at risk, for example, those with the most patient contact.
Full Text Available Recent years have seen substantial consolidation and development of the evidence base for psychological therapies for eating disorders. This review summarises the key changes over that time period. Specific forms of cognitive behavioural therapy and family-based treatment have consolidated and extended their positions as treatments of choice despite the development of novel approaches. However, there is still a significant need for further development and testing to improve recovery rates, particularly in anorexia nervosa.
Kelly Ranyelle Alves Araujo
Full Text Available To support and expand the care attention and the health management in primary care, in particular the Family Health Strategy, it was created the Family Health Support Centers (NASF. The NASF accounts with several professionals, including occupational therapists, who develop different activities, including health promotion, holistic care and psychosocial rehabilitation. The aim of this article is to discuss from practical experience in a NASF in the metropolitan region of Brasilia how students and practitioners of occupational therapy falls within that service, identifying the main limitations and the work that advances the health care setting. Results: The students and occupational therapist service sought to develop an integrated and intersectoral. Actions were part of the home visits, group approaches with different community groups, active search for users and partnerships in the community. Thus, the work is still very limited assistance and connected to the matricial point of view, as recommended. We conclude that, despite the NASF be a new field of labor for occupational therapists, the actions of social inclusion, empowerment and citizenship developed can encourage healthy habits, but practices need to be revised to follow the proposal of this device.
Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational therapists, throughout the history, faced the need to offer actions pertaining to socio-cultural issues in different populations with whom they interact, being required to develop actions relevant to these contexts. In addition, interventions specifically within the scope of culture have also been understood as the scope of this work. Objective: To report the METUIA experience of the ‘Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo’, illustrating, from the perspective of social occupational therapy, cultural workshops and individual and territorial follow-ups during six months, in the cultural context of a suburb neighborhood in the city of Vitoria, ES, Brazil. Method: The activities collective development aimed at expanding the support of social networks, the empowerment of children and youth participants and the joint construction of processes of autonomy, social participation and life projects to their own cultural identities. Results: The cultural workshops provided the identification of different demands by the children, adolescents and young people, based on the articulation between different views and reflections that were placed in shock through the recognition of alterity between the groups and occupational therapists. Conclusion: It is hoped that the experiments described here can contribute to the consolidation of occupational therapists actions in culture, bringing elements that can promote reflections for a field that still needs to be systematized as a producer of professional practice and research, especially in the social area.
Full Text Available Background: Client-centered occupational therapy begins with the identification of personally-relevant patient goals. This study aimed to determine whether the elicitation module of Personal Projects Analysis (PPA could help patients in an acquired brain injury day hospital program identify more meaningful goals than those identified using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM alone. Method: Ten patients completed the COPM. They rated the importance of each goal and their confidence that they could attain each goal. During the next session, using the elicitation module of PPA, they identified personal projects just prior to their brain injuries, current personal projects, and future desired personal projects. They were then invited to revise their COPM goals and re-rate them for importance and confidence. Results: Following completion of the elicitation module of PPA, seven participants changed at least one goal. Of the goals that were changed, half were revised to include the mention of another person. There were no significant changes in average goal importance or perceived attainability. Occupational therapists reported that the elicitation module of PPA helped them get to know their patients better and identify potential therapeutic occupations. Discussion: The elicitation module of PPA may help people develop goals that are more embedded in their social contexts.
Chugh-Gupta, Neha; Baldassarre, Fulvia G; Vrkljan, Brenda H
State anxiety can result from a variety of life situations. This type of anxiety can disrupt occupational engagement and performance, thereby affecting rehabilitation and recovery. Occupational therapists need to address the connection between mind-body-spirit and its relationship to performance and engagement in meaningful occupations. Yoga, when used as an adjunct to therapy, has the potential to address state anxiety. The aim was to systematically review the evidence concerning the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment approach for state anxiety. Six electronic databases, the authors' own files, and the references of included studies from 1990 to July 2011 were searched. A total of 25 unique studies represented by 26 publications made up the sample: two systematic reviews; 16 randomized controlled trials, and seven prospective, controlled, non-randomized studies. Evidence suggests yoga can be a viable therapeutic option for reducing state anxiety in certain situations. In making the determination to recommend yoga as an intervention, occupational therapists should consider the client's circumstances and values as well as the type and intensity of the yoga program.
VanderKaay, Sandra; Letts, Lori; Jung, Bonny; Moll, Sandra E
Ethical decision-making is an important aspect of reasoning in occupational therapy practice. However, the process of ethical decision-making within the broader context of reasoning is yet to be clearly explicated. The purpose of this study was to advance a theoretical understanding of the process by which occupational therapists make ethical decisions in day-to-day practice. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted, incorporating in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 occupational therapists from a range of practice settings and years of experience. Initially, participants nominated as key informants who were able to reflect on their decision-making processes were recruited. Theoretical sampling informed subsequent stages of data collection. Participants were asked to describe their process of ethical decision-making using scenarios from clinical practice. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a systematic process of initial then focused coding, and theoretical categorization to construct a theory regarding the process of ethical decision-making. An ethical decision-making prism was developed to capture three main processes: Considering the Fundamental Checklist, Consulting Others, and Doing What's Right. Ethical decision-making appeared to be an inductive and dialectical process with the occupational therapist at its core. Study findings advance our understanding of ethical decision-making in day-to-day clinical practice.
Small, Catherine; Pistrang, Nancy; Huddy, Vyv; Williams, Claire
The acute inpatient setting poses potential challenges to delivering one-to-one psychological therapy; however, there is little research on the experiences of both receiving and delivering therapies in this environment. This qualitative study aimed to explore service users' and psychologists' experiences of undertaking individual therapy in acute inpatient units. It focused on the relationship between service users and psychologists, what service users found helpful or unhelpful, and how psychologists attempted to overcome any challenges in delivering therapy. The study used a qualitative, interview-based design. Eight service users and the six psychologists they worked with were recruited from four acute inpatient wards. They participated in individual semi-structured interviews eliciting their perspectives on the therapy. Service users' and psychologists' transcripts were analysed together using Braun and Clarke's (2006, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77) method of thematic analysis. The accounts highlighted the importance of forming a 'human' relationship - particularly within the context of the inpatient environment - as a basis for therapeutic work. Psychological therapy provided valued opportunities for meaning-making. To overcome the challenges of acute mental health crisis and environmental constraints, psychologists needed to work flexibly and creatively; the therapeutic work also extended to the wider context of the inpatient unit, in efforts to promote a shared understanding of service users' difficulties. Therapeutic relationships between service users and clinicians need to be promoted more broadly within acute inpatient care. Psychological formulation can help both service users and ward staff in understanding crisis and working collaboratively. Practice-based evidence is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of adapted psychological therapy models. Developing 'human' relationships at all levels of acute inpatient care continues to be an
Leandro Correa Figueiredo
Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, conflicts found in the health field bring new discussions on ethical and bioethical issues also in the Occupational Therapy domain. As noted in previous studies, the codes of professional ethics are not sufficient to face the current challenges daily experienced during professional practice. Objective: The present study aimed to find documental evidence of deontological and bioethical approaches in the new Brazilian code for Occupational Therapists through content analysis compared with the same analysis conducted in the preceding code. Method: Content analysis methods were applied to written documents to reveal deontological and bioethical approaches among textual fragments obtained from the new code of ethics. Results: The bioethical approaches found in the totality of the new code were increased in content and number (53.6% proportionally compared with those found in the former code. It seems that this increase was a result of the number of fragments classified in the justice-related category (22.6% - one of the most evident differences observed. Considering the ratio between the total number of fragments classified as professional autonomy and client autonomy in the new code - although the number of professional-related fragments have remained higher in comparison with client-related fragments - a significant decrease in the percentages of this ratio was detected. Conclusion: In conclusion, comparison between the codes revealed a bioethical embedding accompanied by a more client-centered practice, which reflects the way professionals have always conducted Occupational Therapy practice.
Nazari, Fateme; Mirzamohamadi, Mojtaba; Yousefi, Hojatollah
One of the main causes of stress in the lives of people is their jobs. Occupational stress is causing a wide range of significant issues in health and community services. Nursing is the most stressful profession in the health services. Massage therapy is one way of coping with stress. This study was conducted to determine the effect of massage therapy on stress in nurses. This study was a clinical trial on 66 male and female nurses working in intensive care units (dialysis, ICU, and CCU) of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2013. Participants were selected according to the aims and inclusion criteria of the study. Then, they were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) (Osipow and Spokane, 1987) was completed by participants of the two groups before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the intervention. General Swedish massage was performed on participants of the experimental group for 25 min in each session, twice a week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics [Chi-square, t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)] using SPSS software. Results showed that the difference in overall mean occupation stress scores between experimental and control groups 2 weeks after the intervention was significant (P < 0.001). According to the results, it is recommended that massage, as a valuable noninvasive method, be used for nurses in intensive care units to reduce their stress, promote mental health, and prevent the decrease in quality of nursing work life.
Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur
To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to measure the occupational performance and identify difficulties in daily living activities. The QoL and symptom status were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and its Prostate Cancer Module. A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention including client-centered training of daily living activities, recreational group activities, and cognitive behavioral stress management intervention were applied. The COPM performance and satisfaction scores, which indicate occupational participation and QoL increased statistically in the treatment group in relation to men who were included in the home-program (p less than or equal to 0.05). A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention was effective in improving QoL in men treated for MPC, and these changes were associated significantly with occupational performance.
Winkelmann, A; Bork, H; Brückle, W; Dexl, C; Heldmann, P; Henningsen, P; Krumbein, L; Pullwitt, V; Schiltenwolf, M; Häuser, W
The regular update of the guidelines on fibromyalgia syndrome, AWMF number 145/004, was scheduled for April 2017. The guidelines were developed by 13 scientific societies and 2 patient self-help organizations coordinated by the German Pain Society. Working groups (n =8) with a total of 42 members were formed balanced with respect to gender, medical expertise, position in the medical or scientific hierarchy and potential conflicts of interest. A literature search for systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials on physiotherapy, occupational therapy and physical therapy from December 2010 to May 2016 was performed in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus databases. Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine version 2009. The strength of recommendations was achieved by multiple step formalized procedures to reach a consensus. Efficacy, risks, patient preferences and applicability of available therapies were weighed up against each other. The guidelines were reviewed and approved by the board of directors of the societies engaged in the development of the guidelines. Low to moderate intensity endurance and strength training are strongly recommended. Chiropractic, laser therapy, magnetic field therapy, massage and transcranial magnetic stimulation are not recommended.
Larisa Gennadievna Telnova
Both foreign and Russian psychologists agree that art therapy has proved effective in working with children in conflict with the law. The most effective means of transferring ideas about themselves, their feelings and attitudes is doll made by teenagers. Sometimes a doll symbolizes the essence of the hero or something in his nature that needs to be discovered. Two criteria are taken into account when choosing the material for making dolls: the ability to make changes in the doll without sacri...
North, M M; North, S M; Coble, J R
Behavioral therapy techniques for treating phobias often includes graded exposure of the patient to anxiety-producing stimuli (Systematic Desensitization). However, in utilizing systematic desensitization, research reviews demonstrate that many patients appear to have difficulty imaging the prescribed anxiety-evoking scene. They also express strong aversion to experiencing real situations. This chapter describes the Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT), a new therapeutical approach that can be used to overcome some of the difficulties inherent in the traditional treatment of phobias. VRT, like current imaginal and in vivo modalities, can generate stimuli that could be utilized in desensitization therapy. Like systematic desensitization therapy, VRT can provide stimuli for patients who have difficulty in imagining scenes and/or are too phobic to experience real situations. Unlike in vivo systematic desensitization, VRT can be performed within the privacy of a room, thus avoiding public embarrassment and violation of patient confidentiality. VRT can generate stimuli of much greater magnitude than standard in vivo techniques. Since VRT is under patient control, it appears safer than in vivo desensitization and at the same time more realistic than imaginal desensitization. Finally, VRT adds the advantage of greater efficiency and economy in delivering the equivalent of in vivo systematic desensitization within the therapist's office. The chapter also describes how to use virtual reality in the treatment of specific phobias: fear of flying, fear of heights, fear of being in certain situations (such as a dark barn, an enclosed bridge over a river, and in the presence of an animal [a black cat] in a dark room), and fear of public speaking.
Gong Zhaolong; Li Xiuqin
The present research is an attempt to study the psychological effects of long-term exposure to low-level X-ray on man. The subjects included 50 exposed people and 50 control. The battery of psychological tests consists of 10 subtests mainly involving memory and coordination ability. The results indicate that there are no statistical differences in all subtests between exposure and control group, but exposure group appears to be a little lower on most subtests about memory. With age, decline of psychological function is observed in all subtests in both groups. The subjects are further divided into three subgroups according to the number of X-ray exposed years. No statistical differences are found in all subgroups between exposure and control. Factor analysis has been made and two factors are obtained. factor 1 is mainly about speed of coordination, factor 2 is mainly about memory and attention. No statistical differences in factor scores are observed in all subgroups between exposure and control. Yet decline is found in factor 1 and factor 2 in both exposure and control groups with age. The results show that there is no significant effect of current dose level of X-ray exposure on human psychological function
Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison
To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background: Five factors are proposed as important in influencing the provision of psychological therapy to people with intellectual disabilities (IDs): the perceived effectiveness of psychological therapy, individual clinician competence, service resources (number of trained clinicians), the level of the clients disability and the diagnostic…
Roberts, Neil P; Roberts, Pamela A; Jones, Neil; Bisson, Jonathan I
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that may develop after exposure to traumatic events. Substance use disorder (SUD) is a behavioural disorder in which the use of one or more substances is associated with heightened levels of distress, clinically significant impairment of functioning, or both. PTSD and SUD frequently occur together. The comorbidity is widely recognised as being difficult to treat and is associated with poorer treatment completion and poorer outcomes than for either condition alone. Several psychological therapies have been developed to treat the comorbidity, however there is no consensus about which therapies are most effective. To determine the efficacy of psychological therapies aimed at treating traumatic stress symptoms, substance misuse symptoms, or both in people with comorbid PTSD and SUD in comparison with control conditions (usual care, waiting-list conditions, and no treatment) and other psychological therapies. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) all years to 11 March 2015. This register contains relevant randomised controlled trials from the Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov, contacted experts, searched bibliographies of included studies, and performed citation searches of identified articles. Randomised controlled trials of individual or group psychological therapies delivered to individuals with PTSD and comorbid substance use, compared with waiting-list conditions, usual care, or minimal intervention or to other psychological therapies. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 14 studies with 1506 participants, of which 13 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. Most studies involved adult
Breckon, Susan E.; Smith, Ian C.; Daiches, Anna
Although there are established links between measures of readiness for psychological therapy in offenders and subsequent reduction in recidivism rates there has been a lack of theoretical research considering this process within the intellectual disability (ID) offender population. Grounded theory methodology was used to explore the process by…
Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.
Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…
A.M. Tjiam (Angela); H. Akcan (Hilal); F. Ziylan (Fatma); E. Vukovic; S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J. Passchier (Jan); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)
textabstractBackground: Compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia in children is low when their parents have a low level of education, speak Dutch poorly, or originate from another country. We determined how sociocultural and psychological determinants affect compliance. Methods: Included were
Bentley, Rachel; Hussain, Asmah; Maddocks, Matthew; Wilcock, Andrew
Guidelines recommend screening patients with cancer to identify their rehabilitation needs. To help quantify this area of need and associated workload from an occupational therapy perspective in patients with thoracic cancer, we report the experiences of a dedicated rehabilitation service. Consecutive patients were screened soon after diagnosis using items associated with occupational performance in the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care questionnaire. Those reporting predetermined levels of distress underwent a full occupational therapy evaluation; this generated a problem list from which individualised goals and interventions were instigated. Of 540 patients screened, 273 (51 %) reported levels of distress which warranted a full occupational therapy assessment. Of these, 260 (95%) reported a total of 681 problems (median of 4 [2-5] per patient). Mostly these lay within the domain of self care (553, 78%) in the categories of transfers, functional mobility and bathing/showering. A total of 646 goals (median of 2 [1-3] per patient) were formulated, resulting in 652 individual interventions, most frequently the provision of equipment (79%) or advice (32%) and referral to another professional/agency (23%). Patients considered that most goals were achieved (98%) and that the provision of equipment was useful (97%). About half of patients with thoracic cancer screened have occupational therapy needs around the time of diagnosis. Problems are mostly in the area of self-care, with equipment provision the most frequent intervention provided. Future work should examine the efficacy of occupational therapy interventions further.
Luciana Ramos Baleotti
Full Text Available This study presents thoughts and ideas based on the experience developed in the project entitled Assistive Technology for Inclusion of Students with Physical Disorders: Resources and Procedures, in development since 2009. This project aims to help in the process of school inclusion of students with physical disorder in Early Childhood Education in the city of Marilia, Brazil, through the collaboration between Health and Education departments. Health professionals contribute through the implementation of the Assistive Technology by means of school consulting. The project has been developed in six different stages, namely: Gaining access and establishing goals for the team; Identifying the problem; Interventions/Recommendations; Implementation; Evaluation and further actions. This working model, seeks to insert occupational therapy in the school environment. This project showed the importance of occupational therapists as team members in school settings, and the importance of a collaborative work between Education and Health departments.
Hunt, Joanne; van Hooydonk, Elke; Faller, Patricia; Mailloux, Zoe; Schaaf, Roseann
This article reports on the development of a Stage 3 manual (following pilot effectiveness study) for implementing occupational therapy using Ayres Sensory Integration® (OT/ASI) for children with autism spectrum disorders to enhance participation in daily occupations. Three stakeholder groups were surveyed to aid in translation of manual from research to practice (i.e., Stage 3 manual) and an expert consensus meeting was held to finalize recommendations. Data indicated that the manuals usability could be improved by including a section on frequently encountered problems and solutions, and by including video case examples. Also recommended were greater chapter uniformity, improved clarity of forms and charts, and inclusion of a glossary. Changes were made and subject to expert review and consensus using modified Delphi process. The Stage 3 manual has been rigorously vetted and is ready for practice and research replication.
Novaes, Vladimir Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Valentini, Felipe
The aim of this study was to identify the relations of job demands (work overload) and job resources (social support and autonomy) with subjective job well-being (job satisfaction, positive affects, negative affects), as well as the moderating role of personal resources (psychological flexibility at work) in such relationships. The sample consisted of 4,867 Brazilian workers, of both sexes, with ages ranging from 18 to 67 years. Structural equation modelling showed that the work overload was negatively associated with job satisfaction (β = -.06; p autonomy was positively associated with satisfaction (β = .08; p autonomy with positive affects (β = -.06; p job demands-resources theory, especially with respect to the relevance of personal resources for the promotion of occupational well-being.
Chaplin, Robert; Farquharson, Lorna; Clapp, Melissa; Crawford, Mike
This study aimed to evaluate the access, experiences and outcomes of older adults receiving psychological therapies in comparison with adults of working age Primary and secondary care providers of psychological therapy services participated in the National Audit of Psychological Therapies. The main standards of access, experience and outcomes were measured by retrospective case records audits of people who completed therapy and a service user questionnaire. Outcomes were measured pre-treatment and post-treatment on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. A total of 220 services across 97 organisations took part, 137 (62%) in primary care. Service user questionnaires were received from 14 425 (20%) respondents. A total of 122 740 records were audited, of whom 7794 (6.4%) were older adults. They were under represented as 13% of the sample would have been expected to be over 65 years according to age adjusted psychiatric morbidity figures. People over 75 years had the third expected referral rate. Significantly, more older adults than working age adults completed therapy (59.6% vs 48.6%) and were assessed as having 'recovered' post-treatment (58.5% vs 45.5%). Older adults were more satisfied with waiting times and numbers of sessions, but there were no differences in self-reported experience of therapy. Although older adults are less likely to gain access to psychological therapies, they appear to have better outcomes than working age adults. Further work is needed to improve access for older people. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thompson, Dean M; Hall, Deborah A; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Hoare, Derek J
Tinnitus is associated with depression and anxiety disorders, severely and adversely affecting the quality of life and functional health status for some people. With the dearth of clinical psychologists embedded in audiology services and the cessation of training for hearing therapists in the UK, it is left to audiologists to meet the psychological needs of many patients with tinnitus. However, there is no universally standardized training or manualized intervention specifically for audiologists across the whole UK public healthcare system and similar systems elsewhere across the world. The primary aim of this scoping review was to catalog the components of psychological therapies for people with tinnitus, which have been used or tested by psychologists, so that they might inform the development of a standardized audiologist-delivered psychological intervention. Secondary aims of this article were to identify the types of psychological therapy for people with tinnitus, who were reported but not tested in any clinical trial, as well as the job roles of clinicians who delivered psychological therapy for people with tinnitus in the literature. The authors searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; LILACS; KoreaMed; IndMed; PakMediNet; CAB Abstracts; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; ISRCTN; ClinicalTrials.gov; IC-TRP; and Google Scholar. In addition, the authors searched the gray literature including conference abstracts, dissertations, and editorials. No records were excluded on the basis of controls used, outcomes reached, timing, setting, or study design (except for reviews-of the search results. Records were included in which a psychological therapy intervention was reported to address adults (≤18 years) tinnitus-related distress. No restrictive criteria were placed upon the term tinnitus. Records were excluded in which the intervention included biofeedback
Full Text Available Ethnographic exercises are discussed - as proposed by the Metuia Project/ USP between 2007 and 2013 - as an activity able to enhance the recognition of the compound, plural and sometimes contradictory knowledge, but produced creatively in the intellectual and social do, in the interaction among students, occupational therapists, researchers and homeless people. It starts from the need to develop an understanding of the significant activities of artists working in the public spaces in São Paulo, as it persists as a plurality of meanings that the street acquires amid disputes of interests and cultural tensions, but also interconnections and creativity. The itinerant life and social areas’ characteristics, combined with reflections of urban anthropology and ethnographic research favored the theoretical and practical teaching in dialogic territorial shares of social occupational therapy. This article is the result of reflections built from the research Circuits and religious practices in life trajectories of adult homeless people in city of São Paulo, associated with university extension project linked to Metuia Project/USP, called Point meeting and culture: social networks, culture and social occupational therapy. In conclusion, on the one hand, there is need for renewed reflection about the occupational therapist’s place, considering the asymmetries of the relations in the construction of knowledge. On the other hand, it indicates that the produced activities, necessarily, in dialogical relations, only share meanings when inserted into the experience of the difference in consistent proposals with its own plasticity and in the middle of specific social and cultural contexts.
Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K. Stigsdotter, Ulrika
The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients’ health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases. PMID:28783060
Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K Stigsdotter, Ulrika
The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients' health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases.